Symplocaceae

Cordyloblaste Hensch. ex Moritzi

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018
  1. Cordyloblaste pendula (Wight) Alston in Trimen, Hand-Book Fl. Ceylon vi. Suppl. (1931) 188; ≡ Symplocos pendula Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4(1) (1848) 11; Noot., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 214. = Symplocos pendula var. hirtistylis (C.B.Clarke) Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 42; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 215; ≡ Symplocos henschelii var. hirtistylis C.B.Clarke, Fl. Brit. India 3(9) (1882) 588. = Symplocos confusa Brand in Engl., Pflanzenreich 6 (1901) 88; Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 3; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 297. = Symplocos foxworthyi Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 3; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 299. = Bobua confusa (Brand) Kaneh. & Sasaki in Sasaki, List Pl. Formosa (1928) 330. Distribution: China, India, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam. LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao Oriental. Notes: Primary and secondary montane and high montane mossy forests, often common on ridges. Native.

Symplocos Jacq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 December 2023
  1. Symplocos adenophylla Wall. ex G.Don, Gen. Syst. 4 (1837) 3; Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 7; Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 298; Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 121; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 239. = Symplocos adenophylla Wall. var. merrittii Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 7; EPFP 3 (1923) 297. = Symplocos palawanensis Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 10; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 301. = Symplocos brandii Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1477. Distribution: China, Indochina, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand. MINDANAO: Bukidnon (photos), MINDORO, NEGROS (photos), PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Throughout Malesia except Java (but found in Bawean Isl). Native.
  2. Symplocos celastrifolia Griff. ex C.B.Clarke, Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 575; Merr., Univ. of Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 248; Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 138; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 245. = Symplocos hutchinsonii Brand, PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 109; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 299. = Symplocos peninsularis Brand, PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 110. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Throughout Malesia except Java. Native.
  3. Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.Moore, J. Bot. 5 (1914) 148; Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 141; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 245; ≡ Dicalyx cochinchinensis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 1 (1790) 663. Distribution: DINAGAT, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Camarines Norte, Ifugao, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. cochinchinensis. Distribution: China, India, Indochina, Japan, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Ifugao. Notes: Throughout Malesia except the Lesser Sunda Isls; scarce in the Philippines. Native.
    • var. philippinensis (Brand) Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 154; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 247; ≡ Symplocos javanica var. philippinensis Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 6. = Symplocos ahernii Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 6; EPFP 3 (1923) 297. = Symplocos purpurascens Brand, PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 33; EPFP 3 (1923) 302. = Symplocos ramosii Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 293; EPFP 3 (1923) 302. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Camarines Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Lowlands (recorded from primary dipterocarp forests) up to 2000m. Native.
    • var. imbricata (Brand) Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 155; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 248. = Symplocos imbricata Brand, PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 109; PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 31; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 299. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: High montane, single storey mossy forests, 2000-2600m. Fl. Dec-Apr; fr. Aug-Sep, Jan-Mar. Native.
  4. Symplocos fasciculata Zoll., Syst. Verz. 2 (1854) 136; Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 248; Corner, Wayside Trees Malaya (1940) 622; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 205; Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 191; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 259. = Symplocos phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 382; EPFP 3 (1923) 301. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Zamboanga del Sur, PALAWAN, PANAY. Native.
  5. Symplocos filipes Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 193; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 260. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Native.
  6. Symplocos glabriramifera Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 193; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 260. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Nueva Vizcaya, SAMAR. Notes: Montane forests, 1900m. Fl. Feb, May. Native.
  7. Symplocos lancifolia Siebold & Zucc., Fam. Nat. 2 (1846) 133; Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 214; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 263. = Symplocos montana S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 179, nom. illeg., non Brongn. & Gris; Type: Vidal 67 (MA, syn), Luzon: Tayabas, Monte Banahao; Vidal 982 (MA, syn), Luzon: Tayabas, Monte Banahao. = Symplocos betula Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 8; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 297; Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 133. = Symplocos depauperata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 45; Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 10. = Symplocos depauperata Brand var. angustissima Brand, PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 36. = Symplocos depauperata Brand var. sordida Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 10. = Symplocos merrilliana Brand, PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 110; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 299. = Symplocos inconspicua Brand, PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 110; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 299. = Symplocos luzonensis Rolfe, J. Bot. 24 (1886) 348; Brand, Pflanzenreich 6 (1901) 61; PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 9; PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 35; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 300. = Symplocos zamboangensis Brand, Fedde Repert. 14 (1916) 325; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 303. Distribution: China, Hong Kong, India, Indochina, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Bataan, Benguet, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: In a variety of habitats, also in dense mossy forests at higher elevation, 400-2500m. Fl. Dec-Apr; fr. May-Dec. Native.
  8. Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc., Fl. Jap. 1 (1835) 55; Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 217; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 264; ≡ Laurus lucida Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 174. = Symplocos theaefolia D.Don, Fl. Nepal. (1825) 145; Brand, Pflanzenreich 6 (1901) 66, as ‘theifolia’; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 205. = Symplocos laeviramulosa Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2323; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 300. = Symplocos loheri Brand, PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 32; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 300. Distribution: China, Hong Kong, India, Indochina, Japan, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: Throughout Malesia except Borneo. Native.
  9. Symplocos obovatifolia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 290; EPFP 3 (1923) 300; Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 242; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 266. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, PALAWAN. Notes: Hill rainforest. Fr. Aug-Sep. Native.
