Rutaceae

Acronychia J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 February 2018
  1. Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1861) 532; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 333; ≡ Jambolifera pedunculata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 349. Distribution: China, India, Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; in forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Native.

Atalantia Correa

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 August 2019
  1. Atalantia linearis (Blanco) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 200; EPFP 2 (1923) 340; ≡ Severinia linearis (Blanco) Swingle, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 28 (1938) 533; ≡ Limonia linearis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 357; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 746 (neo), Luzon: Rizal. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, SAMAR. Notes: Along swift running streams subject to flash-flooding during heavy rains. Common name: narrow-leaf box-orange. Native.
  2. Atalantia paniculata Warb., Bot. Jahrb. 13 (1891) 340; ≡ Severinia paniculata (Warb.) Swingle, J. Wash. Ac. Sci. 28 (1938) 533; ≡ Atalantia disticha var. paniculata (Warb.) Tanaka, J. Arnold Arb. 9 (1928) 141; Type: from Seram. = Atalantia maritima Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 293; EPFP 2 (1923) 340. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. APO DE MINDORO, BOHOL, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SULU ARCHIPELAGO, TICAO. Notes: Beach forests, borders of mangroves, etc. Common name: bouquet box-orange. Native.
  3. Atalantia racemosa Wight & Arn., J. Bot. (Hooker) 1 (1834) 64. = Severinia disticha (Blanco) Swingle, J. Wash. Ac. Sci. 28 (1938) 533; ≡ Limonia disticha Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 356; ≡ Atalantia disticha (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 28; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 339; Type: wanting, substitute type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 594. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Borneo, Philippines. CEBU, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Misamis, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Widespread in Luzon. Often common in low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1500m in Benguet. Common name: philippine box-orange. Native.
  4. Atalantia retusa Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. 4 (1906) 200; ≡ Severinia retusa (Merr.) Swingle, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 28 (1938) 533; Type: BS 3609 Curran (US, iso), Palawan: old clearing, ½ mile E of Puerto Princesa, 20m, 30-Jan-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low elevation second-growth forests, old clearings, etc. Native.

Boenninghausenia Rchb. ex Meisn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 October 2017
  1. Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook.) Rchb. ex Meisn., Pl. Vasc. Gen. (1837) 44; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 355; EPFP 2 (1923) 333; ≡ Ruta albiflora Hook., Exot. Fl. 1 (1823) pl. 79. Distribution: Himalayas through China to Japan and Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: In the mossy forest on the higher mountains, 2000-2400m. Native.

