Vitaceae

Leeaceae

Ampelocissus Planch.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 April 2024
  1. Ampelocissus botryostachys Planch. in DC., Monog. Phan. 5 (1887) 413; Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) 126; EPFP 3 (1923) 2; Type: Cuming 820, Luzon: Quezon, vicinity of Mt Banahaw. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU (photos), LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, PANAY. Notes: Low elevation damp primary forests. Native.
  2. Ampelocissus dolichobotrys Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 164. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Native.
  3. Ampelocissus madulidii Latiff, Blumea 33 (1988) 505; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2441; Romeroso et al., J. Asia-Pacific biodiv. 17 (2024) 13; Type: PNH 118367 Madulid et al. (L, holo; PNH, iso), Samar: Eastern Samar, Balangiga, Bo. Sta. Rita. May-1971. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT (photos), HOMONHON, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, SAMAR. Notes: 300m. Native.
  4. Ampelocissus martini Planch. in DC., Monog. Phan. 5 (1887) 373; Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) 126; EPFP 3 (1923) 2; Wen et al., PJS 142 (2013) 230. ≠ Ampelocissus barbata auct. non Planch.; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 110. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. APULIT, BANTON, BISUCAY, CAGAYANCILLO, CORON, CULION, CUYO ARCHIPELAGO, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Batangas, PALAWAN, PANAY, SEMIRARA. Notes: Low elevation thickets. Native.
  5. Ampelocissus multifoliola Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 127; EPFP 3 (1923) 2; Type: BS 16539 Ramos, Luzon: Laguna, Dahican, in damp forest, 14-Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Aurora (photos), Isabela (photos), Laguna. Notes: Low elevation damp primary forests. Native.
  6. Ampelocissus ochracea (Teijsm. & Binn.) Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 125; EPFP 3 (1923) 2; ≡ Cissus ochracea Teijsm. & Binn., Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 27 (1864) 35. = Vitis ochracea Teijsm. & Binn., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. (1866) 388. Distribution: ALABAT, BALABAC, BANCALAN, BASILAN, CATANDUANES, CULION, LUZON: Camarines, Camarines Norte, Isabela, Pangasinan, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur (photos), Davao Oriental, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao del Norte, Surigao, Zamboanga, Zamboanga Sibugay, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY (photos), POLILLO. Native.
    • var. ochracea. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BASILAN, CULION, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental, Lanao del Sur, PANAY (photos). Native.
    • var. trilobata Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 125; EPFP 3 (1923) 2; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2441; Type: BS 10773 McGregor, Polillo, Nov-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines, Pangasinan, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur (photos), Bukidnon, Surigao, MINDORO, POLILLO. Notes: Low elevation forests along streams. Native.
  7. Ampelocissus pauciflora Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 126; EPFP 3 (1923) 3. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BISUCAY, CALUSA, CORON, CUYO, CUYO ARCHIPELAGO, GOLO, GUIMARAS, LAGEN, LUZON: Bataan, La Union, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PAMALICAN, PANAY, QUEZON ISL. Notes: Dry thickets along the seashore. Native.
  8. Ampelocissus polita (Miq.) Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 99; ≡ Pterisanthes polita (Miq.) M.A.Lawson, Fl. Brit. India 1 (1875) 663; Trias-Blasi et al., Phytotaxa 159 (2014) 101; ≡ Vitis polita Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 1 (1863) 95; Type: from Sumatra. = Ampelocissus sinuosa (Merr.) J.Wen & Boggan, PJS 142 (2013) 230; ≡ Pterisanthes sinuosa Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 423; EPFP 3 (1923) 3; Trias-Blasi et al., Phytotaxa 159 (2014) 101; Type: Clemens 647 (A, lecto), Mindanao: Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Nov-1906. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga, PALAWAN (photos). Notes: Thickets or forests, c. 750m. Native.
  9. Ampelocissus trichoclada Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 165. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao. Native.

