Rubiaceae

Acranthera Arn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 June 2018
  1. Acranthera philippinensis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 32; EPFP 3 (1923) 517; Type: Merrill 8309 (L, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, in ravines along small streams, 700-900m, 27-Nov-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga. Notes: In ravines along small streams, up to 900m. Native.

Adina Salisb.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 September 2017
  1. Adina multifolia Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 45; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 507; ≡ Pertusadina multifolia (Havil.) Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 356; ≡ Metadina multifolia (Havil.) Ridsdale, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1970) 250; Type: Vidal 2948 (K, holo), Philippines. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, SAMAR, SIBUYAN, TICAO. Notes: In forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Adina trichotoma (Zoll. & Moritzi) Benth. & Hook.f. ex B.D.Jacks., Index Kew. 1 (1893) 43; ≡ Metadina trichotoma (Zoll. & Moritzi) Bakh.f., Taxon 19 (1970) 472; Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 350-351; ≡ Nauclea trichotoma Zoll. & Moritzi in Moritzi, Syst. Verz. Java (1846) 61; Type: from Indonesia. = Adina zschokkei Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 987; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 507; Type: Elmer 12176. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland thickets. Native.

Aidia Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 July 2020
  1. Aidia acuminata (Blume) K.M.Wong, Malayan Nat. J. 38 (1984) 54; Ridsdale, Blumea 41 (1996) 167; ≡ Gynopachis acuminata Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (1823) 48; Type: from Java. = Randia umbellata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 31; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 528; EPFP 4 (1925) 247; Type: E.B. Copeland 1302 (US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya, Apr-1904. = Randia boerlagei Koord. & Valeton., Bijdr. Boomsoort. Java 8 (1902) 269. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BOHOL, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Native.
  2. Aidia auriculata (Wall.) Ridsdale, Blumea 41 (1996) 161; ≡ Randia auriculata (Wall.) Steudel, Nom. Bot. 2 (1841) 430; K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 44 (1891) 75; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 527; ≡ Webera auriculata Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 537; Type: from Peninsular Malaysia (Penang). Native.
    • var. auriculata. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Forests at low elevation.
  3. Aidia bakeri (Merr.) Ridsdale, Blumea 41 (1996) 165; ≡ Anomanthodia bakeri (Merr.) Tirveng. in Tirveng. & Sastre, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia, 4e sér., 8 (1986) 279; ≡ Randia bakeri Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 109; EPFP 3 (1923) 527; Type: C.F. Baker 3253, Luzon: Quezon, hills near Malinao, 7-May-1914. = Anomanthodia alveolata (Elmer) Tirveng. in Tirveng. & Sastre, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia, 4e sér., 8 (1986) 279; ≡ Randia alveolata Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3266; Type: Elmer 16050 (distributed as Randia faveodehiscens Elmer) (A, L, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, forest along a ridge at 1000ft, May-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  4. Aidia foveata Ridsdale, Blumea 41 (1996) 166; Type: from Sabah. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO. Notes: Known from the Philippines from R.S. Williams 2161. Native.
  5. Aidia pulcherrima (Merr.) Ridsdale, Blumea 41 (1996) 173; ≡ Gynopachis pulcherrima (Merr.) Tirveng. in Tirveng. & Sastre, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia, 4e sér., 8 (1986) 285; ≡ Randia pulcherrima Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 164; EPFP 3 (1923) 528; Type: Clemens 765 (lecto); FB 7863 (US, syn); Elmer 9127 (A, L, NY, US, syn). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  6. Aidia racemosa (Cav.) Tirveng., Nord. J. Bot. (1983) 455; Tirveng. & Sastre, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia, 4e sér., 8 (1986) 262; Ridsdale, Blumea 41 (1996) 149; ≡ Petunga racemosa (Cav.) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 44 (1891) 80; Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 426; EPFP 3 (1923) 533; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1007; LPB 4 (1912) 1345; ≡ Randia racemosa ?auct. non Roxb.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 108; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 528; ≡ Stylocoryna racemosa Cav., Icon. 4 (1798) 45; Type: Nee s.n., 1793 (MA). = Petunga roxburghii DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 399; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1880) 120. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: In most islands and provinces. Chiefly in secondary forests at low elevation. Native.

Amaracarpus Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 September 2017
  1. Amaracarpus pubescens Blume, Bijdr. 16 (1826) 954. Native.
    • ssp. microphyllus (Miq.) A.P.Davis, Blumea 49 (2004) 35; ≡ Amaracarpus microphyllus Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1890) 211. = Amaracarpus apoensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2804; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 568; Type: Elmer 10737 (PNH, holo; A, L, NY, P, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Notes: In primary forests, c. 1050 m.

Antherostele Bremek.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 May 2021
  1. Antherostele banahaensis (Elmer) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 27; ≡ Urophyllum banahaense Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 70; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 522; Type: Elmer 7746 (‘7946’ in the protologue) (L, holo), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon. Notes: In damp primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1000m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Antherostele callophylla Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 29; Type: BS 33326 Ramos (A, holo), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Mt Palimlim, Aug-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Antherostele grandistipula (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 30; ≡ Urophyllum grandistipulum Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 61; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 522; Type: BS 15372 Ramos (US, holo), Leyte: Leyte, mountains near Dagami, in forests, 13-Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines Sur, MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: In damp primary forests at low or medium elevation. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Antherostele luzoniensis (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 30; ≡ Urophyllum luzoniense Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 161; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 523; Type: BS 26522 Ramos & Edaño (US, holo; A, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Dingalan, in forest, elevation at least 300m, 8-Sep-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Isabela. Notes: Primary forests, probably above 300m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Antherostele samarensis Obico & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 104 (2013) 54; Type: Obico & Alejandro 25107 (USTH, holo; L, NY, PUH, US, iso), Samar: Mt Sohoton foothills, Basey, Brgy Guirang, Sitio Wespal. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, SAMAR. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Argostemma Wall.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 July 2020
  1. Argostemma arachnosum Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 465; EPFP 3 (1923) 504; Type: BS 36830 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Along streams at low elevation. Native.
  2. Argostemma distichum Valeton, Nova Guinea 8 (1911) 447. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. Native.
    • ssp. quadripetalum (Elmer) Bakh.f., Blumea 7 (1953) 333; ≡ Argostemma quadripetalum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 361; LPB 1 (1906) 63, as ‘quadripetiolata’; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 504; Type: Elmer 7944. Distribution: LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Along shaded streams and in dense forests at medium elevation, ascending to 1200m.
  3. Argostemma maquilingense Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3242; Type: Elmer 17637 (PNH, holo, lost; BISH, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling, Jun/Jul-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, SAMAR. Notes: Synonym of Argostemma bryophilum K.Schum.?. Native.
  4. Argostemma neesianum Walp., Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 349; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 503; Type: FB 3368 Ahern’s Collector. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: On damp shaded ledges and banks along small streams at low elevation. Native.
  5. Argostemma pedicellatum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3243. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Along shaded streams and in dense forests at medium elevation, ascending to 1200m. Synonym of Argostemma timorense Benn.?. Native.
  6. Argostemma rupestrinum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3244; Type: Elmer 16175 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, May-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Native.
  7. Argostemma separatum Aranas, H.W.C.Hsu & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 437 (2020) 114; Type: Aranas et al. 14-728 (USTH, holo; PNH, iso), Mindoro: Oriental Mindoro, Mun Baco, Mt Halcon, 9-Apr-2014. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Hsu et al. 2020). Native.
  8. Argostemma solaniflorum Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 2; Merr., PJS 2 (1907) Bot. 305; PJS 3 (1908) Bot. 436; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3975; Type: Elmer 6211 (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Sablan, damp shady streambanks, Apr-1904. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATAN, LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO, SULU. Notes: Chiefly in the mossy forest at and above an elevation of 900m, but also along mountain streams at lower elevation. According to Merrill (1923), not certainly distinct from the Malayan Argostemma montanum Blume. Native.
  9. Argostemma stenophyllum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 100; EPFP 3 (1923) 504; Type: BS 20566 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, on rocks along the river, 10-Mar-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Laguna. Notes: On damp banks along shaded streams at low or medium elevation. Native.
  10. Argostemma wallichii Walp., Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 350; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 504. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Laguna, Rizal. Notes: On damp banks and cliffs along small shaded streams at low elevation. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Argostemma umbellatum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3245, nom. illeg., non Geddes; Alejandro, Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 1 (2007) 51. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.

Atractocarpus Schltr. & K.Krause

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Atractocarpus obscurinervius (Merr.) Puttock, Austral. Syst. Bot. 12 (1999) 304; ≡ Sulitia obscurinervia (Merr.) Ridsdale, Blumea 25 (1979) 301; ≡ Gardenia obscurinervia Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 32; EPFP 3 (1923) 531; Type: BS 23492 Ramos (A, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Pocdal, 1-Aug-1915. = Sulitia longiflora Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 494; Type: FB 29445 Sulit, Mindanao: Sultan Kudarat (formerly part of a bigger Cotabato), near Lebak, Apr/May-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Sultan Kudarat. Notes: In primary forest at low elevation. Reportedly epiphytic. Wong (2004) argues that this species is best placed in Sulitia. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Badusa A.Gray

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 September 2017
  1. Badusa corymbifera (G.Forst.) A.Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 4 (1860) 308; ≡ Cinchona corymbifera G.Forst., Acta Nov. Soc. Sc. Ups. 3 (1780) 176. Native.
    • ssp. corymbifera. = Badusa philippica (Cav.) S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1888) 150; ≡ Exostema philippicum (Cav.) Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 113, nom. illeg.; ≡ Cinchona philippica Cav., Icon. 4 (1797) 15; Type: Nees s.n., prope Manila in Sta. Cruz de Laguna (?MA). Distribution: New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines.
  2. Badusa palawanensis Ridsdale, Blumea 28 (1982) 146; Type: PNH 80766 H.G. Gutierrez & R.A. Espiritu (L), Palawan: Palawan, Quezon, Lipuun Point, rocky summit of limestone hill, 500ft, 24-Mar-1963. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Rocky summit of limestone hill. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Benkara Adans.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 February 2021
  1. Benkara emanuelssoniana (Ridsdale) Ridsdale, Reinwardtia 12 (2008) 298; ≡ Fagerlindia emanuelssoniana Ridsdale, Blumea 31 (1985) 243; Type: SMHI 1238 J. Dransfield (L, holo), Palawan: Km 36, Puerto Princesa to Roxas, (erroneously cited in protologue as Mt Victoria), extremely degraded forest on ultramafic rocks, 10m, 12-May-1984. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Apparently restricted to ultramafic rocks. Native.
  2. Benkara fasciculata (Roxb.) Ridsdale, Reinwardtia 12 (2008) 298; ≡ Posoqueria fasciculata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 568. Distribution: Himalayas to Philippines. Native.
  3. Benkara microcarpa (Bartl. ex DC.) Ridsdale, Reinwardtia 12 (2008) 299; ≡ Fagerlindia microcarpa (Bartl. ex DC.) Ridsdale, Blumea 31 (1985) 243; ≡ Randia microcarpa (Bartl. ex DC.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 527, nom. illeg., non Sessé & Mociño; ≡ Gardenia microcarpa Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 384; Type: Haenke s.n. (G-DC). = Randia cumingiana S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 179; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 153; Merr., Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 1 (1903) 53; PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 130; Fl. Manila (1912) 449; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 32; Type: Cuming 1366 (L, lecto); Vidal 388 (L, syn); Herb. Propr. 39 (syn). = Randia ticaensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 245; EPFP 3 (1923) 528; Type: BS 12547 Rosenbluth (US, iso), Ticao: Linadlaran Point, on steep hillside, c. 30m, 24-Dec-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. GOLO, LUZON, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, TICAO. Notes: Widespread in Luzon; lowland thickets and secondary forests, common (Merrill 1923). Native.
  4. Benkara scandens (Thunb.) Ridsdale, Reinwardtia 12 (2008) 300; ≡ Gardenia scandens Thunb., Gardenia (1780) 17. Distribution: China, Philippines, Vietnam. Native.

Bikkia Reinw.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Bikkia montoyae Mejillano, Santor & Alejandro, Philippine Science Letters 7 (2014) 92; Type: Mejillano, Santor & Alejandro 11-082 (USTH, holo; PNH, CMUH, iso), Dinagat, Loreto, Mt Redondo, 22-May-2011. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT. Notes: Inland on ultramafic soils. Conservation status: Critically Endangered C2a(i) (Alejandro et al. 2014; DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Bikkia philippinensis Valeton, PJS 23 (1923) 6; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 492. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, MINDANAO: Surigao, SULU. Notes: In thickets along the seashore. Conservation status: Critically Endangered C2a(i) (Alejandro et al. 2014; DAO 2017-11). Native.

Boholia Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Boholia nematostylis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 493; Type: BS 43107 (A, US, iso), Bohol: Bilar, damp forest, c. 600m, Aug-1923. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sumatra. BOHOL, CEBU (photos). Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Canthium Lam.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 May 2021
  1. Canthium arboreum (Blanco) S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 119; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 155; ≡ Ronabea arborea Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 114; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 204; Type: Cuming 776 (L, NY, syn), Luzon: Quezon. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Quezon. Native.
  2. Canthium bipinnatum (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 53; ≡ Ronabea bipinnata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 162; Type: not extant; 'Illustrative specimen': Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 248, leg. M Ramos (US), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, 19-Jan-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Native.
  3. Canthium brunneum (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 7; ≡ Plectronia brunnea Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 441; EPFP 3 (1923) 535; Type: BS 28791 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Binuang, May-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Quezon. Notes: Mossy forest, c. 1000m. Native.
  4. Canthium ellipticum (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; ≡ Plectronia elliptica Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) 166; EPFP 3 (1923) 536; Type: BS 29594 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Rizal. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Native.
  5. Canthium fenicis (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; ≡ Plectronia fenicis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 166; EPFP 3 (1923) 536; Type: BS 12693 Fenix, Luzon: Benguet, Sablan, growing on slopes, 23-Nov-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, LUZON: Benguet, Tayabas. Notes: Medium elevation secondary forests. Native.
  6. Canthium horridum Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 966; Wong in Ng, Tree Fl. Malaya 4 (1989) 341; ≡ Plectronia horrida (Blume) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 46, 2 (1877) 153; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 537. = Canthium pauciflorum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 165; Type: not extant. ‘Illustrative specimen’: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 143 (US). Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales. Notes: Lowland dry thickets. Native.
  7. Canthium megacarpum (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; ≡ Plectronia megacarpa Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 326; EPFP 3 (1923) 537; Type: FB 8232 Curran & Merritt (US, iso), Luzon: Zambales, near Sta Cruz, 100m, Dec-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Quezon, Zambales. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  8. Canthium merrillianum Mabb., Taxon 26 (1977) 532; ≡ Canthium cordatum (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 7, nom illeg., non Dillwyn; ≡ Plectronia cordata Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 166; EPFP 3 (1923) 535; Type: BS 26549 Ramos & Edaño (A, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Dingalan, Aug/Sep-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Notes: Forested slopes, c. 2000m. Native.
  9. Canthium mite Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 474; ≡ Plectronia mitis (Bartl. ex DC.) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 28. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  10. Canthium paucinervium (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; ≡ Plectronia paucinervia Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 51; EPFP 3 (1923) 538; Type: Merrill 8263, Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River mtns back of San Ramon, in damp forest, c. 900m, 29-Nov-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, LUZON: Camarines, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Mossy forest, c. 900m at the type locality. Possibly at lower elevation elsewhere. Native.
  11. Canthium pedunculare Cav., Icon. 5 (1799) 21; ≡ Plectronia peduncularis (Cav.) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 28; LPB 4 (1912) 1346; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 131; LPB 8 c (1913) Bot. 50; Fl. Manila (1912) 454; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 364; EPFP 3 (1923) 538. = Canthium monoflorum Blanco, Fl. Filip (1837) 166; Type: not extant; ‘Illustrative specimen’: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 380 (US), Palawan: Taytay, dry thickets and open places, May-1913. = Plectronia lycioides (A.Rich.) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 28; ≡ Canthium lycioides A.Rich., Mém. Rub. (1830) 108. Distribution: LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Pangasinan, Rizal, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland dry thickets. Native.
  12. Canthium sarcocarpum (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 9; ≡ Plectronia sarcocarpa Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 114; EPFP 3 (1923) 539; Type: BS 10968 Ramos, Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, in thickets, Aug-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  13. Canthium subcapitatum (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 9; ≡ Plectronia subcapitata Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 443; EPFP 3 (1923) 539; Type: BS 28117 Fenix (L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Apayao, Ngagan, on forested slopes, 10-May-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Native.
  14. Canthium trichophorum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 201; Type: BS 46759 Ramos & Edaño (A, NY, iso), Luzon: Isabela, San Mariano, Ambulawan, along forested streams, c. 400m, 16-Mar-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Notes: Along forested streams, 400-900m. Native.
  15. Canthium villarii S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 120. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.

Excluded

  1. Canthium glandulosum (Blanco) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; ≡ Plectronia glandulosa (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 365; EPFP 3 (1923) 536; ≡ Ixora glandulosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 61; Type: none extant; ‘Illustrative specimen’: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 897 (US). = Polyozus bipinnatus Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 43; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 79; Type: none extant; ‘Illustrative specimen’: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 897 (US). Wong et al. (2018) explain that names based on Ixora glandulosa Blanco are best ignored.

