Solanaceae

Brugmansia Pers. (Not native)

  1. Brugmansia suaveolens (Willd.) Bercht. & J.Presl, Prir. Rostl. 1 (Solanac.) (1823) 45; ≡ Datura suaveolens Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Enum. Hort. Berol. (1809) 227. Distribution: S America. Notes: Widely cultivated. Naturalized.

Brunfelsia Plumier (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 October 2017

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Brunfelsia americana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 191; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 431; EPFP 3 (1923) 431. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: In the Philippines occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes but nowhere spontaneous. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Brunfelsia brasiliensis (Spreng.) L.B.Sm. & Downs, Fl. Ilustr. Catar. 1 (Solanaceae) (1966) 303; ≡ Gerardia brasiliensis Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2 (1825) 806. = Brunfelsia acuminata (Pohl) Benth. in DC., Prodr. 10 (1846) 199; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 414; EPFP 3 (1923) 431; ≡ Franciscea acuminata Pohl, Pl. Bras. Icon. Descr. 1 (1826) 1. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: In the Philippines, occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes but nowhere spontaneous. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Capsicum L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 June 2022
  1. Capsicum frutescens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 271; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 418; EPFP 3 (1923) 424; Barboza et al., PhytoKeys 200 (2022) 194; Type: from India. = Capsicum minimum Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. Carey & Wall. 2 (1824) 261, nom. illeg., non Mill.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 133. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Cultivated for its edible fruits. Naturalized in open waste places in settled areas. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Capsicum annuum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 188; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 418; EPFP 3 (1923) 423; D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 4 (1998) 550; Barboza et al., PhytoKeys 200 (2022) 72. = Capsicum grossum L., Mant. 1 (1767) 47. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Cultivated for its edible fruits. Not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Cestrum L. (Not native)

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 June 2016
  1. Cestrum elegans (Brongn. ex Neumann) Schltdl., Linnaea 19 (1846) 261; ≡ Habrothamnus elegans Brongn., Ann. Fl. Pomone (1844) 118. Distribution: S America. Notes: Naturalized in Mountain Prov. (Mt Data). Naturalized.
  2. Cestrum nocturnum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 191; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 414; EPFP 3 (1923) 430. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Widely cultivated in the Philippines for its flowers, which are very fragrant at night. Naturalized.

Datura L. (Not native)

  1. Datura metel L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 179; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 430; D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 552. Distribution: ?Neotropics. Notes: Now pantropically distributed. Open waste places in and about settlements, sometimes planted (the double-flowered form). Naturalized.

Lycianthes (Dunal) Hassl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 February 2022
  1. Lycianthes banahaensis (Elmer) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 509; ≡ Solanum banahaense Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 341; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 425; Type: Elmer 7492 (L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, forest understorey, 900m, May-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Ilocos Norte, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Forested ravines along streams, c. 900m. Native.
    • ssp. banahaensis. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • ssp. manucaling (Elmer) Bitter, Lycianthes (1919) 510; ≡ Solanum manucaling Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 732; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 427. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: Mossy forests, c. 1200m. Allied to Solanum lagunense Elmer, but scandent. Native.
  2. Lycianthes biflora (Lour.) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 461; ≡ Solanum biflorum Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 129; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 425. = Solanum mindanaense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2832. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Malesia, New Guinea, Taiwan. BATANES, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Misamis, Zamboanga, PALAWAN, ?PANAY (photos). Notes: Ravines in forested ridges, and in thickets, 600-2000m. Native.
  3. Lycianthes laevis (Dunal) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 484; ≡ Solanum laeve Dunal, Encycl., Suppl. 3(2) (1814) 751. Distribution: LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. glabratula Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 488. = Lycianthes schizocalyx (Merr.) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 471; ≡ Solanum schizocalyx Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 383; EPFP 3 (1923) 428. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Damp ravines and in the mossy forest, 1300-2400m. Native.
    • ssp. luzonensis Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 489. = Solanum crassipetalum Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 256; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 425. Distribution: India, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Thickets on the summit of higher mountains, c. 2200m. Native.
  4. Lycianthes lagunensis (Elmer) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 511; ≡ Solanum lagunense Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 341; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 426; Type: Elmer 9425, Luzon, Laguna, Los Baños, Apr-1906. = Lycianthes anisophylla Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 512; ≡ Solanum anisophyllum auct. non Van Heurck & Müll.Arg.; Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2830; Type: Elmer 13887 (BISH, L, NY, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, among boulders along streamlet near Catangan River, 3000ft, Sep-1912. = Lycianthes anisophylla (Elmer) Bitter var. masbatensis Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 513; Type: Merrill 3046 (NY, US, iso), Masbate, Aug-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte, Davao, South Cotabato, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Native.
  5. Lycianthes parasitica (Blume) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 504; ≡ Solanum parasiticum Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (1823) 55. = Lycianthes parasitica ssp. epiphytica (Merr.) Bitter, Lycianthes (1919) 506; ≡ Solanum epiphyticum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 350; EPFP 3 (1923) 426. = Solanum parasiticum auct. non Blume; Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) 299. = Lycianthes parasitica var. angatii (Elmer) Bitter, Lycianthes (1919) 507; ≡ Solanum angatii Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 731; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 424; Type: Elmer 10762. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. BALABAC, LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO. Notes: In most islands and provinces, epiphytic in damp primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.

