Salicaceae

Samydaceae, Flacourtiaceae

Ahernia Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2021
  1. Ahernia glandulosa Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 37; EPFP 3 (1923) 107; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 6. Distribution: China, Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (photos). Notes: Primary forests up to 600m. Fl. & fr. Jan-Dec. Native.

Casearia Jacq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 February 2022
  1. Casearia brevipes Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 326, nom. illeg., non Benth.; EPFP 3 (1923) 114; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 102. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte (photos). Notes: In forests along streams at low elevation. Native.
  2. Casearia euphlebia Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 34; EPFP 3 (1923) 115; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 103. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  3. Casearia fuliginosa (Blanco) Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 262; EPFP 3 (1923) 115; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 92; ≡ Anavinga fuliginosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 372. = Casearia glauciramea Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1517; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 115. = Casearia nitens Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 412. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU (photos), DINAGAT, LUZON, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte (photos), MINDORO, SAMAR, SIBUYAN, TAWI-TAWI, TICAO. Notes: Rather common in thickets and secondary forests below 250m, also near the sea, often on sandy or gravelly river banks and along creeks. Native.
  4. Casearia grewiifolia Vent., Choix (1803) 48; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 92. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. grewiifolia. = Casearia agusanensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2652; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 114. = Casearia confertiflora Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 34; EPFP 3 (1923) 115. Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand.
    • var. cinerea (Turcz.) Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 95; ≡ Casearia cinerea Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 311 (1858) 462; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 114. = Casearia pilosissima Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 171. = Samyda serrulata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1827) 374, nom. illeg., non L; ≡ Samyda pubescens Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 263, nom. illeg., non L.; Kiger, Taxon 33 (1984) 462; Type: Ramos s.n. (Merrill Species Blancoanae 821) (US, neo), Luzon: Batangas, Mt Batulao, 12-Feb-1915. Distribution: LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: In primary and secondary forests, up to 600m.
    • var. gelonioides (Blume) Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1972) 944b. = Casearia polyantha Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 99; EPFP 3 (1923) 116. = Casearia crenata Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 99; EPFP 3 (1923) 115; ≡ Casearia grewiifolia var. deglabrata Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Booms. Java 1 (1894) 174; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 95. Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand.
  5. Casearia loheri Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 327; EPFP 3 (1923) 115; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, (1954) 104. = Casearia elliptifolia Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 115. = Casearia paucinervia Merr. & Quisumb., PJS 82 (1953) 331. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (photos), ?Isabela (photos), MINDANAO, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests up to 660m. Native.
  6. Casearia mindanaensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 410; EPFP 3 (1923) 116; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 96. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte (photos), Zamboanga. Notes: In forests along streams at c. 200m. Native.
  7. Casearia phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 277; EPFP 3 (1923) 116; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 96. = Casearia wenzelii Merr. & Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 54. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Tayabas, MINDANAO. Notes: In primary and secondary forests, on moist soil, c 150-500m. Native.
  8. Casearia philippinensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 329; EPFP 3 (1923) 116; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 95. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, SAMAR. Notes: In forests along streams from low elevation up to 850m. Native.
  9. Casearia trivalvis (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 275; EPFP 3 (1923) 116; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 91; ≡ Samyda trivalvis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 374; Type: Mabesa 2 (Merrill Species Blancoanae 893) (US, neo), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños, 25-Mar-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, MARINDUQUE, MINDORO. Notes: Primary forests up to 800m. Fl. & fr. Jan-Dec. Native.
  10. Casearia tuberculata Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 254; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 99. = Casearia hydnocarpoides Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 54; Type: Merrill 9366 (L, isotype fragment and carbon rubbings of leaf), Palawan: Taytay, forested slopes at low elevation, 9-May-1913. Distribution: Java, Philippines, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Notes: Once found in Taytay at low elevation on forested slopes. Native.

Flacourtia L’Her.

Last edited by John Paul Collantes & Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2020
  1. Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 377; EPFP 3 (1923) 112; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 76; ≡ Gmelina indica Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 132. = Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb., Pl. Corom. 1 (1796) 48; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 334. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Cagayan, Isabela, Rizal, Tarlac, Zambales, MINDORO. Notes: Dry thickets at low elevation. Native.
  2. Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor., Syst. Verz. (1854) 33; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 113; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 73. = Flacourtia euphlebia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 324; EPFP 3 (1923) 112. = Flacourtia peninsula Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3808. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BASILAN, CEBU, DINAGAT, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Laguna, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, POLILLO. Notes: Forests at low and medium elevation. Also cultivated for its edible fruits. Native.
  3. Flacourtia zippelii Slooten, Bijdr. Flac. (1919) 128; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 70. = Flacourtia inermis auct. non Roxb.; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 99. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. DINAGAT, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, POLILLO. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch., Nomencl. Bot. ed. 3 (1797) 290; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 72; ≡ Stigmarota jangomas Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 634. Notes: Not known in the wild state, possibly originating from Indo-Myanmar region; now cultivated throughout the tropics around villages as a fruit tree, especially in E Africa, India, SE Asia. Lowlands to 600m. Cultivated only?.