Citrus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 April 2022
  1. Citrus hystrix DC., Cat. Hort. Monsp. (1813) 97; Prodr. 1 (1824) 539; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 342. = Citrus hystrix var. torosa (Blanco) Wester, Agr. Review 8 (1915) 19; ≡ Citrus torosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3. 4 (1880) 38, as 'var. colobot'; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) pl. 25. = Citrus hystrix var. balincolong Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 429. = ?Citrus macroptera var. boholensis (Wester) Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 430; ≡ Citrus hystrix var. boholensis Wester, Philip. Agr. Review 8 (1915) 19; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 342. = ?Citrus hystrix var. micrantha (Wester) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 343; ≡ Citrus micrantha Wester, Philip. Agr. Rev. 8 (1915) 20; ≡ Citrus macroptera var. micrantha (Wester) Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 430; Type: Wester 4829 (PNH), Bohol. = ?Citrus macroptera var. southwickii (Wester) Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 430; ≡ Citrus celebica var. southwickii (Wester) Swing., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 28 (1938) 533; ≡ Citrus southwickii Wester, Philipp. Agric. Rev. 8 (1915) 16; Type: Herb. Bur. Sci., Manila, Bohol (Southwick, Wester). = ?Citrus celebica Koord., Meded. Lands Plantentuin 19 (1898) 639. = ?Citrus micrantha var. microcarpa Wester, Philip. Agr. Rev. 8 (1915) 21. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. In secondary and primary forests, sometimes in or near settlements, at low and medium elevation, often rather common and truly native of the Archipelago. Native.
  2. Citrus macroptera Montr., Mém. Acad. Sci. Lyon 10 (1860)187; Type: from New Caledonia. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Indochina, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Wild in S Luzon and the southern islands of the Philippines; lowland forest up to 600m. Synonym of Citrus hystrix?. Native.
  3. Citrus microcarpa Bunge, Mem. Sav. Etr. Petersb. 2 (1835) 84. = Citrus mitis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 610; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 344. Distribution: China, Indochina, ?Philippines. CEBU. Notes: P.B. Pelser (11-Feb-22): I am not sure if this species is native to the Philippines. It is not known from the wild and cultivated only according to Merrill (1923, as Citrus mitis), but here interpreted to be naturalized in Cebu based on Garces & Flores (2018). Kalamansi, calamondin (orangequat?). Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Citrus × aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. (1913) 465; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 341; Fl. Manila (1912) 271; ≡ Limonia × aurantifolia Christm., Vollst. Pflanzensyst. 1 (1777) 618; Type: Originally described from Ambon but no type material preserved, based on Rumphius’ description and Merian’s plate. = Citrus lima Lunan, Hort. Jamaic. (1814) 451. = Citrus × macrophylla Wester, Philip. Agr. Review 8 (1915) 16; ≡ Citrus hystrix var. macrophylla (Wester) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 343; Type: Wester 4820, Cebu. = Citrus × excelsa Wester, Philip. Agr. Review 8 (1915) 26; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 341; Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 428. = ?Citrus webberi Wester, Philip. Agr. Review 8 (1915) 13; Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 433; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 345. Notes: Cultivated only?.
    • var. aurantiifolia. Notes: East Indian Archipelago where it is apparently indigenous. From there it has spread by human help to the Asiatic mainland and to many other tropical or subtropical regions of the world. It is a distinct species, not closely related to any other species of Citrus. Common name: Lime.
    • var. pseudolimonum (Wester) Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 427; ≡ Citrus limonia var. pseudolimonum (Wester) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 343; ≡ Citrus pseudolimonum Wester, Philip. Agr. Review 8 (1915) 24. Distribution: BOHOL, SIQUIJOR. Notes: Occasionally planted; perhaps a hybrid between Citrus limonia Osbeck and some other species.
  2. Citrus × aurantium L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 783; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 342. = ?Citrus × natsudaidai Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 8 (1919) 29. Distribution: SE Asia. Notes: A hybrid, now widely cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. Throughout the Philippines, usually or always planted. Sour or Seville orange. Not naturalized.
  3. Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck, Reise Ostindien (1765) 250; ≡ Citrus medica var. limon L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 782; Type: from Europe? (LINN). = Citrus × limonia Osbeck, Reise Ostindien (1765) 250; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 343. Notes: Widely cultivated in all subtropical countries. The origin of the lemon is a mystery. Probably it should be considered as a satellite species of the citron; possibly it may prove to be of hybrid origin, perhaps having the citron and the lime for parent species. Here not considered native to the Philippines and not naturalized.
  4. Citrus longispina Wester, Philip. Agr. Review 8 (1915) 15; Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 429. = Citrus sinensis Osbeck, Reise Ostind. China (1765) 148. Notes: Doubtfully considered by Tanaka as a distinct species from Citrus aurantium. According to Merrill (1923), Citrus longispina is perhaps a hybrid between Citrus aurantium and some other species. Cultivated only?.
  5. Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 296; EPFP 2 (1923) 344. = Citrus grandis Osbeck, Dagbok Ostind. Resa (1757) 98. = Citrus decumana L., Syst. ed. 12 (1767) 508; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 271. Notes: All warm countries, but native of the Old World. Throughout the Philippines in the settled areas, usually planted; probably not a native of the Archipelago. Pomelo or Suha.
  6. Citrus medica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 782; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 344; Type: wanting, but plant seen and studied by L. = Citrus limonimedica Lush., Indian Forester 36 (1910) 348. = Citrus medica var. nana Wester, PJS 8 c (1915) Bot. 22. = Citrus medica var. alata Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 431. Notes: The native home of the citron has not been determined with certainty. Occasionally planted in the Philippines but nowhere spontaneous. Citron.
  7. Citrus miaray Wester, Philip. Agr. Review 10 (1917) 457; Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 431; ≡ Citrus aurantifolia var. miaray (Wester) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 342. Notes: Cultivated only?.
  8. Citrus nobilis Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 466; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 344. Notes: Cultivated only (Merrill 1923).
  9. Citrus paradisi Macfarl., Fl. Jam. 1 (1837) 131. Notes: Grape fruit. Cultivated only?.
  10. Citrus × reticulata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 610; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 344. = Citrus papillaris Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 160; ≡ Citrus nobilis var. papillaris (Blanco) Wester, Philip. Agr. Review 8 (1915) 11. = ?Citrus tangerina Tanaka, Mem. Tan. Cit. Farm Expt. St. 1 (1927) 29. = ?Citrus unshiu (Swingle) Marcow., Isv. Soch. Obl. Sukum. Sad. Sel. Opyt. St. 2 (1921) 5; ≡ Citrus nobilis Lour. var. unshiu Swingle, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 2 (1914) 784. Distribution: SE Asia. Notes: Widely cultivated in all subtropical regions. Common name: Mandarin orange. Cultivated only?.
  11. Citrus × sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Reise Ostind. China (1765) 250; ≡ Citrus aurantium var. sinensis L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 782; Type: not from the Philippines. Notes: Artificial hybrid. Common name: Sweet orange. Cultivated only.

