Thymelaeaceae

Including Gonostylaceae

Aquilaria Lam.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Aquilaria apiculata Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 411; EPFP 3 (1923) 130; --Quisumb., J. Arnold Arb. 27 (1946) 403; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 11. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Dry and mossy forests, 1100-1800m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Aquilaria brachyantha (Merr.) Hallier f., Meded. Rijksherb. no. 44 (1922) 16; --Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 244; --Quisumb., J. Arnold Arb. 27 (1946) 403; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 10; --Gyrinopsis brachyantha Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 130. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Note by L.L.Co: Twice collected. Low elevation primary forest. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  3. Aquilaria citrinicarpa (Elmer) Hallier f., Meded. Rijks Herb. 44 (1922) 18; --Gyrinopsis citrinicarpa Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1631; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 130; --Quisumb., J. Arnold Arb. 27 (1946) 405; --Type: Elmer 13566 (L, NY, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, wooded ridges of Duros Peak, 4000ft, Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection. Moist compact soil of forested ridges, c. 1300m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  4. Aquilaria cumingiana (Decne.) Ridley, J. Str. Br. R. As. Soc, no. 30 (1901) 80; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. i, 6 (1960) 15; --Gyrinopsis cumingiana Decne., Ann. Sc. Nat. ii, 19 (1843) 41; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 131; EPFP 4 (1925) 244;  --Quisumb., J. Arnold Arb. 27 (1946) 405; --Type: Cuming 1617 (NY), Mindanao. --Gyrinopsis cumingiana var. pubescens Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1629; --Type: Elmer 10981 (L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, along ridge of Baracatan Creek, 1750ft. Jun-1909. --Gyrinopsis decemcostata Hallier f., Meded. Rijks Herb. 44 (1922) 17; --Type: BS 1114 Ramos (L, lecto), Luzon: Laguna, Dahican River, Sep-1912. --Gyrinopsis pubifolia Quisumb., J. Arnold Arb. 27 (1946) 406; --Type: BS 75314 (A), Catanduanes: Mt Abucay, 1600m (Note by L.L.Co: elevation most likely in error as no part of Catanduanes reach this elevation), 11-Sep-1928. S Borneo (Sampit region), Philippines (common), Moluccas (Morotai, Halmahera). Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  5. Aquilaria filaria (Oken) Merr., J. Arn. Arb. 31 (1950) 283; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 6 (1960) 11; --Pittosporum filarium Oken, Allg. Naturgesch. 3 (1841) 1299. --Gyrinopsis acuminata Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 294; EPFP 3 (1923) 130; --Quisumb., J. Arnold Arb. 27 (1946) 403; --Type: BS 35158 Ramos & Pascasio (US, iso), Dinagat, May-1919. Philippines, Moluccas (Morotai, Seram, Ambon), New Guinea (Sorong, Babo and Kapor). DINAGAT, BUCAS GRANDE. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  6. Aquilaria malaccensis Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 49; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 130; --Quisumb., J. Arnold   Arb. 27 (1946) 403; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 9. India (Assam), Bangladesh, Tenasserim, Sumatra (Simalur, Sibolangit, Palembang, Banka), Peninsular Malaysia, N & E Borneo, Philippines. LUZON. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  7. Aquilaria parvifolia (Quisumb.) Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 12; --Gyrinopsis parvifolia Quisumb., J. Arnold Arb. 27 (1946) 405; --Type: BS 76441 Edaño (A, holo; L, type fragment), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Her-it River, Dec-1928. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur. Note by L.L.Co: A total of four specimens cited by Ding Hou, including Wenzel 1201 (possibly not from Luzon but Leyte or NE Mindanao). Forested slopes, 1000m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  8. Aquilaria urdanetensis (Elmer) Hallier f., Med. Rijksherb. no. 44 (1922) 16; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 10; --Gyrinopsis urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1630; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 131; --Quisumb., J. Arnold Arb. 27 (1946) 405; --Type: Elmer 14195 (L, NY, U, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta. Damp mossy forest, 5250ft, Oct-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Mossy forest on exposed ridges, c. 1700m. Note by L.L.Co: Twice collected. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).

Daphne L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Daphne luzonica C.B.Rob., Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 35 (1908) 72; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 132; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 35. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Mossy forests on the higher mountains, 2000-2500m. Photos

Enkleia Griff.

No Photos
  1. Enkleia paniculata (Merr.) Hallier f., Meded. Rijks Herb. 44 (1922) 26; --Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 244; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 25; --Macgregorianthus paniculatus Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 312; EPFP 3 (1923) 132. Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON.

