Sparmanniaceae

Malvaceae s.l. - Grewioideae

Colona Cav.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 July 2020
  1. Colona blancoi (Rolfe) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 6 (1904) 17; Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 805; ≡ Columbia blancoi Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 308; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28. = Columbia floribunda Náves in Blanco, Fl. Philip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 312, nom. inval., non Kurz. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Rizal. Notes: Low elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  2. Colona hirsuta (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 804; ≡ Columbia hirsuta Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 106; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28; Type: Warburg 14774 (B). = Columbia macgregorii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 297; EPFP 3 (1923) 28; Type: BS 11492 McGregor. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Note by L.L.Co: The type is a sterile specimen and appears as if the material was from a sapling. Native.
  3. Colona lanceolata (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 804; ≡ Columbia lanceolata Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 107; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales. Notes: Low elevation thickets along streams. Native.
  4. Colona longipetiolata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 6 (1904) 16; Burrett, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 803; ≡ Columbia longipetiolata (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 29. = ?Columbia hastata Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 105; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28; Type: Warburg 13470 (syn), Warburg 13471 (syn), Luzon: Zambales, Balincaguin (Warburg 13470) & Cabangan (Warburg 13471). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Zambales. Native.
  5. Colona megacarpa (Merr.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 800; ≡ Columbia megacarpa Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 298; EPFP 3 (1923) 28; ≡ Colona velutinosa Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 443, nom. superfl; Type: Manalo FB 7416 (NY, US), Palawan: 1 mile NE of Tanabag. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets and secondary forests. Native.
  6. Colona mollis (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 802; ≡ Columbia mollis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 108; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 29; Type: Warburg 13473. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan. Notes: Lowland thickets and secondary forests up to c. 350m. Native.
  7. Colona serratifolia Cav., Icon. 4 (1797) 47; Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 809; Ashton, Man. Non-Dipt. Trees Sarawak 2 (1988) 438; ≡ Columbia serratifolia (Cav.) DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 512; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 29. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throuhout the Philippines; lowland, highly disturbed or early re-growth forests, along river banks, etc., preferentially in regions with pronounced rainy and dry seasons. Usually common. Native.
  8. Colona subaequalis (Planch. ex S.Vidal) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 802; ≡ Columbia subaequalis Planch. ex S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 99; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 30; Type: Cuming 1507, Mindoro. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Low elevation secondary forests. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Colona jagori (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 813; ≡ Columbia jagorii Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 106; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28; Type: Jagor s.n. (B), Luzon. = Columbia mindanaensis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 107; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 29; Type: Warburg 14440 (B), Mindanao: Davao, Sibulan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO: Davao. Native.
  2. Colona philippinensis (S.Vidal) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 813; ≡ Columbia philippinensis (S.Vidal) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 29; ≡ Diplophractum philippinense S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 71; Type: S. Vidal 1001, Luzon: Pampanga. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga. Notes: According to Merrill (1923) may be identical with Colona mollis. Native.

Corchorus L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 September 2021
  1. Corchorus aestuans L., Syst. ed. 10 (1774) 1079; Liu & Lo in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 3 (1993) 724. = Corchorus acutangulus Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 104; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 315; EPFP 3 (1923) 23. Distribution: Africa, America, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. GUIMARAS (photos), LUZON: Pangasinan (photos). Notes: Certainly an introduced weed in the Philippines. Throughout the archipelago in open waste places at low and medium elevation. Naturalized.
  2. Corchorus capsularis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 529; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 315; EPFP 3 (1923) 23; Liu & Lo in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 3 (1993) 727. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Indian Ocean, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: Cultivated or naturalized throughout the tropics. In the Philippines apparently not planted. In clearings, on rice paddy banks, and in open, low, usually wet places in and near settlements throughout the archipelago. Jute. Naturalized.
  3. Corchorus fascicularis Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 104; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 23. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand. LUZON: Bulacan, Pampanga. Notes: Open fallow lands, swamp margins, etc. at low elevation. Naturalized.
  4. Corchorus olitorius L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 529; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 315; EPFP 3 (1923) 23; Liu & Lo in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 3 (1993) 727. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, W Asia. Notes: Pantropic but a native of the Old World (said to be a native of India). Throughout the Philippines in and near settlements, on rice paddy banks, fallow paddies, etc. Occasionally cultivated as a vegetable. Naturalized.