Clausena Burm.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 December 2019
  1. Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 21; Fl. Manila (1912) 269; EPFP 2 (1923) 337; ≡ Cookia anisum-olens Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 359; Type: Merrill, Species Blancoanae 1012 (PNH, neo; BM, BO, P, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal. = Clausena sanki (Perr.) J.F.Molino, Adansonia B 16(1) (1994) 147, nom. rej.; Type: Merrill 1791 (PNH, neo; BM, BO, P, PE, SING, isoneo), Luzon: Benguet, May-1914. = Clausena grandifolia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 294; EPFP 2 (1923) 337; Type: Merrill 9544 (PNH, holo; BO, K, US, iso), Palawan: Mt Capuas, on forested talus slopes, c. 800m, 1913. = Clausena loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 27; Type: Loher 12110 (PNH, holo, lost), Loher 13286 (PNH, holo, lost, P, para), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban. = Clausena laxiflora Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 154; Type: BS 48983 Ramos and Edaño (UC, lecto; BO, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Mati, 27-Apr-1927. = Clausena palawanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3781; Type: Elmer 13147 (G), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, May-1911. = Clausena todayensis Elmer, LPB 8(1915) 2805; Type: Elmer 10530 (PNH, holo; BM, BO, L, P, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo (Todaya). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Rizal, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1500m. L.L.Co: The type of Clausena todayensis is known only from the type, collected on a densely wooded ridge south of the Sibulan River at 1,500ft (457m); Tanaka (1932) did not follow Merrill (1923) in reducing this to a synonym of Clausena anisum-olens because, as he stated, Clausena todayensis has a 4-merous small ovary, with only 8 large oil-glands somewhat like that of Clausena harmandiana. The plant is, however, very gracile and not like Clausena harmandiana. Native.
    • ssp. sanki.
    • ssp. mollis (Merr.) J.F.Molino, Phytotaxa 298 (2017) 297; ≡ Clausena sanki var. mollis (Merr.) J.F.Molino, Adansonia 1 (1994) 135; ≡ Clausena mollis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 181; EPFP 2 (1923) 338; Type: FB 16530 Curran & Merrott (PNH, holo; BO, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, near Bontoc, 915-1220m, 21-Jan-1909. Distribution: LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: Medium elevation thickets and forests, ascending to 1200m.
  2. Clausena brevistyla Oliv., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 5(Suppl. 2) (1861) 31. Distribution: Australia, New Guinea, Philippines. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). PALAWAN. Native.
  3. Clausena excavata Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 87; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 337; Type: from Java. Distribution: Bhutan, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. CULION, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Lowland thickets and old clearings. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels, US Dept. Agr. Bur. Plant Ind. Bull. 168 (1909) 3; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 337; ≡ Quinaria lansium Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 272; Type: from China. Distribution: China, Laos, Vietnam. Notes: Not native to the Philippines; widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, but rare in cultivation in the Philippines.

Glycosmis Corrêa

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 June 2018
  1. Glycosmis chlorosperma (Blume) Spreng., Syst. Veg. ed. 16, 4 (1827) 162; B.C.Stone, Gard. Bull. Sing. 46 (1994) 126; ≡ Cookia chlorosperma Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 135. Native.
    • var. chlorosperma. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. BALABAC.
    • var. elmeri (Merr.) Tanaka, Med. Rijksherb. 69 (1931) 3; ≡ Glycosmis elmeri Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 400.
  2. Glycosmis cyanocarpa (Blume) Spreng., Syst. Veg. ed. 16, 4 (1827) 161; Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 421; ≡ Cookia cyanocarpa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 136. Distribution: Borneo, Java, ?Moluccas, Philippines, Sumatra. Native.
    • var. cyanocarpa.
    • var. philippinensis B.C.Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 137 (1985) 7; Type: BS 24568 Ramos (US, iso), Samar: Catubig River. Distribution: SAMAR.
    • var. platyphylla (Merr.) B.C.Stone, Fed. Mus. J. 23 (1978) 98; ≡ Glycosmis platyphylla Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 273; EPFP 2 (1923) 335; Type: Wenzel 1611 (MO, US, iso), Leyte. Distribution: LEYTE, SAMAR.
  3. Glycosmis greenei Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1512; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 334; Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932); Type: Elmer 12438 (L, MO, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Guiting-guiting. = Glycosmis pentaphylla auct. non (Retz.) DC.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 334. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. Native.
  4. Glycosmis lanceolata (Blume) D.Dietr., Syn. Pl. 2 (1840) 1409; Teysm. & Binn., Cat. Hort. Bog. (1866) 208; Kurz, J. Bot. 14 (1876) 35; ≡ Sclerostylis lanceolata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 134. = ?Glycosmis angularis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 489; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 334; Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932). = ?Glycosmis pentaphylla auct. non (Retz.) DC.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 334. = ?Glycosmis greenei var. simplex B.C.Stone, Fed. Mus. J. (Kuala Lumpur) 23 (1978) 91; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995). Distribution: Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Native.
  5. Glycosmis parviflora (Sims.) Little, Phytologia 2 (1948) 463; ≡ Limonia parviflora Sims, Bot. Mag. 50 (1823) pl. 2416. = Murraya cerasiformis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 363; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 334. = ?Glycosmis citrifolia (Willd.) Lindl., Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond. 6 (1826) 72; Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932); Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 334; ≡ Limonia citrifolia Willd., Enum. Pl. (1809) 448. = Glycosmis pentaphylla auct. non (Retz.) DC.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 334. = Glycosmis cochinchinensis Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 268; EPFP 2 (1923) 334. = ?Glycosmis citrifolia var. obtusa Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 420. Distribution: China, Philippines, Vietnam. Native.
  6. Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Corrêa, Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 6 (1805) 386; ≡ Limonia pentaphylla Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1788) 24. = ?Glycosmis greenei var. virgata Tanaka, Meded. Rijks-Herb. 69 (1931) 5. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Leaves and inflorescences very variable; leaves one- to two-paired or unifoliolate, with long-lanceolate, blunt or acuminate leaflets. Native.

