Solanaceae

Brugmansia Pers. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Brugmansia suaveolens (Willd.) Bercht. & Presl, Prir. Rostl. 1 (Solanac.) (1823) 45; --Datura suaveolens Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Enum. Hort. Berol. (1809) 227. S America. Widely cultivated. Photos

Brunfelsia Plumier [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 October 2017

Photos
  1. Brunfelsia americana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 191; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 431; EPFP 3 (1923) 431. Native of tropical America. In the Philippines occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes but nowhere spontaneous. Photos
  2. Brunfelsia brasiliensis (Spreng.) L.B.Sm. & Downs, Fl. Ilustr. Catar. 1 (Solanaceae) (1966) 303; --Gerardia brasiliensis Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2 (1825) 806. --Brunfelsia acuminata (Pohl) Benth. in DC., Prodr. 10 (1846) 199; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 414; EPFP 3 (1923) 431; --Franciscea acuminata Pohl, Pl. Bras. Icon. Descr. 1 (1826) 1. Native of tropical America. In the Philippines, occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes but nowhere spontaneous.

Capsicum L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 April 2021

Photos
  1. Capsicum frutescens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 271; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 418; EPFP 3 (1923) 424. Native of tropical America. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated for its edible fruits. Naturalized in open waste places in settled areas. Photos

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Capsicum annuum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 188; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 418; EPFP 3 (1923) 423; --D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 4 (1998) 550. --Capsicum grossum L., Mant. 1 (1767) 47. Native of tropical America. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated for its edible fruits. Not naturalized. Photos

Cestrum L. [Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 June 2016

Photos
  1. Cestrum elegans (Brongn. ex Neumann) Schltdl., Linnaea 19 (1846) 261; --Habrothamnus elegans Brongn., Ann. Fl. Pomone (1844) 118. Native to S America. Naturalized in Mountain Prov. (Mt Data). Photos
  2. Cestrum nocturnum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 191; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 414; EPFP 3 (1923) 430. Neotropics. Widely cultivated in the Philippines for its flowers, which are very fragrant at night. Photos

Datura L. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Datura metel L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 179; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 430; --D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 552. ?Neotropics. Now pantropically distributed.  Open waste places in and about settlements, sometimes planted (the double-flowered form). Photos

Lycianthes (Dunal) Hassl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 February 2020

Photos
  1. Lycianthes banahaensis (Elmer) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 509; --Solanum banahaense Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 341; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 425; --Type: Elmer 7492 (L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, forest understorey, 900m, May-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Forested ravines along streams, c. 900m.
  2. Lycianthes biflora (Lour.) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 461; --Solanum biflorum Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 129; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 425. --Solanum mindanaense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2832. India, China, Taiwan, Japan, across Malesia to New Guinea. BATANES, LUZON: Benguet, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis, Lanao del Sur, Agusan del Norte, ?PANAY (photos). Ravines in forested ridges, and in thickets, 600-2000m. Photos
  3. Lycianthes lagunensis (Elmer) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 511; --Solanum lagunense Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 341; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 426. --Lycianthes anisophylla Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 512; --Solanum anisophyllum auct. non Van Heurck & Müll.Arg.; --Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2830; --Type: Elmer 13887 (BISH, L, NY, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, among boulders along streamlet near Catangan River, 3000ft, Sep-1912. --Lycianthes anisophylla (Elmer) Bitter var. masbatensis Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 513; --Type: Merrill 3046 (NY, US, iso), Masbate, Aug-1903. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO, MASBATE, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao, Agusan, Surigao, SIARGAO. Photos
  4. Lycianthes laevis (Dunal) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 484; --Solanum laeve Dunal, Encycl., Suppl. 3(2) (1814) 751.
  5. Lycianthes parasitica (Blume) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 504; --Solanum parasiticum Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (Blume) (1823) 55. --Lycianthes parasitica ssp. epiphytica (Merr.) Bitter, Lycianthes (1919) 506; --Solanum epiphyticum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 350; EPFP 3 (1923) 426. --Solanum parasiticum auct. non Blume; --Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) 299. --Lycianthes parasitica var. angatii (Elmer) Bitter, Lycianthes (1919) 507; --Solanum angatii Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 731; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 424; --Type: Elmer 10762. Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, BALABAC, MINDANAO. In most islands and provinces, epiphytic in damp primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos

Lycopersicum Mill. = Solanum

Nicotiana L. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Nicotiana tabacum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 180; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 415; EPFP 3 (1923) 430. America. Planted in all warm countries. Cultivated throughout the Philippines, in some provinces (e.g. Ilocos provinces, Isabela) as a major cash crop. Tobacco. Photos

Physalis L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 December 2019

Photos
  1. Physalis angulata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 183; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 419; EPFP 3 (1923) 423; --D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 560. America. LUZON, MINDANAO. N Luzon to Mindanao; widely scattered in open waste places in and near settlements. Photos
  2. Physalis lagascae Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 4 (1819) 679; --Raju et al., Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 45 (2007) 241. --Physalis minima auct. non L.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 419; EPFP 3 (1923) 423. Pantropic. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON, PALAWAN, MINDANAO. Throughout the Philippines; common weed in open waste places at low elevation, ascending to 1600m.
  3. Physalis peruviana L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1670; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 423; --D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 562. America. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Weed in temperate vegetable gardens and open waste places, up to 2200m. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos

Solanum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & Xavier Aubriot, 27 November 2021

Photos
  1. Solanum americanum Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8, (1768) No. 5; --Edmonds, Kew Bull. 27 (1972) 103; --Symon, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4 (1981) 37. --Solanum nigrum auct. non L.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 427. ?S America. Possibly native to S America. Widespread in the tropics. Part of the Solanum nigrum complex. Throughout the Philippines in open waste places, recently disturbed soil, etc., 0-2000m. Photos
  2. Solanum athroanthum Dunal in DC., Prodr. 131 (1852) 208; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 417; EPFP 3 (1923) 425. Java. LUZON: Manila. Planted in hedges about houses. Rare.
  3. Solanum capsicoides All., Mélanges Philos. Math. Soc. Roy. Turin 5 (1773) 64. Native to the Americas. Naturalized in the Philippines. NEGROS. Photos
  4. Solanum cyanocarphium Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 700; --Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 247. --Solanum sparsiflorum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1836; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 428; --Type: Elmer 13157 (BISH, NY, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, along the trail to Napuan, on sticky soil in thickets bordering dense forest, 500-750ft, May-1911. Peninsular Malaysia to Java, Borneo and the Philippines. PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Thickets near lowland forests, 150-230m.
  5. Solanum diphyllum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 184; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 425. Native of Mexico and Central America. LUZON: Manila (Merrill 8498). Lowland waste places. Photos
  6. Solanum erianthum D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 96; --Roe, Taxon 17 (1968) 176-178; --Symon, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4 (1981) 93; --Hepper, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6 (1987) 370. --Solanum verbascifolium auct. non L.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 429, pro parte; --Backer & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 471. S America. Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Photos
  7. Solanum insanum L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 46. --Solanum undatum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 2 (1794) 22. --Solanum cumingii Dunal in DC., Prodr. 131 (1852) 363; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 425. China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation waste places. Note by P.B. Pelser (26-Jul-19): this is the wild progenitor of common eggplant (Solanum melongena; Ranil et al. 2017).
  8. Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal, Hist. Nat. Solanum (1813) 222; --D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 567. --Solanum ferox auct. non L.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 426. Sri Lanka, Australia, Philippines, Andaman Isls, India, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Throughout the Philippines. Generally low to medium elevation, ascending to 2000m.  Disturbed sites such as forest clearings, second-growth thickets, roadsides and wastelands. Photos
  9. Solanum lianoides Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 733; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 427. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao. Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1100m.
  10. Solanum luzoniense Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 58; EPFP 3 (1923) 427; --D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 567. --Solanum luzoniense Merr. var. glabrum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 59; EPFP 3 (1923) 427; --Type: Merrill 4237 (US, iso), Luzon: Bulacan, Calumpit, Sep-1905. Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Tarlac, Bulacan, Laguna, PANAY. Lowland thickets and waste places.
  11. Solanum lycopersicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 185. --Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8 (1768) No. 2; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 418; EPFP 3 (1923) 429. Distributed worldwide, but is really known only from cultivation, specimens collected from natural habitats are, in our opinion, feral escapes and not truly wild populations. Tomato; kamatis. Photos
  12. Solanum macaonense Dunal in DC., Prodr. 13(1) (1852) 264; --D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 569. Sri Lanka, China, Taiwan, Philippines.
  13. Solanum mammosum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 187; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 427. Neotropics. LEYTE, JOLO, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowlands, in thickets and waste places. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos
  14. Solanum mauritianum Scop., Delic. Fl. et Faunae Insubr. 3 (1788) 16; --Hepper, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6 (1987) 369. --Solanum verbascifolium auct. non L.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 429, pro parte. Argentina. Native of Argentina and introduced into Mauritius (from where it was described) and many tropical countries; open dry lands, thickets, secondary forest. Photos
  15. Solanum melongena L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 186; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 427. Cultivated in all warm countries. Cultivated throughout the Philippines for its edible fruit, but nowhere spontaneous. Eggplant; talong. Photos
  16. Solanum pseudocapsicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 184; --D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 575. Native to Central and South America. Widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, often escaping.
  17. Solanum pseudosaponaceum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 702. --Solanum inaequilaterale Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 236; EPFP 3 (1923) 426. China, Java, Laos, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan, ?Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Lanao. Montane thickets, chiefly in or near mossy cloud forests, 1300-2400m. Photos
  18. Solanum retrorsum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 342; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 428. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Baguio; La Trinidad), Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, MINDORO. In thickets, 1000-1600m. Photos
  19. Solanum seaforthianum Andrews, Bot. Repos. (1808) t. 504. Native to South America. Naturalized in Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis Oriental, MINDORO. Photos
  20. Solanum spirale Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. Carey & Wall. 2 (1824) 247; Hort. Beng. 16 (1814) 16, nom. nud.;. --Solanum apoense Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 730; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 425; --Type: Elmer 11599. India, Bangladesh, China, Java, Laos, Philippines, Myanmar, Sumatra, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Damp forested ravines, c. 1500m. Photos
  21. Solanum torvoideum Merr. & L.M.Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 30 (1949) 47. Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Sumatra, Taiwan, Philippines. Mountain Province (photos). Photos
  22. Solanum torvum Sw., Prodr. (1788) 47; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 417; EPFP 3 (1923) 428; --D’Arcy & C.I Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 576. Native of the Caribbean, now pantropic. Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation, in open waste places. Photos
  23. Solanum tuberosum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 185; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 428. Neotropics. LUZON. In the Philippines cultivated at higher elevation, especially the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon. Potato; patatas. Photos
  24. Solanum violaceum Ortega, Nov. Pl. Desc. Dec. (1798) 56; --D’Arcy & C.I Peng in Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 578. --Solanum indicum auct. non L.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 426. Widespread in tropical Asia. BATAN, IBUHOS, DALUPIRI, LUZON: Manila, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao.