Grewia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 September 2019
  1. Grewia asiatica L., Mant. 1 (1767) 122; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 25. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indian Ocean, Laos, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Sur. Notes: Dry slopes at low elevation. Native.
  2. Grewia bilamellata Gagnep., Not. Syst. 1 (1909) 118; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 25. = Grewia parva Merr., PJS, C 7 (1912) 301. Distribution: Indochina, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur. Notes: Low elevation thickets. Native.
  3. Grewia eriocarpa Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4 (1804) 93; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 25. = Grewia inaequalis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 115. = Grewia negrosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 631. Distribution: Indochina, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi. BUSUANGA, CEBU, LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, La Union, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, SEMIRARA. Notes: Low and medium elevation dry thickets, often common. Native.
  4. Grewia laevigata Vahl, Symb. Bot. (Vahl) i. (1790) 34; Type: from India. = Grewia umbellata Roxb. ex DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 509; Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 42, nom. nud.; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 591; Burrett, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 701. = Grewia acuminata Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4 (1804) 91; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 24. Distribution: Borneo, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BALABAC, BASILAN, BUSUANGA, CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, Tarlac, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, ROMBLON, SIQUIJOR, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets, often abundant. Native.
  5. Grewia multiflora Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4 (1804) 89; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 26; Type: Anon. s.n. 12554 (‘12555’) (P-JU, holo). Distribution: China, Malay Peninsula to New Guinea and Australia. CAMIGUIN, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Cagayan, Quezon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Quezon. Common in thickets and secondary forests. Native.
  6. Grewia palawanensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 300; EPFP 3 (1923) 26. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets and secondary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Grewia retusifolia Pierre, Fl. Forest. Cochin. 2 (1889) t. 168; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 26. Distribution: Australia, Indochina, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, MINDANAO: Cotabato. Notes: Open grasslands at low elevation. Rare. Native.
  8. Grewia rizalensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 303; EPFP 3 (1923) 27. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cavite, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  9. Grewia rolfei Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 302; EPFP 3 (1923) 27. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Low elevation thickets. Native.
  10. Grewia serrata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 444; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 27. = Grewia ovata Merr., PJS 7 (1912) 299. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal. Notes: Low elevation thickets or secondary forests. Rare or local. Native.
  11. Grewia setacea Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 89. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija. Notes: Thickets and forests, 1300-2000m. Native.

Microcos Burm. ex L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 September 2019
  1. Microcos inflexa (Merr.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 795; ≡ Grewia inflexa Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 194; EPFP 3 (1923) 25. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation forests along streams. Native.
  2. Microcos philippinensis (Perkins) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 731; ≡ Grewia philippinensis Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 103; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 26. = Grewia edulis Merr., PJS 7 (1912) 298. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  3. Microcos pyriformis (Elmer) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 735; Chung, Kew Bull. 58 (2003) 333; ≡ Grewia pyriformis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2841; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 26; Type: Elmer 13996, Mindanao: Agusan, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Native.
  4. Microcos tomentosa Sm. in Rees, Cyclopaedia 23, 2, 46 (1813) 2. Distribution: Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (2-Aug-15): Presence in the Philippines as per Chung & Soepadmo (2011). Native.
  5. Microcos triflora (Blanco) R.C.K.Chung, Kew Bull. 58 (2003) 346; ≡ Helianthemum triflorum Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 309; Type: Species Blancoanae 864 (US, no; L, isoneo), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Maquiling, Mar-1915. = Microcos stylocarpa (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 735; Ashton, Man. Non-Dipt. Trees Sarawak 2 (1988) 447; ≡ Grewia stylocarpa Warb. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 104; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 27; Type: Warburg 11870 (B lost, PNH lost, syn), Luzon: Malunu; Warburg 13072 (B lost, PNH lost, syn), Luzon: Tayabas, Sampaloc. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN, TABLAS, TICAO. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Sorsogon. Low and medium elevation mixed dipterocarp forests and thickets. Native.

Trichospermum Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018
  1. Trichospermum discolor Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1641; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 24; Type: Elmer 11903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao. Notes: Low elevation forests in Cagayan, elevation 700-900m in Mindanao. Native.
  2. Trichospermum eriopodum (Turcz.) Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 17; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 24; ≡ Grewia eriopoda Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 31(1) (1858) 231. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: Low and medium secondary forests. Native.
  3. Trichospermum involucratum (Merr.) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1641; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 24; ≡ Halconia involucrata Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) 281. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, NEGROS, SIBUYAN. Notes: Forested ridges, 900-1400m. Native.
  4. Trichospermum lanigerum (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 250; EPFP 3 (1923) 24; ≡ Erotium lanigerum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 440. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Native.

Triumfetta L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 May 2021
  1. Triumfetta annua L., Mant. 1 (1767) 73; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 30. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, China, India, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Davao, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Ravines and open slopes at low elevation, ascending to 1500m in Benguet. Native.
  2. Triumfetta benguetensis Sprague, Kew Bull. (1915) 345; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31; Type: R.S. Williams 1303. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Thickets, c. 1200m. Native.
  3. Triumfetta pilosa Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 233; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, China, India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao. Notes: Thickets and open slopes up to 1200m. Native.
  4. Triumfetta procumbens G.Forst., Prodr. (1786) 35; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31. Distribution: Indian Ocean, New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls. COMIRAN. Notes: On sandy seashores. Native.
  5. Triumfetta repens (Blume) Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 111; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31; ≡ Porpa repens Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1825) 118. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, Indian Ocean, Java, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Pangasinan, MINDORO, PALAWAN (photos by Pelser & Barcelona). Notes: Sandy seashores. Native.
  6. Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq., Enum. Pl. Carib. (1762) 22. = Triumfetta bartramia L., Syst. Ed. 10 (1759) 1044; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 30. Notes: Pantropic weed, certainly introduced in the Philippines. Common in open waste places in all islands and provinces at low and medium elevations. Naturalized.
  7. Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq., Enum. Pl. Carib. (1760) 22; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 314; EPFP 3 (1923) 31. Distribution: America. Notes: Widely distributed in the Philippines. Naturalized in low and medium elevation dry thickets. Naturalized.
  8. Triumfetta tomentosa Bojer, Ann. Sci. Nat. II, 20 (1843) 103; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31. Distribution: Africa to India, China, Indochina, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: On slopes, 1250m. Note by L.L.Co: Very similar to Triumfetta pilosa Roth but with straight spines. Native.

Literature