Gonystylus Teijsm. & Binn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 July 2019

Photos
  1. Gonystylus macrophyllus (Miq.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. (1947) 9; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 354; --Aquilaria macrophylla Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 356. --Gonystylus bancanus (Miq.) Gilg in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 1 (1897) 232; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 21; --Aquilaria bancana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 355. --Gonystylus ovatus Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 283; EPFP 3 (1923) 21; --Type: FB 26713 Peñas. --Gonystylus philippinensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2674; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 21; --Type: Elmer 12520. Sumatra, Banka, Java, Philippines. CALAYAN, LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDORO, SIBUYAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao. Primary forests from low elevation to 1500m. 
  2. Gonystylus reticulatus (Elmer) Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 284; EPFP 3 (1923) 21; --Airy Shaw, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 354; --Thea reticulata Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2838; --Type: Elmer 13478. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental (photos), Zamboanga. Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 900m. Photos

 Gyrinopsis Decne. = Aquilaria

Macgregorianthus Merr. = Enkeleia

Phaleria Jack

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2021

Photos
  1. Phaleria capitata Jack, Mal. Misc. (1822) 59; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 20. --Phaleria cumingii (Meisn.) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 183; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 131; --Drimyspermum cumingii Meisn., Prodr. 14 (1857) 605. Borneo, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific, Peninsular Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Philippines. Photos
  2. Phaleria coccinea (Gaudich.) F.Muell., Desc. Not. 2 (1885) 9; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 21; --Dais coccinea Gaudich., Voy. Uranie (1829) 443. --Phaleria platyphylla Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 429; EPFP 3 (1923) 131. Bismarck Arch, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Albay (photos), MINDANAO, PANAY. Photos
  3. Phaleria perrottetiana (Decne.) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 183; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 131; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 18; --Drimyspermum perrottetianum Decne., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. II, 19 (1843) 40. Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Philippines.

Pimelea Banks & Sol.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 December 2021

Photos
  1. Pimelea cornucopiae Vahl, En. Pl. 1 (1804) 305; --Ding Hou, Fl.  Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 46. --Pimelea philippinensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 345; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 134. Philippines, New Guinea, Australia. LUZON: Cagayan. Note by L.L.Co: once collected near Sanches-Mira. 

Wikstroemia Endl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 August 2020

Photos
  1. Wikstroemia androsaemifolia Decne., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2, 20 (1843) 50. Indonesia, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, PANAY. Presence in the Philippines reported by J.V. LaFrankie, pers. comm. 21-Aug-16. Photos
  2. Wikstroemia brachyantha Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 132; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 31. Borneo, Philippines. LUZON, CATANDUANES. Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  3. Wikstroemia indica (L.) C.A.Mey., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sc. St. Petersb. 1 (1843) 357; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 132; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 34; --Daphne indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 357. --Wikstroemia linearifolia Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 680; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 133. --Wikstroemia ovata auct. non C.A.Mey.; --S.Vidal, Sinopsis (1883) 229. --Wikstroemia pachyphylla Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 297; EPFP 3 (1923) 133. --Wikstroemia pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1844; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 133. India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Philippines, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, New Caledonia, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Pacific Ocean, Vietnam. BATAN, LUZON: Albay, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. In thickets and secondary growth, also occurring on sand as well as bluffs along the coast, on limestone, ultramafics, and marginal soils. Photos
  4. Wikstroemia lanceolata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 31; EPFP 3 (1923) 133; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 30. --Wikstroemia angustissima Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 92; EPFP 3 (1923) 132. Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Common on forested slopes at low and medium elevation, up to 1300m. Photos
  5. Wikstroemia meyeniana Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1905) 171; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 133; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 33. --Wikstroemia fenicis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 312; EPFP 3 (1923) 132. Indochina, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO. Luzon to Mindanao. Primary humid forests at low and medium elevation, up to c. 400m. Photos
  6. Wikstroemia ovata C.A.Mey., Acad. Imp. Sc. St. Petersb. 1 (1843) 357; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 133; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 31. Borneo, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Thickets, primary and secondary forests at low and medium elevation up to 800m. Photos
  7. Wikstroemia polyantha Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 332; EPFP 3 (1923) 133; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1960) 32. Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sabah), Philippines. LUZON. Photos
  8. Wikstroemia retusa A.Gray, J. Bot. Brit & For. 3 (1865) 303; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 41. --Wikstroemia indica auct. non C.A.Mey.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 132. Ryukyu Isls, ?Taiwan, Philippines. BATAN. Rocky littoral meadow, locally frequent; presence in Batan: Hatusima 28482, 28754. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  9. Wikstroemia tenuiramis Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. 3 (1861) 354. Indonesia, Philippines. LUZON: Albay. Presence in Albay: Reynoso PPI 21333, Sto. Cristo, Tiwi Side, Mt Malinao (J.V. LaFrankie, pers. comm. 21-Aug-16).

Literature

Airy Shaw, HK. 1953. Thymelaeaceae-Gonystyloideae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 4: 349-365

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Ding Hou. 1960. Thymelaeaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 6: 1-48
. Gonystylus (Gonystylaceae) is treated separately (q.v.).

Ding Hou. 1964. Notes on some Asiatic species of Aquilaria (Thymelaeaceae). Blumea 12: 285-288

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 16 December 2021