  10. Symplocos odoratissima (Blume) Choisy ex Zoll., Syst. Verz. 2 (1854) 136; Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 245; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 266; ≡ Dicalyx odoratissimus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1116. = Symplocos acuminatissima Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 31; EPFP 3 (1923) 296. = Symplocos apoensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2319; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 297. = Symplocos bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3792, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Symplocos dagamiensis Brand, Fedde Repert. 14 (1916) 324; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 298. = Symplocos floridissima Brand in Engl., Pflanzenreich 6 (1901) 35; Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 5; PJS 7 (1912) Bot. 32; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 298. = Symplocos floridissima Brand var. serrata Brand, PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 108. = Symplocos megabotrys Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 383; EPFP 3 (1923) 300, as ‘megalobotrys’. = Symplocos patens C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1830) 61; Brand, Pflanzenreich 6 (1901) 34; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 301. = Symplocos patens C.Presl forma ciliata (C.Presl) Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot 4; ≡ Symplocos ciliata C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1831) 61; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 127. = Symplocos patens C.Presl forma elmeri (Brand) Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 4; ≡ Symplocos elmeri Brand in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 36. = Symplocos villarii S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 178. = Symplocos pseudospicata S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 179; Type: Vidal 448 (MA), Luzon: San Mateo. = Symplocos pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1841; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 302. = Symplocos salix Brand, Fedde Repert. 14 (1916) 325; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 302. = Symplocos villarii S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 178; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 302; Type: Vidal 446 (MA, syn), Luzon: Bulacan, Angat; Vidal 828 (MA, syn), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Sipocot; Vidal 1581 (MA, syn), Luzon: Ilocos Norte. = Symplocos verdifolia Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3793, nom. inval., no Latin descr. ≠ Symplocos spicata auct. non Roxb.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 127; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) t. 64. Distribution: BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela (photos), Laguna, Mountain Province, NCR, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Davao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. odoratissima. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Albay, Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Davao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Common in primary and secondary rainforests at low and medium elevation. Native.
    • var. wenzelii (Merr.) Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 248; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 267; ≡ Symplocos wenzelii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 282; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 302. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LEYTE. Notes: Fl. (Mar-)Jun-Dec; fr. (Feb-May-)Jul. Native.
  11. Symplocos ophirensis C.B.Clarke, Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 579; Noot., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 267. Distribution: BILIRAN, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Batangas, Benguet, Camarines, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Misamis Oriental, Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Native.
    • ssp. cumingiana (Brand) Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 253; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 268; ≡ Symplocos cumingiana Brand in Engl., Pflanzenreich 6 (1901) 58; Merr., PJS 3c (1908) Bot. 8; EPFP 3 (1923) 297. Distribution: BILIRAN, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Batangas, Benguet, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Misamis Oriental, Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Native.
      • var. cumingiana. = Symplocos angularis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 510. = Symplocos curtiflora Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 509; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 298. = Symplocos elliptifolia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 292; EPFP 3 (1923) 298. = Symplocos ilocana Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 7. = Symplocos minutiflora Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2320; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 300. = Symplocos purpurascens Brand, PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 33; EPFP 3 (1923) 302. = Symplocos agusanensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2321. ≠ Symplocos brachybotrys auct. non Merr.; Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 447; EPFP 3 (1923) 300. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. Native.
      • var. pachyphylla (Merr.) Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 254; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 269; ≡ Symplocos pachyphylla Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 283; EPFP 3 (1923) 300. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO. Notes: Hill forests, c. 500m. Fl. Sep. Native.
    • ssp. perakensis (King & Gamble) Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 255; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 268; ≡ Symplocos perakensis King & Gamble, J. As. Soc. Beng. 74, ii (1906) 241; Type: from Peninsular Malaysia. Distribution: NEGROS. Native.
      • var. perakensis. = Symplocos fragrans Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 508; Brand, PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 33; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 299. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Philippines. NEGROS. Native.
  12. Symplocos polyandra (Blanco) Brand in Engl., Pflanzenreich Heft. 6 (1901) 436; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 304; EPFP 3 (1923) 301; Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 264; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 269; ≡ Guettarda polyandra Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 500; Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1879) 126. = Baranda angatensis Llanos, Mem. Acad. Cienc. Madrid 3, 2 (1857) 502. = Symplocos oblongifolia Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 214; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 124; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 178; Brand, Pflanzenreich 6 (1901) 55; ≡ Carlea oblongifolia C.Presl, Epim. Bot. (1851) 216. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. BILIRAN, CULION, DUMARAN, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental, PALAWAN, SEMIRARA, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland to montane primary or secondary forests, up to 1100m. Native.
  13. Symplocos trisepala Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 291; EPFP 3 (1923) 302; Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 289; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 272. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. Notes: Montane forest, at least 400m. Fl. Aug-Sep. Known only from the type. Native.
  14. Symplocos verticillifolia Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 290; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 272. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Lowland dipterocarp forest, 200m. Fr. Apr. Native.
  15. Symplocos vidalii Rolfe, Kew Bull. (1912) 290; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 302; Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 290; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 272. = Symplocos cagayanensis Brand, PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 35; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 297. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation primary rainforests. Fl. Feb; fr. Apr. Native.
  16. Symplocos whitfordii Brand, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 4; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 302; Noot., Leiden Bot. Ser. 1 (1975) 292; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 273. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, NEGROS. Notes: Montane rainforest, also in mossy forest, 1600-2450m. Fl. Jan-Apr; fr. Feb, May. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Symplocos imperialis Brand, PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 109; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 299; Noot., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 274; Type: BS 4133 Fenix (US, iso), Camiguin de Babuyanes, Jun/Jul-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES. Notes: Possibly Symplocos adenophylla? Native.

References