Ampelopsis Michx.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 January 2023
  1. Ampelopsis glandulosa (Wall.) Momiy., Bull. Univ. Mus. Univ. Tokyo 2 (1971) 7; ≡ Vitis glandulosa Wall., Fl. Ind., ed. 1820 2 (1824) 479. Distribution: China, Japan, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam. BATAN, LUZON: Mountain Province, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. In thickets chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2000m in the Cordillera Highlands. Native.
    • var. hancei (Planch.) Momiy., J. Jap. Bot. 52 (1977) 30; ≡ Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. hancei (Planch.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 22 (1922) 177; ≡ Ampelopsis heterophylla var. hancei Planch. in DC., Monog. Phan. 5 (1887) 457; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 5. Distribution: LUZON: Mountain Province. Native.
  2. Ampelopsis humulifolia Bunge, Enum. Pl. Chin. Bor. (1833) 12; ≡ Ampelopsis heterophylla var. humulifolia (Bunge) Hook.f., Bot. Mag. (1867) t. 5682; Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 129, isonym; EPFP 3 (1923) 5. Distribution: China, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Medium elevation thickets. P.B. Pelser (28-Aug-14): not listed for the Philippines by Wen et al. 2013. Native.

Causonis Raf.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 November 2022
  1. Causonis corniculata (Benth.) J.Wen & L.M.Lu, PJS 142 (2013) 234; ≡ Cayratia corniculata (Benth.) Gagnep., Not. Syst. 1 (1911) 347; Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 45; ≡ Columella corniculata (Benth.) Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 133; EPFP 3 (1923) 8; ≡ Vitis corniculata Benth., Fl. Hongkong. (1861) 54. Distribution: China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam. BISUCAY, LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Primary forests along streams, etc., 100-800m. Native.
  2. Causonis japonica (Thunb.) Raf., Med. Fl. 2 (1830) 122; Wen et al., PJS 142 (2013) 234; ≡ Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep., Not. Syst. 1 (1911) 349; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 89; ≡ Vitis japonica Thunb., Syst. Veg. (ed. 14) (1784) 244. = Cayratia tenuifolia (B.Heyne) Gagnep., Not. Syst. 1 (1911) 348; Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 46; ≡ Columella tenuifolia (B.Heyne) Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 134; EPFP 3 (1923) 9; ≡ Vitis tenuifolia (B.Heyne) Wight & Arn., Prodr. (1834) 129; ≡ Cissus tenuifolia B.Heyne in Wall., Cat. (1831) no. 6022. Distribution: India to Australia, Philippines. BASILAN, BATAN, COMIRAN, LUZON: Isabela, MINDANAO. Notes: Lowland thickets and forests. Native.
  3. Causonis pterita (Merr.) J.Wen & L.M.Lu, PJS 142 (2013) 235; ≡ Cayratia pterita (Merr.) Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 46; ≡ Columella pterita Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 135; EPFP 3 (1923) 9; Type: Merrill 5388. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BOHOL, LUZON: Rizal, PANAY, SULU ARCHIPELAGO, UBIAN. Notes: Thickets along and near the seashore. Native.
  4. Causonis trifolia (L.) Mabb. & J.Wen, Pl.-Book, ed. 4 (2017) 1101; ≡ Causonis trifolia (L.) Raf., Med. Fl. 2 (1830) 122, nom. inval.; Wen et al., PJS 142 (2013) 235; ≡ Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89 (1927) 370; Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 47; ≡ Columella trifolia (L.) Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 134; EPFP 3 (1923) 9; ≡ Cissus trifolia (L.) K.Schum., Fl. Kaiser Wilhelmsl. (1889) 71; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 311; ≡ Vitis trifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 293. = Cayratia trifolia var. cinerea (Lam.) Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 47; ≡ Columella trifolia var. cinerea (Lam.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 10; ≡ Cissus cinerea Lam., Tab. Encycl. 1 (1791) 332. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, CORON, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Benguet, Bulacan, Ifugao, La Union, Laguna, NCR, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Maguindanao del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY (photos), SAMAR, TURTLE ISLS. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Lowland thickets. Native.