Homalium Jacq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 October 2021
  1. Homalium barandae S.Vidal ex Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 94; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 110; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 53. = Homalium loheri Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 297; EPFP 3 (1923) 110; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 56. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Rizal. Notes: In forests at low and medium elevation. Note by L.L.Co: Sleumer’s view that Homalium barandae is a mere tomentose form of Homalium loheri is here supported; the former name has priority. Native.
  2. Homalium bracteatum Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4 (1860) 37; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 110; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 61. = Homalium curranii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 297; EPFP 3 (1923) 110. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Notes: Primary forests at low elevation. Native.
  3. Homalium foetidum (Roxb.) Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4 (1860) 37; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 57. = Homalium luzoniense Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 94; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 111. = Homalium platyphyllum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 36; EPFP 3 (1923) 111. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: In thickets or rainforests, often along river banks, on clayey or sandy, often stony, whether or not periodically inundated soil, 20-200(-350)m. Native.
  4. Homalium gitingense Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1513; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 110; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 62. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT (photos by Danilo Tandang), LUZON: Albay, MINDANAO: Surigao, SIBUYAN. Notes: Forests along streams, on reddish soil with a gravelly subsoil, 150m. Native.
  5. Homalium multiflorum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 35; EPFP 3 (1923) 111; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 56. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Rizal. Notes: In forests up to 1500m. Native.
  6. Homalium oblongifolium Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 326; EPFP 3 (1923) 111; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 59. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Once found. Primary forests at low elevation. Native.
  7. Homalium palawanense Regalado, Soejarto & Madulid, Edinburgh J. Bot. 57 (2000) 317; Type: Soejarto, Fernando and Sagcal 8790 (PNH, holo; A, E, F, L, US, iso), Palawan: Mt Mantalingahan, Sindurapi Peak. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Montane forest, 800-1150m. Native.
  8. Homalium panayanum Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 94; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 111; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 55. = Homalium obovatum Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 37; EPFP 4 (1925) 253. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. GUIMARAS, LUZON, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: On ridges in forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Native.
  9. Homalium ramosii Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 423; EPFP 3 (1923) 111; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 61. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Once found. Forested slopes, c. 450m. Native.
  10. Homalium samarense Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 199; EPFP 3 (1923) 111; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 59. = Homalium polillense Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 38; EPFP 4 (1925) 253; Type: Loher 14535. = Homalium villosum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 37; EPFP 3 (1923) 112. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests at low elevation. Native.
  11. Homalium villarianum S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 142; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 111; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 61. = Homalium sorsogonense Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 325. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay (photos), MINDANAO, ?PANAY, ?SAMAR. Notes: Forests up to 400m. Native.

Osmelia Thwaites

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 21 March 2022
  1. Osmelia philippina (Turcz.) Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 5 Suppl. 2 (1861) 89, as ‘philippinensis’; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 114; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 79; Alford, Brittonia 73 (2021) 405; ≡ Stachycrater philippinus Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 31(1) (1858) 465; Type: Cuming 1685 (or 1485, fide Turczaninow) (KW, holo; KW; FI, G, L iso), Mindoro: 1841. = Osmelia conferta Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 5 Suppl. 2 (1861) 89; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 113; Type: Cuming 1741 (K, holo), Leyte. = Osmelia celebica Koord., Meded. Lands Plant. 19 (1899) 624; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 113; Type: from Sulawesi. = Osmelia subrotundifolia Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2655; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 114; Type: Elmer 13543 (A, lecto; BISH, CAS, HBG, K, L, MO, NY, U, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. = Dichapetalum spicatum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 299; Type: Elmer 7497 (A, lecto; E, G, L, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Calabarzon, Lucban, Mt Banahaw, May-1906. = Osmelia bartletii Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 246; Type: from Sumatra. = Osmelia euspicata Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2653; Type: Elmer 11088 (A, lecto; BISH, G, L, NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya (Mt Apo), Jul-1909. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam. CATANDUANES, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Lanao, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR, TABLAS. Notes: Lowland forests, ascending to 500m. Native.

Salix L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2021
  1. Salix tetrasperma Roxb., Pl. Corom. 1 (1795) 66; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 22; Jacobs, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 107. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. BOHOL, LUZON: Bulacan, Cagayan, Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO. Notes: In forests in swamps and near streams at low and medium elevation. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Salix babylonica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1017; Jacobs, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 109. Distribution: China, Korea. LUZON. Notes: Known from one sterile specimen. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Scolopia Schreb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2021
  1. Scolopia luzonensis (C.Presl) Warb. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 6a (1893) 30; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 109; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 11; ≡ Dasianthera luzoniensis C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 2 (1835) 90. = Scolopia saeva auct. non (Hance) Hance; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 109. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi. CATANDUANES, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Dry thickets and secondary forests, up to 680m, often common on clayey soil or along the beach, also on limestone. Fl. Sep-Mar; fr. Apr-Jun. Native.
  2. Scolopia spinosa (Roxb.) Warb. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 6a (1893) 29; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 110; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 10. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Scolopia oldhamii Hance, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. v 5 (1966) 206; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 109. Distribution: China, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. Notes: Not accounted for in Sleumer (1954). Native.

Xylosma G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2021
  1. Xylosma luzonensis (C.Presl) Clos, Ann. Sci. Nat. iv, 8 (1857) 229; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 112; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 68; ≡ Prockia luzonensis C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1835) 94. = Flacourtia lanceolata Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 455; EPFP 3 (1923) 113. = Xylosma cumingii Clos, Ann. Sc. Nat. IV, 8 (1857) 231. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Thickets and (mostly secondary) forests at low elevation, ascending to c. 1700m. Native.
  2. Xylosma palawanensis Mend., PJS 93 (1964) 514; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1972) 944b; Type: PNH 80778 Gutierrez (PNH, syn; A, L, K, US, isosyn); PNH 80769 Gutierrez & Espiritu (PNH, syn; A, L, K, US, isosyn). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: On limestone hill. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Xylosma suluensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 324; EPFP 3 (1923) 112; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 66. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines. CEBU (photos), TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Thickets behind the beach forest. Native.

Literature