Urticaceae

Cecropiaceae

Astrothalamus C.B.Rob.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 October 2017
  1. Astrothalamus reticulatus (Wedd.) C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 19; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; ≡ Maoutia reticulata Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 235(31). = ?Maoutia planitora C.B.Rob., PJS 3c (1908) 180; Type: R.S. Williams 2079, Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, 31-Jan-1905. Distribution: Borneo, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Low elevation thickets. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Boehmeria Jacq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018
  1. Boehmeria beyeri C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 309; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 89; Type: BS 13540 Beyer (K, NY), Luzon: Ifugao, Bila, May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Quezon. Notes: Mossy forests, up to 1900m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered. Native.
  2. Boehmeria densiflora Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechy’s Voy. (1841) 217; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 90; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 199; Type: from Japan. Distribution: China, Hong Kong, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Notes: Open slopes, up to 1650m. Native.
    • var. densiflora. = Boehmeria weddelliana S.Vidal, Revision des plantes vasculaires filipinas (1886) 256; Type: Vidal 1784 (A, K, L, MA, PNH, syn), Luzon: Bontoc. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  3. Boehmeria depauperata Wedd., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 4, 1 (1854) 202. = Pipturus mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 898; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 95; Type: Elmer 10520 (PNH, holo, lost; K, LE, MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, 1125m, May-1909. = Boehmeria cypholophoides Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 368; EPFP 2 (1923) 90; Type: Wenzel 35 (A, BM, F, G, L, US), Leyte: Dagami, forested foothills, c. 60m, 20-May-1913. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, China, India, Java, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: 100-1700m. Conservation status: Least Concern. Native.
  4. Boehmeria heterophylla Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 9 (1856) 351; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 90; Type: Cuming 1561 (BM, G, K, M, P), Mindoro. = Boehmeria blumei Wedd., Prodr. 161 (1869) 204; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 89; Type: Cuming 73, Luzon: Pampanga or Bulacan. = Boehmeria villosa C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 3; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 91; Type: BS 3574 Fenix, erroneously cited ‘3754’ by Robinson & Merrill and Wilmot-Dear & Friis (2013) (NY), Batan: Sto Domingo de Basco, 27-May-1907. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY, SABTANG. Notes: Thickets, damp ravines, and forests, sea-level up to c. 1100m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
    • var. heterophylla. = Boehmeria cumingiana Blume, Museum Botanicum Lugduno Batavum 2 (fasc. 13–16) (1857) 199; Type: Cuming 1561 (L, holo; G, M, P, iso), Philippines. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: 200-500m. Native.
    • var. blumei (Wedd.) Friis & Wilmot-Dear, Blumea 58 (2013) 110; ≡ Boehmeria blumei Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 204. = Boehmeria heterophylla (Wedd.) Blume, Museum Botanicum Lugduno Batavum 2 (fasc. 13–16) (1857) 204, nom. illeg., non Wedd.; Type: Cuming 731 (L, holo; BM, G, K, iso), Philippines. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: 250-1100m. Native.
  5. Boehmeria multiflora C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 179; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 90; Type: R.S. Williams 1088 (NY, US), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, 10-Jun-1904. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. BOHOL, LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Kalinga, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO. Notes: Open slopes and thickets, 600-2600m. Conservation status: Vulnerable. Native.
  6. Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich., Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 499; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 90; ≡ Urtica nivea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 985. Distribution: BABUYAN ISLS, BATAN, MINDORO. Naturalized.
    • var. nivea. Distribution: China. BABUYAN ISLS, BATAN. Notes: Cultivated in many tropical and subtropical countries. Naturalized, occasionally planted in some parts of the Philippines. Ramie. Naturalized.
    • var. tenacissima (Gaudich.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 12 (1858-59) 253; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 90; ≡ Boehmeria tenacissima Gaudich., Voy. Uranie (1830) 500. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Java, Taiwan. Notes: According to Merrill, hardly distinguishable from the preceding. Naturalized.
  7. Boehmeria pilosiuscula (Blume) Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. (Hasskarl) (1844) 79; ≡ Urtica pilosiuscula Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 10 (1825) 491; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON. Notes: Up to 1650m. Conservation status: Near Threatened or Vulnerable. Native.
    • var. pilosiuscula. Distribution: Borneo, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra. LUZON. Notes: Up to 1650m. Native.
  8. Boehmeria rugosissima (Blume) Miq., Pl. Jungh. 1 (1851) 32; ≡ Urtica rugosissima Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 490; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: 450-1600m. Conservation status: Near Threatened or Vulnerable. Native.
  9. Boehmeria virgata (G.Forst.) Guill., Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. II, vii. (1837) 182; ≡ Urtica virgata G.Forst., Florulae Insularum Australium Prodromus (1786) 66, no. 345. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Madagascar, Pacific Ocean, SE Asia. BOHOL, LUZON, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, MINDORO. Native.
    • ssp. virgata. Distribution: Australia, Java, Malaysia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. BOHOL, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Up to 1400m. Native.
      • var. virgata. = Boehmeria celebica (Blume) Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1857) 217; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 89; ≡ Urtica celebica Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 492; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Java, Malaysia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. BOHOL, LUZON, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Notes: Thickets along streams, up to 1200m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Wilmot-Dear & Friis 2013). Native.
  10. Boehmeria zollingeriana Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 201; Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 381; EPFP 2 (1923) 91; Type: from Java. Distribution: India, Java, Laos, Myanmar to China, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan. Notes: Low and medium elevation ravines and open slopes, ascending to 14000m. Conservation status: Least Concern. Native.
    • var. blinii (H.Lév.) C.J.Chen in C.J.Chen et al., Flora of China 5 (2003) 168; ≡ Boehmeria blinii H.Lév., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11 (1913) 551; Type: from China. = Boehmeria zollingeriana var. podocarpa (W.T.Wang) W.T.Wang & C.J.Chen in C.J.Chen et al., Flora of China 5 (2003) 168; ≡ Boehmeria blinii H.Lév. var. podocarpa W.T.Wang, Acta Bototanica Yunnanica 3, 3(1981) 323; Type: from Taiwan. Distribution: China, Java, Myanmar, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Boehmeria sieboldiana Blume, Museum Botanicum Lugduno Batavum 2 (1857) 220. Distribution: China, Japan, Korea, ?Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. ?LUZON: ?Apayao.
    • var. sieboldiana. Notes: Possibly represented by BS 28030 Fenix (BO), Luzon: Apayao, May-1917.

Incertae sedis

  1. Boehmeria rupestris C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 5; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 91; Type: BS 5542 Ramos, Luzon: Benguet, La Trinidad, Rio Trinidad (Balili River). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Rocks along streams, c. 1300m. Name of uncertain identity (Wilmot-Dear & Friis 2013); probably Boehmeria pilosiuscula. Native.

Cecropia Loefl. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 October 2017
  1. Cecropia peltata L., Pl. Jamaic. Pug. (1759) 28. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Recently introduced in the Philippines. Very prolific. Naturalized.

Chamabainia Wight

  1. Chamabainia cuspidata Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Or. 6 (1853) 11; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 91; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 202. Distribution: China, India, Java, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Mossy forests, grassy montane summits, cliffs, etc. 1700-2800m. Native.

Cypholophus Wedd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018
  1. Cypholophus brunneolus Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 896; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 93; Type: Elmer 11641 (MO, NY), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, dense woods at 4000ft, Sep-1909. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Davao, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Shaded ravines, mossy forests, etc., 600-2400m. Native.
  2. Cypholophus microphyllus Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 895; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 93; Type: Elmer 11588 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NY 2 sheets, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, seepage ledges along Cati Creek at 6000ft, Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: c. 1800m. Native.
  3. Cypholophus moluccanus (Blume) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 305; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 93; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 202; ≡ Urtica moluccana Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 492. Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan. LEYTE, LUZON: Mountain Province, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: In Luzon from Mountain Province to Sorsogon; damp forested ravines, low elevation to 1500m. Native.

Debregeasia Gaudich.