Cayratia Juss.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 May 2024
  1. Cayratia apoensis (Elmer) Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 45; ≡ Columella apoensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 8; ≡ Cissus apoensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2880; Type: Elmer 11696 (L), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya (Mt Apo), Sep-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, c. 1200m. Native.
  2. Cayratia coi J.Wen & Boggan, PJS 142 (2013) 233; Type: Madulid 6784 (US, holo; F, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mt Isarog, 29-Apr-1987. = Columella irosinensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1944) 136: 3799, nom. inval.; ≡ Cayratia irosinensis (Elmer) Galet, Recherch. Meth. Identif. & Classif. Vitac. 2 (1967) 372, nom. illeg. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur, Sorsogon. Native.
  3. Cayratia geniculata (Blume) Gagnep., Not. Syst. 1 (1911) 345; Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 46; ≡ Columella geniculata (Blume) Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 132; EPFP 3 (1923) 8; ≡ Vitis geniculata (Blume) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1863) 81; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 49; ≡ Cissus geniculata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 184; Type: from Java. = Cissus rubescens Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 71. = Cayratia geniculata var. sarcocarpa (Merr.) Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 46; ≡ Columella geniculata var. sarcocarpa Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 133; EPFP 3 (1923) 8. Distribution: Bhutan, Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines. BALABAC, BANCALAN, BUSUANGA, CATANDUANES, CULION, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ifugao, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, up to 800m. Native.
  4. Cayratia mollissima (Wall.) Gagnep., Not. Syst. 1 (1911) 345; Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 46; ≡ Columella mollissima (Wall.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 8; ≡ Vitis mollissima Wall., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 482. Distribution: Indochina, Malesia. LUZON: Apayao (photos), Bulacan, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Quezon, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PANAY. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  5. Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Juss. ex Gagnep., Notul. Syst. (Paris) 1 (1911) 346; Juss., Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 4 (1823) 136, nom. inval.; Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 46; ≡ Columella pedata (Lam.) Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 85; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 9; ≡ Cissus pedata Lam., Encyc. 1 (1783) 31. Distribution: India to Indochina and Java. LUZON: Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Medium elevation forested ravines. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Cayratia cumingiana (Turcz.) Galet, Recherch. Meth. ldentif. & Classif. Vitac. 2 (1967) 327; ≡ Vitis cumingiana Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 31 (1858) 416; Type: Cuming 1173, Luzon: Cagayan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.

Cissus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 November 2023
  1. Cissus adnata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 405; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 6. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. BUSUANGA, CORON, CUYO, LUZON: Abra, Albay, Aurora, Batangas, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao; lowland and medium elevation thickets. L.L.Co: Frequently misidentified as Cissus repens Lam., but can be readily distinguished from it by the rust-colored pubescence on young shoots and by its bristle-serrate leaves. Native.
  2. Cissus aristata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 183; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 311. = Cissus simplex Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 72; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 7. Distribution: India, Malesia from Malay Peninsula to Australia. BUSUANGA, CULION, CUYO ARCHIPELAGO, LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Misamis, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Thickets and forest edges at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Native.
  3. Cissus assamica (M.A.Lawson) Craib, Kew Bull. (1911) 31; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 6; ≡ Vitis assamica M.A.Lawson, Fl. Brit. India 1(3) (1875) 648. Distribution: Borneo, India to Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: In Luzon from Laguna to Sorsogon. Thickets at low and medium elevation. Native.
  4. Cissus discolor Blume, Catalogus (1823) 39; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 6. = Cissus javana DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 628. Distribution: China through Malay Peninsula to Moluccas, India, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO: Misamis, Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Forests, 700-1500m. Native.