Nicotiana L. (Not native)

  1. Nicotiana tabacum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 180; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 415; EPFP 3 (1923) 430. Distribution: America. Notes: Planted in all warm countries. Cultivated throughout the Philippines, in some provinces (e.g. Ilocos provinces, Isabela) as a major cash crop. Tobacco. Naturalized.

Physalis L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 July 2022
  1. Physalis angulata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 183; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 419; EPFP 3 (1923) 423; D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 560. Distribution: America. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao; widely scattered in open waste places in and near settlements. Naturalized.
    • var. lanceifolia (Nees) Waterf., Rhodora 60 (1958) 163; ≡ Physalis lanceifolia Nees, Linnaea 6 (1831) 473; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 423. Naturalized.
  2. Physalis lagascae Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 4 (1819) 679; Raju et al., Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 45 (2007) 241. = Physalis minima auct. non L.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 419; EPFP 3 (1923) 423. Distribution: Pantropic. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; common weed in open waste places at low elevation, ascending to 1600m. Naturalized.
  3. Physalis peruviana L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1670; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 423; D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 562. Distribution: America. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Weed in temperate vegetable gardens and open waste places, up to 2200m. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.

Solanum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 June 2022
  1. Solanum americanum Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8, (1768) No. 5; Edmonds, Kew Bull. 27 (1972) 103; Symon, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4 (1981) 37. = Solanum nigrum auct. non L.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 427. Distribution: ?S America. Notes: Possibly native to S America. Widespread in the tropics. Part of the Solanum nigrum complex. Throughout the Philippines in open waste places, recently disturbed soil, etc., 0-2000m. Naturalized.
  2. Solanum capsicoides All., Auct. Syn. Meth. Stirp. Hort. Regii Taur. (1773) 64; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 55. Distribution: S America. NEGROS. Naturalized.
  3. Solanum cyanocarphium Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 700; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 247; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 64; Type: from Java. = Solanum sparsiflorum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1836, nom. illeg., non Dammer; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 428; Type: Elmer 13157 (GH, lecto; BISH, BM, CAL, E, F, G, HBG, K, L, LAE, LE, MO, NY, P, W, U, US, isolecto), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, along the trail to Napuan, on sticky soil in thickets bordering dense forest, 500-750ft, May-1911. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Vietnam. BASILAN, BOHOL, MINDANAO: Maguindanao, Zamboanga del Norte, PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Thickets near lowland forests, 150-230m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Aubriot & Knapp 2022). Native.
  4. Solanum diphyllum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 184; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 425. Distribution: C America. LUZON: Manila. Notes: Lowland waste places. Naturalized.
  5. Solanum erianthum D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 96; Roe, Taxon 17 (1968) 176-178; Symon, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4 (1981) 93; Hepper, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6 (1987) 370. = Solanum verbascifolium auct. non L.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 429, pro parte; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 471. Distribution: S America. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Naturalized.
  6. Solanum insanum L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 46; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 95; Type: from India. = Solanum undatum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 2 (1794) 22; Type: from Mauritius. = Solanum cumingii Dunal in DC., Prodr. 131 (1852) 363; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 425; Type: Cuming 443 (G, lecto; BM, E, G, K, L, LE, ME, P, W, isolecto), Philippines. Distribution: China, Hong Kong, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BATANES, BUSUANGA, DALUPIRI, LUZON: Bataan, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, NCR, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation waste places. Note by P.B. Pelser (26-Jul-19): this is the wild progenitor of common eggplant (Solanum melongena; Ranil et al. 2017). Conservation status: Least Concern (Aubriot & Knapp 2022). Native.
  7. Solanum jamaicense Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8 Solanum (1768) 17; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 106; Type: from Jamaica. Distribution: C & S America, Caribbean. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Sporadically adventive (Aubriot & Knapp 2022). Naturalized.
  8. Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal, Hist. Nat. Solanum (1813) 222; D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 567; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 111; Type: from India. = Solanum zeylanicum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 136, nom. illeg., non Scop.; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 465 (A, neo; CAL, K, P, isoneo), Luzon: Benguet, May-1914. = Solanum ferox auct. non L.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 426. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, BOHOL, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, NCR, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Generally low to medium elevation, ascending to 2000m. Disturbed sites such as forest clearings, second-growth thickets, roadsides and wastelands. Conservation status: Least Concern (Aubriot & Knapp 2022). Native.
  9. Solanum mammosum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 187; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 427; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 117; Type: from Barbados. Distribution: Neotropics. JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga. Notes: Lowlands, in thickets and waste places. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  10. Solanum mauritianum Scop., Delic. Fl. et Faunae Insubr. 3 (1788) 16; Hepper, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6 (1987) 369. = Solanum verbascifolium auct. non L.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 429, pro parte. Notes: Argentina. Native of Argentina and introduced into Mauritius (from where it was described) and many tropical countries; open dry lands, thickets, secondary forest. Naturalized.
  11. Solanum miyakojimense T.Yamaz. & A.Takushi, J. Jap. Bot. 66 (1991) 46; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 129; Type: from Ryukyu Isls. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATAN, DALUPIRI, IVUHOS. Conservation status: Endangered (Aubriot & Knapp 2022). Native.