  1. Debregeasia longifolia (Burm.f.) Wedd., Prodr. 161 (1869) 23524; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 95; ≡ Urtica longifolia Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 297; Type: from India. = Debregeasia angustifolia C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 18; Type: R.S. Williams 1551 (US), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio. = Debregeasia luteocarpa Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2843; Type: Elmer 14068 (L, MO, NA, NY, U, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. Distribution: Borneo, India to China, Java, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Common in thickets, ravines, and in damp forests, 1000-2000m. Note: Iso sheets at L & MO annotated by Wilmot-Dear as Debregeasia velutina Gaudich. in 1987. Native.

Dendrocnide Miq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 October 2022
  1. Dendrocnide carriana Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 45; Type: from Papua New Guinea. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. MINDORO. Native.
  2. Dendrocnide crassifolia (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 203; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 46; ≡ Laportea crassifolia C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 480; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 73; Type: FB 3925 Hutchinson (US, holo; K, NY, iso), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental, Mataline Falls. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental, Lanao, Misamis. Notes: In thickets, 400-800m. Native.
  3. Dendrocnide densiflora (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 203; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 24; ≡ Laportea densiflora C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 479; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 73; Type: Hallier 7414 (L, NY), Mindanao: Zamboanga, San Ramon. = Laportea subpeltata C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 485; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 75; Type: FB 4586 Hutchinson (NY, US), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental, Mt Malindang. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Misamis, Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, NEGROS. Notes: Thickets and forests, low elevation to c. 1000m. Native.
  4. Dendrocnide elliptica (Merr.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 203; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 16; ≡ Laportea elliptica Merr., J. Arn. Arb. 35 (1954) 135; Type: from Sabah (lecto). Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao. Notes: Known from PNH 80485 Conklin & Buwaya (L). Native.
  5. Dendrocnide luzonensis (Wedd.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 203; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 40; ≡ Laportea luzonensis (Wedd.) Warb., Perkins Frag. Fl. Philip. (1905) 168; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 73; ≡ Laportea crenulata (Roxb.) Wedd. var. luzonensis Wedd., Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 9 (1856) 133; Type: Cuming 522 (CGE, G, G-DC, K, L, M, MEL, MO, UPS). = Laportea agusanensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2860; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 72; Type: Elmer 14019 (BO, E, F, L, MO, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta. = Laportea latilanceolata Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3238, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 15206 (A, BO, C, F, FI, K, L, MO, S, U, UC, US, Z). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. luzonensis. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Forested valleys, usually near streams, low elevation to 1700m. Native.
    • var. anacardioides (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 42; ≡ Dendrocnide anacardioides (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 202; ≡ Laportea anacardioides C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 478; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 72; Type: Williams 2766 (NY 2 sheets, US), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Sta Cruz. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Notes: Low elevation. Native.
  6. Dendrocnide meyeniana (Walp.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 204; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 21; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 204; ≡ Laportea meyeniana (Walp.) Warb. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1905) 168; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 181; EPFP 2 (1923) 73; ≡ Urtica meyeniana Walp., Nov Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 422. = Dendrocnide diffusa (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 203; ≡ Laportea diffusa C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 482; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 73; Type: FB 5149 Curran (NY, US), Luzon: Tarlac. = Laportea gaudichaudiana Wedd., Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 9 (1856) 137; Type: Cuming 567 (CGE, K). = Laportea leytensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 484; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 73; Type: Elmer 7351 (A, BO, E, FI, K, NY), Leyte: Palo. Distribution: BATAN, CATANDUANES, GUIMARAS, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Camarines Norte, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Pangasinan, Sorsogon, Tarlac, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Native.
    • forma meyeniana. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Pangasinan, Tarlac, MINDORO. Notes: Thickets, light forests, sandy river beds at low and medium elevation. Native.
    • forma subglabra (Hayata) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 22; ≡ Laportea subglabra Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 30(1) (1911) 278-279. = Dendrocnide batanensis (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 202; ≡ Laportea batanensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 481; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 72; Type: BS 3719 Fenix (NY, US), Batan Is. = Laportea mindanaensis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 168; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 74; Type: Warburg 14702 (NY), Mindanao: Taumu. = Dendrocnide platyphylla (Merr.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 205; ≡ Laportea platyphylla Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 176; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 74; Type: BS 24274 Ramos (US), Samar: Catubig River. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN, CATANDUANES, JOLO, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Thickets and forests, along small streams at low and medium elevation. Native.
  7. Dendrocnide rigidifolia (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 205; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 26; ≡ Laportea rigidifolia C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 483; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 74; Type: R.S. Williams 991 (BO, E, F, L, NY 2 sheets, US), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Sto Tomas. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Mossy forest, c. 2000m on Mt Sto Tomas, medium elevation in Sablan. Native.
  8. Dendrocnide stimulans (L.f.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 206; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 11; ≡ Urtica stimulans L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1781) 418. = Laportea gracilipes Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 876; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 73; Type: Elmer 10499 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BO, E, F, G, K, L, MO, NY 2 sheets, WRSL, US, Z, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo. = Laportea brunnea Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 298; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 72; Type: BS 17559 Ramos (K, US). = Laportea lanaensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 483; Type: Clemens 462 (F, M), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley. = Dendrocnide stenophylla (Quisumb.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 206; ≡ Laportea stenophylla Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 317; Type: BS 49413 Ramos & Edaño (B, NY, UC), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Mt Mayo. Distribution: Borneo, China, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Primary and secondary forests, thickets, near sea level to 1200m. Native.
  9. Dendrocnide subclausa (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 206; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 28; ≡ Laportea subclausa C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 486; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 74; Type: Merrill 6290 (K, NY, US), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling. = Laportea pendula Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 270; EPFP 2 (1923) 74; Type: BS 30229 Ramos (K, US), Catanduanes: Mt Mariguidon, along small streams in damp forests, c. 200m, 21-Nov-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, PANAY. Notes: Lowland forests, usually along streams, ascending to 800m. Native.
  10. Dendrocnide venosa (Elmer) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 207; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 30; ≡ Laportea venosa Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 878; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 75; Type: Elmer 11948 (A, BO, E, F, FI, K, L, MO, NY 2 sheets, US, WRSL, Z), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo. = Laportea monticola Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 299; EPFP 2 (1923) 74; Type: BS 19765 R.C. McGregor (US), Luzon: Ifugao, Mt Polis. = Laportea triplinervia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 300; EPFP 2 (1923) 75; Type: BS 19462 Ramos (L, US), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Pular. = Laportea conduplicata Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3237, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 17152 (A, BO, C, F, FI, K, L, MO, NY, S, U, UC, US, Z), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Camarines Norte, Ifugao, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, NEGROS. Notes: Low montane to montane mossy forests, 400-2000m. Native.