Ceriscoides (Hook.f.) Tirveng.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016
  1. Ceriscoides curranii (Merr.) Tirveng., Nordic J. Bot. 3 (1983) 456; ≡ Gardenia curranii Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 363. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: In thickets and forests at low elevation. Native.

Chassalia Comm. ex Juss.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 September 2017
  1. Chassalia curviflora (Wall.) Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeylan. (1859) 150; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 3; LPB 3 (1911) 1033; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 565; ≡ Psychotria curviflora Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 167; Type: from Sri Lanka. = Chasalia lurida (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 282; Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 140; ≡ Psychotria lurida Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 959; Type: from Java. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Himalayas, India, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand. BALABAC, BALUT, BANTON, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Cotabato, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN, TICAO. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
    • var. curviflora. Distribution: India to China and Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines.
    • var. longifolia Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1880) 177. Distribution: India to China and Philippines.
    • var. ophioxyloides (Wall.) Deb & B.Krishna, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 24 (1983) 222; ≡ Psychotria ophioxyloides Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 168. Distribution: Philippines, SE Asia.
  2. Chassalia obscurinervia Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1033; Type: Elmer 11200 (BISH, GH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, dry forests of fertile soil along the Sibulan River and the Baracatan Creek from 1250-2500ft, Jul-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Native.

Coelospermum Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 February 2018
  1. Coelospermum volubile (Blanco) J.T.Johansson, Blumea 33 (1988) 281; ≡ Morinda volubilis (Blanco) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 137; EPFP 3 (1923) 574; ≡ Coffea volubilis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 157; Type: FB 2290 Meyer (K, lecto; F, NY, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Dec-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Zambales, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland secondary forests to above 100m. Fl. Jul-Aug, Dec. Native.

Coffea L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 February 2022
  1. Coffea arabica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 172. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Naturalized in the Philippines (D. Cabactulan & J.P. Collantes, pers. comm. 11-Feb-22). Naturalized.
  2. Coffea mabesae (Elmer) J.-F.Leroy, J. Agric. Trop. Bot. Appl. 9 (1962) 419; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 537; ≡ Psilanthus mabesae (Elmer) J.-F.Leroy, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia 3 (1982) 256; ≡ Canthium mabesae (Elmer) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; ≡ Plectronia mabesae Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3099; Type: Elmer 17427 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, Mar-1917. = Canthium lycioides A.Rich. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 475; ≡ Plectronia lycioides (A.Rich. ex DC.) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 28. Distribution: Australia, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Rizal, PANAY. Notes: Lowland secondary forests and thickets. Native.

Coptosapelta Korth.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 September 2017
  1. Coptosapelta flavescens Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2(2) (1851) 113. Distribution: Indochina, Malesia, Philippines. Native.
  2. Coptosapelta olaciformis (Merr.) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1856; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 507; ≡ Randia olaciformis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 163. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: In primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.

Cowiea Wernham

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016
  1. Cowiea philippinensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 459; EPFP 3 (1923) 533; Type: BS 36819. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Damp forests along streams at low elevation. Native.

Damnacanthus C.F.Gaertn.

  1. Damnacanthus indicus Gaertn., Fruct. 3 (1805) 18. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: On forested slopes, 1400-2000m. Native.

Debia Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 May 2015
  1. Debia ovatifolia (Cav.) Neupane & N.Wikstr., Taxon 64 (2015) 315; ≡ Oldenlandia ovatifolia (Cav.) DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 427; Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 46; EPFP 3 (1923) 494; ≡ Hedyotis ovatifolia Cav., Icon. 6 (1801) 52; Type: Cavinellus s.n. (MA, lecto), Manila. = Oldenlandia nudicaulis Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 95; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 107; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 20; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 127. Distribution: Himalayas, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Laguna, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Lowland grasslands and clearings. Native.

Dentella J.R.Forst & G.Forst.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 September 2017
  1. Dentella repens (L.) Forst., Char. Gen. (1776) 26; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 447; EPFP 3 (1923) 492; ≡ Oldenlandia repens L., Mant. 1 (1767) 40. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in open waste places in and about towns at low and medium elevation. Native.
    • var. repens. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
    • var. serpyllifolia (Wall. ex Craib) Verdc., Kew Bull. 37 (1983) 545; ≡ Dentella serpyllifolia Wall. ex Craib, Fl. Siam. 2 (1932) 27. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, India, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Thailand.

Dibridsonia K.M.Wong.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 June 2020
  1. Dibridsonia conferta (Korth.) K.M.Wong, Reinwardtia 17 (2018) 116; ≡ Canthium confertum Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (1851) 235; Wong in Ng, Tree Fl. Malaya 4 (1989) 342; Alejandro, Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 1 (2007) 51; Type: from Borneo. = Plectronia viridis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 131; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1008; Type: Merrill 3945 (PNH, holo, ?lost; K, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Mar-1905. = Canthium leytense (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; ≡ Plectronia leytensis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 166; EPFP 3 (1923) 537; Type: BS 15383 Ramos (PNH, holo, ?lost; K, P, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, mountains back of Dagami, in the mossy forest, Aug-1912. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Quezon. Native.
  2. Dibridsonia culionensis (Elmer) K.M.Wong, Reinwardtia 17 (2018) 119; ≡ Canthium culionense (Elmer) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 7; ≡ Plectronia culionensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP (1923) 535; ≡ Lasianthus culionensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 11; Type: Merrill 615 (PNH, holo, ?lost; NY, SING, US, iso), Culion: Halsey, in dry forests, Dec-1902. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CULION. Notes: Lowland dry secondary forests and thickets. Native.
  3. Dibridsonia oblongifolia (Quisumb. & Merr.) K.M.Wong, Reinwardtia 17 (2018) 119; ≡ Canthium oblongifolium Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 200; Type: BS 46109 Edaño (PNH, holo, ?lost; A, K, NY, US, iso), Panay: Capiz, Haman-ay, forested slopes at low elevation, 13-Oct-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Notes: Lowland forest. Native.

Dimetia (Wight & Arn.) Meisn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 September 2017
  1. Dimetia capitellata (Wall. ex G.Don) Neupane & Wikstr., Taxon 64 (2015) 315; ≡ Oldenlandia capitellata (Wall. ex G.Don) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 292; ≡ Hedyotis capitellata Wall. ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 3 (1834) 527. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11 as Hedyotis capitellata Wall. ex G.Don). Native.
    • var. pubescens (Kurz) ined.; ≡ Hedyotis capitellata var. pubescens Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 46(2) (1877) 135. = Hedyotis kingiana Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1334; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 498; Type: Merrill 796. = Hedyotis prainiana auct. non King; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 17. Distribution: Myanmar, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation, in thickets and among coarse grasses.

Diplospora DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2021
  1. Diplospora fasciculiflora (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 113; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 534; ≡ Tricalysia fasciculiflora (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 13; EPFP 3 (1923) 534, pro parte; ≡ Randia fasciculiflora Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 4; Type: Elmer 6900 (NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. = Tricalysia fasciculiflora (Elmer) Merr. var. oblongifolia Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 534; Type: FB 1117 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, Jul-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CULION, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Cotabato, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 1600m. Native.
  2. Diplospora negrosensis (Elmer) Arriola & Alejandro, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 188 (2018) 141; ≡ Tricalysia negrosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 518; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 535; Type: Elmer 9685 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; MO, isolecto), Negros, Dumaguete, Cuernos Mnts, primary forests, c. 1050m, Mar-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Native.
  3. Diplospora puberula (Merr.) Ali & Robbrecht, Blumea 35 (1991) 299; ≡ Tricalysia puberula Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 113; EPFP 3 (1923) 535; Type: BS 20431 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, Feb-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Isabela, Laguna. Notes: Lowland primary forests, ascending to 300m. Native.
  4. Diplospora tinagoensis (Elmer) Ali & Robbrecht, Blumea 35 (1991) 299; ≡ Tricalysia tinagoensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 34; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 535; Type: Ahern 417, leg. Quadras (US, iso), Tinago Island, Mar to May-1901. = Phaleria axillaris Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2840. Distribution: DINAGAT, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, NEGROS, SAMAR, TINAGO. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 900m. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Diplospora sessilis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1329; ≡ Tricalysia sessilis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 535; Type: Elmer 13139 (L, NY, US, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: On gravel bar along Iwahig River, c. 150m. Arriola et al. 2018a report that Diplospora sessilis does not belong to Diplospora, but instead in their Hypobathrum clade. Native.
  2. Diplospora sorsogonensis (Elmer) A.P.Davis, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157 (2008) 121; ≡ Tricalysia sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3269, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: according to Ruhsam et al. (2008): Elmer 17261, Luzon, Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt Bulusan), 1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: Arriola et al. 2018a report that Diplospora sorsogonensis does not belong to Diplospora, but instead in their Hypobathrum clade. Elmer (1934) listed Elmer 17164 (NY) from Mt Bulusan as the type of Tricalysia sorsogonensis Elmer. Native.

Discospermum Dalzell

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 November 2018
  1. Discospermum philippinensis Arriola & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 206 (2015) 44; Type: Arriola T016 (PNH, holo; PNH, USTH, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Tayabas, Mt Banahaw, 623m, 11-Feb-2010. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Conservation status: Critically Endangered D (Arriola & Alejandro 2015). Native.
  2. Discospermum reyesii Arriola, Valdez & Alejandro, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 55 (2018) 156; Type: Arriola, Nievera and Alfeche 14C-466 (PNH, holo; PNH, USTH, iso), Cebu: Argao, Mt Lantoy, ca. 300m, 12-Jun-14. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU. Native.
  3. Discospermum sphaerocarpum Dalzell ex Hook.f., G.H.K.Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1859) 158; Biag & Alejandro, PJS 150 (2021) 913. Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Sri Lanka. LUZON: Isabela. Native.
  4. Discospermum whitfordii (Elmer) Ali & Robbrecht, Blumea 35 (1991) 301; ≡ Randia whitfordii (Elmer) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 130; EPFP 3 (1923) 529; ≡ Gardenia whitfordii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 4; Type: Elmer 6643 (NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, common in the woods at 600m, Nov-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Rizal, Sorsogon, PALAWAN. Native.

Dolicholobium A.Gray

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016
  1. Dolicholobium philippinense Trelease, LPB 3 (1911) 984; Jansen & Ridsdale, Blumea 29 (1983) 278. = Dolicholobium hirsutum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3247. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: In rainforest understorey, but often in more open situations like streambanks or exposed ridges; on well-drained to swampy soils, sea level to 1500(-1900)m. Native.

Eumachia DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 May 2021
  1. Eumachia balabacensis (Merr.) Barrabé, C.M.Taylor & Razafim., Candollea 72 (2017) 308; ≡ Psychotria balabacensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 127; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 365; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 115; Type: BS 21605 Escritor (PNH, holo, lost; UC, lecto; BM, P, US, isolecto), Balabac. Jan-1913 or Aug-2013. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LUMBUCAN, MINDORO, PALAWAN, URSULA. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Moist forest, low elevation. Fl. May, Sep; fr. Sep. Last collected in 1957 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable (Sohmer & Davis 2007; DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Eumachia membranifolia (Bartl. ex DC.) Barrabé, C.M.Taylor & Razafim., Candollea 72 (2017) 312; ≡ Psychotria membranifolia Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 522; Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 124; EPFP 3 (1923) 559; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 115; ≡ Chassalia membranifolia (Bartl. ex DC.) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1032; Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, holo), Luzon. = Psychotria membranifolia var. elmeri Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 124; EPFP 3 (1923) 559; Type: Merrill 4083 (K, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Atimonan. = Psychotria chasalioides Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 125; EPFP 3 (1923) 554; Type: Elmer 12314 (MO, lecto; A, BISH, L, NY, US, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Apr-1910. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. BALUT, BILIRAN, BOHOL, CATANDUANES, CEBU, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MARINDUQUE, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, PALAUI, PALAWAN, PANAY, PONEAS, SAMAR, SIARGAO, SIBUYAN. Notes: Found on nearly all the islands and island groups of the Philippines, although extirpated in many lowland areas. Mostly in primary forests (including mixed dipterocarp forest, and swamp forest) but also found in secondary forest (e.g. emerging from logged-over forest), quite often found near rivers; coral limestone, clay, and ultramafic rocks, 50-1300(-1500)m. Fl. Feb-May; fr. Mar-Aug; Oct-Dec. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Least Concern (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.

Exallage Bremek.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2021
  1. Exallage angustifolia (DC.) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2, 48(2) (1952) 142; ≡ Metabolos angustifolius DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 436. = Hedyotis bartlingii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 388; EPFP 3 (1923) 495; Type: Haenke s.n. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Mountain Province, Quezon, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Open places at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1300m. Native.
  2. Exallage auricularia (L.) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Tweede Sect. 48(2) (1952) 142; ≡ Oldenlandia auricularia (L.) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(4) (1891) 25; ≡ Metabolus auricularius (L.) Blume ex Bremek., Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 56 (1939) 439; ≡ Hedyotis auricularia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 101; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 495. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Bulacan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao, Surigao, Zamboanga, SAMAR. Native.
    • ssp. venosa (Blume) ined.; ≡ Hedyotis auricularia ssp. venosa (Blume) Deb, Fl. Tripura 2 (1983) 52; ≡ Hedyotis venosa (Blume) Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2(2) (1851) 160; ≡ Metabolos venosus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 991. = Hedyotis crataeogonum Spreng., Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 2 (1815) 35. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Bulacan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao, Surigao, Zamboanga, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and open sites.
  3. Exallage buruensis (Miq.) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Tweede Sect. 48(2) (1952) 142; ≡ Hedyotis buruensis (Miq.) Valeton ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 496; ≡ Spermacoce buruensis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 261. = Hedyotis magallanensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 976; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 498; Type: Elmer 12205. = Hedyotis parva Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 162; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 975. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low elevation forests, ascending to 400m. Native.
  4. Exallage cristata (Willd.) Nandikar & K.C.Kishor, Blumea 64 (2019) 229; Batuyong et al., PJS 150 S1 (2020) 492; ≡ Spermacoce cristata Willd., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 3 (1818) 530. = Exallage costata (Roxb.) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2. 48 (1952) 142; Ordas et al., Check List 15 (2019) 308; ≡ Spermacoce costata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 376. = Hedyotis vestita R.Br. ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 3 (1834) 526; Chen & Taylor, Fl. China 19 (2011) 173. Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, SAMAR. Native.
  5. Exallage perhispida (Elmer) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2. 48(2) (1952) 142; ≡ Hedyotis perhispida Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1333; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 498. = Lasianthus hispidus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 10; Type: Merrill 767 (NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Ewiig (Iwahig) River, Feb-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland streamside thickets or gravelly creeks, up to c. 75m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Exallage radicans (Bartl. ex DC.) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2, 48(2) (1952) 142; ≡ Hedyotis radicans (Bartl. ex DC.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 181; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 499; ≡ Oldenlandia radicans (Bartl. ex DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 292; ≡ Metabolos radicans Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 435; Type: Haenke s.n. Distribution: BATANES, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.

Galium L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 November 2021
  1. Galium elegans Wall. ex Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 382. Distribution: Himalayas to Taiwan and Java, Philippines. Native.
  2. Galium innocuum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 341. Distribution: ?Philippines, Tropical & Subtropical Asia. Native.
  3. Galium philippinense Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 238; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 391; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1046; Type: Elmer 6557. = Galium ciliare auct. non Hook.f.; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 4. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Open grassy slopes, 1600-2400m. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Galium gaudichaudii DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 607; Benth., Fl. Austral. 3 (1866) 446; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 4; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 391; EPFP 3 (1923) 575; Alejandro, Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 1 (2007) 52. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: On rocks, ledges, and open banks, 1300-2000m. P.B. Pelser (18-Dec-19): it is uncertain if the Philippine plants belong to this Australian species. Merrill (1923) suggested that it might be Galium subtrifidum Reinw. Native.