Harrisonia R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 April 2021
  1. Harrisonia brownii A.Juss., Mém. Mus. Paris 12 (1825) 540; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 346; Noot., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 207. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. BOHOL, CEBU, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SIQUIJOR. Native.
  2. Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 236; Fl. Manila (1912) 272; EPFP 2 (1923) 346; Noot., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 207; ≡ Paliurus perforatus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 174. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan (photos), Nueva Ecija (photos). Native.

Lunasia Blanco

  1. Lunasia amara Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 783; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 332; T.G.Hartley, J. Arnold Arb. 48 (1967) 460. Native.
    • var. amara. = Lunasia amara var. repanda Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 302; EPFP 2 (1923) 332. = Lunasia macrophylla Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 300; EPFP 2 (1923) 332. = Lunasia mollis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 299; EPFP 2 (1923) 332. = Lunasia nigropunctata Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 301; EPFP 2 (1923) 333. = Lunasia obtusifolia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 300; EPFP 2 (1923) 333. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Well-drained rainforests, moist to rather dry thickets, gallery forests and garden regrowth, also frequent on limestone, 0-900m.
    • var. babuyanica (Merr.) T.G.Hartley, J. Arnold Arb. 48 (1967) 473; ≡ Lunasia babuyanica Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 411; EPFP 2 (1923) 332; Type: BS 4050 E. Notes: Fenix. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYAN. Coastal thickets.

Luvunga Buch.-Ham. ex Wight & Arn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 March 2022
  1. Luvunga monophylla (DC.) Mabb., Telopea 7 (1998) 334; ≡ Triphasia monophylla DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 536. = Paramignya trimera (Oliv.) Burkill, Gard. Bull. S.S. 5 (1931) 213; ≡ Atalantia trimera Oliv., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 5 (1861) 24; Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 427; Type: from Timor. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. MINDANAO, MINDORO. Native.
  2. Luvunga philippinensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 233; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 338; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); Type: BS 9104 Whitford & Hutchinson, Mindanao: Zamboanga. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Primary forest at low and medium elevation. Native.
  3. Luvunga scandens (Roxb.) Buch.-Ham. in Wall., Cat. (1832, 1831 fide Swingle) No. 6382; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 338; ≡ Limonia scandens Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 380; Type: from India. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. PALAWAN, ?TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Primary lowland forests. Common name: Indian liana-lime (or luvunga). Native.
  4. Luvunga subanenianae Mazo & Tahil, Harvard Papers in Botany 26 (2021) 427, as 'subanense'; Type: K.R. Mazo 30 (PNH, holo; CEBU, CMUH, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Norte, Leon B. Postigo, Brgy Tinuyop, 330m, 14-Feb-21. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Mazo & Tahil 2021). Native.

Maclurodendron T.G.Hartley

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 June 2018
  1. Maclurodendron obovatum (Merr.) T.G.Hartley, Gard. Bull. Sing. 35(1) (1982) 12; ≡ Acronychia obovata Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 274; EPFP 2 (1923) 333; Type: FB 26473 Mallonga (US, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Manangas, Carrascal, on slopes in rich soil, c. 50m, 13-Dec-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Notes: Open slopes at low elevation. Native.
  2. Maclurodendron porteri (Hook.f.) T.G.Hartley, Gard. Bull. Sing. 35 (1982) 8; B.C.Stone, Gard. Bull. Sing. 46 (1994) 127; ≡ Acronychia porteri Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1 (1875) 498. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.