Elatostema J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 February 2022
  1. Elatostema acrophilum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 523; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 78; Type: BS 6577 Robinson (K, US), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Banahaw, summit area, Jan-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon. Notes: Lower montane to high-montane mossy forests, 1000-2100m. Native.
  2. Elatostema acuminatissimum Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 375; EPFP 2 (1923) 79; Type: BS 29015 Ramos & Edaño (K, US), Luzon: Quezon, Umiray, 2-Jun-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Low elevation damp forest along streams. Native.
  3. Elatostema agusanense Elmer, LPB 8 (1908) 2845; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 79; Type: Elmer 14250 (BISH, BRIT, CAS, E, G, GH, HBG, K, MICH, MO, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, NEGROS, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Forested ravines along small streams at medium elevation. Native.
  4. Elatostema angustatum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 533; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 79; Type: FB 3266 Ahern’s collector, Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso. = Elatostema camiguinense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2849; Type: Elmer 14227 (BISH, CAS, E, G, GH, HBG, K, MICH, MO, US), Camiguin: Mambajao, Nov-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO. Notes: Along streams in shaded ravines at low and medium elevation. Native.
  5. Elatostema antonii Elmer, LPB 8 (1908) 2847; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 79; Type: Elmer 13894 (BISH, BM, HBG, E, G, MO, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Boulders in densely shaded ravines along streams, c. 900m,. Native.
  6. Elatostema apoense Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 885; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 79; Type: Elmer 11793 (BISH, BM, E, G, GH, HBG, K, MO, US), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Sep-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: Dense forests, c. 1200m. According to Merrill, near Elatostema hookerianum Wedd. Native.
  7. Elatostema appendiculatum Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 379; EPFP 2 (1923) 79; Type: BS 29129 Ramos & Edaño (US), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Tulaog, along small streams in damp forests at low elevation, 25-May-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Low elevation forests along streams. Native.
  8. Elatostema banahaense C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 526; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 79; Type: BS 9856 Robinson (K, US), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Banahaw, 1500m, Mar-1910. = Elatostema scriptum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 529; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; Type: BS 9766 Robinson (K, US), Luzon: Laguna (Mt Banahaw), on rocks in forests, c. 800m. = Elatostema carinoi W.Shaw ex C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 532; PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 307; Type: Phil. Normal Sch. 428 Cariño, Luzon: Benguet: Baguio. = Elatostema bulusanense Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3227; Type: Elmer 16172 (A, BRIT, CAS, G, HBG, MICH, MO, S, US, syn); Elmer 15575 (G, GH, HBG, MO, S, US, syn); Elmer 16399 (G, GH, HBG, MICH, MO, S, US, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, CAMIGUIN, CEBU (photos), LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, SIQUIJOR. Notes: Damp forests at medium and higher elevation, ascending to 2100m in the mossy forest on high mountains. Native.
  9. Elatostema baruringense Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 890; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 79; Type: Elmer 10916 (PNH, holo, lost; BISH, BM, E, G, GH, HBG, K, MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Jun-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: Dense forests, c. 1200m. Native.
  10. Elatostema benguetense C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 539; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 80; Type: FB 5006 Curran, Luzon: Benguet, Mt Tonglon (Sto. Tomas). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Mossy forests, 1800-2300m. Native.
  11. Elatostema boholense Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 142; Type: BS 43093 Ramos (UC, holo; HBG, PNH, iso), Bohol: Valencia, 3-Oct-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Native.
  12. Elatostema bontocense Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 371; EPFP 2 (1923) 80; Type: BS 37660 Ramos & Edaño (K, US), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Polis, on tree trunks in the mossy forest, 25-Feb-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forests, 1800m. Native.
  13. Elatostema brongniartianum Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv 1 (1854) 190; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 80; Type: Cuming 629, Luzon: Laguna, Calauan. = Elatostema rupicolum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3233; Type: Elmer 18000 (G, GH, MO, US), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling, Jun/Jul-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao. On rocks, cliffs, and banks of shaded ravines at medium elevation, in Luzon ascending to 1400m. Native.
  14. Elatostema brunneolum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3219; Type: Elmer 22102 (B, G, GH, HBG, K, MICH, MO, SING, US), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg, May-1927. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Pampanga, Quezon (photos), NEGROS. Native.
  15. Elatostema brunonianum Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 318; Type: BS 49401 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, ?lost; ?UC, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Mt Mayo, trunk epiphyte in mossy forest, c. 1300m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Notes: Trunk epiphyte in mossy forest, 1300m. Known only from the type. Native.
  16. Elatostema capizense Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 372; EPFP 2 (1923) 80; Type: BS 30748 Ramos & Edaño (US), Panay: Aklan, Mt Macosolon (Magosolon), boulders along small streams in damp forests at low elevation, 19-Apr-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Notes: Low elevation forests along stream. Native.
  17. Elatostema catanduanense Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 271; EPFP 2 (1923) 80; Type: BS 30555 Ramos (K, US), Catanduanes: Sto Domingo River, on stones along small streams in forests at low elevation, 5-Dec-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Notes: Rupicolous in low elevation forested streams. Native.
  18. Elatostema cheirophyllum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 518; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 80; Type: Whitford 1595 (US), Negros: Negros Occidental, Himugaan River, May-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Zamboanga, NEGROS. Notes: Banks and boulders along streams in shaded ravines at medium elevation. Native.
  19. Elatostema contiguum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 536; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 80; Type: BS 9479 Robinson, Luzon: Quezon, Mahabang Sugsugan River. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Shaded stream embankments at medium elevation. Native.
  20. Elatostema delicatum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 467; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 80; Type: Elmer 10343 (PNH, holo, lost; BISH, E, G, GH, HBG, K, MO, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, Jun-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, Rizal, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: On rocks and ledges in shaded stream beds at low and medium elevation. Native.
  21. Elatostema discolor C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 301; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 81; Type: BS 13475 Ramos (K, US), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, in ravines, c. 1400m, May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao. Notes: Forests at or above 1400m. Native.
  22. Elatostema diversilimbum Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 378; EPFP 2 (1923) 81; Type: Merrill 8127 (US), Mindanao: Zamboanga: Mtns back of Zamboanga, damp shaded ravines along small streams on banks and ledges, 200-400m, 6-Dec-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: On banks and ledges in damp, shaded ravines, 200-400m. Native.
  23. Elatostema edanoi Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 374; EPFP 2 (1923) 81, as ‘edañoii’; Type: BS 37603 Ramos & Edaño (K, US), Luzon: Kalinga, Mt Masingit near Lubuagan, on tree trunks in forests along streams, c. 1300m, 17-Feb-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Kalinga. Notes: In forests, c. 1300m. Native.
  24. Elatostema edule C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 531; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 81; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 206; Tseng & Hu, Taiwania 60 (2015) 28; Type: BS 3609 Fénix (US), Batanes: May/Jun-1907. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN. Native.
  25. Elatostema elmeri Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 81; ≡ Elatostema pictum Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2850, nom. illeg., non Hallier f.; Type: Elmer 13484. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: About boulders in forests, c. 1200m. Native.
  26. Elatostema euphlebium Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 531; EPFP 2 (1923) 81; Type: BS 37765 Ramos & Edaño (K, US), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Pukis, forested slopes, c. 1800m, 10-Mar-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Forested slopes, c. 1800m. Native.
  27. Elatostema filicaule C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 516; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 81; Type: Merrill 6621 (K, US), Luzon: Benguet, Pauai, mossy forest, c. 2100m, May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao. Notes: Mossy forests, 1900-2300m. Synonym of Elatostema obtusum var. trilobulatum (Hayata) W.T. Wang? Native.
  28. Elatostema gitingense Elmer, LPB 8 (1908) 2852; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 81; Type: Elmer 12421 (HBG, US), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, May-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: On cliffs and in wet soil along small streams in shaded ravines, 250-500m. Native.
  29. Elatostema glaucescens Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 9 (1856) 325; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 81. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CORON, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, Tayabas, ?NEGROS (photos), PANAY. Notes: Chiefly on mossy boulders and cliffs in shaded stream beds at low and medium elevation; in places ascending to 1200m. Native.
  30. Elatostema glomeratum C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 302; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 82; Type: Merrill 7642 (MEL, TAIF), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, on wet ledges in ravine. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Wet ledges, shaded ravines, and in the mossy forest, 1400-1900m. Native.
  31. Elatostema gracilifolium Merr., PJS 13 c (1908) Bot. 8; EPFP 2 (1923) 82; Type: BS 26428 Ramos & Edaño (K, US), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan, on rocks in forests, 18-Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. Notes: On rocks in forests. Native.
  32. Elatostema halconense C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 540; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 82; Type: Merrill 5786 (K, US), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, ridge forest, 750m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Forested ridges, c. 750m. Native.
  33. Elatostema hastatum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 466; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 82; Type: Elmer 9829 (BISH, BRIT, CAS, E, G, GH, HBG, K, MICH, MO, US), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, Apr-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Damp forests, c. 1200m. Native.
  34. Elatostema heterophyllum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 517; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 82; Type: Merrill 6911 (K, US), Negros: Negros Occidental, Mt Kanlaon, Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: In forests on cliffs and in damp shaded ravines, 900-1320m. Native.
  35. Elatostema holophyllum Merr., PJS 11 c (1910) Bot. 5; EPFP 2 (1923) 82; Type: BS 23329 Ramos (US), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bagacaua, growing on trees in the mossy forest, 20-Aug-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Sorsogon. Notes: On boulders in shaded ravines at medium elevation, epiphytic in the mossy forests. Native.
  36. Elatostema inaequifolium Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 877; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 82; Type: Elmer 11545 (BM, E, G, HBG, K, MO, US), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: On wet rocks along streams, c. 1800m. Native.
  37. Elatostema integrifolium (D.Don) Wedd., Prod. 16(1) (1869) 179; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 82; ≡ Procris integrifolia D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 61. Distribution: India to Java, Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, PALAWAN. Notes: Damp forests at medium elevation. Native.
  38. Elatostema iridense Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 320; Type: BS 48515 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, ?lost; ?UC, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Mt Irid, on rocks in damp forest, c. 700m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Only known from the type collection. Native.
  39. Elatostema kalingaense Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 376; EPFP 2 (1923) 83; Type: BS 37493 Ramos & Edaño (K, US), Luzon: Kalinga, Mt Masingit, near Lubuagan, on boulders or ledges along streams, c. 1200m, 16-Feb-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Kalinga. Notes: Boulders along streams, c. 1200m. Native.
  40. Elatostema laciniatum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 287; H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 36; Type: Elmer 9196 (E, G, K, US), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907. = Polychroa urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3241; Type: Elmer 13491 (US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (31-Aug-20): the name Elatostema sinuatum (Blume) Hassk. seems to be misapplied in the Philippines and does not occur there (Schröter & Winkler 1936). Native.
    • var. gracile H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 39; Type: Loher 12753 (M, PNH ?lost, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, Mar-1909; Loher 12885 (PNH ?lost, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Oriud, Mar-1912; BS 40769 (B ?lost, K, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Mt Angilog, Apr-1922. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Native.
    • var. incaudatum H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 40; Type: BS 40665 Ramos & Edaño (B ?lost, K, PNH ?lost), Mindoro: 14-Mar-1922. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Native.
    • var. laciniatum. = Pellionia sinuata auct. non (Blume) Boerl.; C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 497. = Procris sinuata auct. non Blume; Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 382. = Polychroa sinuata auct. non (Blume) Merr.; Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 382; EPFP 2 (1923) 78. = Pellionia sordida Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2862; Type: Elmer 14251 (BISH, E, G, GH, HBG, MO, U, US), Mindanao: Agusan, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Surigao, Zamboanga, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. platyphyllum (Elmer) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 39; ≡ Pellionia platyphylla Elmer ex H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 39; ≡ Polychroa platyphylla Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3240; Type: Elmer 14465 (HBG, L, PNH ?lost, U, ?W), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt Bulusan), Oct-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
