Violaceae

Afrohybanthus Flicker

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 August 2019

Photos
  1. Afrohybanthus enneaspermus (L.) Flicker, Phytotaxa 230 (2015) 47; --Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.Muell., Fragm. Phyt. Austr. 10 (1976) 81; --Ionidium enneaspermum (L.) Vent., Jard. Malm. (1803) t. 27; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 106; --Viola enneasperma L. Sp. PI. (1753) 937. Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, ?Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Middle East, Moluccas, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO: Cotabato. Photos

Hybanthus Jacq. = Afrohybanthus (Philippine species)

Ionidium Vent. = Afrohybanthus

Rinorea Aubl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 July 2021

Photos
  1. Rinorea bengalensis (Wall.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 42; --Alsodeia bengalensis Wall., Trans. Med. Phys. Soc. Calc. 7 (1835) 224. --Rinorea fasciculata (Turcz.) Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 286; EPFP 3 (1923) 104; --Alsodeia fasciculata (Turcz.) Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou. 36 i (1863) 559; --Pentaloba fasciculata Turcz. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou. 27 ii (1854) 342. --Rinorea glandulosa (Elmer) Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 286; EPFP 3 (1923) 104; --Gelonium glandulosa Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 918. Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific, Peninsular Malaysia, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Photos
  2. Rinorea horneri (Korth.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 42; --Alsodeia horneri Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 1 (1848) 360. --Rinorea acuminata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 201; EPFP 3 (1923) 103. --Rinorea copelandii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 45; EPFP 3 (1923) 103. Thailand, scattered throughout Malesia except Java and Lesser Sunda Isls, Solomon Isls, Philippines.
  3. Rinorea javanica (Blume) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 42; --Alsodeia javanica (Blume) Miq., FL. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 117; --Prosthesia javanica Blume Bijdr. (1825) 867. --Rinorea formicaria (Elmer) Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 286; EPFP 3 (1923) 104; --Alsodeia formicaria Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1850; --Type: Elmer 12886 (A, BM, K, NSW, P, U, US), Palawan: Mt. Pulgar, Mar-1911. Indochina, Thailand, Malaysia, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Java, Philippines. PALAWAN.
  4. Rinorea macrophylla (Decne.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 42; --Alsodeia macrophylla Decne., Nouv. Ann. Mus. Paris 3 (1834) 468. --Rinorea palawanensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 210; EPFP 3 (1923) 104; --Type: BS 252 Bermejos (K, US), Palawan, Dec-1905. --Rinorea macrophylla var. mollis Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 104. Indochina, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. CEBU, CULION, GUIMARAS, JOLO, PALAWAN. Photos
  5. Rinorea niccolifera Fernando, Phytokeys 37 (2014) 4; --Romeroso et al., Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 501; --Type: Fernando 3016 (LBC, holo; CAHUP, K, PNH, SING, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Mun. Sta. Cruz, Lucapon, 330m, 1-Apr-2012. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, SAMAR. Ultramafic soils. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos

Viola L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Viola arcuata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 58; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 104. --Viola semilunaris (Maxim.) W.Becker var. philippinarum W.Becker, Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 342 (1916) 231; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 106. --Viola toppingii Eimer, LPB 2 (1908) 504. India, Myanmar, China, Indochina, Sumatra, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON.
  2. Viola betonicifolia Sm. in Rees, Cycl. 37 (1919) 7. Himalayas, India, Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Indochina, Australia, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Sulawesi, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO.
  3. Viola diffusa Ging. in DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 293; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 105. Himalayas, China, Indochina, Japan, Taiwan, New Guinea, Philippines. Photos
  4. Viola inconspicua Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 57; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 105. Himalayas, Myanmar, China, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines. LUZON.
  5. Viola mearnsii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 201; EPFP 3 (1923) 105. Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON, NEGROS, MINDANAO.
  6. Viola merrilliana W.Becker, Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 342 (1916) 234; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 105. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  7. Viola philippica Cav., Icon. 6 (1800) 19. --Viola edanoi W.Becker, PJS 19 (1921) 722; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 105. Himalayas, India, Mongolia, China, Myanmar, Korea, Japan, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO.
  8. Viola rupicola Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 324; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 106. Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON.

Doubtful species:

  1. Viola ramosiana W.Becker, PJS 19 (1921) 716; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 106. Endemic to the Philippines. Note by L.L.Co: Holotype lost. Isotype in US not agreeing with the original description and may be referable to Viola philippica which also occurs in the type locality of BS 37548.

Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Fernando, ES, MO Quimado & AI Doronila. 2014. Rinorea niccolifera (Violaceae), a new, nickel-hyperaccumulating species from Luzon Island, Philippines. Phytokeys 37: 1-13

Flicker, BJ & HR Ballard. 2019. Afrohybanthus (Violaceae), a new genus for a distinctive and widely distributed Old World hybanthoid lineage. Phytotaxa 230: 39-53

Jacobs, M. & DM Moore. 1971. Violaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 7: 179-212

Romeroso, RB, DN Tandang & IA Navarrete. 2021. New distributional record of Phyllanthus securinegoides Merr. (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea niccolifera Fernando (Violaceae) of Homonhon Island, Philippines. Biodiversitas 22: 499-503

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 28 July 2021