  5. Cissus hastata Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 517; Planch. in DC., Monog. Phan. 5 (1887) 502; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 6. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, India, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao. Notes: Thickets, c. 1200m. Native.
  6. Cissus luzoniensis (Merr.) C.L.Li, Chinese J. Appl. Environ. Biol. 2 (1996) 49; ≡ Cissus repens var. luzoniensis Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 131; EPFP 3 (1923) 7. Distribution: China, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  7. Cissus nodosa Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Nederl. Ind. (1825) 182; ≡ Vitis nodosa (Blume) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1863) 87. Distribution: Borneo, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Zambales, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Native.
  8. Cissus oblongifolia Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 129; EPFP 3 (1923) 6. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Zambales, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Primary forests, 100-900m. Native.
  9. Cissus quadrangularis L., Mant. 1 (1767) 39; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 311; EPFP 3 (1923) 7. Distribution: Africa, Continental Asia, Middle East. CEBU, LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, Rizal, NEGROS, SIQUIJOR. Notes: Commonly cultivated (Wen et al. 2013). Naturalized in dry thickets in and about towns at low elevation. Naturalized.
  10. Cissus repens Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 31; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 311; EPFP 3 (1923) 7. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. APO, BALABAC, BASILAN, BICAWAYAN, BOHOL, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Ifugao, Laguna, Mountain Province, NCR, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga (photos), Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Surigao, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, TICAO. Notes: Low elevation thickets. Native.

Leea L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 May 2024
  1. Leea aculeata Blume ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 670; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 10; Ridsd., Blumea (1974) 84; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1976) 773; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BASILAN, BATAN, BOHOL, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao (photos), Batangas, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: A rather interesting distribution pattern with the species exceedingly common in the Philippines but apparently very rare over the SW part of its range to Sumatra. Mainly secondary vegetation, particularly riverine areas from near sea-level to 1300m. Native.
  2. Leea acuminatissima Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 281; EPFP 3 (1923) 10; Ridsd., Blumea (1974) 80; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1976) 764; Molina et al., Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 171 (2013) 357. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Laguna, Nueva Ecija. Notes: Primary lowland and foothill forest to 1250m. Known only from two collections. According to Ridsdale, further collections and field observations needed. It may only be a precociously flowering, 1-foliolate form of a pinnately leaved species. Native.
  3. Leea aequata L., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 2 (1767) 627; Mant. 1 (1767) 124; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 10; Ridsd., Blumea (1974) 90; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1976) 765. = Leea humilis Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bog. Alt. (1844) 168. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BOHOL, CORON, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Isabela (photos), Rizal, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: In secondary vegetation, usually at low elevation. Native.
  4. Leea angulata Korth. ex Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1863) 97; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 11; Ridsd., Blumea (1974) 84; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1976) 772; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, CEBU (photos), JOLO, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Zamboanga del Sur, NEGROS, PANAY, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: In Malesia recorded from secondary vegetation, particularly sandy heaths and riverine forest, up to 1500m. Native.
  5. Leea congesta Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 318; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 11; Ridsd., Blumea (1974) 80; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1976) 765. = Leea capitata Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 281; EPFP 3 (1923) 11. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, LUZON: Apayao, Aurora, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya (photos), Quezon, Rizal, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: In the Sierra Madre Range from Cagayan to Quezon. Primary lowland rainforests to 500m. Native.
  6. Leea cumingii C.B.Clarke, J. Bot. 19 (1881) 166; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 11; Molina et al., Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 171 (2013) 359. = Leea papillosa Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 307; EPFP 3 (1923) 13. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao (photos), Isabela, Quezon (photos). Notes: Potentially endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  7. Leea javanica Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1825) 197; Molina et al., Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 171 (2013) 370. = Leea ramosii Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 282; EPFP 3 (1923) 14. ≠ Leea indica auct. non (Burm.f.) Merr.; EPFP 3 (1923) 11; Ridsd., Blumea (1974) 95; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1976) 779. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, BASILAN, BILIRAN, BOHOL, CAGAYAN DE SULU, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela (photos), Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Surigao, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIARGAO, SIASI, TAWI-TAWI. Native.