  41. Elatostema lagunense Merr. ex C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 527; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 83; Type: Merrill 5118 (K, US), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños, 12-Mar-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Ifugao, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: Damp shaded ravines along small streams at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1000m in wet forests. Native.
  42. Elatostema lanaense C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 528; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 83; Type: M.S. Clemens 405, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Camp Keithley. Mindanao: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: Shaded ravines, c. 700m. Native.
  43. Elatostema lignosum Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 377; EPFP 2 (1923) 83; Type: Merrill 9697 (K, US), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, in shaded places about limestone boulders, c. 1400m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: On limestone boulders, c. 1400m. Native.
  44. Elatostema longifolium Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 189; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 83; Type: Cuming 456 (G, K, MEL), Luzon: Laguna, Calauan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga, NEGROS. Notes: Forests at medium elevation. Native.
  45. Elatostema longipedunculatum Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 886; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 83; Type: Elmer 11593 (PNH, holo, lost; E, G, K, MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: On seepage slopes and ledges, c. 1800m. Native.
  46. Elatostema lutescens C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 304; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 83; Type: Merrill 7643 (E, G, K, S, US), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio and vicinity, in ravines, May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Notes: Shaded cliffs, thickets, and in the mossy forests, 1000-1900m. Native.
  47. Elatostema luzonense C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 512; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 83; Type: BS 6135 Robinson (K, US), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, 1-Aug-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Mountain Province, NCR, Pampanga, Rizal, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Common on wet cliffs, banks of ravines, etc., from sea level to at least 1200m. Native.
  48. Elatostema macgregorii Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 373; EPFP 2 (1923) 83; Type: BS 32396 R.C. McGregor (K, US), Panay: Antique, Culasi, in damp forests, 24-May-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Notes: Damp forests, 800-1300m. Native.
  49. Elatostema microphyllum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 286; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; Type: Elmer 9149 (PNH, holo, lost; E, G, K, MO, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907. = Elatostema maquilingense Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3229; Type: Elmer 17636 (GH, HBG, MO, S, US, syn); Elmer 18361 (G, GH, MO, syn), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling, Jun/Jul-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Tayabas, PANAY. Notes: On boulders in damp shaded ravines alomg streams at medium elevation. Native.
  50. Elatostema mindanaense (C.B.Rob.) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 40; ≡ Polychroa mindanaensis (C.B.Rob.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 78; ≡ Pellionia mindanaensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 496; Type: Copeland 900 (US), Mindanao: Davao, Apr-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Surigao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
  51. Elatostema multinervium (Merr.) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 75; ≡ Polychroa multinervia Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 380; EPFP 2 (1923) 78; Type: BS 39137 Ramos & Edaño (K, US), Mindanao: Bukidnon, near Tangculan, on trees in damp forests at c. 900m, 5-Jul-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: On trees in damp forests, c. 900m. Native.
  52. Elatostema oblanceolatum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 524; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; Type: Merrill 6909 (K, US), Negros: Negros Occidental, Mt Kanlaon, on steep moss-covered shaded banks of stream, at 900m, Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: Shaded mossy stream banks, 900m. Native.
  53. Elatostema obovatum Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 190; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; Type: Cuming 628 (K), Luzon: Laguna, Calauan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Shaded ravines at low elevation. Native.
  54. Elatostema obtusiusculum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 537; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; Type: BS 9840 Robinson, Luzon: Quezon, Mahabang Sugsugan River, growing on rocks at an elevation of 100-150m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Low and medium elevation, on rocks and banks in shaded ravines. Native.
  55. Elatostema palawanense C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 526; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; Type: BS 677 Foxworthy (K, US), Palawan: Mt Victoria, 1100m, Mar/Apr-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Damp forested slopes, c, 1100m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  56. Elatostema panayense Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 372; EPFP 2 (1923) 84; Type: BS 32396 Ramos & Edaño, Panay: Antique, Culasi, damp forests along streams, May-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, PANAY. Notes: Damp forests along small streams at medium elevation. Native.
  57. Elatostema parvum (Blume) Blume ex Miq., Syst. Verz. 2 (1854) 102; ≡ Procris parva Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 10 (1826) 512. = Elatostema merrillii C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 305; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; Type: Merrill 7647 (K, MO, P, S, US), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Tonglon (Mt Sto Tomas), in very shaded places along trail at c. 1800m, May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, PANAY. Notes: Forests, 1800m. Native.
  58. Elatostema perlongifolium Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3231; Type: Elmer 16408 (A, BRIT, CAS, G, GH, HBG, MICH, MO, P, S, US), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Jun-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Native.
  59. Elatostema philippinense Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 888; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; Type: Elmer 11746 (E, G, HBG, MO, US, syn); Elmer 11751 (BISH, E, G, GH, HBG, K, MO, US, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Sep-1909. = Elatostema glabratum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3228; Type: Elmer 16325 (BRIT, G, GH, HBG, MICH, MO, S, US, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Jun-1916; Elmer 15576 (G, GH, HBG, MO, S, US, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Nov-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, NEGROS, POLILLO. Native.
  60. Elatostema pilosum Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 376; EPFP 2 (1923) 84; Type: BS 20060 R.C. McGregor, Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, near Imugan, 29-Dec-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: In forests at medium elevation. Native.
  61. Elatostema pinnatinervium Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 286; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; Type: Elmer 9193 (PNH, holo, lost; E, G, MO, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, POLILLO. Notes: Mossy boulders in shaded ravines, 30-750m. Native.
  62. Elatostema platyphyllum Wedd., Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. ix. (1855-56) 301; Qi et al., Flora of China 5 (2003) 54; Tseng & Hu, Taiwania 60 (2015) 30; Type: from Bhutan. Distribution: Bhutan, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN. Notes: Along streams, ravines and moist forest floor. Native.
  63. Elatostema plumbeum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 535; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; Type: BS 3495 Mearns, Luzon: Benguet. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Shaded ravines on cliffs and in the mossy forest, 1000-1900m. Native.
  64. Elatostema podophyllum Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 189; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; Type: Cuming 789 (BM, E, G, MEL, MO), Luzon. Quezon, Mt Banahaw. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay (?photos), Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Mossy forests on the higher mountains, up to 2300m. Native.
  65. Elatostema pulchellum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 522; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; Type: BS 9824 Robinson (K, US), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Banahaw, 5/7-Mar-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao, Davao del Sur, Misamis Occidental. Notes: Mossy forests on the higher mountains, 1800-2475m. Native.
  66. Elatostema purpureum C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 306; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; Type: Merrill Phil. Plants 812 (FR, G, US, syn), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Tonglon (Sto Tomas), mossy forest, c. 1900m, May-1911; Merrill 7644 (K, syn): also from the same mountain but at a more shaded place at a slightly lower elevation. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forests, 1800-1900m. Native.
  67. Elatostema robinsonii Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 376; EPFP 2 (1923) 85; Type: BS 19727 R.C. McGregor (K, US), Luzon: Ifugao, Mt Polis, 30-Jan-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao. Notes: Apparently in mossy forests at or above 1500m. Native.
  68. Elatostema samarense Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 378; Type: BS 34117 Ramos, Samar: Catubig River, in damp forest at low elevation, Feb-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Damp forests at low elevation. Native.
  69. Elatostema scapigerum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 542; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; Type: Vanoverbergh 587. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Damp cliffs and in the mossy forest, 1100-2000m. Native.
  70. Elatostema serratifolium Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3234; Type: Elmer 14712 (PNH, holo, lost; GH, MO, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Native.
  71. Elatostema simulans C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 519; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; Type: BS 8145 Ramos (K, US), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, Bayombong, May-1909. = Elatostema pacificum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3230; Type: Elmer 14613 (G, GH, HBG, MICH, MO, S, US, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Oct-1915; Elmer 16173 (CAS, G, GH, HBG, MICH, MO, S, US, syn), also from Mt Bulusan, May-1916; Elmer 16968 (G, GH, HBG, MO, S, US, syn), also from Mt Bulusan, Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Bulacan, Laguna, Nueva Ecija (photos), Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Sorsogon. Notes: In Luzon from Benguet to Sorsogon. Damp cliffs and in forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  72. Elatostema sorsogonense Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3235; Type: Elmer 16322 (BRIT, CAS, G, GH, HBG, MO, S, US, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Jun-1916; Elmer 14614 (G, GH, HBG, MO, S, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Oct-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Native.
  73. Elatostema spinulosum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 468; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; Type: Elmer 9776 (PNH, holo, lost; E, G, HBG, K, MO, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, Apr-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Damp forests, 600-1000m. Native.
  74. Elatostema sublignosum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 541; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; Type: BS 9754 Robinson (E, K, L, US), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Banahaw, 5/7-Mar-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Forests, 600-800m. Native.
  75. Elatostema suborbiculare Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 377; EPFP 2 (1923) 86; Type: BS 19729 R.C. McGregor (K, US), Luzon: Ifugao, Mt Polis, apparently in the mossy forest. Feb-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao. Native.
  76. Elatostema surigaoense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2854; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; Type: Elmer 13637 (BISH, BRIT, E, G, GH, HBG, K, MICH, MO, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Forests, c. 1000m. Native.
  77. Elatostema umbrinum Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2855; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; Type: Elmer 13831 (E), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta. = Elatostema urdanetense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2857; Type: Elmer 14249 (BISH, E, HBG, MO), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Dense forests, c. 1600m. Native.
  78. Elatostema variabile C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 514; PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 307; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; Type: Vanoverbergh 528, Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, in forests, 1650m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal. Notes: Forests, c. 1650m. Native.
  79. Elatostema variegatum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 538; PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 31; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; Type: BS 9767 Robinson, Luzon: Laguna, base of Mt Banahaw, on rocks, 800m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Rizal. Notes: Lithophytic in shaded stream beds, c. 800m. Native.
  80. Elatostema viridescens Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 285; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 87; Type: Elmer 8076, Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Cavite, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation along streams and damp forests. Native.
  81. Elatostema volubile (Elmer) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 74; ≡ Polychroa volubilis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 78; ≡ Procris volubilis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2867; Type: Elmer 13898 (BRIT, HBG, MO, NA, NY, syn), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912; Elmer 13856 (syn), same area as preceding. = Polychroa ferruginea Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 381; Type: BS 38781 Ramos & Edaño (K), Mindanao: Bukidnon, Mt Candoon, 27-Jul-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Quezon (photos), MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Zamboanga, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation damp forests, ascending to 1400m. Native.
  82. Elatostema whitfordii Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. (1906) 48; EPFP 2 (1923) 87; Type: Whitford 254 (K, US, syn), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, May-1904; FB 1234 Borden (US, syn), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Jun-1904, wet shaded banks subject to constant drip of water in canon of the Lamao River, 550-800m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: Densely shaded ravines along streams, at and above 600m. Native.
  83. Elatostema zamboangense Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 374; EPFP 2 (1923) 87; Type: Merrill 8228 (US), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, back of San Ramon, damp shaded ravine, c. 200m, 27-Nov-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Norte (photos), Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: Damp shaded ravines, c. 200m. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Elatostema tomentosum Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 189; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; Type: Callery s.n. (P), Luzon: probably Benguet. = Elatostema sessile J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. var. tomentosum Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 173. = Elatostema subincanum Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 9 (1856) 295. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: A species of doubtful status. Native.