Gardenia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 May 2022
  1. Gardenia barnesii Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 47; Type: FB 163 Barnes (NY, lecto; K, SING, US, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River, Jan-1904. = Gardenia segmenta Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1331; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 531; Type: Elmer 13153 (NY, lecto; A, BO, K, L, US, isolecto), Palawan: Mt Pulgar, May-1911. = Gardenia megalocarpa Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 463; EPFP 3 (1923) 530; Type: BS 39819 (erroneously as 38919 in protologue) Ramos (A, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental, Paluan, in forest at low elevation, Apr-1921. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, BUSUANGA, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Bataan, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, TICAO. Conservation status: Least Concern (Wong & Low 2011). Native.
  2. Gardenia elata Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 79 (1918) 81; Type: from Singapore. = Gardenia longiflora S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 153; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 530, nom. illeg., non Ruiz & Pav., nec (Salisb.) W.T.Aiton; Type: Vidal 832 (K, lecto), Luzon, Jan-1884. = Gardenia glutinosa auct. non Teijsm. & Binn.; Elmer, LPB Bot. 4 (1912) 1331, pro parte. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. BUSUANGA, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN, TAWI-TAWI. Native.
    • var. elata. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. BUSUANGA, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: In primary forest at low elevation. Conservation status: Least Concern (Wong & Low 2011).
    • var. longipedicellata K.M.Wong, Gard. Bull. Singapore 61 (2009) 115; Type: FB 28435 Ponce (A 2 sheets, holo; US, iso), Luzon: Cagayan, May-1921. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Rizal. Conservation status: Vulnerable D2 (Wong & Low 2011). Native.
  3. Gardenia mutabilis Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1016; Type: from Sulawesi. = Gardenia ramosii Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 489; Type: BS 43323 Ramos (A, lecto; US, isolecto), Bohol. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. BOHOL, SAMAR. Conservation status: Vulnerable D2 (Wong & Low 2011). Native.
  4. Gardenia ornata K.M.Wong, Edinburgh J. Bot. 68 (2011) 25; Type: PPI 24052 Reynoso & Majaducon (A, holo; K, PNH, iso), Samar: Central Samar, Paranas, Campo Uno, rolling mountain/limestone, primary forest, 400m, 1-May-1996. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: Vulnerable D2 (Wong & Low 2011; DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Gardenia vulcanica K.M.Wong, Edinburgh J. Bot. 68 (2011) 26; Type: Burley 120 (A 2 sheets, holo; K, NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, near Irosin, south side of Mt Bulasan, near lake, 400m, 9-Apr-1987. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Conservation status: Vulnerable D2 (Wong & Low 2011; DAO 2017-11). Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Gardenia pseudopsidium (Blanco) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 109; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 531; ≡ Sulipa pseudopsidium Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 497. See Wong & Low (2011). Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Gardenia jasminoides J.Ellis, Philos. Trans. 51 (1761) 935; ≡ Gardenia augusta Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 485, nom. superfl.; EPFP (1923) 531; ≡ Gardenia florida L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 305, nom. superfl.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 449. Notes: Cultivated for ornamental purposes, but nowhere spontaneous. Only the double-flowered form occurs in the Philippines.
  2. Gardenia philastrei Pierre ex Pit. in Lecomte et al. (ed.), Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1923) 253.

Geophila D.Don

  1. Geophila repens (L.) I.M.Johnst., Sargentia 8 (1949) 281; ≡ Geocardia repens (L.) Bakh.f. in Backer & Bakhuizen van der Brink, Bekn. Fl. Java 15(173) (1956) 144; ≡ Carinta repens (L.) L.B.Sm. & Downs, Sellowia 7 (1956) 88; ≡ Psychotria repens (L.) L., Amoen. Acad. 5 (1760) 377; ≡ Rondeletia repens L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 928. = Geophila herbacea K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(4) (1891) 119; Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 300; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 565. = Geocardia herbacea (Jacq.) Standl., Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 17 (1914) 445; ≡ Carinta herbacea (Jacq.) W.Wight, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 9 (1905) 216; ≡ Mapouria herbacea (Jacq.) Müll.Arg. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(5) (1881) 427; ≡ Cephaëlis herbacea (Jacq.) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 46(2) (1877) 140; ≡ Psychotrophum herbaceum (Jacq.) Crantz, Inst. Rei Herb. 2 (1766) 259; ≡ Psychotria herbacea Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. (1760) 16. Distribution: Pantropic. BALABAC, BASILAN, BATAN, BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, SULU. Notes: Chiefly in forest at low elevation. Native.

Greeniopsis Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2021
  1. Greeniopsis discolor Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 163; EPFP 3 (1923) 504; Type: BS 26448 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Nueva Ecija, SAMAR. Notes: In primary forest at or above 300m elevation. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Greeniopsis euphlebia Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 319; EPFP 3 (1923) 504; Type: BS 35134 Ramos & Pascasio. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland open forests. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Greeniopsis megalantha Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 164; EPFP 3 (1923) 505; Type: BS 34587 Ramos & Pascasio. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Greeniopsis multiflora (Elmer) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 325; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 981; EPFP 3 (1923) 505; ≡ Mussaendopsis multiflora Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 14; Type: FB 490 J.F. Quadras, Dinagat, Mar/May-1905. = Greeniopsis philippinensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 324; EPFP 3 (1923) 505; Type: Merrill 5216 (L 2 sheets, NY, US, iso), Samar: Eastern Samar, Borongan, along border of a nipa swamp, Oct-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Surigao, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation forests. Often on ultramafics. Native.
  5. Greeniopsis pubescens Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 230; EPFP 3 (1923) 505; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Greeniopsis sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 982. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Native.

Guettarda L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 May 2021
  1. Guettarda speciosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 991; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 450. = Guettarda vermicularis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 723. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Aurora (photos), Cagayan (photo), Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan (photos), NEGROS (photos), SAMAR. Notes: Throughout the Philippines along seashore. J.G. Chavez (27-Aug-20): The name Guettarda hermosa is the Spanish common name that Blanco assigned to Guettarda speciosa, but is mistakenly presented as a scientific name (i.e. Guettarda hermosa Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 499) in some resources. Native.

Guettardella Champ. & Benth.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 April 2022
  1. Guettardella attenuata (Elmer) J.G.Chavez, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 97; ≡ Antirhea attenuata (Elmer) Chaw, Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 75; ≡ Timonius attenuatus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 34; Type: FB 1867 Ahern’s Collector (BO, lecto; K, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, Sep-1904. = Antirhea hexasperma (Roxb.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 540; ≡ Guettardella hexasperma (Roxb.) M.E.Jansen, Blumea 29 (1984) 575; ≡ Pyrostria hexasperma Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 1 (1832) 403. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Rizal. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  2. Guettardella benguetensis (Elmer) J.G.Chavez, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 97; ≡ Antirhea benguetensis (Elmer) Valeton, Beih Bot. Centralbl. 34, 2, (1916) 44; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 540; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 4529; ≡ Timonius benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 35; Type: Elmer 6396 (PNH, lecto; BO, G, K, P, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Twin Peaks, on bluffs along Bued Rivers, May-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, ?SAMAR (photos). Notes: Low elevation thickets or forests, c. 300m. Native.
  3. Guettardella bombysia (Chaw) J.G.Chavez, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 97; ≡ Antirhea bombysia Chaw, Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 78; Type: PNH 12400 Sulit (also numbered Sulit 3873) (A, holo; L, iso), Palawan: Anorlan, Panacan, 18-May-1950. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  4. Guettardella caudata M.E.Jansen, Blumea, 29 (1984) 572; Chavez et al., Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 97; ≡ Antirhea caudata (M.E.Jansen) Chaw, Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 80; Type: PNH 12315 Sulit (also numbered Sulit 3750) (L, lecto; A, K, L, isolecto), Palawan: Aborlan, Panacan, 10-May-1950. = Antirhea philippinensis auct. non (Benth.) Rolfe; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1009; LPB 4 (1912) 1329. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  5. Guettardella edanoi (Chaw) J.G.Chavez, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 98; ≡ Antirhea edanoi Chaw, Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 83; Type: BS 44015 Ramos & Edaño (W, holo; A, B, K, NY, SING, US, iso), Tawi-tawi, Jul/Aug-1924. = Antirhea livida Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 540, pro parte. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. SULU. Notes: J.G. Chavez (27-Aug-20): this species is also present in Borneo (K.M.Wong WKM2849, SAN, L). Native.
  6. Guettardella foveolata (Chaw) J.G.Chavez, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 98; ≡ Antirhea foveolata Chaw, Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 85; Type: BS 4796 Ramos (US, holo), Luzon: Zambales, Nov/Dec-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Native.
  7. Guettardella livida (Elmer) M.E.Jansen, Blumea 29 (1984) 576; Chavez et al., Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 98; ≡ Antirhea livida Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1327; Type: Elmer 12968 (P, lecto; BISH, K, NA, isolecto), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, Apr-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11, as Antirhea livida). Native.
  8. Guettardella microphylla (Bartl. ex DC.) M.E.Jansen, Blumea 29 (1984) 577; Chavez et al., Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 98; ≡ Antirhea microphylla (Bartl. ex DC.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 540; ≡ Guettarda microphylla Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 457; Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, holo; GOET, HAL, PRC, iso), Luzon: 1792. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur. Native.
  9. Guettardella paxillata (Chaw) J.G.Chavez, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 99; ≡ Antirhea paxillata Chaw, Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 100; Type: BS 79440 (A, holo; BO, iso), Luzon: Cagayan, Mt Babatgin, May-1930. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Native.
  10. Guettardella philippinensis Benth., Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 4 (1852) 197; Chavez et al., Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 99; ≡ Antirhea philippinensis (Benth.) Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. 21 (1884) 312; Type: Cumming 1827 (K, holo; BM, G, K, iso), Bohol: 1841. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Native.
  11. Guettardella ramosii (Chaw) J.G.Chavez, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 99; ≡ Antirhea ramosii Chaw, Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 103; Type: BS 46597 Ramos & Edaño (SING, holo; B, NY, iso), Luzon: Cagayan, Peñablanca, Apr-1926. = Antirhea microphylla auct. non Bartl. ex DC.; Merr. (1923), pro parte. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  12. Guettardella surigaoensis (Salamanes & Alejandro) J.G.Chavez, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 99; ≡ Antirhea surigaoensis Salamanes & Alejandro, Acta Botanica Gallica: Botany Letters (2015) 1; Type: Lemana, Manaig, Salamanes & Santos 13-908 (PNH, holo; PNH, USTH, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Bucas Grande Island, Socorro, 20m, 20-May-2013. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B2ab(iii) (Salamanes et al. 2015, as Antirhea surigaoensis). Native.
  13. Guettardella tayabensis (Chaw) J.G.Chavez, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 99; ≡ Antirhea tayabensis Chaw, Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 109; Type: BS 28869 Ramos & Edaño (NY, holo; A, BM, K, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Binuang, May-1917. = Antirhea livida auct. non Elmer; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 540, pro parte, as to BS 28514, 28869 & 28982 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  14. Guettardella ternata (Chaw) J.G.Chavez, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 197 (2021) 100; ≡ Antirhea ternata Chaw, Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 113; Type: BS 34916 Ramos & Pascasio (SING, holo; BO, NY, iso), Siargao, Jun-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIARGAO. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11, as Antirhea ternata). Native.

Gynochthodes Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 December 2019
  1. Gynochthodes alejandroi Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 297; ≡ Morinda philippinensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1044; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 573; Type: Elmer 12460 (A, holo; L, NY, US, iso). Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland thickets and forests. Native.
  2. Gynochthodes bartlingii (Elmer) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 287; ≡ Morinda bartlingii Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1340; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 572; Type: Elmer 13037 (BISH, holo; F, NY, US, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets. According to Merrill (1923), very close to Gynochthodes celebica (Miq.) Razafim. & B.Bremer. Native.
  3. Gynochthodes celebica (Miq.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 288; ≡ Morinda celebica Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 246; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 572; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Native.
  4. Gynochthodes elliptifolia (Quisumb. & Merr.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 290; ≡ Morinda elliptifolia Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 204; Type: BS 48909 Ramos & Edaño (BR, holo; NY, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Native.
  5. Gynochthodes lenticellata (C.B.Rob.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 571; ≡ Tetralopha lenticellata C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) 227; Type: FB 13689 Curran. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  6. Gynochthodes leonardii J.G.Chavez, Venturina & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 222 (2015) 68; Type: Pineda & Dimatatac 012 (PNH, holo; USTH, FEUH, iso), Palawan: Narra, Mt Victoria, along Trident Mining Company concession area, 24-May-2011. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Endangered B1&2 ab(iii&v) (Chavez et al. 2015). Native.
  7. Gynochthodes microcephala (Bartl. ex DC.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 292; ≡ Morinda microcephala Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 449; Type: T. Haenke s.n. (G-DC, holo). = Morinda microphylla D.Dietr., Syn. Pl. 1 (1839) 784. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  8. Gynochthodes mindanaensis Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 425; EPFP 3 (1923) 571; Type: BS 34677 Ramos & Pascasio. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao. Notes: Forests, 400-700m. Native.
  9. Gynochthodes nigra (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 571; ≡ Tetralopha nigra Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 58; Type: BS 15877 Fenix (L, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, near Butuan, 30-Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, PANAY. Notes: Lowland forests along streams. Native.
  10. Gynochthodes nitida (Merr.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 293; ≡ Morinda nitida Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 435; EPFP 3 (1923) 573; Type: BS 35074 Ramos & Pascasio (A, holo; US, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE. Notes: Lowland dry forest. Native.
  11. Gynochthodes parvifolia (Bartl. ex DC.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 293; ≡ Morinda parvifolia Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 499; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 573; Type: T. Haenke s.n. (PR or PRC?, holo; MO, iso). = Morinda cumingiana S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 184; ≡ Lucinaea cumingiana S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 216; Type: H. Cuming 1242 (BM, holo; L, iso). Distribution: China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte. Notes: Lowland thickets. Native.
  12. Gynochthodes philippinensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 571; ≡ Tetralopha philippinensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1043; Type: Elmer 12563. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  13. Gynochthodes platyphylla (Merr.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 294; ≡ Morinda platyphylla Merr., PJS 11 c (1920) Bot. 33; EPFP 3 (1923) 573; Type: BS 23414 Ramos (A, holo; BISH, L, NY, US, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: Forest, c. 1000m. Native.
  14. Gynochthodes polillensis (C.B.Rob.) Ruhsam, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157 (2008) 121; ≡ Tetralopha polillensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 226; Type: Robinson BS 9064, Polillo, about 1.5 km south of the town. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. POLILLO. Native.
  15. Gynochthodes umbellata (L.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 296; ≡ Morinda umbellata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 176; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 574; Type: Herb. Hermann 3: 11, no. 81 (BM-000621833, lecto). = Morinda padavara Juss. ex Schult., Systema Vegetabilium 5 (1819) 216. = Morinda scandens Roxb., Flora of India 2 (1824) 201. = Morinda umbellata var. scortechinii King & Gamble, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Part 2. Natural History 73 (1904) 88; ≡ Morinda scortechinii (King & Gamble) Ridl., Flora of the Malay Peninsula 2 (1923) 118. = Morinda umbellata var. tonkinensis Pit. in Lecomte & Humbert, Flore Générale de l’Indochine 3 (1924) 323. = Morinda umbellata var. accuminatissima Valeton, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 153. = Morinda boninensis Ohwi, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 36 (1934) 57; ≡ Morinda umbellata var. boninensis (Ohwi) T.Yamaz., Journal of Japanese Botany 61 (1986) 343. = Morinda umbellata var. archboldiana Fosberg, Sargentia 1 (1942) 123; ≡ Morinda umbellata var. forsteri Seem., Sargentia 1 (1942) 123. = Morinda umbellata var. hahazimensis T.Yamaz., Journal of Japanese Botany 61 (1986) 343. = Morinda umbellata var. obovata Y.Z.Ruan, Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae 71 (1999) 325. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. CULION, LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland thickets and forests. Native.
  16. Gynochthodes wongii Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 297; ≡ Morinda coriacea Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 435; EPFP 3 (1923) 573; Type: BS 34439 Ramos & Pascasio (A, holo; US, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Notes: Lowland thickets and forests. Native.