Melicope J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 May 2022
  1. Melicope acuminata (Merr.) T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8 (2001) 183; ≡ Euodia acuminata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 183; EPFP 2 (1923) 327; Type: FB 10530 H.M. Curran (US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, near abaca (Musa textilis) plantations, c. 200m, 10-Jun-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Laguna, Sorsogon. Notes: Lowland thickets or forests. Native.
  2. Melicope alpestris T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8 (2001) 229; Type: BS 40279 Ramos & Edaño (L, US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data, Sep-1921. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Native.
  3. Melicope benguetensis (Elmer) T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8 (2001) 230; ≡ Euodia benguetensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2808; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 328; Type: Elmer 14276 (L, NY, U, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1913. Note: Cited in the original protologue as Elmer 14274, but Merrill (1923) only cites 14276. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: High montane ridges, 1800-2200m. Native.
  4. Melicope blancoi T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8 (2001) 245; ≡ Euodia ternata (Blanco) Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 297; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 197; EPFP 2 (1923) 330; ≡ Orixa ternata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 62; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 45; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 84; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 913 (US, isoneo). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets or forests. Native.
  5. Melicope bonwickii (F.Muell.) T.G.Hartley, Sandakania 4 (1994) 56; ≡ Euodia bonwickii F.Muell., Fragm. 5 (1865) 56. = Euodia villamilii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 296; EPFP 2 (1923) 330; Type: FB 20653 A. Villamil (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling, in forest, 300-350m, Oct-1913. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Lanao. Notes: Primary forests, 300-1000m. Native.
  6. Melicope crassifolia (Merr.) T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8 (2001) 222; ≡ Euodia crassifolia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 362; EPFP 2 (1923) 328; Type: C.A. Wenzel 699 (L, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Buenavista near Jaro, in forest, c. 500m, Apr-1914. Distribution: Philippines, Vietnam. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Surigao, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, clearings, etc. Native.
  7. Melicope denhamii (Seem.) T.G.Hartley, Sandakania 4 (1994) 57; T.G.Hartley in B.C.Stone, Gard. Bull. Sing. 46 (1994) 130; ≡ Picrasma denhamii Seem., Fl. Vit. (1865) 33; Type: from Vanuatu. = Euodia subcaudata Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 298; EPFP 2 (1923) 330; Type: BS 15922 Fenix, Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Aug-1912. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. BASILAN, JOLO, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: In thickets or forests. Native.
  8. Melicope dubia (Merr.) T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8 (2001) 233; ≡ Euodia dubia Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 23; EPFP 2 (1923) 329; Type: Elmer 5992 (NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Thickets and forests, 1200-2400m. Native.
  9. Melicope frutescens (Blanco) Appelhans & J.Wen, PhytoKeys 58 (2016) 81-85; ≡ Cissus frutescens Blanco, Fl. Filip ed. 1 (1837) 70; ≡ Cissus arborea Blanco, Fl. Filip ed. 2 (1845), nom. illeg., non Forssk.; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 904 (A, neo; GH, K, L, NSW, NY, P, US, W, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, Mar-1915. = Melicope confusa (Merr.) Liu, Illustr. Native Introd. Lign. Pl. Taiwan 2 (1962) 876; ≡ Euodia confusa Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 391; EPFP 2 (1923) 328; Type: FB 3045 T.E. Borden (NY, lecto; BO, SING, US, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, May-1905. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, ?Taiwan. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Common in lowland and medium elevation forests. Native.
  10. Melicope glabella T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8(1) (2001) 228; Type: BS 79943 Ramos (NY, holo; K, MICH, PR, iso), Batanes Isls: Batan Isl, Mt Iraya, 2800ft, 30-Apr-1930. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN. Notes: Known from Mt Iraya, c. 850m. Native.
  11. Melicope latifolia (DC.) T.G.Hartley, Sandakania 4 (1994) 72; ≡ Euodia latifolia DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 724; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 34; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 18; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 100; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 74. = Euodia bintoco Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 50; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 328; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 981 (US, neo; US, isoneo). = Euodia mindanaensis Merr., Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 1 (1903) 25; Type: Elmer 13844 (MO, NY, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, Sep-1912. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. BASILAN, BOHOL, LEYTE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY, SIBUYAN, TABLAS. Notes: Lowland thickets and secondary forests. Native.
  12. Melicope laxa (Elmer) T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8 (2001) 192; ≡ Euodia laxa Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1509; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 329; Type: Elmer 12562 (BISH, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, forested ridge, 1250ft, May-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: In forests, c. 375m. Native.
  13. Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) T.G.Hartley, Sandakania 4 (1994) 61; T.G.Hartley in B.C.Stone, Gard. Bull. Sing. 46 (1994) 131; ≡ Euodia lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 378, as ‘lunur-ankeda’; ≡ Fagara lunu-ankenda Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1 (1788) 334; Type: from Sri Lanka. = Euodia arborea Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2806; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 328; Type: Elmer 13159 (BISH, L, NY, U, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, on fertile humid forests at 750ft on the trail to Napsan, May-1911. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Cambodia, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. ?LUZON: ?Albay (photos), PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests, c. 225m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  14. Melicope mindorensis T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8 (2001) 193; ≡ Euodia monophylla Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 269; EPFP 2 (1923) 329; Type: Merrill 6169 (NY, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, in forests, c. 750m, Nov-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU (photos), LUZON: Quezon (photos), MINDORO. Native.
  15. Melicope pergamentacea (Elmer) T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8 (2001) 235; ≡ Euodia pergamentacea Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 479; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 329; Type: Elmer 9504 (L, MO, NY, US), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, in the moss-rainy belt of the summit of the lesser peak at 4500ft, Mar-1908. = Euodia reticulata Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 277; EPFP 2 (1923) 329; Type: Merrill 5711 (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, in open heaths, c. 2400m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: In mossy thickets, c. 1500m. Native.
  16. Melicope pulgarensis (Elmer) T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8 (2001) 198; ≡ Euodia pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1831; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 329; Type: Elmer 13216 (BISH, L, MO, NY, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: In thickets, exposed ridges and peaks, c. 1300m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  17. Melicope semecarpifolia (Merr.) T.G.Hartley, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 3 (1993) 522; ≡ Euodia semecarpifolia Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 23; EPFP 2 (1923) 329; Type: Elmer 5868 (NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1904. = Euodia retusa Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 68; EPFP 2 (1923) 329; Type: FB 1329 T.E. Borden (NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Jul-1904. = Euodia camiguinensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 296; EPFP 2 (1923) 328; Type: BS 14664 Ramos. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Abra, Apayao, Bataan, Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Montane and ridge thickets and forests, 1300-2000m. Native.
  18. Melicope sessilifoliola (Merr.) T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8 (2001) 234; ≡ Euodia sessilifoliola Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 410; EPFP 2 (1923) 330; Type: BS 31788 J.K. Santos (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Pauai, c. 2400m, 22-Apr-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Forests, 2000-2400m. Native.
  19. Melicope triphylla (Lam.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 375; EPFP 2 (1923) 331; ≡ Fagara triphylla Lam., Encycl. 2 (1788) 447. = Bergera ternata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 360; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 16 (GH, neo; US, isoneo), Luzon: Benguet, in thicket, c. 1000m, 5-May-1914. = Melicope luzonensis Engl. ex Perkins, Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 161; Type: Cuming 1819 (K, lecto; A, L, NSW, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Bohol. = Melicope obtusa Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 24; EPFP 2 (1923) 331; Type: Elmer 6370 (PNH, holo, lost; NSW, lecto; K, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, May-1904. = Euodia laxireta Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 295; EPFP 2 (1923) 329; Type: BS 21407 L. Escritor (PNH, holo, lost; P, lecto; L, NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Bukidnon, 27-Jul-1913. = Melicope monophylla Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 139; EPFP 2 (1923) 331; Type: FB 3931 W.I. Hutchinson (US, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Maguindanao, Rio Grande Valley, Kabalokan Hills, in forest, 110ft, 10-Mar-1906. = Melicope monophylla var. glabra Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2810; Type: Elmer 13897 (PNH, holo, lost; UC, lecto; A, BISH, K, L, MO, NSW, NY 2 sheets, P, U, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, Sep-1912. = Melicope curranii Merr., PJS 3 c (1910) Bot. 234; EPFP 2 (1923) 331; Type: FB 9663 Curran (US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Mar-1908. = Melicope densiflora Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 182; EPFP 2 (1923) 331; Type: BS 3603 E. Fenix (US, lecto), Batanes Isls: Batan, Santo Domingo de Basco. = Melicope mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2809; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 331; Type: Elmer 13844 (PNH, holo, lost; A, lecto; BISH, GH, K, L, U, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, Sep-1912. = Melicope odorata Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 476; Type: Elmer 10432 (NSW, lecto; L, MO, NSW, NY, P, U, UC, US, W, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, Jun-1908. = Melicope nitida Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 362; EPFP 2 (1923) 331; Type: C.A. Wenzel 822 (PNH, holo, lost; A, lecto; US, isolecto), Leyte: Leyte, Buenavista near Jaro, in forests, c. 500m, 7-Jul-1914. = Euodia coriacea Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 265, nom. illeg., non Lauterb.; EPFP 2 (1923) 328; ≡ Euodia philippinensis Merr. & L.M.Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 22 (1941) 45; Type: BS 35172 Ramos & Pascasio (PNH, holo, lost; A, lecto; US, isolecto), Dinagat: 12-May-1919. = Euodia glaberrima Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 265; EPFP 2 (1923) 329; Type: BS 28864 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; A, lecto; P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Binuang, May-1917. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan. BABUYAN ISLS, BATANES, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Maguindanao, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: In forests and thickets at low and medium elevation, in Benguet ascending to 2000m, common. Native.
  20. Melicope villosa (Merr.) T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8 (2001) 236; ≡ Euodia villosa Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 84; EPFP 2 (1923) 330; Type: Vanoverbergh 1002, Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, in forests, c. 1650m, 15-Nov-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province. Notes: In forests, 1300-1700m. Native.
  21. Melicope zambalensis (Elmer) T.G.Hartley, Allertonia 8 (2001) 198; ≡ Euodia zambalensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3216; Type: Elmer 22326 (L, MO, NY, iso), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg, May-1927. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga. Native.