  8. Leea magnifolia Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 37; EPFP 3 (1923) 12; Ridsd., Blumea (1974) 79; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1976) 762. = Leea catanduanensis Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 47; Type: BS 75429 Ramos & Edaño, Catanduanes: Virac, 1-Aug-1928. = Leea pycnantha Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 166; Type: BS 45743 Ramos & Edaño, Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, Mt Alzapan, 24-May-1925. = Leea banahaensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 316; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 11. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Camarines Sur (photos), Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: Primary lowland and foothill forest, to 1500m, particularly along streamsides. Native.
  9. Leea manillensis Walp., Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 314; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 312; EPFP 3 (1923) 12; Molina et al., Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 171 (2013) 358. = Leea euphlebia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 452; EPFP 3 (1923) 11. = Leea parva Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 317; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 13. = Leea parvifoliola Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 145; EPFP 3 (1923) 13. = Leea negrosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 494; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 13. ≠ Leea javanica auct. non Blume; Merr., Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. (1903) 36. ≠ Leea guineensis auct. non G.Don; Ridsd., Blumea (1974) 92; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1976) 777. Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Taiwan. BALABAC, BANCALAN, BUSUANGA, CULION, HUNDRED ISLS (photos), LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao (photos), Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan (photos), Isabela (photos), La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon (photos), Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao, Surigao, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY (photos). Notes: Common and widespread throughout the archipelago. Secondary regrowth vegetation, but also found in primary forest. Native.
  10. Leea philippinensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl.: 89; EPFP 3 (1923) 13; Ridsd., Blumea (1974) 80; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1976) 765. = Leea philippinensis var. pauciflora Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 13. = Leea nitida Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 406; EPFP 3 (1923) 13. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN, BATANES, BILIRAN, BOHOL, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MARINDUQUE, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Davao del Sur, Surigao, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, PALAUI (photos), SAMAR. Notes: Primary rainforests to 750m. Native.
  11. Leea quadrifida Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 196; EPFP 3 (1923) 14; Ridsd., Blumea (1974) 80; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1976) 762. = Leea agusanensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2881; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 10. = Leea platyphylla Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 280; EPFP 3 (1923) 14. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, BOHOL, BUSUANGA, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao (photos), Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte, Davao, Misamis Occidental, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Primary rainforest to 1000m, often on ridges. Native.
  12. Leea rubra Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1825) 197; Ridsd., Blumea (1974) 91; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1976) 776; Type: from Java. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. CORON, LUZON: Pampanga, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, PALAWAN. Notes: Dry monsoon forest, savannah and secondary vegetation, up to 500m. Native.
  13. Leea unifoliolata Merr., PJS 11 c (1919) 193; EPFP 3 (1923) 14; Ridsd., Blumea (1974) 80; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1976) 764. = Leea longipetiolata Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 282; EPFP 3 (1923) 12. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Camarines Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland primary forest, particularly along streamside. Known from two collections. According to Ridsdale, further collections and field observations needed. It may only be a precociously flowering, 1-foliolate form of a pinnately leaved species, particularly Leea quadrifida. Native.

Tetrastigma Planch.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 April 2024
  1. Tetrastigma brunneum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 84; EPFP 3 (1923) 3; Type: Vanoverbergh 795 (L, P, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Malamey, in forests, c. 1550m, Aug-1910. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sumatra. BATAN, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Forests, 800-2300m. Native.
  2. Tetrastigma clementis Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 137; EPFP 3 (1923) 3; Type: M.S. Clemens s.n., Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Nov-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Kalinga, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, PANAY. Notes: Thickets along streams, 350-800m. Native.