Hedyotis L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2021
  1. Hedyotis atropurpurea Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 426; EPFP 3 (1923) 495; Type: BS 28578 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Forests, c. 1000m. Native.
  2. Hedyotis bambusetorum Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 469; EPFP 3 (1923) 495; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; Type: Merrill 9214. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation bamboo thickets along trails. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Hedyotis benguetensis (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 976; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 496; ≡ Oldenlandia benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 18; Type: Elmer 6243 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Sto Tomas, May-1904. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forest, 1400-2400m. Native.
  4. Hedyotis brachyantha Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 427; EPFP 3 (1923) 496; Type: BS 28769 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Forested slopes, c. 200m. Native.
  5. Hedyotis cagayanensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 231; EPFP 3 (1923) 496; Type: BS 7502 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  6. Hedyotis camarinensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 468; EPFP 3 (1923) 496; Type: BS BS 33604 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte. Notes: Lowland clearings near thickets. Native.
  7. Hedyotis cardiophylla Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 202; Type: BS 45585 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quirino. Native.
  8. Hedyotis catanduanensis Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 428; EPFP 3 (1923) 496; Type: BS 30443 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Notes: Low elevation primary forests. Native.
  9. Hedyotis caudata Merr., PJS 8c (1913) Bot. 33; EPFP 3 (1923) 496; Type: Loher 6419. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: ?Rizal. Notes: Possibly from medium elevation forest. Native.
  10. Hedyotis diffusissima Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 429; EPFP 3 (1923) 497; Type: BS 28387 Fenix. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Ilocos Norte. Notes: Primary forests, c. 1000m. Native.
  11. Hedyotis edanoii Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 203; Type: BS 47327 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Native.
  12. Hedyotis eucapitata Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 303; EPFP 3 (1923) 497; Type: Merrill 5726. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Mossy forests, 1500-1800m. Native.
  13. Hedyotis hamiguitanensis Santor, Santiago & Alejandro, Webbia 76 (2021) 196; Type: Ordas, Alfeche & Zamudio CB17051 (USTH, holo; USTH, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Mt Hamiguitan, 15-Apr-2017. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Santor et al. 2021). Native.
  14. Hedyotis humilis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 33; EPFP 3 (1923) 497; Type: BS 14691 Ramos, Camiguin: Camiguin, Mt Mahinog, in mossy forests, Apr-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Mossy forests above 1000m. Native.
  15. Hedyotis longipedunculata Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 430; EPFP 3 (1923) 498; Type: BS 30551 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation forests along streams. Native.
  16. Hedyotis luzoniensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 160; EPFP 3 (1923) 498; Type: BS 26580 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Mountain Province. Notes: Forests, at least 300m. Native.
  17. Hedyotis macgregorii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 160; EPFP 3 (1923) 498; Type: BS 8490 McGregor (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Pauai, Jun-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Mossy forest, c. 2100m. Native.
  18. Hedyotis mindorensis Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 361; Type: BS 46363 Ramos (PNH, holo, ?lost; A, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Puerto Galera, forested slopes, 700m, Nov/Dec-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Known only from the type collection. Native.
  19. Hedyotis montana Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 304; EPFP 3 (1923) 498; Type: Merrill 5782. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Open heaths, c. 2400m. Native.
  20. Hedyotis oligantha Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 431; EPFP 3 (1923) 498; Type: BS 29425 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Pampanga, Rizal. Notes: Shaded banks in forests, 300-900m. Native.
  21. Hedyotis papafranciscoi Alejandro, Antoninus J. 1 (2015) 75; Type: Alejandro et al. 14-641 (USTH, holo; PNH, iso), Panay: Antique, Tibiao, Brgy Pitac, Mt Madja-as, 18-Apr-2014. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Native.
  22. Hedyotis pauciflora Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 419; ≡ Scleromitrion pauciflorum (Bartl. ex DC.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 187. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  23. Hedyotis phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 34; EPFP 3 (1923) 499; Type: FB 4552 Mearns & Hutchinson (US, iso), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental, Mt Malindang, in forests, c. 1800m, May-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental, SAMAR. Notes: Forest, c. 1700m. Native.
  24. Hedyotis philippensis (Willd. ex Spreng.) Merr. ex C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 222; Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 37; EPFP 3 (1923) 499; ≡ Exallage philippensis (Willd. ex Spreng.) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Tweede Sect. 48(2) (1952) 142; ≡ Spermacoce philippensis Willd. ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) 1 (1824) 401; Type: ‘Malaspina’ (B-Willd.), Luzon. Distribution: China, Philippines. Native.
  25. Hedyotis pilosissima Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 232; EPFP 3 (1923) 499; Type: Merrill 6704, Panay: Capiz, Dumarao. Damp shaded ravines along streams, c. 100m, 25-Mar-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Albay, Bulacan, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Surigao del Norte, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests and damp ravines. Native.
  26. Hedyotis rigida (Blume) Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 2 (1852) 772; ≡ Exallage rigida (Blume) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Tweede Sect. 48(2) (1952) 142; ≡ Oldenlandia rigida (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 292, nom. illeg.; ≡ Scleromitrion rigidum (Blume) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 46(2) (1877) 136; ≡ Hedyotis rigida (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 181, nom. illeg.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 500; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1963) 287; ≡ Metabolus rigidus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 992; Type: from Java. = Hedyotis asperrima (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 495; ≡ Hedyotis philippensis var. asperrima Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 38; Type: Merrill 7252 (L, iso), Palawan: Malampaya Bay. = Hedyotis gitingensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 979; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 497; Type: Elmer 12434. = Hedyotis leucocarpa Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 524; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 500; Type: Elmer 9434 (L, MO, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, in damp soil of shaded woods, 4000ft, Mar-1908. = Hedyotis pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1333; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 499; Type: Elmer 13212 (L, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), May-1911. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Himalayas, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, BUSUANGA, CAMIGUIN, CULION, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Lanao, Surigao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SIBUYAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Chiefly in low and medium elevation forests, thickets and grasslands, to 1000m, often common. Native.
  27. Hedyotis scaberrima Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 432; EPFP 3 (1923) 500; Type: BS 30940 Ramos & Edaño (A, US, iso), Panay: Capiz, Jamindan, thickets along streams, 27-May-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Notes: Low elevation thickets along streams. Native.
  28. Hedyotis sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 3(1911) 977; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 500; Type: Elmer 12311 (PNH, holo, lost; GH, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (Magdiwang), clayey soil of a forested ridge, 1500ft, Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Ridge forest, c. 450m. Native.
  29. Hedyotis simplex Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 433; EPFP 3 (1923) 500; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; Type: BS 30389 Ramos (US, iso), Catanduanes: in forests, Nov-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Primary forests, 300-600m. Native.
  30. Hedyotis subvelutina Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 978; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 500; Type: Elmer 12441. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Streamside thickets, c. 225m. Native.
  31. Hedyotis subvenosa Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 432; EPFP 3 (1923) 500; Type: Weber 1563 (A, US, iso), Luzon: Cagayan, Abulug River, Jan-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, said to be common at 180-250m. Native.
  32. Hedyotis trisecta Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3249; Type: Elmer 14885 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan (Irosin). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Native.
  33. Hedyotis whiteheadii Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 303; EPFP 3 (1923) 501; Type: Merrill 5733 (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Dense mossy forests on exposed ridges, c. 2400m. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Hedyotis racemosa Lam., Encycl. 3 (1789) 80. Distribution: India, Taiwan. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.

Incertae sedis

  1. Hedyotis laxiflora Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 430; EPFP 3 (1923) 498, nom. illeg., non (Benth.) Walp.; Type: BS 30313 Ramos. Distribution: CATANDUANES. Notes: Forested ravines, c. 400m. Native.
  2. Hedyotis microphylla Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 239; EPFP 3 (1923) 498, nom. illeg., non Willd. Distribution: LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forests, 2000-2600m. Native.
  3. Hedyotis pinatubensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3778; Type: Elmer 22194 (MO, NY, iso), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Pinatubo (Camp Stotsenburg), May-1927. Native.

Hydnophytum Jack

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 July 2020
  1. Hydnophytum formicarum Jack, Trans. Linn. Soc. 14 (1823) 124; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 568; Type: not from the Philippines. = Hydnophytum nitidum Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 307; EPFP 3 (1923) 569; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1039; Type: Merrill 6181 (PNH, ?lost), Philippines. = Hydnophytum intermedium Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1039; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 569; Type: Elmer 10782 (E, L), Philippines: May-1909. = Hydnophytum leytense Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 390; EPFP 3 (1923) 569; Type: Wenzel 45 (G), Philippines. = Hydnophytum membranaceum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 143; EPFP 3 (1923) 569; Type: FB 3720 Merritt (as 'Merrill' in Jebb & Huxley 2019; PNH, ?lost), Philippines. = Hydnophytum mindorense Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 143; EPFP 3 (1923) 569; Type: Merrill 6182 (PNH, ?lost), Philippines. = Hydnophytum orbiculatum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1860; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 569; Type: Elmer 14046, Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, MINDORO, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Mangrove, heath forest, savannah forest, up to 1500m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Jebb & Huxley 2019). Native.
  2. Hydnophytum moseleyanum Becc., Malesia 2 (1884) 125; Type: from Papua New Guinea. = Hydnophytum philippinense Becc., Malesia 2 (1885) 149; Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 213; Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 158; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 7; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 569; Type: Moseley s.n. (K), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Malanipa Isl, Jan/Feb-1875. = Hydnophytum mindanaense Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1039, as 'mindanaensis'; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 569; Type: Elmer 10974, published as 10874 (fide Jebb & Huxley 2019; L, lecto; E, FI, iso). = Hydnophytum brachycladum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 142; EPFP 3 (1923) 568; Type: BS 924 Mangubat (K, PNH), Jun-1906. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls. LUZON: Camarines, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Davao, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, MINDORO. Notes: Mangrove and coastal forest. Conservation status: Least Concern (Jebb & Huxley 2019). Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Hydnophytum angustifolium Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 162; EPFP 3 (1923) 568; Type: Clemens s.n. (PNH, syn, ?lost), Mindanao: Lake Lanao, Camp Keithly, Apr-1906 & May/Jun-1907; Copeland s.n., (PNH, syn, ?lost), Mindanao: Zamboanga, San Ramon, Mar-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, ?PANAY (photos). Notes: Epiphytic in forests, 200-600m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Hymenodictyon Wall.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 February 2018
  1. Hymenodictyon horsfieldii Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1856) 154; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Java, Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Rizal, PALAWAN. Notes: Evergreen rainforests, up to 800m. Native.
  2. Hymenodictyon orixense (Roxb.) Mabb., Taxon 31 (1982) 66; ≡ Cinchona orixensis Roxb., Bot. Descr. Swietenia (1793) 21; Type: from India. = Hymenodictyon excelsum (Roxb.) Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 149; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 506; ≡ Cinchona excelsa Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 2 (1799) 3. Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Himalayas, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Abra, Bulacan, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Tarlac, MINDANAO: Davao, PALAWAN. Notes: Deciduous lowland forest, frequently on limestone, often about cliffs near the sea, rarely apparently in lowland evergreen forest. Native.

Hypobathrum Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 May 2022
  1. Hypobathrum longifolium (DC.) K.M.Wong in Ng, Tree Fl. Malaya 4 (1989) 354; ≡ Petunga longifolia DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 399; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1886; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 533. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Lowland secondary forests. P.B. Pelser (28-Jun-20): Wording in Arriola & Alejandro (2020) suggests that Hypobathrum is absent in the Philippines, but Elmer (1913) and Merrill (1923) refer to Elmer 13928 (L) from Mt Urdaneta as representing Petunga longifolia DC. (=Hypobathrum longifolium). Native.

Involucrella (Benth. & Hook.f.) Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 September 2017
  1. Involucrella coronaria (Kurz) Neupane & Wikstr., Taxon 64 (2015) 317; ≡ Hedyotis coronaria (Kurz) Craib, Fl. Siam. 2 (1932) 38; ≡ Scleromitrion coronarium Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 46(2) (1877) 136; Type: from Myanmar (lecto). = Oldenlandia connata (Hook.f.) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(4) (1891) 25; ≡ Hedyotis connata Wall. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1880) 62, as ‘coronata’; Wall., Cat. (1828) No. 856, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 496. Distribution: China, India, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Lowland forests along streams. Native.

Ixora L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2022
  1. Ixora alejandroi Banag & Tandang, Phytotaxa 202 (2015) 156; Type: Alejandro, Arriola & Wong 12439 (PNH, holo; USTH, K, US, iso), Palawan: Mt St Paul, 31-May-2012. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Endangered B2a B2b (i-v) D (Banag et al. 2015). Native.
  2. Ixora angustilimba Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 320; EPFP 3 (1923) 546; Type: BS 34588 Ramos & Pascasio (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; K, isolecto), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, 24-Apr-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, LUZON: Aurora, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Notes: On dry forested slopes and ridges at low elevation. Native.
  3. Ixora auriculata Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1018; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 546; Type: Elmer 12483 (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; A, K, L, MO, NY, isolecto), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting, densely wooded flats of woodland streams, 750-1000ft, May-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, ?Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, ROMBLON. Native.
  4. Ixora bartlingii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1020; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 546; Bremek., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. 3, 14 (1937) 299; Type: Elmer 12323 (PNH, holo, lost; A, lecto; BISH, K, L, MO, NY, isolecto), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting, wet alluvial soil of dense forest near the Pauala River at 1000ft, Apr-1910. = Ixora samarensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 121; EPFP 3 (1923) 551; Type: BS 15399 Ramos (US, iso), Samar: Western Samar, Catbalogan, Jul-1912. = Ixora arborea Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 61; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 45; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 78, nom. illeg., non Roxb. ex Sm.; Type: Ramos 734 (US, lecto; A, K, L, NY, P, isolecto), Luzon: Batangas, Mt Batulao, in forest, 25-Jul-1914. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, BILIRAN, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MARINDUQUE, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, North Cotabato, South Cotabato, Surigao, MINDORO, PANAY, ROMBLON, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Widespread from Luzon to Mindanao, not recorded from Palawan. In forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  5. Ixora bibracteata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 8; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 546; Type: H.N. Whitford 789 (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Quezon, Tinnan River, Sep-1904; Ramos & Edaño 28678 (A, neo; K, P, isoneo), Luzon: Quezon: Mt Binuang, Tayabas, May-1917. = Ixora ilocana Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 168; EPFP 3 (1923) 548; Type: BS 27325 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Burgos, 11-Mar-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, POLILLO. Notes: In primary forests, ascending to 850m. Native.
  6. Ixora capitulifera Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 233; EPFP 3 (1923) 546; Type: BS 686 Foxworthy (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; US, isolecto), Palawan: Mt Victoria, in forests along streams, c. 1050m, 23-Mar-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Along streams in forests, c. 1100m. Native.
  7. Ixora chartacea Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1861; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 547; Type: Elmer 13806 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; BISH, L, MO, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, in dry, humus-covered soil of forested ridges at 3250ft, in the depression of Duros and Kawilanan Peak, Sep-1912. = Ixora oblongifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1867; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 550; Type: Elmer 13775 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; BISH, L, MO, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, humus-covered soil of steep densely wooded slopes at 3000ft along Dalahion River, Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Norte, Surigao del Norte, SIARGAO. Notes: In forests up to 1000m. Native.
    • var. chartacea. Distribution: MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: In forests, c. 1000m.
    • var. membranacea Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1862; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 547; Type: Elmer 13767. Distribution: LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, SIARGAO. Notes: Medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 900m.
  8. Ixora confertiflora Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 547; Type: BS 35206 Ramos & Pascasio (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; A, L, P, US, isolecto), Dinagat, 12-May-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, LUZON: Isabela, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Notes: Low elevation primary forests. Native.
  9. Ixora crassifolia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 233; EPFP 3 (1923) 547; Type: FB 9439 Whitford & Hutchinson (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Port Banga, in dipterocarp forest, 30-50m, Feb-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Norte. Notes: Low elevation primary forests. Native.
  10. Ixora cumingiana S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 183; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 547; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; Type: Cuming 895 (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; K, MO, isolecto), Luzon: Albay, 1885. = Ixora myriantha Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 461; EPFP 3 (1923) 550; Type: Merrill Philip. Pl. 1700 (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; L, MO, NY, P, isolecto), Samar: Apr-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: In most islands and provinces. Low elevation primary forests. Native.
  11. Ixora ebracteolata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 234; EPFP 3 (1923) 548; Type: FB 5845 Curran (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Zambales, Mahumaling, on dry cogonales (Imperata grassland) slopes, Jan-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Isabela, Pangasinan, Quezon, Sorsogon, Zambales, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  12. Ixora filipes Valeton, Icon. Bog. (1913) t. 359; Bremek., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. 3, 14 (1937) 307; Type: from Indonesia. = Ixora tenuipedunculata Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 551; Type: BS 34475 Ramos & Pascasio (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; A, isolecto), Mindanao: Surigao, damp forest at low elevation, 30-Apr-1919. = Ixora gracilipes Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 119; EPFP 3 (1923) 548, nom. illeg., non (Hiern) Kuntze; Type: BS 20723 Escritor (PNH, holo, lost; K, lecto), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Cadig, near Guinayangan, Mar-1913. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  13. Ixora gigantifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1864; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 548; Type: Elmer 14206 (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; A, BISH, K, L, MO, NY, P, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. = Ixora platyphylla Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 120; Type: FB 18250 Miranda, Mindanao: South Cotabato, Glan, Jun-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, South Cotabato, Surigao del Norte, SIARGAO. Notes: Low elevation forests to c. 1000m. Native.
  14. Ixora inaequifolia C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 222; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 548; Type: BS 10216 MacGregor (PNH, holo, lost), Polillo; Edaño 76461 (NY, neo), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Panagan River, Dec-1928. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Quezon, POLILLO. Notes: 50-2300m. Native.
  15. Ixora intermedia Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1336; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 549; Type: Elmer 12957 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; A, BISH, K, L, MO, US, isolecto), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), stony soil of dense woods along a dry stream bed at 50ft, Apr-1911. Distribution: Java, Malaysia, Philippines. PALAWAN, SULU, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: In forests at low elevation. Native.
  16. Ixora leucocarpa Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1337; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 549; Type: Elmer 12894 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; A, BISH, L, MO, US, isolecto), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, in fertile adobe or otherwise fertile soil of low lightly flats of woodland, or in humid forest at a somewhat higher elevation, 250-750ft, Mar-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, PALAWAN. Notes: Primary forests ascending to 300m elevation. Native.
  17. Ixora leytensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 69; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 549; Type: Elmer 7044 (PNH, holo, lost), Leyte: Palo, Jan-1906; Edaño 15287 (PNH, neo; A, L, isoneo), Samar: Mt Sarawag, 4-Dec-1951. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  18. Ixora longifolia Sm. in Rees, Cycl. 19 (1811) n. 3; Banag, Systematics of the Philippine endemic Ixora L. (2014) 171; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 4529; Type: from Indonesia. = Ixora fulgens Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 10, nom. nud.; Fl. Ind. Ed. Carey I (1820) 378; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 548; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: China, India, Java, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Vietnam. BOHOL, CEBU, DINAGAT, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Isabela, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Misamis, South Cotabato, Surigao, Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Norte, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SULU. Notes: Low elevation primary forests. Native.
  19. Ixora longistipula Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 236; EPFP 3 (1923) 549; Type: FB 13625 Curran & Foxworthy (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Negros: Negros Occidental, Mt Marapara, Sep-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  20. Ixora luzoniensis Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 434; EPFP 3 (1923) 549; Type: BS 29956 Fenix (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; K, P, isolecto), Luzon: Pangasinan, San Isidro Labrador, in forests, 350-400m, 4-Nov-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Zambales, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  21. Ixora macgregorii C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 223; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 549; Type: BS 10219 Mcgregor (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; K, L, NY, isolecto), Polillo, Oct/Nov-1909. = Ixora irosinensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3251; Type: Elmer 17301 (NY, lecto; C, L, P, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Irosin, Sep-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur, Quezon, Sorsogon, POLILLO. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  22. Ixora macrophylla Bartl. in DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 487; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 549; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; Type: Haenke s.n. (?lost), Luzon: Manila; Ramos s.n. (PNH, neo; L, isoneo), Luzon: Laguna, Pangil, 27-May-1959. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Philippines, ?Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte. Notes: In most or all islands and provinces, but absent in Palawan? Lowland forests. Native.
  23. Ixora magnifica Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1865; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 550; Type: Elmer 13424 (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; A, BISH, C, L, MO, NY, P, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, very moist fertile soil of dense wood or forests from 500-1500ft, Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Sur, South Cotabato, SULU. Notes: 30-450m. Native.
  24. Ixora mearnsii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 235; EPFP 3 (1923) 549; Type: BS 2999 Mearns (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Aurora, Casiguran, 1-Jun-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Notes: Lowland forests. Insufficiently known species, no material seen (Banag 2014). Native.
  25. Ixora mindanaensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 237; EPFP 3 (1923) 550; Type: FB 9010 Whitford & Hutchinson (PNH, holo, lost), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Port Banga, 29-Nov-1907; Williams 2192 (NY, lecto; A, NY, isolecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur: Sax River, 14-Feb-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga del Sur, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  26. Ixora palawanensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 238; EPFP 3 (1923) 550; Type: BS 793 Foxworthy (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Palawan: Forested ravines c. 1.5 miles NW of Iwahig, 22-Apr-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CULION, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  27. Ixora philippinensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 238; Fl. Manila (1912) 452; EPFP 3 (1923) 550; Bremek., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. 3, 14 (1937) 343; Type: FB 2299 Meyer (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Dec-1904. = Ixora philippinensis Merr. var. brevituba Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 240; EPFP 3 (1923) 551; Type: FB 15501 (15527 according to L.L.Co) Merritt & Darling (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Pasuquin, on limestone formation, hillsides, c. 100m, 3-Nov-1908. = Ixora filmeri Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1338; Type: Elmer 12719 (PNH, holo; A, BISH, L, MO, NA, NY, P, US, iso), Palawan: Brookes Point, Addison Peak, Mar-1911. = Ixora littoralis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 240; EPFP 3 (1923) 549; Type: BS 1274 McGregor (PNH, holo, lost), Bohol: Tagbilaran, on beach cliff, Jul-1906. Distribution: Borneo, China, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. BABUYAN ISLS, BALABAC, BASILAN, BATANES, BOHOL, LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, PALAWAN. Notes: In most or all islands and provinces. Common in thickets and secondary forests at low elevation, including coastal bluffs and inland limestone formation. Native.
  28. Ixora pilosa Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 39; EPFP 3 (1923) 551; Type: BS 13371 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Quezon, Tagcawayan, Mar-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Lowland forests. Insufficiently known species, no material seen (Banag 2014). Native.
  29. Ixora propinqua Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 39; EPFP 3 (1923) 551, nom. illeg., non R.Br.; Type: Merrill 8254 (PNH, holo, lost), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River Mtns back of San Ramon, in damp forest, c. 800m, Nov-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: In primary forests, c. 800m. Insufficiently known species, no material seen (Banag 2014). Native.
  30. Ixora reynaldoi Banag, Phytotaxa 202 (2015) 158; Type: Banag, Cremen & Pinarok SA004 (PNH, holo; USTH, K, US, iso), Samar: Maydolong, Borongan, 28-Aug-2011. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B2a B2b(i-v) D (Banag et al. 2015). Native.
  31. Ixora salicifolia (Blume) DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 487; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 551; Bremek., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. 3, 14 (1937) 240; ≡ Ixora fulgens var. salicifolia (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 286; ≡ Pavetta salicifolia Blume, Bijdr. Flora Ned. Ind. 16 (1826) 951; Type: from Java. = Ixora longissima Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 235; EPFP 3 (1923) 549; Type: FB 16975 Rosenbluth (PNH, holo, lost; HUH, lecto), Leyte, Mar-1909. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines. BILIRAN, BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Isabela, MASBATE, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: In primary forests at low elevation. Native.
  32. Ixora silagoensis Manalastas, Banag & Alejandro, Nordic Journal of Botany 32 (2014) 763; Type: Banag, Belen, Buhay, Espejo, Manalastas & Mangila 5857 (USTH, holo; USTH, PNH, iso), Leyte: Silago, Brgy Catmon, Mt Mumpung, 11-Apr-2012. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT (photos), LEYTE, SAMAR. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1a C2a(i) (Banag et al. 2014). Native.
  33. Ixora sparsiflora Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 8; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 551; Type: Elmer 6641 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Notes: In primary forests at low or medium elevation. Only known from the type (Banag 2014). Native.
  34. Ixora tenelliflora Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 423; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: 50-850m. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Ixora chinensis Lam., Encycl. 3 (1789) 344; Banag, Systematics of the Philippine endemic Ixora L. (2014) 217. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental, not naturalized (Banag 2014).
  2. Ixora coccinea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 110; Banag, Systematics of the Philippine endemic Ixora L. (2014) 217. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental, not naturalized (Banag 2014).
  3. Ixora finlaysoniana Wall. ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 3 (1834) 572; Banag, Systematics of the Philippine endemic Ixora L. (2014) 217. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental, not naturalized (Banag 2014).
  4. Ixora javanica (Blume) DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 487; Banag, Systematics of the Philippine endemic Ixora L. (2014) 217; ≡ Pavetta javanica Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 949. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental, not naturalized (Banag 2014).
  5. Ixora macrothyrsa (Teijsm. & Binn.) N.E.Br., Gard. Chron., n.s., 20 (1883) 472; Banag, Systematics of the Philippine endemic Ixora L. (2014) 217; ≡ Pavetta macrothyrsa Teijsm. & Binn., Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 29 (1867) 246. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental, not naturalized (Banag 2014).