Merope M.Roem.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 October 2017
  1. Merope angulata (Willd.) Swingle, Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 423; Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 399; Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 426; ≡ Citrus angulata Willd., Sp. Pl. 3 (1802) 1426. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Sulawesi. TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Known from Tawi-Tawi from BS 44341 Ramos & Edaño. In mangrove. Native.

Micromelum Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 March 2021
  1. Micromelum compressum (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 200; ≡ Bergera compressa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 360. = Micromelum tephrocarpum Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 311 (1858) 379; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 335; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 884 (neo). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. compressum. Distribution: LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.
    • var. inodorum (Blanco) Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 418; ≡ Bergera inodora Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 360; Merrill Species Blancoanae 719 (neo); Type: Cuming 1056. = Micromelum molle Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 311 (1858) 380; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 335. Distribution: Philippines, ?Sulawesi. Notes: See Tanaka (1932).
  2. Micromelum minutum (G.Forst.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Pen. Ind. Or. 1 (1834) 93; Jones, Tree Flora Sabah & Sarawak 1 (1995) 400; Mabberley, Fl. Australia 26 (2013) 497; ≡ Limonia minuta G.Forst., Prodr. (1786) 33; Type: from Australia. = Micromelum glabrescens Benth., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 212; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 335. = Micromelum pubescens Blume, Bijdr. 3 (1825) 138; Type: from Java. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sumatra. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Native.
    • var. minutum. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. Notes: Throughout the Philippines.
    • var. curranii (Elmer) Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 419; ≡ Micromelum curranii Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 480; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 335; Type: Elmer 8530 (MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. = Micromelum caudatum Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 26; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; Type: Loher 13615. Distribution: LUZON: Benguet, La Union, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Recorded at 1200-1450m in the Cordillera region of N Luzon.
    • var. tomentosum Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 419; Type: from Timor. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO.