Elatostematoides C.B.Rob.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & Jayson Mansibang, 18 August 2021
  1. Elatostematoides buderi (H.Schroet.) Mansibang & Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 99; ≡ Elatostema buderi H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 103; Type: BS 40700 Ramos & Edaño (US, lecto; B ?lost, PNH lost, isolecto), Mindoro: Mt Halcon, 14-Mar-1922. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Native.
  2. Elatostematoides caudata Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3236, as 'caudatum'; Type: Elmer 16445 (GH, MO, NY, PNH lost, US), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt Bulusan), Mar to Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Native.
  3. Elatostematoides falcifolia (H.Schroet.) Mansibang & Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 99; ≡ Elatostema falcifolium H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 102; Type: BS 45994 Edaño (NY, lecto; PNH lost, isolecto), Panay: Mt Ditana, 3-Oct-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Native.
  4. Elatostematoides gracilipes C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 503; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 87; ≡ Elatostema gracilipes (C.B.Rob.) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 114; Type: Merrill 5269 (K, NY, US), Bucas Grande, 4-Oct-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Notes: Cliffs in shaded ravines at low elevation. Native.
  5. Elatostematoides lingua (H.Schroet.) Mansibang & Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 99; ≡ Elatostema lingua H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 112; Type: BS 24291 Ramos (K, lecto; L, NY, PNH lost, isolecto), Samar: Catubig River, Cagmanaba, 27-Feb-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte (photos), SAMAR. Native.
  6. Elatostematoides manillensis (Wedd.) C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 501, as 'manillense'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 87; ≡ Elatostema manillense Wedd. ex H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 100; Type: Cuming 786 (G, K, MEL). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, BATAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Ifugao, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Bukidnon, Misamis, PANAY, POLILLO. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
    • var. manillensis. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, BATAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Ifugao, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan, Misamis, PANAY, POLILLO. Native.
    • var. panayana (H.Schroet.) Mansibang & Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 99; ≡ Elatostema manillense var. panayanum H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 102; Type: Merrill 6710 (K, lecto; L, PNH lost, isolecto), Panay: Dumarao, 25-Mar-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, PANAY. Native.
    • var. parvifolia (H.Schroet.) Mansibang & Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 99; ≡ Elatostema manillense var. parvifolium H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 101; Type: FB 28375 Mabesa (PNH lost, syn), Luzon: Tayabas [Quezon], Kabibihan [Cabibihan], 8-Jun-1918; Baker 2414 (PNH lost, SING, syn), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Banahaw, 20-Dec-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Tayabas. Native.
  7. Elatostematoides mindanaensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 502, as 'mindanaense'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 88; ≡ Elatostema catalonanum H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 133; Type: Copeland 935 (K, US staminate); Copeland 936 (pistillate), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Catalunan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Notes: In forests at medium elevation. Native.
  8. Elatostematoides rigida (Wedd.) C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 503, as 'rigidum'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 88; ≡ Elatostema rigidum Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 9 (1856) 320; Type: Cuming 1674 (B ?lost, G, K, PNH ?lost, syn), Samar: 1841. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. laxa (Elmer) Mansibang & Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 99; ≡ Elatostema rigidum var. laxum (Elmer) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 111; ≡ Elatostematoides laxa (Elmer) C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 502, as 'laxum'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 87; ≡ Elatostema laxum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 465; Type: Elmer 10337 (E, lecto; A, BM, G, HBG, K, L, MO, PNH lost, US), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, Jun-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, NEGROS. Native.
    • var. polyclada (H.Schroet.) Mansibang & Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 99; ≡ Elatostema rigidum var. polycladum H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 111; Type: BS 24764 Edaño (NY, lecto; L, P, PNH ?ost), Samar: Catubig River, 22-Mar-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Native.
    • var. rigida. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Sorsogon, Tayabas, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Native.
  9. Elatostematoides samarensis Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 380, as 'samarense'; EPFP 2 (1923) 88; ≡ Elatostema samarense (Merr.) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 108, nom. illeg., non Merr.; Type: BS 17468 Ramos (K, PNH ?lost, US, syn), Samar: Western Samar, Yabong (Yabon), damp forests near small streams at low elevation, 16-Mar-1914. = Elatostema trichophlebium Merr. ex H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 108; Type: BS 42378 Edaño (A, SING), Panay: Aklan (previously in Capiz), Mt Timbaban, May-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland primary forest along streams. Native.
  10. Elatostematoides sublaxa Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2858, as 'sublaxum'; ≡ Elatostema sublaxum (Elmer) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 105; Type: Elmer 13493 (A, E, G, K, MO, NA, NY, U, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation damp forests. Native.
    • var. cabadbarensis (H.Schroet.) Mansibang & Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 99; ≡ Elatostema sublaxum var. cabadbarense H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 106; Type: Elmer 13915 (L, lecto; B ?lost, PNH lost, U), Mindanao: Agusan, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan. Native.
    • var. sublaxa. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. Native.
  11. Elatostematoides wenzelii (H.Schroet.) Mansibang & Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 99; ≡ Elatostema wenzelii H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 104; Type: Wenzel 3142 (PNH lost), Mindanao: Surigao, 10-Aug-1927. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao. Native.