  3. Tetrastigma coriaceum (DC.) Gagnep., Not. Syst. (Paris) 1 (1910) 320; ≡ Cissus coriacea DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 632; Type: from Timor? = Tetrastigma tuberculatum (Blume) Latiff, Folia Malaysiana 2 (2001) 186, nom. illeg. ≠ Tetrastigma lanceolarium auct. non (Roxb.) Planch. ≠ Tetrastigma leucostaphylum auct. non (Dennst.) Alston. Distribution: BALABAC, PALAWAN. Notes: P.B. Pelser (28-Aug-14): Tetrastigma lanceolarium (Roxb.) Planch. and Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst.) Alson are names that have been misappied to Tetrastigma coriaceum (Veldkamp 2008, 2009). The former is a superfluous name for the latter, which is a species from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal (Veldkamp 2008). Native.
  4. Tetrastigma corniculatum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 26; EPFP 3 (1923) 3; Type: Wenzel 1240, Leyte: Tigbao, near Tacloban, May-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDORO. Notes: Forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  5. Tetrastigma dichotomum (Blume) Planch., Monogr. Phan. 5 (1887) 441; ≡ Cissus dichotoma Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Nederl. Ind. (1825) 186; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS. Native.
  6. Tetrastigma ellipticum Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 138; EPFP 3 (1923) 3; Type: Reillo Bur. Sci. 16173 (P, US, iso), Basilan, Aug/Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON: Apayao (photos), Benguet, Mountain Province, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: In forests. Native.
  7. Tetrastigma everettii Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 139; EPFP 3 (1923) 3; Type: Everett FB 11217 (US, iso), Negros: Barlin, 21-Apr-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: In forests, c. 90m. Native.
  8. Tetrastigma glabratum (Blume) Planch. in DC., Monog. Phan. 5 (1887) 430; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 3; ≡ Cissus glabrata Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 4 (1925) 189; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines. BALABAC, LUZON: Laguna, MINDORO, PALAWAN, POLILLO. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Native.
  9. Tetrastigma harmandii Planch. in DC., Monog. Phan. 5 (1887) 425; Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) 136; Fl. Manila (1912) 310; EPFP 3 (1923) 3; Type: from Indochina. Distribution: LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Batangas (photos), Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte (photos), Laguna, NCR, Nueva Ecija (photos), Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte (photos), MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  10. Tetrastigma laxum Merr., PJS c 11 (1916) 140; Type: Borden FB 2495, Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River, Jan-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Native.
  11. Tetrastigma littorale Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 141; EPFP 3 (1923) 4; Type: Merrill 7215 (US, iso), Palawan: Ulugan Bay, 19-Sep-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Forest along the seashore. Native.
  12. Tetrastigma loheri Gagnep., Not. Syst. 1 (1910) 265; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 4; Obico et al., Syst. Bot. 46 (2021) 750; Type: Loher 371 (P, syn; US, isosyn), Davao; Whitford 19 (NY, syn), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariviles, Lamao River. = Tetrastigma stenophyllum Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 143; EPFP 3 (1923) 5; Type: Fenix BS 12964 (L, iso), Luzon: La Union, Bauang, Dec-1910. = Tetrastigma trifoliolatum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 370; EPFP 3 (1923) 5; Type: Wenzel 544 (US, iso), Leyte: Dagami, 6-Feb-1914. = Tetrastigma philippinense Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 86; Type: R.S. Williams 1025 (NY 2 sheets, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Antamok, c. 1000m, 22-Oct-1904. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. CATANDUANES, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao (photos), Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, NCR, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Native.
  13. Tetrastigma magnum Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 142; EPFP 3 (1923) 4; Type: Ramos BS 13610 (L, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Aug-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Rizal, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: In forests. Native.