Kanapia Arriola & Alejandro

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 May 2021
  1. Kanapia monstrosa (A.Rich.) Arriola & Alejandro, Plant Syst. Evol. 302 (2016) 917; ≡ Canthium monstrosum (A.Rich.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; ≡ Plectronia monstrosa A.Rich., Mém. Rub. (1830) 109; Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 48; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 365; EPFP 3 (1923) 538; Type: Perrottet s.n. (P 2 sheets). Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Apayao, Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Low and medium elevation secondary forests, often common. Native.
  2. Kanapia wenzelii (Merr.) Arriola, Paraguison & Alejandro, Plant Syst. Evol. 302 (2016) 918; ≡ Canthium wenzelii (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 9; ≡ Plectronia wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 387; EPFP 3 (1923) 539; Type: Wenzel 399 (US, lecto; A, HUH, MO, isolecto), Leyte: Leyte, 30-Aug-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, LEYTE. Notes: Lowland forest, 60-350m. Native.

Knoxia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 September 2021
  1. Knoxia sumatrensis (Retz.) DC., Prod. 4 (1830) 569; ≡ Spermacoce sumatrensis Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 23; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630. Native.
    • var. sumatrensis. = Knoxia corymbosa Willd., Sp. Pl. 1 (1797) 582; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 535. Distribution: Australia, SE Asia. CULION, LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: In open places, on banks, etc., sometimes at sea level, more commonly at medium elevation, ascending to 1500m.

Lasianthus Jack

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 May 2021
  1. Lasianthus acuminatissimus Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 467; Type: BS 38058 Ramos & Edaño (K, lecto; P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Bontoc, Mt Caua. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: In mossy forests, c. 1800m. Only known from the type (Zhu et al. 2012). Native.
  2. Lasianthus attenuatus Jack, Trans. Linn. Soc. 14 (1823) 126; Type: from Sumatra. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. attenuatus. = Lasianthus bordenii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 11; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 565; Type: Elmer 6997 (NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. = Lasianthus copelandii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 10; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 566; Type: E.B. Copeland s.n., Negros: Gimogon River, in forests, Jan-1905. = Lasianthus wallichii (Wight & Arn.) Wight, Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 6 (1846) 503; Li & Liu, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 295. = Lasianthus densifolius Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 321. = Lasianthus plagiophyllus Hance, J. Bot. 13 (1875) 196. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: In primary forests at low elevation to 900m.
  3. Lasianthus biflorus (Blume) M.Gangop. & Chakrab., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 16 (1992) 338; ≡ Litosanthes biflora Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 21; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 568. = Lasianthus gracilis King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 73 (1904) 132. = Lasianthus gainii M.Gangop. & Chakrab., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 16 (1992) 338. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: In damp primary forests, chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Native.
  4. Lasianthus brochidodromus H.Zhu, Blumea 57 (2012) 21; Type: Gaerlan et al. PPI 23712 (L, holo), Luzon: Quezon, Alabat Isl, in dipterocarp forest, 175m, 25-March-1996. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Native.
  5. Lasianthus chinensis (Champ.) Benth., Fl. Hongk. (1861) 160; ≡ Nonatelia chinensis (Champ.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 291; ≡ Mephitidia chinensis Champ., Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 4 (1852) 196. = Lasianthus dinhensis Pierre ex Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1924) 388. Distribution: Cambodia, China, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Native.
  6. Lasianthus chlorocarpus K.Schum., Nachträge Flora Deutschen Schutzgebiete Sudsee (1905) 399; Type: Lauterbach 3151 (B, lost), Wiakabu et al. LAE 50043 (L, neo). Distribution: Australia, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. Native.
  7. Lasianthus chrysoneurus (Korth.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 322; ≡ Mephitidia chrysoneura Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (1851) 222; Type: from Java. Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. PALAWAN, PANAY. Native.
  8. Lasianthus clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 164; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 565; Type: Clemens 561, Clemens 846 (syn, PNH, lost), Mindanao, Leyte; Elmer 13613 (K, neo), Mindanao, Agusan, Cabadbaran. = Lasianthus bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3252. = Lasianthus canephoroides Wernham, J. Bot. 56 (1918) 73. = Lasianthus neglectus Valeton ex Bakh.f., Blumea 12 (1963) 63. Distribution: Java, New Guinea, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PANAY (photos by Pelser & Barcelona). Notes: In primary forests, ascending to 700m. Native.
  9. Lasianthus constrictus Wight, Calcutta Journal of Natural History 6 (1846) 515; Type: from Myanmar. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand. ?NEGROS, ?PALAWAN. Notes: P.B. Pelser (20-Dec-2016): Arshed & Alejandro (2016) mention Palawan as the Philippine locality of this species, but cite a specimen from Negros (Edaño 21913). Native.
  10. Lasianthus cyanocarpus Jack, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 14 (1825) 125; Chao, Fl. Taiwan 4 (1978) 289; Li & Liu, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 280; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 565; Type: Jack s.n. (holo, lost), Sumatra; Borssum 1864 (L, neo). = Nonatelia inaequalis (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 291; ≡ Mephitidia inaequalis (Blume) DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 453; ≡ Lasianthus inaequalis Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 996; Type: Merrill 863. = Lasianthus subinaequalis King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 73 (1904) 120. = Lasianthus bractescens Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 79 (1918) 85. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BILIRAN, BUSUANGA, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: In damp primary forests at low elevation. Native.
  11. Lasianthus fordii Hance, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 324; Chao, Fl. Taiwan 4 (1978) 292; Li & Liu, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 284; Type: Ford 66 (BM, holo; K, iso), China. Native.
    • var. fordii. = Lasianthus zambalensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3209. = Mephitidia tashiroi (Matsum.) Nakai, Trees Shrubs Japan (1922) 396; ≡ Lasianthus tashiroi Matsum., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 15 (1901) 37; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 567. Distribution: Cambodia, China, Japan, Java, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Zambales, MINDANAO, NEGROS. Notes: Chiefly in the mossy forests, 1000-2000m.
    • var. microphyllus (Elmer) H.Zhu, Blumea 57 (2012) 45; ≡ Lasianthus microphyllus Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1870; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 566; Chao, Fl. Taiwan 4 (1978) 298; Li & Liu, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 290; Type: Elmer 13790 (A, CAS, E, K, L, MO, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Mt Urdaneta, 6500ft, mossy forest. Distribution: Java, Philippines, Taiwan. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Chiefly in the mossy forest, 1000-2200m.
  12. Lasianthus halconensis Arshed & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 288 (2016) 298; Type: Aranas et al. s.n. (PNH 254961, holo; USTH 12526, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Baco, Mt Halcon, 826m, Apr-2014. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Humid dipterocarp forest. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1a (Arshed & Alejandro 2016). Native.
  13. Lasianthus hirsutus (Roxb.) Merr., J. Arnold Arb. 33 (1952) 229; ≡ Triosteum hirsutum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 538; Type: Unknown collector, sp. no: 139 (BM, holo), Chittagong. = Lasianthus everettii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 265. = Lasianthus bracteatus Wight, Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 6 (1846) 501. = Lasianthus roxburghii Wight, Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 6 (1846) 502. = Lasianthus oculus-cati Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 315. = Lasianthus laevicaulis Kurz, J. Bot. 13 (1875) 327. = Lasianthus cyanocarpus var. novoguineensis Valeton, Nova Guinea 8 (1911) 498. = Lasianthus cyanocarpus var. asperatus Pierre ex Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1924) 381. = Lasianthus cyanocarpus var. lucidulus Pierre ex Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1924) 382. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, NEGROS, SAMAR. Native.
  14. Lasianthus hispidulus (Drake) Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1924) 393; ≡ Mephitidia hispidula Drake, J. Bot. (Morot) 9 (1895) 239; Type: from Vietnam. Distribution: China, Japan, Java, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. ?CAMIGUIN, ?LUZON: Benguet. Notes: P.B. Pelser (20-Dec-2016): Arshed & Alejandro (2016) mention Camiguin as the Philippine locality of this species, but cite a specimen from Benguet (M. Jacobs 104202). Native.
  15. Lasianthus lucidus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 997; ≡ Nonatelia lucida (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 291; ≡ Mephitidia lucida (Blume) DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 453; Type: Blume s.n. (L0000697, lecto). Distribution: China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. lucidus. Distribution: China, Philippines, SE Asia.
  16. Lasianthus obliquinervis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 136; Chao, Fl. Taiwan 4 (1978) 301; Li & Liu, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 293; Type: Whitford 247 (US, lecto), Luzon, Bataan, May-1904. Native.
    • ssp. obliquinervis. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Luzon to Mindanao.
  17. Lasianthus palawanensis H.Zhu, Blumea 57 (2012) 71; Type: Elmer 13252 (L, holo), Palawan, May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  18. Lasianthus pergamaceus King & Gamble, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 73 (1904) 123; Type: Wray 270 (SING, holo; K, iso), Peninsular Malaysia. = Lasianthus coriaceus King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 73 (1904) 123. = Lasianthus crassifolius Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 79 (1918) 85. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  19. Lasianthus reticulatus Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 1000; Type: Blume s.n. (L0000700, holo; L0000701, L0000702, iso), Java. = Lasianthus cinnamomoides Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 325. = Lasianthus maingayi Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1880) 188. = Lasianthus caloneurus K.Schum., Bot. Tidsskr. 24 (1902) 339. = Lasianthus flavicans King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 73 (1904) 116. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Native.
  20. Lasianthus ridsdalei H.Zhu, Blumea 57 (2012) 79; Type: C.E. Ridsdale 1046 (L, holo), Palawan: Infanta Mine area, 200m, in lowland forest, 25-Oct-1985. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  21. Lasianthus rigidus Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 321; Type: Junghuhn s.n. (L0000704, lecto), Java. = Lasianthus tentaculatus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1880) 181. = Lasianthus humilis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 519; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 565; Type: Elmer 9678 (or 9687?), Negros. Distribution: China, India, Java, Philippines, Sumatra. NEGROS. Notes: On forested ridges, c.1000m. Native.
  22. Lasianthus sikkimensis Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1880) 180; Type: Hooker & Thomson 11 (K, holo), Sikkim-Himalaya. = Lasianthus mindananensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 466; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 567; Type: BS 38795 Ramos & Edaño. = Lasianthus langkokensis (Drake) Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1924) 379; ≡ Mephitidia langkokensis Drake, J. Bot. (Morot) 9 (1895) 240; ≡ Lasianthus sikkimensis ssp. langkokensis (Pit.) H.Zhu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 32 (1994) 61. = Lasianthus baviensis (Drake) Pit., Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1924) 380; ≡ Mephitidia baviensis Drake, J. Bot. (Morot) 9 (1895) 239. = Lasianthus tsangii Merr. ex H.L.Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 24 (1943) 457. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO. Notes: In damp forests, c. 1000m. Native.
  23. Lasianthus stipularis Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 997; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 567; ≡ Mephitidia stipularis (Blume) DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 453; Type: from Java. Native.
    • var. stipularis. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LEYTE, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: In damp primary forests at low elevation.
  24. Lasianthus submembranifolius Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1871; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 567; Type: Elmer 14261 (A, CAS, K, L, MO, NY, iso), Mindanao: Mt Urdaneta, 3250ft. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Native.
  25. Lasianthus trichophlebus Hemsl. ex Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23 (1888) 388. Native.
    • var. trichophlebus; Type: Ford 113 (K, holo), China. = Lasianthus barbellatus Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 77 (1917) 187; ≡ Lasianthus trichophlebus Hemsl. ssp. barbellatus (Ridl.) H.Zhu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 39 (2001) 144. = Lasianthus cupreus Pierre ex Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1924) 392. = Lasianthus andamanicus var. ciliatus Deb & M.Gangop., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 84 (1988) 458. Distribution: China, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDORO, PALAWAN.
    • var. latifolius (Miq.) H.Zhu, Syst. Geogr. Pl. 72 (2002) 93; ≡ Lasianthus sylvestris var. latifolius Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1869) 248. = Lasianthus tomentosus var. hiiranensis (Hayata) H.Zhu, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 20 (1998) 156; ≡ Lasianthus hiiranensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 9 (1920) 62; Chao, Fl. Taiwan 4 (1978) 295; Li & Liu, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 287. = Lasianthus lei Merr. & F.P.Metcalf ex H.S.Lo, Bot. J. South China 2 (1993) 12. Distribution: China, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
  26. Lasianthus verticillatus (Lour.) Merr., Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. n. s. 24, 2 (1935) 372; ≡ Dasus verticillatus Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 141; Type: Dausus G.48 (BM, holo), Vietnam. = Lasianthus sylvestris Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 999. = Lasianthus sylvestris var. subsessilis (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1869) 248; ≡ Lasianthus subsessilis Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 550. = Lasianthus truncatus Bedd., Icon. Pl. Ind. Or. (1868) 2. = Lasianthus andamanicus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1880) 189. = Lasianthus wrayi King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 73 (1904) 119. = Lasianthus morus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 73; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 567; Type: Elmer 7050 (NY, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Palo, wooded ravines along the Bangon River, Jan-1906. = Lasianthus tamirensis Pierre ex Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1924) 390. = Lasianthus nigrocarpus Masam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 22 (1932) 222, nom. nud. = Lasianthus taitoensis Simizu, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 34 (1944) 239; ≡ Lasianthus obliquinervis var. taitoensis (Simizu) Tang S.Liu & J.M.Chao, Taiwania 10 (1964) 145; ≡ Lasianthus verticillatus (Lour.) Merr. var. taitoensis (Simizu) H.Zhu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 32 (1994) 69. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BABUYAN ISLS, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: In primary forests, mostly at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Native.

