Sterculiaceae

Malvaceae s.l. - Sterculioideae

Firmiana Marsili

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 November 2021
  1. Firmiana minahassae (Koord.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1965) 32; ≡ Sterculia minahassae Koord., Meded. Lands Plantentuin 19 (1898) 640. = Firmiana philippinensis Kosterm., Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 298; Type: BS 29858 Fenix (BO). = Firmiana simplex auct. non (L.) W.Wight; Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 308; EPFP 3 (1923) 56. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Pangasinan, ?Quezon (photos). Native.

Heritiera Aiton

  1. Heritiera javanica (Blume) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 4 (1959) 521; ≡ Tarrietia javanica Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 227; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 57; Type: from Java. Distribution: Indochina, Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao, Lanao, Misamis, Zamboanga. Notes: Common in primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Heritiera littoralis Dryand. in Aiton, Hort. Kew 3 (1789) 546; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 328; EPFP 3 (1923) 58. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Common constituent of coastal forests and mangroves. Native.
  3. Heritiera sylvatica S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 66; Kosterm., Reinwardtia 4 (1959) 509; ≡ Tarrietia sylvatica (S.Vidal) Merr., Philipp. Bur. For. Bull. (1903) 38; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 57. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MASBATE, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: In dry primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.

Hildegardia Schott & Endl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018
  1. Hildegardia merrittii (Merr.) Kosterm., Bull. Jard. Bot. État Brux. 24 (1954) 338; ≡ Firmiana merrittii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 314; EPFP 3 (1923) 56. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Native.

Pterocymbium R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 October 2017
  1. Pterocymbium tinctorium (Blanco) Merr., Bur. Govt. Lab., Manila, Publ. No 27 (1905) 24; EPFP 3 (1923) 57; Kosterm., Reinwardtia 1 (1950) 43; ≡ Heritiera tinctoria Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 653. = Pterocymbium macrocrater Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 117; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 57. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BABUYAN ISLS, CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Sur, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Widespread in Luzon from at least Cagayan to Camarines Sur; in secondary or thin primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.

Pterygota Schott & Endl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018
  1. Pterygota horsfieldii (R.Br.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 365; ≡ Tetradia horsfieldii R.Br., Pterocymbium (1844) 233. = Sterculia blancoi Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 308; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 52. Distribution: Java, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDORO, TICAO. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Native.

Sterculia L.

Last edited by John Paul Collantes & Pieter B. Pelser, 21 June 2020
  1. Sterculia ceramica R.Br. in Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1844) 233; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 53; Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102. = Sterculia glabrifolia Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 283; EPFP 3 (1923) 54. = Sterculia luzonica Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 115; Merr., Fl, Manila (1912) 327. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. BATAN, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, SULU. Notes: Widespread in W Luzon and Mindanao; coastal thickets and forests on sandy clay or coralline limestone, usually immediately back of the beach, 0-100m. Native.
  2. Sterculia comosa Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2 (1831) 2; Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102. = Sterculia philippinensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. 17 (1904) 29; EPFP 3 (1923) 55. = Sterculia ramosii Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 195; EPFP 3 (1923) 56. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. CATANDUANES, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Forests up to 700m. Native.
  3. Sterculia cordata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 83; Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102. Notes: Photos. Native.
    • var. montana (Merr.) Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102; ≡ Sterculia montana Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 40; EPFP 3 (1923) 55. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: Primary forests up to 900m.
  4. Sterculia cuspidata R.Br. in Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1844) 233; Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102. = Sterculia graciliflora Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 114; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 54; Type: Merrill 1177 (US), Mindoro: Baco. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. BILIRAN, BUCAS GRANDE, LUZON: Batangas, Camarines, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte (photos), MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Thickets and forests at low elevation. Native.
  5. Sterculia foetida L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1008; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 327; EPFP 3 (1923) 53; Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102. Distribution: Africa to India through Malesia to Australia. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces. Deciduous tree in semi-open forests, especially in very seasonal areas, particularly common along the sea coast on coralline limestone and sandstone. Ascending to 1000m. Native.
  6. Sterculia macrophylla Vent., Jard. Malmaison (1805) t. 91; Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102. = Sterculia crassiramea Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 28; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 53. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Deciduous tree in primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  7. Sterculia mindorensis Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102; Type: PNH 18812 Conklin (L, holo), Mindoro: Mindoro Mindoro Oriental (Mansalay, Mt Yagaw, known only from the type collection). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Dry forest, 400m. Fl. Sep. Native.
  8. Sterculia oblongata R.Br. in Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1844) 232; Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 327; EPFP 3 (1923) 55. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BABUYAN ISLS, BATAN, BUSUANGA, CULION, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO: Lanao, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Secondary and primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  9. Sterculia rubiginosa Vent., Jard. Malmaison (1805) t. 91; Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102. = Sterculia brevipetiolata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 40; EPFP 3 (1923) 53. = Sterculia cuneata R.Br. in Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1844) 232; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 328; EPFP 3 (1923) 53. = Sterculia ferruginea R.Br. in Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1844) 232; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 54. = Sterculia humilis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 681; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 54. = Sterculia obovata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. 29 (1905) 28; EPFP 3 (1923) 55. = Sterculia stipularis R.Br. in Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1844) 232; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 56. Native.
    • var. rubiginosa. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Occupying a wide spectrum of habitat ranging from thickets and open secondary forests to primary forests, from near sea-level to 1600m.
    • var. divaricata (Merr.) Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102; ≡ Sterculia divaricata Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 384; EPFP 3 (1923) 54. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests at low elevation.
    • var. setistipula (Merr.) Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102; ≡ Sterculia setistipula Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 192. = Sterculia multistipularis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 497; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 55. = Sterculia longisepala Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 409; Type: BS 44070 Ramos & Edaño (NY, US, iso), Tawi-tawi. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Forested ravines up to 1200m.
  10. Sterculia spatulata Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 116; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 56; Type: Warburg 14914, Jolo. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DUMARAN, JOLO. Notes: Forested dry slopes at low elevation. Native.
  11. Sterculia stipulata Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 1 (1848) 306; Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102. Native.
    • var. jagori (Warb.) Tantra, Lemb. Pen. Hut. Comm. (1976) 102; ≡ Sterculia jagori Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 115; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 55; Type: Jagor 1004, Leyte. = Sterculia membranifolia Kosterm., Reinwardtia 1 (1950) 49. = Pterocymbium gigantifolium Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 320; Type: Elmer 9424 (L, iso), Leyte, near Palo, Jan-1906. Distribution: BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: Primary forests at low elevation.

Possibly present

  1. Sterculia lanceolata Cav., Diss. 5, Quinta Diss. Bot. (1788) 287. Distribution: China, Laos, Myanmar, ?Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. ?LUZON: ?Isabela. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (21-June-20): Ridsdale et al. ISU517 (L) from Isabela Prov possibly represents this species.

Literature