Murraya J.Koenig ex L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 25 August 2021
  1. Murraya crenulata (Turcz.) Oliver, J. Linn. Soc. 5 Suppl. 2 (1861) 29; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 336; ≡ Glycosmis crenulata Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 31 (1858) 250; Type: Cuming 335 (LE). = Clausena citriodora Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 458; EPFP 4 (1925) 248; Type: B. Gallardo s.n. (PNH, holo, ?lost; UC, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Apr-1923. = Clausena worcesteri Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 180; EPFP 2 (1923) 338; Type: BS 10743 Worcester (US, iso), Luzon: Apayao, Tauit, Aug-1909. = Murraya sorsogonensis Elmer, in sched. = Murraya globosum Elmer, in sched. Distribution: Australia, Java, New Caledonia, Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: La Union, Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon. Notes: Forested slopes at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Murraya lucida (G.Forst.) Mabb., Mabberley's Pl.-Book, ed. 4 (2017) 1102; Nguyen et al., BMC Evolutionary Biology 19 (2019) 236: 10; Mou et al., Taiwania 66 (2021) 393; ≡ Limonia lucida G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. (1786) 33; Type: from Vanuatu. = Murraya banati Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2812; Type: Elmer 13647 ('13947' in protologue) (K, lecto; BISH, NY, U, US), Mindanao: Agusan, Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta), Aug-1912. Distribution: Australia, ?Lesser Sunda Isls, ?Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, ?Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: ?Batangas, Camarines Sur, ?Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, ?Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Lanao del Norte (photos), MINDORO, ?NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
  3. Murraya omphalocarpa Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3 (1913) 51; Nguyen et al., BMC Evolutionary Biology 19 (2019) 236: 10; Mou et al., Taiwania 66 (2021) 394; Type: from Taiwan. Distribution: ?New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN, LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela. Notes: Possibly a natural hybrid between Murraya lucida and Murraya paniculata (Nguyen et al. 2019), but see Mou et al. (2021). Native.
  4. Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Malay Miscel. 1 (1820) 31; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 336; Mou et al., Taiwania 66 (2021) 394; ≡ Chalcas paniculata L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 68; Type: from China. = Murraya exotica L., Mant. 2 (1771) 563; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 269; EPFP 2 (1923) 336. Distribution: China, ?Philippines, ?Taiwan, Vietnam. LUZON: Pangasinan, Rizal, PALAWAN. Notes: Pantropic in cultivation. Orange Jasmine. P.B. Pelser (3-Jun-21): Murraya paniculata has recently been more narrowly delimited (e.g., Nguyen et al. 2019). Andrew Beattie (pers. comm., 5-Jul-21): It may have originated in China and Vietnam, but the natural distribution might have extended to Taiwan and the Philippines. Native.
  5. Murraya sumatrana Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 2 (1832) 374; Nguyen et al., BMC Evolutionary Biology 19 (2019) 236: 10; Mou et al., Taiwania 66 (2021) 395; Type: from Bangladesh. Distribution: Borneo, China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. CEBU (photos), LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cagayan, Rizal, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Cotabato, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SULU, TAWI-TAWI. Native.
  6. Murraya zollingeri (Tan.) F.J.Mou, Taiwania 66 (2021) 395; ≡ Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri (Tan.) Tan., J. Indian Bot. Soc. 16 (1937) 232; ≡ Chalcas paniculata var. zollingeri Tan., Bull. Soc. Bot. France sér. 5, 4 (1928) 710; Type: from Lesser Sunda Isls. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines. Native.

Paramignya Wight

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018
  1. Paramignya longipedunculata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 24; EPFP 2 (1923) 339; Type: FB 2146 Ahern’s Collector (PNH, holo, ?lost; NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Pampanga, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation, in forested ravines and thickets. Common name: Luzon paramignya. Native.
  2. Paramignya mindanaensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 140; EPFP 2 (1923) 339; Type: M.S. Clemens 591 (PNH, holo, ?lost; NY, iso, also a possibly unnumbered Clemens duplicate at US), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley. = Paramignya grandiflora auct. non Wall. ex Oliver; Tanaka (1932). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, SAMAR. Native.

Ruta L. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Ruta graveolens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 383. Notes: Occasionally cultivated in Baguio and elsewhere.

Skimmia Thunb.

  1. Skimmia japonica Thunb., Nov. Gen. (1783) 58; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 201; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 355; EPFP 2 (1923) 334. Distribution: China, Japan, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forests on the higher mountains, 1700-2400m. Native.