Leptopetalum Hook. & Arn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2021
  1. Leptopetalum biflorum (L.) Neupane & N.Wikstr., Taxon 64 (2015) 317; ≡ Thecagonum biflorum (L.) Babu, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 11 (1971) 214; ≡ Gonotheca biflora (L.) Masam., Sci. Rep. Kanazawa Univ., Biol. 4 (1955) 78; ≡ Hedyotis biflora (L.) Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1792) 272; ≡ Oldenlandia biflora L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 119; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 492; Type: from Sri Lanka (lecto). Distribution: Australia, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation weed in waste places, cultivated sites, settlements, etc. Common. Native.
  2. Leptopetalum pteritum (Blume) Neupane & N.Wikstr., Taxon 64 (2015) 317; ≡ Thecagonum pteritum (Blume) Babu, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 11 (1971) 214; ≡ Oldenlandia pterita (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 193; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 494; ≡ Hedyotis pterita Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 972; Type: from Java (lecto). Distribution: Andaman Isls, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO: Davao, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland clearings, plantations, etc., seen in limestone areas. Native.
  3. Leptopetalum strigulosum (Bartl. ex DC.) Neupane & N.Wikstr., Taxon 64 (2015) 317; ≡ Thecagonum strigulosum (Bartl. ex DC.) Terrell & H.Rob., J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1 (2007) 377; ≡ Hedyotis strigulosa (Bartl. ex DC.) Fosberg, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 45 (1980) 28; ≡ Oldenlandia strigulosa Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 427; Type: from Marianas (lecto). Distribution: China, India, Japan, Korea, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Taiwan. Native.

Ludekia Ridsdale

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016
  1. Ludekia bernardoi (Merr.) Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 335; ≡ Neonauclea bernardoi (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 539; EPFP 3 (1923) 511; ≡ Nauclea bernardoi Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 102; Type: FB 20446 Bernardo, Luzon: Cagayan, May-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Laguna, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Davao, Zamboanga, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.

Mitracarpus Zucc. ex Schultes & Schultes.f. (Not native)

  1. Mitracarpus hirtus (L.) DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 572; ≡ Spermacoce hirta L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 148. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Introduced elsewhere. Naturalized.

Mitragyna Korth.

  1. Mitragyna diversifolia (Wall. ex G.Don) Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 71; Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 65; ≡ Stephegyne diversifolia (Wall. ex G.Don) Brandis, Forest Fl. NW India (1874) 263; ≡ Nauclea diversifolia Wall. ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 3 (1834) 467. = Mitragyna rotundifolia (Roxb.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 289; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 446; EPFP 3 (1923) 508; ≡ Nauclea rotundifolia Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 124. = Nauclea adina Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 102. = Stephegyne tubulosa Fern.-Vill. in Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 4(13A) (1880) 104. = Stephegyne parvifolia S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) t. 56. Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. GUIMARAS, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation dry thickets. Native.
  2. Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 69; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 12; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 508; Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 65; ≡ Stephegyne speciosa Korth., Verh. Nat. Geschaft Bot. (1839-43) 160. = Nauclea luzoniensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 102. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.

Morinda L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 September 2021
  1. Morinda carnosa Venturina, Suarez & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 308 (2017) 141; Type: Suarez et al. 13222 (PNH, holo; USTH012286-012294, iso), Coron: Coron, Sitio Malbato, Mt Talon, Apr-2013. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CORON, PANAY. Notes: Dry and fertile soil among thickets of grasses and low shrubs. Fl. & fr. Mar-May. Conservation status: Critically Endangered C2a(i) (Venturina et al. 2017). Native.
  2. Morinda citrifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 176; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 453; EPFP 3 (1923) 573; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Native.
    • var. citrifolia. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Lowland thickets, chiefly along the seashore.
    • var. bracteata (Roxb.) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 46(2) (1877) 151; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1880) 156, nom. illeg.; ≡ Morinda bracteata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 198, nom. illeg.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 453; EPFP 3 (1923) 572. Distribution: Australia, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Lowland thickets and secondary forests.
  3. Morinda coreia Buch.-Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 13 (1822) 537. = Morinda tinctoria Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 197; Hort. Beng. (1814) 15, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 572. Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. CEBU (photos), LUZON: Benguet, NEGROS. Notes: Thickets and forests up to 500m. According to Merrill (1923) identification of Philippine materials not certain as the material is imperfect. Native.

Mussaenda Burm. ex L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2021
  1. Mussaenda acuminatissima Merr., PJS 17 c (1920) 436; EPFP 3 (1923) 517; Jayaweera, J. Arn. Arb. 45 (1964) 104; Type: BS 33133 (NY, lecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Mt Nangapatan, dry slopes, 700m, 8-Aug-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Ilocos Norte. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Mussaenda albiflora Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 241; EPFP 3 (1923) 518; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 105; Type: FB 17358 Curran (NY, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Negros: Negros Occidental, Faraon, Sep-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Humid gullies to c. 300m. Native.
  3. Mussaenda anisophylla S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 178; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 518; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 108; Type: Cuming 918 (BM, lecto; G, K, isolecto), Luzon: Albay. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, DINAGAT, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Ifugao, Kalinga, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Near water courses in deeply shaded ravines in mossy forests, medium elevation up to 800m. Native.
  4. Mussaenda attenuifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1874; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 518, as ‘attenuatifolia’; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 109; Type: Elmer 13304 (A, lecto; BISH, BRIT, CAS, E, GH, K, L, MO, NA, NY, U, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, fairly well-scattered in wet earth and upon rock ledges of the wooded banks of the Catangan Creek, Jul-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Along wooded stream embankments, 150-450m. Known only from the type collection. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Mussaenda benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 13; EPFP 3 (1923) 518; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 111; Type: Elmer 5935 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Notes: In thickets on open slopes, in ravines, etc., 1200-2200m. Native.
  6. Mussaenda chlorantha Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 47; EPFP 3 (1923) 518; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 112; Type: Merrill 770 (US, lecto; FR, M, U, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Tonglon (Mt Sto Tomas), in forests, c. 1800m, May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Rizal, NEGROS. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Mussaenda grandibracteata Alejandro, Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 101 (2016) 480; Type: Alejandro & Castro 14 (PNH, holo; NY, Univ. Santo Tomas Herb., iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental, Magsaysay, San Nicolas, 15-Oct-2002. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, MINDORO. Conservation status: Endangered C2a(i) (Alejandro et al. 2016). Native.
  8. Mussaenda grandifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 12; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 518; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 115; Type: Merrill 817 (US, lecto), Palawan: Paragua, Point Separation, 20-Feb-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  9. Mussaenda lanata C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 47; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 518; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 116; Type: Merrill 6681 (US, lecto), Luzon: Benguet, Antamok, May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Mountain Province, Zambales. Notes: Streamside thickets, 900-1600m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  10. Mussaenda liedeae Alejandro, Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 101 (2016) 485; Type: Alejandro 89 (UBT, holo; NY, US, Univ. Santo Tomas Herb., iso), Palawan: Taytay, Ibangley, 20-Nov-2002. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Critically Endangered C2a(i) (Alejandro et al. 2016). Native.
  11. Mussaenda macrophylla Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 228; Type: from Nepal. Native.
    • var. brevipilosa Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 117; Type: BS 3770 Fenix (NY, holo; US, iso), Batanes, May/Jun-1907. = Mussaenda macrophylla auct. non Wall. in Roxb.; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 437; EPFP 3 (1923) 518. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATANES, BOHOL, CALAYAN, CAMIGUIN, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LUZON: Rizal, SIARGAO. Notes: Lowland thickets and forests. Native.
  12. Mussaenda magallanensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 996; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 519; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 119; Type: Elmer 12451 (A, lecto; BISH, E, K, L, GH, MICH, MO, NY, U, US, isolecto), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), Mt Guiting-guiting, light woods along the coast or in the first hills, May-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Isabela, Laguna, Pampanga, MINDORO, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low elevation from sea-level to 300m, along rivers, mountain slopes, brushlands and thickets. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  13. Mussaenda milleri Elmer ex Alejandro, Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 101 (2016) 494; ≡ Mussaenda milleri Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3780, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 121; Type: BS 26468 Ramos & Edaño (NY, holo; US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan (Mingan), Aug/Sep-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. Notes: Ridge summit vegetation, c. 1000m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered D (Alejandro et al. 2016), Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  14. Mussaenda multibracteata Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 34; EPFP 3 (1923) 519; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 123; Type: BS 23585 Ramos (NY, lecto; A, K, US, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Pocdal, on damp slopes in open forests, 10-Aug-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Quezon, Sorsogon. Notes: Along streams, damp slopes, forests, from sea-level to 2100m. Native.
  15. Mussaenda nervosa Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 994; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 519; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 124; Type: Elmer 10510 (A, lecto; BISH, BM, E, GH, K, L, MO, NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya, Mt Apo, open exposed hill at 4000ft (1219m), May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, North Cotabato. Notes: Degraded forests up to c. 1200m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  16. Mussaenda palawanensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 103; EPFP 3 (1923) 519; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 125; Type: BS 15531 Fenix (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Palawan: Alphonso XIII (= Quezon), Jul-1912. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Maguindanao, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets and old clearings, up to c. 150m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  17. Mussaenda philippica A.Rich., Mém. Rubiac. (1830) 165; Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 5 (1834) 245; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 519; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 128; Type: Perrottet s.n. (P, holo), Luzon: Manila, 1819. = Mussaenda grandiflora Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 21 (1884) 311, nom. illeg., non Benth. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, NCR, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Davao Oriental, Lanao, Misamis Occidental, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Widespread throughout the Philippines . Common in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
    • var. aurorae Sulit, Philip. J. Forestry 2 (1939) 39; ≡ Mussaenda philippica A.Rich. forma aurorae (Sulit) Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 131; Type: FB 24876 Mabesa (A, lecto; L, US, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna, Tungtungin, Mt Balong bulo, Jun/Dec-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, NCR. Native.
    • var. philippica. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, NCR, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao, Misamis Occidental, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Widespread throughout the Philippines. Native.
    • var. pubescens Alejandro, Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 101 (2016) 507; Type: BS 49315 Ramos & Edaño (NY, holo), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Mati, Mar/Apr-1927. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Isabela, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental, NEGROS. Conservation status: Critically Endangered C2A(i) (Alejandro et al. 2016). Native.
  18. Mussaenda philippinensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 264; EPFP 3 (1923) 520; Jayaweera, J. Arn. Arb. 45 (1964) 132; Type: Merrill 4139 (NY, lecto; K, L, US, isolecto), Semirara Is.: Jul-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, LUZON: Apayao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SEMIRARA. Notes: Partial shade along creeks and ridges of second-growth forests, 10-300m. Native.
  19. Mussaenda pinatubensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1934) 3210; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 134; Type: Elmer 21978 (PNH, holo; A, G, GH, K, L, MICH, MO, NY, P, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga, Camp Stotsenburg (lower slopes of Mt Pinatubo), on hot and dry river embankments, c. 1065m, May-1927. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga, Zambales. Native.
  20. Mussaenda scandens Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 992; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 520; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 135; Type: Elmer 11291 (GH, lecto; A, BRIT, CAS, E, GH, K, L, MO, NA, NY, P, U, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, densely wooded ravine of the Baracatan creek at 2750ft (838m), Aug-1909. = Mussaenda villosa auct. non Wall. ex G.Don; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 243; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 992. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: Medium elevation forests along streams, 600-800m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  21. Mussaenda setosa Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 104; EPFP 3 (1923) 520; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 137; Type: Merrill 9496 (US, lecto; K, L, MO, P, isolecto), Palawan: Malampaya Bay, Mt Capoas, Apr-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Forested ridge, c. 700m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  22. Mussaenda ustii Alejandro, Bot. J. Lin. Soc. 158 (2008) 88; Type: Alejandro & Castro 28 (L, holo; UBT, University of Santo Tomas Herb., iso), Panay: Aklan, Nabas, Mt Laserna, 28-Oct-2002. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Native.
  23. Mussaenda vidalii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 993; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 520; Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 138; Type: Elmer 11309 (GH, lecto; A, E, GH, K, L, MO, NY, U, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, humid woods at 3750ft (1143m), Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Ifugao, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Low to medium elevation, 150-600m, along edges of humid forests as well as on second-growth forests of open rolling country. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  24. Mussaenda viridiflora Alejandro, Bot. J. Lin. Soc. 158 (2008) 90; Type: Alejandro & Castro 49 (University of Santo Tomas Herb., holo; L, iso), Panay: Aklan, Buruanga, Brgy Tigum, Mt Mangamura, 30-Oct-2002. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Native.

Mycetia Reinw.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 May 2021
  1. Mycetia cauliflora Reinw., Syll. Ratisb. 2 (1828) 9; Steenis, Mountain Fl. Java (1972) pl. 47-10; Wong in Ng, Tree Fl. Malaya 4 (1989) 379. = Mycetia lateriflora (Blume) Reinw. ex Korth., Nederl. Kruidk. Arch 2 (1850) 118; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 521; ≡ Bertiera latiflora Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 988. = Mycetia apoensis (Elmer) Govaerts, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157 (2008) 121; ≡ Adenosacme apoensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1001; Type: Elmer 10504 (BISH, K, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, humus-covered fertile soil in moist woods at 4000ft, May-1909. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Lanao, MINDORO. Notes: In damp rainforest undergowth, 600-1200m. Native.
  2. Mycetia dagohoyana Dela Bajan, Tandang & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 292 (2017) 92; Type: D. Tandang & C. Banag HI-003 (PNH, holo & iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte: Sak-a Falls trail, Remedios, Brgy San Antonio, T. Romualdez, May-2012. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Dela Bajan et al. 2017). Native.
  3. Mycetia javanica (Blume) Reinw. ex Korth., Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (1851) 118; Valeton, Icon. Bogor. 3 (1908) 183; Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 105; EPFP 3 (1923) 520; ≡ Bertiera javanica Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 987; Type: from Java. = Adenosacme longifolia auct. non (Wall.) Wall. ex Miq.; Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 213; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 152. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra. CEBU (photos), LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Davao Oriental, Lanao del Sur, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS (photos), PALAWAN (photos), PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: In very damp forests along streams at low and medium elevation. Native.
  4. Mycetia mindanaensis (Elmer) Govaerts, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157 (2008) 121; ≡ Adenosacme mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1002; Type: Elmer 10831 (BISH, K, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, on very wet, densely shaded ravines or on seepage ledges along the Sibulan River at 3250ft, Jun-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Native.
  5. Mycetia suedixieana Tandang & Ordas, Systematic Botany 44 (2019) 371; Type: Tadiosa & Tandang 2059 (PNH, holo; CAHUP, K, KUN, PNH, USTH, iso), Samar: Samar Island Natural Park, Paranas, Brgy Campo Uno, Eco Trail, 11°48045.80N, 125°09049.70E, 217m, Mar-2016. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Tandang et al. 2019). Native.

Myrmecodia Jack

  1. Myrmecodia tuberosa Jack, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 14 (1823) 123. = Myrmecodia echinata Gaudich., Bot. Freycinet. Voy. (1826) 472; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 570. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam. LUZON, SAMAR. Notes: Epiphytic in mangrove swamps, apparently also occurring in primary forest at medium elevation, ascending to 1000m. Native.
    • ‘apoensis’; Huxley & Jebb, Blumea 37 (1993) 280. = Myrmecodia apoensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1040; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 569. = Myrmecodia urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1876. Distribution: LUZON, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur. Notes: Epiphytic on exposed ridges and mossy forests, c. 1200-1600m.
    • ‘sibuyanensis’; Huxley & Jebb, Blumea 37 (1993) 280. = Myrmecodia sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1041. = Myrmecodia sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3253. Distribution: LUZON, MINDANAO, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Epiphytic in primary forests, 225-1000m.