Laportea Gaudich.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 October 2017
  1. Laportea interrupta (L.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 200; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 226; ≡ Fleurya interrupta (L.) Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Or. 6 (1853) 10; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 182; EPFP 2 (1923) 75; ≡ Urtica interrupta L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 985. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  2. Laportea ruderalis (G.Forst.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 201; ≡ Fleurya ruderalis (G.Forst.) Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 4, 1 (1854) 182; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 75; ≡ Urtica ruderalis G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. (1786) 66. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Indian Ocean, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. CAVILI, LUZON: Bulacan. Native.

Lecanthus Wedd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 October 2017
  1. Lecanthus peduncularis (Wall. ex Royle) Wedd., Prod. 16(1) (1869) 164; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 77; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 226; ≡ Procris peduncularis Wall. ex Royle, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. (1839) pl. 83. Distribution: Africa, China, Java, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, S Asia, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: On the higher mountains above 1900m. Native.

Leucosyke Zoll. & Moritzi

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 April 2020
  1. Leucosyke arcuatovenosa Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 246; Type: Ramos & Edaño 26242 (syn), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan, Aug/Sep-1916; Ramos & Edaño 26352 (syn), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan, Aug/Sep-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. Native.
  2. Leucosyke aspera C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 23; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 96; Type: BS 2915 Mearns, Luzon: Albay, Mt Mayon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Albay, Camarines, Camarines Sur, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Forests, c. 1000m. Native.
  3. Leucosyke benguetensis Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 247. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Zambales. Native.
  4. Leucosyke brunnescens C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 25; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 96; Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 243; Type: BS 7821 Ramos, Luzon: Cagayan, Maunan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets. Native.
    • var. grossoserrata Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 73 (1943) 243; Type: Merrill 2543 (GH), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, 11/14-Jun-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Native.
  5. Leucosyke buderi Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 245. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Native.
  6. Leucosyke capitellata Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 235; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 96. = Leucosyke capitellata var. celtidifolia (Gaudich.) Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 235; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 97. = Leucosyke palawanensis Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 229; Type: Elmer 13247 (GH, isosyn), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), May-1911. = Leucosyke leytensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 269; EPFP 2 (1923) 97; Type: Wenzel 1061 (GH, US), Leyte: Buenavista, Jaro, in forests, c. 500m, 20-Aug-1914. = Leucosyke angusta Unruh, PJS 84 (1955) 167; Type: PNH 6480 Castro & Añonuevo (A, holo), Polillo: along Anibawan River, sea level, 28-Nov-1948. = Leucosyke samarensis Unruh, PJS 84 (1955) 172; Type: PNH 6334 Sulit and Coñese (A, holo), Samar: Western Samar, Bagacay, Concord, open place near road km 58.5 near bridge, 2nd growth forest, 200m, 20-Jun-1950. Distribution: Java to New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan. BASILAN, BOHOL, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. In thickets, second-growth forests, etc. at low and medium elevation. In the Cordillera Highlands ascending to at least 2000m. Common. Native.
  7. Leucosyke elmeri Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 246; Type: Elmer 13481, Mindanao: Agusan, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte. Native.
    • var. aspera Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 246. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT. Native.
    • var. elmeri, as 'eu-elmeri'. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan. Native.
  8. Leucosyke hispidissima (Wedd.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat.2 (1859) 265; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 97; ≡ Missiessya hispidissima Wedd., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. IV, 1 (1854) 195; Type: Callery s.n., Luzon: ‘in insulae Manillae montibus Igorrotes’ (possibly Benguet not far from Baguio). = Leucosyke magallanensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 677; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 97; Type: Elmer 12282 (PNH, holo, lost; GH, MO, US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (Magdiwang), Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Thickets, forested river banks up to c. 1400m. Native.
  9. Leucosyke mindorensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 22; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; Type: FB 11461 Merritt (US), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental, Amnay River, 600m, Apr/May-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Tayabas, MINDORO. Notes: Forests, c. 600m. Native.
  10. Leucosyke negrosensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 27; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; Type: FB 4316 Everett (US), Negros: Negros Occidental, Pioc River, in dense forest. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  11. Leucosyke nivea C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 21; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; Type: M.S. Clemens s.n., Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Camp Keithley, Sep-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Surigao del Norte. Notes: Forests, 500-800m. Native.
  12. Leucosyke ovalifolia C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 26; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; Type: Merrill 481, Culion. = Leucosyke merrillii Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 225; Type: Merrill 706 (GH), Palawan: E-wi-ig (Iwahig) River. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CULION, LUZON: Zambales, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low elevation dry thickets and open forests. Native.
  13. Leucosyke quadrinervia C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 28; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 228. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, SABTANG. Notes: Along streams at low elevation. Closely allied to Leucosyke capitellata Wedd. Native.
  14. Leucosyke rizalensis Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 247; Type: Loher 12619, Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Native.
  15. Leucosyke weddellii Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 226. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, LUZON: Pangasinan, PALAWAN. Native.
    • var. weddellii, as 'eu-weddellii'. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan. Native.
    • var. acuminata Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 227. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, LUZON, PALAWAN. Native.

Maoutia Wedd.

  1. Maoutia setosa Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 194; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 229. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao; forests and thickets, in some regions at low and medium elevation; ascending to 2200m in Benguet. Native.

Musanga C.Sm. ex R.Br. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 October 2017
  1. Musanga cecropioides R.Br. ex Tedlie, Miss. Ashantee (1819) 372. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Now pantropic in cultivation. Recently introduced into forest plantations in the Philippines (Pancho, Fl. Mt Makiling 1 (1983) 121). Naturalized.

Neodistemon Babu & A.N.Henry

  1. Neodistemon indicum (Wedd.) Babu & A.N.Henry, Taxon 19 (1970) 651; ≡ Distemon indicum Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 9 (1857) 551; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 93. Distribution: India to Myanmar, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Open slopes at low elevation. Native.