  12. Solanum pseudocapsicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 184; D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 575. Distribution: C & S America. Notes: Widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, often escaping. Naturalized.
  13. Solanum pseudosaponaceum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 702; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 155; Type: from Java. = Solanum inaequilaterale Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 236; EPFP 3 (1923) 426; Type: Merrill 4807 (US, lecto; K, NY, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Suyse to Panai, Oct-1905. Distribution: Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan, ?Vietnam. LUZON: Abra, Aurora, Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Lanao, Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Montane thickets, chiefly in or near mossy cloud forests, 1300-2400m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Aubriot & Knapp 2022). Native.
  14. Solanum retrorsum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 342; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 428; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 166; Type: Elmer 8719 (K, lecto; A, E, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. = Solanum luzoniense Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 58; EPFP 3 (1923) 427; D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 567; Type: BS 26487 Ramos & Edaño (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Pangasinan, Mt Umingan, Aug-1910. = Solanum luzoniense Merr. var. glabrum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 59; EPFP 3 (1923) 427; Type: Merrill 4237 (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Bulacan, Calumpit, Sep-1905. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi, ?Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Tarlac, Zambales, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: In thickets and waste places. Conservation status: Near Threatened (Aubriot & Knapp 2022). Native.
  15. Solanum schefferi F.Muell., Descr. Notes Papuan Pl. 1 (1876) 44; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 177; Type: from New Guinea. = Solanum lianoides Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 733; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 427; Type: Elmer 10752 (BM, lecto; A, BISH, CAL, E, F, G, GH, HBG, K, LE, MO, NY, US, isolecto), Sibyuan: May-1910. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Davao, South Cotabato, Zamboanga, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1100m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Aubriot & Knapp 2022). Native.
  16. Solanum seaforthianum Andrews, Bot. Repos. (1808) t. 504. Distribution: S America. MINDANAO: Misamis Oriental, MINDORO. Notes: Naturalized in Philippines. Naturalized.
  17. Solanum spirale Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. Carey & Wall. 2 (1824) 247; Hort. Beng. 16 (1814) 16, nom. inval., nom. nud. = Solanum apoense Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 730; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 425; Type: Elmer 11599. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Notes: Damp forested ravines, c. 1500m. Native.
  18. Solanum torvoideum Merr. & L.M.Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 30 (1949) 47; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 183; Type: from New Guinea. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan. BASILAN, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Mountain Province, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Lanao, Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO. Conservation status: Least Concern (Aubriot & Knapp 2022). Native.
  19. Solanum torvum Sw., Prodr. (1788) 47; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 417; EPFP 3 (1923) 428; D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 576; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 186. = Solanum macaonense Dunal in DC., Prodr. 13(1) (1852) 264; D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 569; Type: from China. Distribution: C America, Caribbean. BILIRAN, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, NCR, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, PALAWAN, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation, in open waste places. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Solanum lycopersicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 185. = Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8 (1768) No. 2; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 418; EPFP 3 (1923) 429. Notes: Distributed worldwide, but is really known only from cultivation, specimens collected from natural habitats are, in our opinion, feral escapes and not truly wild populations. Tomato; kamatis. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Solanum melongena L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 186; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 427; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 119. Notes: Cultivated in all warm countries. Cultivated throughout the Philippines for its edible fruit, but nowhere spontaneous. Eggplant; talong. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  3. Solanum trilobatum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 188; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 189; Type: from India. = Solanum athroanthum auct. non Dunal; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 417; EPFP 3 (1923) 425. Distribution: India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Vietnam. LUZON: NCR. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  4. Solanum tuberosum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 185; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 428. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON. Notes: In the Philippines cultivated at higher elevation, especially the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon. Potato; patatas. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  5. Solanum violaceum Ortega, Nov. Pl. Desc. Dec. (1798) 56; D’Arcy & C.I Peng in Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 578; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 183; Type: from India. = Solanum indicum auct. non L.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 426. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Middle East, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: NCR, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao. Notes: Not naturalized, only cultivated in the Philippines (Aubriot & Knapp 2022). Cultivated, not naturalized.
  6. Solanum wrightii Benth., Fl. Hongk. (1861) 243; Aubriot & Knapp, PhytoKeys 198 (2022) 213; Type: from Hong Kong. Distribution: S America. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Planted at UP Los Baños. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Tubocapsicum Makino

  1. Tubocapsicum anomalum (Franch. & Sav.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 22 (1908) 19; D’Arcy & C.I Peng in Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 580; ≡ Capsicum anomalum Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2 (1879) 452; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 424. Distribution: China, Japan, Java, Korea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: In Benguet in mossy montane forests, 1800-2200m. In other regions along streams in shaded ravines at low and medium elevation. Native.

References