Myrmeconauclea Merr.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2016
  1. Myrmeconauclea strigosa (Korth.) Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 375; EPFP 3 (1923) 517; ≡ Neonauclea strigosa (Korth.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 542; ≡ Bancalus strigosus (Korth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 276; ≡ Nauclea strigosa Korth., Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bezitt., Bot. (1842) 157. Native.
    • var. fluviatilis (Elmer) Ridsdale, Reinwardtia 12 (2008) 286; ≡ Sarcocephalus fluviatilis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1357. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN.

Myrmephytum Becc.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2021
  1. Myrmephytum beccarii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1037; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 568; Huxley & Jebb, Blumea 36 (1991) 47; Type: Elmer 11467-a, Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, along Pauala River, thicket on dry, gravelly stream bed, 750ft, May-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: In thickets, 225 m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Myrmephytum selebicum (Becc.) Becc., Malesia 2 (1884) 93; Huxley & Jebb, Blumea 36 (1991) 46; ≡ Myrmecodia selebica Becc., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 6 (1874) 195. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Native.

Needs name

  1. Myrmephytum sp; Huxley & Jebb, Blumea 36 (1991) 51; Voucher: BS 925 Mangubat (K), Mindoro: Mindoro Mindoro Oriental, Calapan. Distribution: MINDORO. Notes: Myrmephytum sp. 3 in Huxley & Jebb (1991).

Nauclea L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 September 2021
  1. Nauclea orientalis (L.) L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 243; Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 535; EPFP 3 (1923) 515; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; ≡ Adina orientalis (L.) Lindm. ex Bakh.f., Taxon 19 (1970) 476; ≡ Sarcocephalus orientalis (L.) Merr., PJS 3 c (1909) Bot. 436; ≡ Bancalus orientalis (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 276; ≡ Cephalanthus orientalis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 95. = Sarcocephalus undulatus (Roxb.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1856) 133; ≡ Nauclea undulata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 117; Hort. Beng. (1814) 14, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 517. = Nauclea elmeri Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 535; EPFP 3 (1923) 515. = Sarcocephalus ovatus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 33; Type: FB 3150 Ahern’s collector (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, May-Jun 1905. = Nauclea lutea Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 141. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BATAN, LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO. Notes: In most islands and provinces. Chiefly in secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Nauclea robinsonii Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 537; EPFP 3 (1923) 517; ≡ Sarcocephalus pubescens C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 225, nom. illeg., non Valeton; Type: BS 6917 Robinson (NY, US, iso), Polillo. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte (photos), POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation secondary forests. Native.
  3. Nauclea subdita (Korth.) Steud, Nom. Bot. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 186; Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 329; ≡ Sarcocephalus subditus (Korth.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1856) 134; ≡ Platanocarpum subditum Korth., Observ. Naucl. Indic. (1839) 19. = Nauclea junghuhnii (Miq.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 536; EPFP 3 (1923) 516; ≡ Sarcocephalus junghuhnii Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1856) 134. = Nauclea multicephala (Elmer) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 536; EPFP 3 (1923) 516; ≡ Sarcocephalus multicephalus Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1896. = Nauclea glaberrima Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 100. Distribution: Borneo, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao, Misamis, Surigao, Zamboanga, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: In primary and secondary forests, ascending to 900m. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Nauclea officinalis (Pierre ex Pit.) Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5 (1940) 188; ≡ Sarcocephalus officinalis Pierre ex Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1922) 26. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, ?Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand.

Neolamarckia Bosser (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 December 2020
  1. Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia 6 (1984) 247; ≡ Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1856) 135; ≡ Samama cadamba (Roxb.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 296; ≡ Sarcocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu, App. A (1875) 78; ≡ Nauclea cadamba Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 121. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Himalayas, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Naturalized.

Neonauclea Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2021
  1. Neonauclea bartlingii (DC.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 539; EPFP 3 (1923) 511; Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 218; ≡ Sarcocephalus bartlingii (DC.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 133; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 104; ≡ Nauclea bartlingii DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 344; Type: Haenke s.n. (L, photo), Luzon: near Sorsogon. = Neonauclea ategii (Elmer) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 539; EPFP 3 (1923) 511; ≡ Nauclea ategii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1877; Type: Elmer 13910 (BISH, BO, L, NY 2 sheets, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, stony soil among boulders along the wooded banks of Dalahion River at 1000ft, Sep-1912. = Neonauclea auriculata Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 205; Type: BS 49281 Ramos & Edaño (BO, L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Mati, Mar/Apr-1927. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. bartlingii. Distribution: LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Camarines, Cavite, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland to medium elevation secondary forests, along streams.
    • var. cumingiana (S.Vidal) Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 219; ≡ Nauclea cumingiana S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 176; Type: Cuming 833 (L, lecto; L, NY, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna, mtns of St Cristoval and Majaijai (Mt San Cristobal and Banahaw). = Neonauclea vidalii (Elmer) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 542; ≡ Nauclea vidalii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 16; Type: Elmer 6138 (BO, L, NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Sablan, Apr-1904. = Neonauclea cordatula (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 539; EPFP 3 (1923) 512; ≡ Nauclea cordatula Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 40; Type: FB 22219 Cenabre (L, iso), Cebu: Cebu, Pagulason, on ridges, c. 1000m, Dec-1910. Distribution: CEBU, LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, SAMAR.
  2. Neonauclea calycina (Bartl. ex DC.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 539; EPFP 3 (1923) 512; Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 200; ≡ Nauclea calycina Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 346; Type: Haenke s.n. (L, photo). = Nauclea blancoi S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 175; Type: Cuming 890. = Neonauclea monocephala (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 541; EPFP 3 (1923) 514; ≡ Nauclea monocephala Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 44; Type: Merrill 2980, leg. S Gracia (NY, US, iso; L, photo), Luzon: Zambales, Botolan, Jun-1903. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, TICAO. Notes: In most provinces in Luzon. In primary and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  3. Neonauclea circumscissa Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 217; Type: PNH 18407 D.R. Mendoza (L, holo), Luzon: Albay, Mt Mayon, May/Jun-1953. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Batangas, Camarines, Quezon, Sorsogon. Native.
  4. Neonauclea connicalycina Ordas, Taradji, Valdez & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 273 (2016) 128; Type: Valdez & Taradji 14c-610 (PNH, holo; USTH, iso), Cebu: Carmen, Brgy Hagnaya, 3-Aug-2015. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU. Native.
  5. Neonauclea formicaria (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 512; Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 214; ≡ Nauclea formicaria Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 989; Type: Elmer 11034 (BISH, L, NY, US, WRSL, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, in shrubberies of gulches in the cogon region at 1000ft, Jun-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, BOHOL, CEBU, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Misamis Occidental, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga del Sur, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation shrubberies, thickets and open forests associated with cogonal grasslands. Native.
  6. Neonauclea glabra (Roxb.) Bakh.f. & Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 240; ≡ Nauclea glabra Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1, 2 (1824) 121; Hort. Beng. (1814) 86, nom. nud. = Neonauclea nitida (Havil.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 541; ≡ Nauclea nitida Havil., J. Linn Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 53; EPFP 3 (1923) 514; Type: Callery 55 (P, L photo). = Neonauclea ovata (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 541; EPFP 3 (1923) 514; ≡ Nauclea ovata Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 42; Type: BS 14597 Ramos (L photo; US, iso), Camiguin: Camiguin, in forests along streams near the old volcano, 27-Apr-1912. = Neonauclea venosa (Merr.) Merr. , J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 542; EPFP 3 (1923) 515; ≡ Nauclea venosa Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 45; Type: FB 9183 Whitford & Hutchinson, Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Port Banga, Jan-1908. = Neonauclea kobbei Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3100; Type: Calicosa s.n., Aug-1914. Distribution: Australia, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. BASILAN, CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur, NEGROS. Notes: Lowland forests, ascending to 600m. Native.
  7. Neonauclea jagorii (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 540; EPFP 3 (1923) 513; Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 221; ≡ Nauclea jagorii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 326; Type: Jagor 987 (B, lost), Samar; FB 31136 Fontanoza (NY, neo). Distribution: LUZON: Camarines Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Lowlands, along riverbanks. Native.
  8. Neonauclea kentii (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 540; EPFP 3 (1923) 513; Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 228; ≡ Nauclea kentii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 43; Type: BS 15440 Reillo (L 2 sheets, iso), Basilan: Basilan, in forests, Aug-1912. = Neonauclea mindanaensis (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 541; EPFP 3 (1923) 514; ≡ Nauclea mindanaensis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 43; Type: Copeland 1630, Mindanao: Zamboanga, San Ramon, Feb-1905. = Neonauclea media auct. non (Havil.) Merr.; Seeber, Weidelt & Banaag, Dendr. Charact. Imp. For. Trees E Mindanao (1979) 360. Distribution: BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga. Notes: Lowland forests, chiefly along streams. Native.
  9. Neonauclea lanceolata (Blume) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 504; Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 225; ≡ Nauclea lanceolata Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 1009. Native.
    • ssp. gracilis (S.Vidal) Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 225; ≡ Neonauclea gracilis (S.Vidal) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 540; EPFP 3 (1923) 513; ≡ Nauclea gracilis S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 176; Type: Cuming 835 (K, L 2 sheets). = Neonauclea oligophlebia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 159; EPFP 3 (1923) 514; Type: Wenzel 1608 (A, BM, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Sep-1915. = Neonauclea philippinensis (S.Vidal) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 542; ≡ Nauclea philippinensis (S.Vidal) Havil., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 33 (1897) 52; ≡ Adina philippinensis S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 148. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Camarines, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR.
  10. Neonauclea media (Havil.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 541; EPFP 3 (1923) 513; Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 230; ≡ Nauclea media Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 56; Type: Callery s.n. (P). = Nauclea latifolia Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 144; Type: not extant; 'Illustrative specimen': Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 542 (US), Luzon: Batangas, Mt Batulao, forest slopes, 49m, 12-Aug-1914. Distribution: GUIMARAS, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  11. Neonauclea pseudocalycina Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 204; Type: from Sabah. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. TAWI-TAWI. Native.
  12. Neonauclea puberula (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 542; EPFP 3 (1923) 514; Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 229; ≡ Nauclea puberula Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 41; Type: Elmer 7319 (BO, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Sorsogon, Nov-1905. = Neonauclea forsteri auct. non (Seem. ex Havil.) Merr.; Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 512. Distribution: GUIMARAS, LUZON: Sorsogon, ?MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Low elevation forests. The record from Mindanao is tentatively based on Ahern 3624. Native.
  13. Neonauclea reticulata (Havil.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 542; EPFP 3 (1923) 514; Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 215; ≡ Nauclea reticulata Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 62; Type: Vidal 2955 (K, holo). Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BABUYAN ISLS, BATAN, LUZON: Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: In forested ravines and on slopes at low and medium elevation. Native.
  14. Neonauclea truncata (Hayata) Yamamoto, J. Soc. Trop. Agr. Taiwan 7 (1935) 149; Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 213; ≡ Nauclea truncata Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 30(1) (1911) 140; Type: from Taiwan. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN. Native.
  15. Neonauclea viridiflora Ordas, Banag & Alejandro, Systematic Botany 42 (2017) 364; Type: Banag et al. CB16–040/2016 (PNH, holo; PNH, USTH, iso), Samar: Eastern Samar, Taft, Brgy San Rafael Villareal, 24-Jun-2016. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: Endangered B1 b (i & v) (Ordas et al. 2017). Native.
  16. Neonauclea wenzelii (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 542; EPFP 3 (1923) 515; Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 228; ≡ Nauclea wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 (1915) 386; Type: Wenzel 348 (A, BM, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, 10-Jul-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.

Nertera Banks & Sol. ex Gaertn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 September 2021
  1. Nertera granadensis (Mutis ex L.f.) Druce, Bot. Exch. Club Brit. Isles Rep. 4 (1917) 637; Yang in Huang (ed), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 306; Chen et al., PhytoKeys 182 (2021) 90; ≡ Coprosma granadensis (Mutis ex L.f.) Heads, Candollea 51 (1996) 388; ≡ Gomozia granadensis Mutis ex L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 129. = Nertera depressa Banks & Solander ex Gaertn., Fruct. 1 (1788) 124; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 571. = Coprosma dentata (Elmer) Heads, Candollea 51 (1996) 389; ≡ Nertera dentata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 15. Distribution: America, Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, New Zealand, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Native.
    • var. granadensis. Distribution: America, Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, New Zealand, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: In mossy forests on the tops of the higher mountains, sometimes in shaded ravines as low as 1500m.
  2. Nertera nigricarpa Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 25 (1908) 115; Chen et al., PhytoKeys 182 (2021) 86. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet (photos). Native.

Oldenlandia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 December 2021
  1. Oldenlandia apoensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 17; ≡ Hedyotis apoensis (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 976; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 495; Type: Copeland 1131 (NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, c. 2000m, Apr-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Misamis Occidental. Notes: Forests, 1200-2000m. Native.
  2. Oldenlandia brachyphylla Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 448. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  3. Oldenlandia ciliata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 20; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 493; Type: Elmer 6615, Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, in loose soil amongst limestone boulders. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: 1200-1600m, on limestone boulders and ledges, recent slides, etc. Native.
  4. Oldenlandia corymbosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 119; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 447; EPFP 3 (1923) 493; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; ≡ Hedyotis biflora var. corymbosa (L.) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 46(2) (1877) 133; ≡ Gerontogea corymbosa (L.) Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 4 (1829) 154; ≡ Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam., Tab. Encyc. 1 (1791) 272. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Korea, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Isabela. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Often common in and near settlements, gardens, waste places, etc. Note: According to the Global Rubiaceae Checklist, identity of Philippine plants so-named uncertain. Naturalized.
  5. Oldenlandia filifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 64; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 126; ≡ Hedyotis filifolia (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 497; Type: Merrill 3295. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Notes: On coastal bluffs. Native.
  6. Oldenlandia herbacea (L.) Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 445; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 448; EPFP 3 (1923) 493; Alejandro, Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 1 (2009) 49; ≡ Hedyotis herbacea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 102. Distribution: Africa, Asia. GUIMARAS, LUZON: Bulacan, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Zambales. Native.
  7. Oldenlandia radicans (Bartl. ex DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 292; ≡ Exallage radicans (Bartl. ex DC.) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Tweede Sect. 48(2) (1952) 142; ≡ Metabolos radicans Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 435. = Hedyotis ramosii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 35; EPFP 3 (1923) 500; Type: BS 15337 Ramos (L, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, mtns back of Dagami, in forests, Aug-1912. = Hedyotis irosinensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3248; Type: Elmer 17394 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Sep-1916. Distribution: Australia, ?Borneo, New Guinea, Philippines. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Bulacan, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  8. Oldenlandia yoderi Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 17; ≡ Hedyotis yoderi (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 976; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 501; Type: Yoder s.n., Panay: Antique, Mt Madia-as, Apr-1905. = Oldenlandia banksii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 19; ≡ Hedyotis banksii (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 976; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 495; Type: C.S. Banks s.n., Negros: Negros Occidental, Mt Kanlaon, Mar-1902. = Hedyotis elmeri Merr., PJS 1 (15 Apr 1906) suppl. 127; EPFP 3 (1923) 497; Type: Elmer 6834 (syn); Elmer 6979 (syn); Elmer 9198 (syn). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Mossy forests, 1000-1800m. Synonym of Oldenlandia banksii Elmer?. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Oldenlandia horneriana Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 190; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 494; ≡ Hedyotis horneriana (Miq.) Fukuoka, South East Asian Stud. 8 (1870) 335, nom. illeg., non Miq. Distribution: ?Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Pangasinan. Notes: According to Merrill (1923), known only from the original description.

Oldenlandiopsis L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & Prince Jover, 25 September 2021
  1. Oldenlandiopsis callitrichoides (Griseb.) Terrell & W.H.Lewis, Brittonia 42 (1990) 185; ≡ Hedyotis callitrichoides (Griseb.) W.H.Lewis, Rhodora 63 (1961) 222; ≡ Oldenlandia callitrichoides Griseb., Pl. Wright. 2 (1862) 506. Distribution: America. PANAY. Notes: Naturalized in La Paz, Iloilo City (Prince Jover, pers. comm. 25-Sep-21). Naturalized.