Nothocnide Blume

  1. Nothocnide discolor (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 368; ≡ Pipturus discolor C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 15; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 95; Type: M.S. Clemens 676 (NY), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Camp Keithley, Sep/Oct-1906. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao del Sur, PANAY. Notes: Forests, 700m and above. Native.
  2. Nothocnide repanda (Blume) Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 137; ≡ Pipturus repandus (Blume) Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 9 (1856) 448; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 95; ≡ Urtica repanda Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 501; Type: from Java. = Pipturus subalpinus Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3221; Type: Elmer 22016 (MO, US), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg, May-1927. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Mountain Province, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: In Luzon from Mountain Province to Sorsogon. Damp forested ravines near streams, at low and medium elevation. In Mountain Province sprawling over ledges and boulders up to 1600m. Native.

Oreocnide Miq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 October 2017
  1. Oreocnide rubescens (Blume) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 306; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 96; ≡ Urtica rubescens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 506; ≡ Villebrunea rubescens (Blume) Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 167. Distribution: Java, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO. Notes: From Luzon to Mindanao. Damp shaded ravines, near streams at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Oreocnide trinervis (Wedd.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1(1) (1854) 196; Fl. Ind. Bat. 12 (1859) 270; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 96; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 230; ≡ Villebrunea trinervis Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 196; Type: Cuming 777 (MO, NY), Luzon: Quezon. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines, Taiwan. BATANES, MINDANAO. Notes: Batanes to Mindanao; thickets and forests, especially along streams at low and medium elevation. Native.

Pilea Lindl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 June 2021
  1. Pilea apoensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 882; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; Type: Elmer 11551 (L, NY), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, on moss-covered wet ledges along Cati Creek at 5750ft, Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: Forests, c. 1700m. Native.
  2. Pilea benguetensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 488; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; Type: Elmer 6304 (MO, NY, US), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, May-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: On limestone boulders, damp shaded ravines, cliffs, etc., 1300-2000m. Native.
  3. Pilea cadierei Gagnep. & Guillaumin, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., sér. 2, 10 (1939) 629. Distribution: China, Vietnam. NEGROS (photos). Notes: Naturalized along streams near human settlement. Naturalized.
  4. Pilea calcicola C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 493; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; Type: BS 9529 C.B. Robinson (L, NY, US), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, 2-Nov-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests on limestone, on limestone cliffs and gorges. Native.
  5. Pilea dataensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 494; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; Type: Merrill 4602 (US), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data, mossy forest, 2100m, Nov-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forests, c. 2100m. Native.
  6. Pilea humilis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 488; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; Type: Merrill 6912 (L, NY, US), Negros: Negros Occidental, Mt Kanlaon, Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, NEGROS. Notes: In ravines, in the mossy forest, and on open peaks of the higher mountains, 1200-2800m. Native.
  7. Pilea intumescens C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 492; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; Type: M.S. Clemens 1223 (NY, US), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, along Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Sep/Oct-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, PANAY. Notes: Damp shaded ravines, c. 700m. Native.
  8. Pilea loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 23; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; Type: Loher 12797, Luzon: Rizal, Balintingan, Jul-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Native.
  9. Pilea luzonensis Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. (1906) 48; EPFP 2 (1923) 76; Type: Whitford 279 (US, syn), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, May-1904; Whitford 1129 (US, syn), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River, Mar-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, PANAY. Notes: Damp shaded ravines along streams at medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Native.
  10. Pilea melastomoides (Poir.) Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. ser. 4, 1 (1854) 186; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 242; ≡ Urtica melastomoides Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 4 (1816) 223. Distribution: China, India, Java, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Laguna, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forests, 1800-2300m. Native.
  11. Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm., Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. 52 (1851) 302; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 76; EPFP 2 (1923) 76; ≡ Parietaria microphylla L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10 2 (1759) 1308. Notes: Native to S America, widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Throughout the Philippines in and about towns, on damp walls, etc. Naturalized.
  12. Pilea monticola C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 489; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 77; Type: BS 5533 Ramos, Luzon: Benguet, Rio Trinidad (Balili River); BS 5566 Ramos (US, para), Luzon: Benguet, Rio Trinidad (Balili River), Dec-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forests, damp shaded ravines, etc., 1200-2300m. Native.
  13. Pilea peploides (Gaudich.) Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1832) 96; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 27; ≡ Dubrueilia peploides Gaudich., Voy. Uranie (1830) 495. Distribution: BATAN, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. peploides. Distribution: China, Japan, Java, Korea, Philippines, Russia, Taiwan. BATAN. Notes: On wet littoral cliff. Native.
  14. Pilea rigida C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) 491; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 77; Type: BS 8181 Ramos (NY, US), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, Mt Dalemdim, 1500m, 19-May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, LUZON: Ifugao, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: c. 1500m. Native.
  15. Pilea robinsonii Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 880; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 77; Type: Elmer 10487 (MO, NY 2 sheets, US, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, black humus-covered soil of moist dense woods at 3750ft, May-1909; Elmer 11758 (MO, NY 2 sheets, US, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, among boulders below the Colan Creek Falls and at its junction with the Baruring River at 3750ft, Sep-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: Damp forests, c. 1000m. Native.
  16. Pilea sylvatica Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 879; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 77; Type: Elmer 11698 (MO, NY 2 sheets, US, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, on moist, fertile humus-covered soil of densely wooded flats at 4000ft, Sep-1909; Elmer 11547 (MO, NY, US, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, on moss-covered seepage ledges along the Cati Creek at 5750ft, above its falls of Mt Apo, Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: Damp forests and on wet cliffs, 1200-1800m. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Pilea nummulariifolia (Sw.) Wedd., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 3, 18 (1852) 225; ≡ Urtica nummulariifolia Sw., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 8 (1787) 63. Distribution: America. Notes: Not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Pipturus Wedd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 October 2022
  1. Pipturus angustifolius Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 379; EPFP 2 (1923) 94; Type: BS 15320 Ramos (US), Leyte: Dagami, thickets along streams at low elevation, 6-Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Notes: Thickets along streams at low elevation. Native.
  2. Pipturus arborescens (Link) C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 13; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 94; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 253; ≡ Urtica arborescens Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 2 (1822) 386; Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 483; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 100. = Pipturus asper Wedd., Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 4, 1 (1854) 197. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. Notes: Very common and widely distributed in all islands and provinces. Chiefly in low and medium elevation thickets and second-growth forests, ascending to 2000m in Benguet. Native.
  3. Pipturus argenteus (G.Forst.) Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 23519; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 94; ≡ Urtica argentea G.Forst., Prodr. (1784) 65. Distribution: Sumatra to Australia and Pacific Ocean. BALABAC, LUMBUCAN, MINDANAO: Surigao. Notes: On sandy soil, open forests near the sea. Native.
  4. Pipturus dentatus (C.B.Rob.) C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 311; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 95; ≡ Pouzolzia dentata C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) 7; Type: Merrill 4741 (NY, US), Luzon: Benguet, Pauai, Oct/Nov-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Camarines Norte, Ifugao, MINDANAO: Cotabato. Notes: Open slopes, thin pine forests, etc., 1900-2300m. Native.
  5. Pipturus succulentus Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 897; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 95; Type: Elmer 10739 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NA, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: Thickets along Baruring River, c. 1000m. Native.

Poikilospermum Zipp. ex Miq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018
  1. Poikilospermum acuminatum (Trécul) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 49; ≡ Conocephalus acuminatus Trécul, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 3, 8 (1847) 91; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 70. = Poikilospermum diffusum (Merr.) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 49; ≡ Conocephalus diffusus Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 355; EPFP 2 (1923) 70. = Conocephalus diffusus var. obtusus Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 70. = Poikilospermum grande (Wedd.) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 50; ≡ Conocephalus grandis (Wedd.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 70; ≡ Procris grandis Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 8 (1856) 337; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 256; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 146; Type: Cuming 1730 (K). = Poikilospermum grandifolium (Warb.) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 50; ≡ Conocephalus grandifolius Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 167; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 71. = Poikilospermum molle (Merr.) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 51; ≡ Conocephalus mollis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 51; EPFP 2 (1923) 71; Type: BS 17582 Ramos. = Poikilospermum warburgii (Elmer) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 52; ≡ Conocephalus warburgii Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 278; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 72; Type: Elmer 8973. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BABUYAN ISLS, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Widespread in Luzon; lowland to montane forests (including mossy) and thickets. Native.
  2. Poikilospermum erectum (Blanco) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 49; ≡ Conocephalus erectus (Blanco) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 203; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 80; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 129; EPFP 2 (1923) 70; ≡ Procris erecta Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 707; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 490; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 111; Type: Not extant, 'Illustrative specimen': Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 871, 960. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Cavite, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests. Native.
  3. Poikilospermum oblongifolium (Barg.-Petr.) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 51; ≡ Conocephalus oblongifolius Barg.-Petr., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n.s., 9 (1902) 222. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Lowland riverine forests to as high as 1800m. Native.
  4. Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 47; ≡ Conocephalus suaveolens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 483; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 71. = Poikilospermum piperi (Elmer) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 51; ≡ Conocephalus piperi Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2770; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 71. Distribution: India to Malay Peninsula. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao. Lowland and medium elevation forests (Merrill 1923). Native.