Tubocapsicum Makino

No Photos
  1. Tubocapsicum anomalum (Franch. & Sav.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 22 (1908) 19; --D’Arcy & C.I Peng in Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 580; --Capsicum anomalum Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2 (1879) 452; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 424. Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, China, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. In Benguet in mossy montane forests, 1800-2200m. In other regions along streams in shaded ravines at low and medium elevation. 

Literature

Backer, CA & RC Bakhuizen van den Brink. 1965. Flora of Java 2: 464-483.

CABI Invasive Species Compendium

Raju, VS, CS Reddy & KG Rajarao. 2007. The myth of “minima” and “maxima”, the species of Physalis in the Indian Subcontinent. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 45: 239-245

Ranil, RHG, J Prohens, X Aubriot, HML Niran, M Plazas, RM Fonseka, S Vilanova, HH Fonseka, P Gramazio & S Knapp. 2017. Solanum insanum L. (subgenus Leptostemonum Bitter, Solanaceae), the neglected wild progenitor of eggplant (S. melongena L.): a review of taxonomy, characteristics and uses aimed at its enhancement for improved eggplant breeding. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 64: 1707-1722

Solanaceae Source: A global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family

Symon, DE. 1985. The Solanaceae of New Guinea. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Garden 8: 1-171.


Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 16 January 2022