  14. Tetrastigma mindanaense Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 279; EPFP 3 (1923) 4; Type: Ramos & Pascasio BS 34463 (L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Surigao, Apr-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, MINDANAO: Surigao. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  15. Tetrastigma papillosum (Blume) Planch. in DC., Monog. Phan. 5 (1887) 429; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 4; Latiff, Gard. Bull. Sing. 36 (1983) 226; ≡ Cissus papillosa Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 4 (1825) 183; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BILIRAN, BOHOL (photos), CATANDUANES, CEBU (photos), LUZON: Camarines Norte (photos), Laguna, Mountain Province, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon (photos), Davao del Sur, Maguindanao del Norte, Surigao del Sur (photos), Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO (photos), NEGROS, PANAY (photos). Notes: Forests, 500-1200m. Native.
  16. Tetrastigma robinsonii Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 142; Type: EPFP 3 (1923) 5; McGregor BS 10400 (US, iso), Polillo: 18-Oct-1909. = Tetrastigma merrittii Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 5. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, POLILLO. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  17. Tetrastigma sepulchrei Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 88; EPFP 3 (1923) 5; Type: Vanoverbergh 1215, Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, in forests, c. 1650m, 18-May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Thickets and forests, 1200-1700m. Native.
  18. Tetrastigma silvestrei Elmer ex J.Wen & Boggan, PJS 142 (2013) 237; Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3802; Type: Elmer 14663 (US, holo), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, 750ft, Oct-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Native.
  19. Tetrastigma simplicifolia (Merr.) J.Wen & Boggan, PJS 142 (2013) 237; ≡ Cayratia simplicifolia (Merr.) Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 46; ≡ Columella simplicifolia Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 135; EPFP 3 (1923) 9; Type: Ramos BS 15308 (US, iso), Leyte: Mountains back of Dagami, 5-Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Notes: Forested slopes. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Tetrastigma diepenhorstii (Miq.) Latiff, Folia Malaysiana 2 (2001) 185; ≡ Vitis diepenhorstii Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 1 (1860) 515; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Borneo, ?Philippines, Sumatra. Notes: P.B. Pelser (28-Aug-14): This species is listed for the Philippines by Wen et al. (2013), in which Wen 8261 (US) is cited as a representative specimen. Sequences of this specimen suggest that it might be Tetrastigma loheri (Obico et al. 2021). Presence in the Philippines therefore needs to be confirmed.
  2. Tetrastigma pachyphyllum (Hemsl.) Chun, Sunyatsenia 4 (1940) 235; ≡ Vitis pachyphylla Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23(153) (1886) 135. = Tetrastigma strumarum (Planch.) Gagnep., Notul. Syst. (Paris) 1 (1910) 267; ≡ Tetrastigma crassipes var. strumarum Planch., Monogr. Phan. 5 (1887) 427. Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Laos, ?Philippines, Vietnam. ?LUZON. Notes: P.B. Pelser (1-Sep-15): Tetrastigma pachyphyllum has only been reported for the Philippines by Wen et al. (2013). This might have been based on the misapplication of the name T. strumarum for Philippine plants belonging to T. harmandii (Merrill 1916, 1923). Therefore, it is uncertain if Tetrastigma pachyphyllum occurs in the Philippines.
  3. Tetrastigma scariosum (Blume) Planch. in A.DC., Monogr. Phan. 5 (1887) 441; ≡ Cissus scariosa Blume, Batav. Cour. 23-Mar-1825 (1825) 12; Type: from Java. = Tetrastigma pisicarpum (Miq.) Planch., Monogr. Phan. 5 (1887) 441; ≡ Vitis pisicarpa Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1863) 79; Type: from New Guinea. Distribution: Australia, Java, New Guinea, ?Philippines. ?LUZON, ?MINDANAO.

Vitis L.

  1. Vitis flexuosa Thunb., Trans. Linn. Soc. 2 (1793) 103; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 1. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Nepal, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Thickets about cliffs and boulders, 1000-1400m. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Vitis vinifera L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 202. Distribution: Europe, Middle East, W Asia. Notes: Cultivated. Cultivated, not naturalized.

References