Swinglea Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 August 2019
  1. Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco) Merr., J. Arnold Arb. 8 (1927) 131; Tanaka, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 424; ≡ Chaetospermum glutinosum (Blanco) Swingle, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. (1913) 102; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 340; ≡ Belou glutinosa (Blanco) Skeels, U.S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Pl. Ind. Bul. 162 (1909) 26; ≡ Aegle glutinosa (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 12; Fl. Manila (1912) 271; ≡ Limonia glutinosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 358; Type: wanting, candidate for neotype: Merrill, Sp. Blancoanae 607 (US 2 sheets). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Quezon. Notes: In Luzon from Isabela to Quezon. Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Common name: Tabog, swinglea or boyag (in Tagalog language, Philippines). Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Tetractomia Hook.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 October 2017
  1. Tetractomia tetrandra (Roxb.) Merr., J. Straits Br. Roy. As. Soc. 76 (1917) 87; T.G.Hartley, J. Arnold Arb. 60 (1979) 132; ≡ Melicope tetrandra Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832 2 (1832) 257. = Tetractomia acuminata Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 265; EPFP 2 (1923) 330; Type: BS 35135 Ramos & Pascasio, Bucas Grande, 10-Jun-1919. = Tetractomia pachyphylla Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 19; EPFP 2 (1923) 330; Type: FB 26985 Ponce (US, iso), Dinagat: in thin poor soil on semi-open slopes, c. 20m, 22-Jul-1917. = Tetractomia philippinensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2813; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 331; Type: Elmer 13702 (BISH, L, MO, NA, NY, U, syn), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, on a mossy-jungled ridge at 5500ft of Masay, Sep-1912; Elmer 13751 (BISH, L, MO, NA, NY 2 sheets, US, syn), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, on a moss-covered ridge at 5750ft of Masay, Sep-1912. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BUCAS GRANDE, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte. Notes: Lowland forests to exposed ridges to 1600-1700m. Native.

Tetradium Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 February 2018
  1. Tetradium glabrifolium (Champ. ex Benth.) T.G.Hartley, Gard. Bull. Sing. 34 (1981) 109; B.C.Stone, Gard. Bull. Sing. 46 (1994) 139; ≡ Boymia glabrifolia Champ. ex Benth. in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 3 (1851) 330. = Euodia meliifolia (Hance ex Walp.) Benth., Fl. Hongkong. (1861) 58; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 329; ≡ Megabotrya meliifolia Hance ex Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 2 (1852) 259. = Eurycoma dubia Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 481; Type: Elmer 10120 (BISH, L, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, on ridges at 3000ft, May-1908. Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, NEGROS. Notes: Slopes and forested ridges, 900-1800m. Native.

Triphasia Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 July 2017
  1. Triphasia grandifolia Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 458; EPFP 4 (1925) 248; Type: BS 40822 Ramos (NY, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Pinamalayan, in forest at low elevation, 27-May-1922. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Known only from the type locality. Common name: unifoliate limeberry. Native.
  2. Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) P.Wilson, Torreya 9 (1909) 33; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 270; EPFP 2 (1923) 338; ≡ Limonia trifolia Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 103; Type: from Java. Notes: Widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, in many countries naturalized. Whether native to SE Asia and Malesia not certain. Throughout the Philippines in the settled areas, in thickets, in some places gregarious and abundant; apparently introduced. Common name: trifoliate limeberry, limeberry, or triphasia. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.

Wenzelia Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018
  1. Wenzelia brevipes Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 273; EPFP 2 (1923) 339; Type: Wenzel 1116 (US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Buenavista near Jaro, in forest, c. 500m, Sep-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. brevipes. Distribution: BOHOL, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Surigao, SAMAR. Notes: Damp forests, ascending to 500m. Common name: Philippine wenzelia.
    • var. alabatensis Swingle, J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 16; Type: BS 48054 Ramos and Edaño (A), Alabat. Distribution: ALABAT. Notes: Known only from the type locality.

Zanthoxylum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 December 2019
  1. Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Sieb. & Zucc., Abh. Akad. Muench. iv. II. (1846) 138. Distribution: China, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATAN. Native.
  2. Zanthoxylum armatum DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 727. = Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 2, 3 (1832) 768; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 326. Distribution: India to China, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: On limestone thickets, cliffs and boulders, 1300-1500m. Native.
  3. Zanthoxylum asiaticum (L.) Appelhans, Groppo & J.Wen, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 126 (2018) 43; ≡ Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 2 (1793) 116; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 333; ≡ Paullinia asiatica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 365. Distribution: India to China, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets, ascending to 1700m (Merr. 1923). Native.
  4. Zanthoxylum avicennae (Lam.) DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 726; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 326; ≡ Fagara avicennae Lam., Encycl. 2 (1788) 445. Distribution: Borneo, China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Camarines, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Misamis, PALAWAN. Notes: In thickets and forests, chiefly at medium elevation, in Benguet ascending to 2200m. Native.
  5. Zanthoxylum integrifoliolum (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 326; ≡ Fagara integrifoliola Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. (1906) 68. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Batan and Luzon southward to Mindoro, Sibuyan and Samar. In forests and thickets from sea level to medium elevation. Native.
  6. Zanthoxylum myriacanthum Wall. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 496. = Zanthoxylum diabolicum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 477; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 327. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Vietnam. LEYTE, SAMAR. Notes: Forest at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1250m. Native.
  7. Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 727; ≡ Fagara nitida Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 439. = Zanthoxylum torvum F.Muell., Fragm. 7 (1871) 140; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 327. Distribution: Australia, Java, Moluccas, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Isabela, Quezon, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests and thickets. Native.
  8. Zanthoxylum ovalifolium Wight, Illustr. 1 (1831) 169; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995). Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Known from Mt Capoas (Soejarto, Fernando & Reynoso 7667: A, F, PNH). Native.
  9. Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 728; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 327; ≡ Fagara rhetsa Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 438. = Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon, Suppl. 6 (1931) 37; ≡ Tipalia limonella Dennst., Reis. Br.-Guiana (1818) 31. Distribution: India to Indochina and ?Malay Peninsula. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Native.

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