Pouzolzia Gaudich.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 April 2022
  1. Pouzolzia arachnoidea (Walp.) Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 228; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 91; ≡ Boehmeria arachnoidea Walp., Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1) (1843) 423; Type: Anonymous s.n. (?Lost), Luzon: Manila, 'fl. September'. = Stachyocnide luzonica Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 228; Type: Cuming 1492 (L, holo; BM, G, K, P, UPS, iso), Luzon: Batangas, incorrectly as Mindoro in protologue (Wilmot-Dear & Friis 20004). = Pouzolzia macrura Wedd., Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 8 (1856) 395; Type: Cuming 1492 (G, holo; K, L, LE, P, UPS, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUBANG, LUZON: Batangas, Ilocos Sur, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Boulders and cliffs and in thickets and thin forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Pouzolzia hirta (Blume) Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bogor. (1844) 80; ≡ Gonostegia hirta (Blume) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 303; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 92; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 223; ≡ Urtica hirta Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 495; Type: Indonesia. = Gonostegia integrifolia auct. non Miq.; C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 10. Distribution: Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Java, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao del Sur, MINDORO, PANAY. Native.
    • var. hirta. Distribution: Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Java, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao del Sur, PANAY. Notes: Common in ravines, thickets, and in some open grasslands, 1000-2300m. Native.
    • var. parvifolia (Wight) Friis & Wilmot-Dear, Nordic J. Bot. 24 (2004) 91; ≡ Pouzolzia parvifolia Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 6 (1853) 39; Type: from Sri Lanka. = Gonostegia reptans C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 10; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 93; Type: Elmer 5828 (PNH, holo, ?lost; BISH, BR, K, L, NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1904. Distribution: Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan. LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Ifugao, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Damp open places and in thickets, 1000-1400m. Native.
  3. Pouzolzia pentandra (Roxb.) Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1832) 64; ≡ Gonostegia pentandra (Roxb.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 302; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 93; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 224; ≡ Urtica pentandra Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 583; Type: from India. Distribution: India, SE Asia, Taiwan. BALABAC, BOHOL, LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Ecija, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, PANAY. Notes: Luzon to Mindanao. Cultivated lands along streams and in swampy places at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Native.
    • ssp. pentandra. = Gonostegia alternifolia Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 19(2) (1846) 510; Type: Cuming 1833 (LE, holo; BM, G, K, iso), Bohol. = Gonostegia oppositifolia Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 19(2) (1846) 510; Type: Cuming 1391 (LE, holo; G, K, L, M, NY, U, UPS, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija. Distribution: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, India, Java, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, BOHOL, LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Ecija, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, PANAY. Native.
  4. Pouzolzia rubricaulis (Blume) Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 229; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 92; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Java, Madura, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Specimen from Benguet: Merrill 4390 (Ambuklao to Daklan). Damp shaded banks, c. 1400m. Native.
  5. Pouzolzia zeylanica (L.) Benn. & R.Br., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1838) 67; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 92; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 254; ≡ Parietaria indica L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 128; Type: from Sri Lanka. Distribution: Africa, Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, ?Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BATAN, BOHOL, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Camarines, Ifugao, Laguna, Manila, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, POLILLO, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. zeylanica. Distribution: Africa, Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, ?Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BATAN, BOHOL, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Camarines, Ifugao, Laguna, Manila, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation, in open, usually damp grasslands. Native.

Procris Comm. ex Juss.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 May 2022
  1. Procris brunnea Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 5; EPFP 2 (1923) 88; ≡ Procris frutescens var. brunnea H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 45 (1938) 278; Type: BS 23705 Ramos (US), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Pocdal, epiphytic in mossy forest, 7-Aug-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Epiphytic in the mossy forest. Perhaps not sufficiently distinct from Procris frutescens Blume. Native.
  2. Procris crenata C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) Bot. 507; Lin & Chen, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 43 (2005) 81; Type: Vanoverbergh 635 (US), Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, 1400m, Nov/Dec-1910. = Procris wightiana Wall. ex Wedd., Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 9 (1856) 336, nom. illeg., nom. superfl.; Wall., Cat. (1831) no 4638, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 89; H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 45 (1938) 191. = Procris philippinensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) 505; ≡ Procris pedunculata var. philippinensis (C.B.Rob.) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 191; Type: Merrill 3884, Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles. = Procris laevigata auct. non Blume; Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. (1906) 49; ?EPFP 2 (1923) 88; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 254. = Procris lagunensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1911) 506; Type: BS 9687 Robinson, Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Java, Laos, Madagascar, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Mountain Province, Rizal, POLILLO. Native.
  3. Procris curtisii (Ridl.) B.J.Conn & Hadiah, Gard. Bull. Singapore 63 (2011) 158; ≡ Pellionia curtisii Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 82 (1920) 196; Type: from Malaysia. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Thailand. Native.
  4. Procris dolichophylla Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 369; EPFP 2 (1923) 88; H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 45 (1938) 280; Type: Wenzel 98 (US), Leyte: Dagami, climbing on trees in forested foothills, c. 60m, 29-Mar-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Batangas, Laguna, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Surigao, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Epiphytic in low and medium elevation damp forests. Native.
  5. Procris frutescens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 510; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 88; H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 45 (1938) 272; Conn & Hadiah, Gard. Bull. Singapore 63 (2011) 159; Type: from Java. = Procris pseudostrigosa Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 284; Type: Elmer 7500, Luzon: Tayabas [Quezon], Lucban. = Procris frutescens var. nervosa Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2863; Type: Elmer 13602 (MO, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sumatra, Thailand. BOHOL, DINAGAT, LUZON: Aurora, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Damp forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  6. Procris mindanaensis H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 45 (1938) 281. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao. Native.
  7. Procris pedunculata (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 191; H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 45 (1938) 267; ≡ Elatostema pedunculatum J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. Pl. (1775) 53; Type: from Tahiti (lecto). Distribution: Australia, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls. LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Ifugao, Pampanga, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Lanao, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. pedunculata; ≡ Procris pedunculata var. eupedunculata H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 45 (1938) 260. = Procris laevigata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 508; ?Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 88. Distribution: Australia, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls. LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Ifugao, Pampanga, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Lanao, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO. Native.
  8. Procris repens (Lour.) B.J.Conn & Hadiah, Gard. Bull. Singapore 63 (2011) 160; ≡ Pellionia repens (Lour.) Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 6 (1928) 326; Tseng et al., Mol. Phyl. Evol. 132 (2019) 261; ≡ Elatostema repens (Lour.) Hallier f. in H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 2 (1936) 25; ≡ Polychroa repens Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 559; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 78. = Pellionia daveauana N.E.Br., Gard. Chron., n.s., 14 (1880) 262. Distribution: Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte (photos). Notes: Cultivated, naturalized along river near settlement (Kean Roe Mazo, pers. comm. 16-May-21). Naturalized.
  9. Procris urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2865; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 89; H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 45 (1938) 282; Type: Elmer 13792 (NA, NY, US, syn), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912; Elmer 13708 (MO, US, syn), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao del Sur. Notes: Mossy forest, 1600-1800m. Closely allied to Procris frutescens Blume. Native.

Urtica L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 November 2019
  1. Urtica fissa E.Pritz. ex Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29 (1900) 301; Becker et al., Phytotaxa 323 (2017) 222; Type: from China (neo). = Urtica bullata auct. non Blume; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 72. Distribution: China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Open pine or cogon slopes, 1900-2400m on Mt Pulag. Conservation status: Least Concern (Becker et al. 2017). Native.

References