Ophiorrhiza L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 May 2021
  1. Ophiorrhiza argostemmoides Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3254; Type: Elmer 16345 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Jun-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Sorsogon. Native.
  2. Ophiorrhiza biflora Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 21; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 501; Type: Copeland s.n., Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, on mossy logs, c. 2000m, Oct-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, NEGROS. Notes: Mossy forests, c. 1800m. Native.
  3. Ophiorrhiza caespitulosa Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 523; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 502; Type: Elmer 10332. = Ophiorrhiza caespitulosa var. fulva Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1880. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Damp primary forests, c. 1050m. Native.
  4. Ophiorrhiza camiguinensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1881. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO, SAMAR. Native.
  5. Ophiorrhiza ciliata Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3256; Type: Elmer 17544 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling, Jun/Jul-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  6. Ophiorrhiza curtiflora Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1882; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 502; Type: Elmer 14208 (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, in wet, deeply humus-covered soil of an alluvial nature in a dense forested depression at 3500ft N of Duros. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Primary forest, c. 1050m. Native.
  7. Ophiorrhiza davaensis Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 363; Type: BS 49307 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, ?lost; A, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Mati, Mar/Apr-1927. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Notes: Along stream banks and open places at low elevation. Known only from the type collection. Native.
  8. Ophiorrhiza dolichophylla Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 470; EPFP 3 (1923) 502; Type: BS 36565 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Zamboanga District, Mt Tubuan, Oct-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Boulders along small streams. Native.
  9. Ophiorrhiza erythropilosa Alfeche & Alejandro, Nordic J. Bot. 38 (2020) e02581: 3; Type: Banag, Docot & Tandang CB16-214 (USTH, holo), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, San Isidro, Mt Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary, Jul-2016. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Alfeche et al. 2020). Native.
  10. Ophiorrhiza hamiguitanensis Alfeche & Alejandro, Nordic J. Bot. 38 (2020) e02581: 4; Type: Banag & Docot CB16-227 (USTH, holo), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, San Isidro, Mt Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary, Jul-2016. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Alfeche et al. 2020). Native.
  11. Ophiorrhiza inaequifolia Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3257. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  12. Ophiorrhiza involucrata Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 351; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 501; Type: Elmer 7603. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, ?Ilocos Norte, Quezon, POLILLO. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests along streams, ascending to 750m. Native.
  13. Ophiorrhiza lancilimba Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 491. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Native.
  14. Ophiorrhiza linearifolia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 99; EPFP 3 (1923) 502; Type: BS 16109 Reillo (US, iso), Basilan: Basilan, Comalarang, in forests, 29-Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN. Notes: Lowland forests, apparently along streams. Native.
  15. Ophiorrhiza liukiuensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 2 (1912) 89. = Ophiorrhiza japonica var. kuroiwai (Makino) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 7 (1938) 195; ≡ Ophiorrhiza kuroiwae Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 20 (1906) 5, nom. nud.; Li & Liu, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 311. = Ophiorrhiza mungos auct. non L., Merr.; EPFP 3 (1923) 502. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATAN. Notes: The plant is characteristically purplish when dry. Wu et al. (2011) consider Ophiorrhiza kuroiwae Makino a valid name and include Ophiorrhiza liukiuensis Hayata as its synonym. Native.
  16. Ophiorrhiza macgregorii Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 437; EPFP 3 (1923) 502; Type: BS 23024 McGregor (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Jun/Aug-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon. Notes: Primary forests, 200-300m. Native.
  17. Ophiorrhiza maquilingensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3258; Type: Elmer 17536 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Native.
  18. Ophiorrhiza oblongifolia DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 415; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 502. = Ophiorrhiza triandra Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 65. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO. Notes: In forests, chiefly along streams at low and medium elevation. Native.
  19. Ophiorrhiza oblongilimba Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 164; EPFP 3 (1923) 503; Type: BS 27139 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Lowland forests along streams. Native.
  20. Ophiorrhiza ovata Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 438; EPFP 3 (1923) 503; Type: BS 23163 McGregor. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, along rocky stream embankments. Native.
  21. Ophiorrhiza pinatuboensis Ruhsam, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157 (2008) 120; ≡ Ophiorrhiza bicolor Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3211, 3212, nom. illeg., non Craig; Type: Elmer 21958 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg, May-1927. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga. Native.
  22. Ophiorrhiza pubescens Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 68; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 503; Type: Elmer 14971. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Open grasslands along streams at low and medium elevation. Native.
  23. Ophiorrhiza pubiflora Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 438; EPFP 3 (1923) 503; Type: BS 29253 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Forests, apparently at c. 1000m. Native.
  24. Ophiorrhiza pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1342; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 503; Type: Elmer 12949. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Forests, up to 450m. Synonym of Ophiorrhiza pumila Champ. ex Benth.?. Native.
  25. Ophiorrhiza sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3260. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  26. Ophiorrhiza stenophylla Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 436, nom. illeg., non Valeton; EPFP 3 (1923) 494, as ‘Oldenlandia stenophylla’; Type: BS 22591 Ramos & Deroy. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cavite. Notes: On rocks along streams, c. 600m. Native.
  27. Ophiorrhiza tenuis Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 440; EPFP 3 (1923) 503, nom. illeg., non Ridl.; Type: BS 29785 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Forests, apparently at c. 1000m. Native.
  28. Ophiorrhiza undulata Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 46; EPFP 3 (1923) 503; Type: Weber 1445 (US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Binutun, on banks of small streams in bamboo forests, 26-Oct-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Zamboanga. Notes: Along small streams in bamboo forests, c. 550m. Native.
  29. Ophiorrhiza venosa Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 304; EPFP 3 (1923) 503; Type: Merrill 5628. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, PANAY, SIARGAO, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  30. Ophiorrhiza zambalensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3212. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Ophiorrhiza mungos L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 150; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 502, excl. Batan plants. Distribution: India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, ?Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: N Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. According to Merrill (1923), not certainly distinct from the Linnean species. Plant is said to be characteristically purplish when dry. According to Govaerts et al. 2011 not recorded for the Philippines.

Incertae sedis

  1. Ophiorrhiza acuminata DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 416; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 501. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, SAMAR. Notes: “The type ia a specimen collected at Sorsogon, Luzon, by Haenke. I know the species only by description. Endemic.” (Merrill 1923). Native.

Oxyceros Lour.

  1. Oxyceros bispinosus (Griff.) Tirveng., Nordic J. Bot. 3 (1983) 466; ≡ Randia bispinosa (Griff.) Craib, Fl. Siam. 2 (1932) 99; ≡ Stylocoryna bispinosa Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 4 (1854) 260. = Randia uncaria Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 30; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 529; Type: Elmer 7001 (NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. = Randia williamsii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1004; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 529; Type: Elmer 12474. Distribution: Borneo, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Laguna, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low and medium primary forests. Native.

Paederia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 October 2017
  1. Paederia foetida L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 52; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 159; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 112; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 201; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 112; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 29; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 28; Merr., Interp. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 489; EPFP 3 (1923) 570. = Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr., Contrib. Arn. Arb. 8 (1934) 163; ≡ Gentiana scandens Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 171. = Paederia tomentosa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 968; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 455. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Himalayas, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation thickets. Native.
  2. Paederia verticillata Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 968; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 570. = Paederia verticillata Blume var. tomentella Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1885; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 570. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Native.

Paralasianthus H.Zhu

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 March 2015
  1. Paralasianthus dichotomus (Korth.) H.Zhu, Phytotaxa 202 (2015) 275; ≡ Mephitidia dichotoma Korth., Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief (1851) 224; Type: from Indonesia. = Lasianthus furcatus (Miq.) Bremek., Candollea 16 (1957) 94, in adnot; ≡ Canthium furcatum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 252; Type: from Indonesia. = Geniostoma acuminatissima Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 432; EPFP 3 (1923) 309; Type: Ramos & Edaño BS38837 (L, iso), Mindanao. = Lasianthus cyaneus (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 566; ≡ Plectronia cyanea Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1887; Type: Elmer 13854 (L, iso), Mindanao. Distribution: Java, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: In primary forests, 800-1300m. Native.
  2. Paralasianthus zhengyianus H.Zhu, Phytotaxa 202 (2015) 275; Type: Ramos & Edaño 0310376, BS38840 (L, holo), Mindanao: Mt Candoon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Native.

Pavetta L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 September 2021
  1. Pavetta barnesii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 2; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; Type: Elmer 6788 (NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Lowland primary forests, often common. Merrill (EPFP 3 (1923) 544) considered this a synonym of Pavetta indica L. and L.L.Co considered this a synonym of Pavetta indica L. var. glabrescens (Kurz) Deb & Rout, but Govaerts et al. (2011) recognize it as a distinct species. According to Govaerts et al. (2011), Pavetta indica L. does not occur in the Philippines. Native.
  2. Pavetta basilanensis Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37 (1934) 87. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN. Native.
  3. Pavetta batanensis Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 47 (1939) 24; Type: BS 3748 Fenix (GH, iso), Batanes. May-Jun 1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN. Native.
  4. Pavetta brachyantha Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 47; EPFP 3 (1923) 544; Type: R.S. Williams 1077 (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Jun-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: In ravines, 1300-2000m. Native.
  5. Pavetta cumingii Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37 (1935) 109; Type: Cuming 1322 (L, NY, iso), Luzon: Albay. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  6. Pavetta dolichostyla Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 239; EPFP 3 (1923) 544; Type: FB 3714 Merritt. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  7. Pavetta elmeri Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 544; Type: Elmer 6394. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas (photos), Benguet. Notes: Thickets or forests, c. 1400m. Native.
  8. Pavetta leytensis Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 47 (1939) 26; Type: Wenzel 1731 (GH, ?holo), 10-Apr-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Native.
  9. Pavetta luzonica Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37 (1934) 109; Type: BS 94 Adduru (A, ?holo), Luzon: Cagayan, Peñablanca, Littoc, 28/31-May-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  10. Pavetta membranacea Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 59; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 545; Type: BS 7634 Ramos. = Pavetta sambucina Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 41, nom. illeg., non (G.Forst.) DC. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Rizal. Notes: Low or medium elevation thickets or forests. Native.
  11. Pavetta mindanaensis Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37 (1934) 88; Type: Elmer 11233 (NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, dry fertile soil of wooded flat lands at 1500ft, Jul-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Native.
  12. Pavetta parvifolia S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 183; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 545; Type: Cuming 1394. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Zambales, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland thickets. Native.
  13. Pavetta phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 478; EPFP 3 (1923) 545; Type: BS 326 Bermejos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  14. Pavetta polyantha (Hook.f.) Wall. ex Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37 (1934) 103; ≡ Pavetta indica var. polyantha Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1880) 150. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Myanmar, Philippines. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Wu et al. (2011). Native.
  15. Pavetta subferruginea Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 477; EPFP 3 (1923) 545; Type: Merrill 831. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  16. Pavetta williamsii Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 545; Type: R.S. Williams 2631. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Forests, up to 900m. Native.

Praravinia Korth.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2021
  1. Praravinia acuminata (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 43; ≡ Urophyllum acuminatum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 129; EPFP 3 (1923) 521; Type: Whitford 236 (NY, US, syn), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, May-1904. The US sheet is annotated by R. Buchner as holo. = Urophyllum streptopodium auct. non Wall. ex Hook; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 40. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Rizal. Notes: In primary forest, 500-1300m. Native.
  2. Praravinia affinis (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 46; ≡ Urophyllum affine Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 481; EPFP 3 (1923) 521; Type: BS 28716 Ramos & Edaño (A, syn), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Binuang, on forested slopes, apparently at low elevation, May-1917; BS 28482 Ramos & Edaño (A, syn), Mt Binuang, May-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, ?POLILLO. Notes: According to Bremekamp, BS 10211 McGregor (L) from Polillo might belong here, but is much less hairy. In damp primary forest, at low elevation. Native.
  3. Praravinia everettii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 107; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 44; ≡ Williamsia everettii (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 524; Type: FB 7294 Everett, Negros: Negros Occidental, Mt Silay, on ridges in forests, 700m, 9-May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, NEGROS. Notes: Primary forests, c. 700m. Very near Praravinia lucbanensis (Elmer) Bremek. Native.
  4. Praravinia glabra (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 44; ≡ Williamsia glabra Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 108; EPFP 3 (1923) 524; Type: BS 9484 Robinson (L), Luzon: Quezon, Siniloan trail, in forests, c. 200m, Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Bremekamp also cites here a collection from Alabat, BS 48249 Ramos & Edaño, with oblong leaves, probably representing an undescribed species. Native.
  5. Praravinia loheri (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 45; ≡ Williamsia loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 58; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; Type: Loher 12309, Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, Oct-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Kalinga, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal. Notes: According to Bremekamp, closely related to Praravinia sablanensis (Elmer) Bremek. Native.
  6. Praravinia longistipula (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 46; ≡ Williamsia longistipula Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 485; EPFP 3 (1923) 524; Type: Merrill 7287 (K, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Agusan River at Waloe, in damp forest, c. 50m, 2-Oct-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Low elevation primary forest. Apparently known only from the type collection. Native.
  7. Praravinia lucbanensis (Elmer) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 43; ≡ Urophyllum lucbanense Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 71; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 521, pro parte; Type: Elmer 7945 (A, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, overhanging stream banks of wooded ravines, 850m, May-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, POLILLO. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests, usually along water courses. Native.
  8. Praravinia microphylla (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 43; ≡ Urophyllum microphyllum Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 161; EPFP 3 (1923) 523; Type: BS 26389 Ramos (US, holo), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan, in forest near the mountain summit, 1000m, 20-Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. Notes: In primary forest, c.1000m. Known with certainty only from this locality. The elevation given for the type is way below that of the mountain’s summit which is c. 1900m. A collection from Quirino, Mt Alzapan (BS 45581 Ramos & Edaño, A, staminate) is doubtfully referred here by Bremekamp, who also notes that it could perhaps be a stunted Praravinia acuminata (Merr.) Bremek. Native.
  9. Praravinia mimica (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 44; ≡ Williamsia mimica Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 495; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; Type: BS 38790 Ramos & Edaño (US, holo; A, iso), Mindanao: Bukidnon, Mt Candoon, damp forested slopes, c. 1000m, Jun/Jul-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Forested slopes, c. 1000m. Native.
  10. Praravinia mindanaensis (Elmer) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 44; ≡ Williamsia mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1904; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 524; Type: Elmer 13561 (US, holo; L, MO, NY, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, Aug-1912. = ?Williamsia caudata Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 389; Type: Wenzel 686 (A, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Buenavista near Jaro, 18-May-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Davao Oriental, Lanao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 900m. According to Bremekamp, specimens from outside Mindanao may necessitate the reinstatement of Merrill’s epithet caudata. Native.
  11. Praravinia multinervia (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 46; ≡ Williamsia multinervia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 107; EPFP 3 (1923) 524; Type: Merrill 8085 (K, L, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, mtns back of San Ramon, in damp forests, 600-900m, 28-Nov-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte (photos), Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: Primary forests, 400-900m. Native.
  12. Praravinia negrosensis (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 46; ≡ Urophyllum negrosense Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 247; EPFP 3 (1923) 524; Type: FB 5550 Everett, Negros: Negros Occidental, Himugaan River, in ravines, c. 50m, 25-Oct-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: In primary forests at low elevation. In addition, Bremekamp cites Herre 1140 from Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns, 1200-1800m), which comes very near to Praravinia multinervia (Merr.) Bremek. Native.
  13. Praravinia panayensis (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 46; ≡ Williamsia panayensis Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 484; EPFP 3 (1923) 524; Type: BS 31043 Ramos & Edaño (US, holo; A, K, iso), Panay: Capiz, Jamindan, in damp forests along small streams, Apr/May-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Notes: Low elevation forests along streams. Three collections cited by Bremekamp, all from Jamindan. Native.
  14. Praravinia pubescens (Quisumb. & Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 47; ≡ Williamsia pubescens Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 208; Type: BS 47275 Ramos & Edaño (A, 2 sheets, US, iso), Luzon: Isabela, Mt Moises, 1200m, Mar-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Notes: 1200m. Note: Buchner annotated the US sheet of Williamsia pubescens Quisumb. & Merr. as holo, contrary to statement in the original publication, i.e. in PNH. Native.
  15. Praravinia quadribracteolata (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 43; ≡ Urophyllum quadribrateolatum Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 483; EPFP 3 (1923) 523; Type: BS 28161 Fenix (A, holo), Luzon: Apayao, Ngagan, in damp forest, 8-May-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Quezon. Notes: In damp forest at low or medium elevation. Native.
  16. Praravinia sablanensis (Elmer) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 45; ≡ Williamsia sablanensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 165; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1000, excluding Mindanao specimens cited; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 524, as to specimens cited from Luzon only; ≡ Urophyllum sablanense Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 39; Type: Elmer 6131 (US, holo; NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Sablan, Apr-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  17. Praravinia stenophylla (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 44; ≡ Williamsia stenophylla Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 59; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; Type: Loher s.n., Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, Caraballo Mtns, Mar-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, SAMAR. Notes: Difference with Praravinia glabra (Merr.) Bremek. is apparently slight. Praravinia stenophylla has narrower and not so completely glabrous leaves. Native.
  18. Praravinia triflora (Quisumb. & Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 47; ≡ Williamsia triflora Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 210; Type: BS 45458 Ramos & Edaño (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Casiguran, forested streams at low elevation, 5-May-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation forest. Note: Buchner annotated the US sheet as holo, contrary to statement in the original publication, i.e. in PNH. Native.
  19. Praravinia viridescens (Elmer) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 43; ≡ Williamsia viridescens Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3215; Type: Elmer 22078 (L, K, MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg, 1000m, pistillate, May-1927. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Isabela, Pampanga. Native.

Prismatomeris Thwaites

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2021
  1. Prismatomeris brachypus Ridl., Kew Bull. (1940) 602; Type: FB 17784 Curran (K, lecto; BM, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Cagayan, Jan-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela. Native.
  2. Prismatomeris obtusifolia Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 492; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; Type: BS 41193 (A), Busuanga. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, PALAWAN. Notes: In thickets near the sea. Native.
  3. Prismatomeris tetrandra (Roxb.) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4 (1891) 138; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 572; ≡ Coffea tetrandra Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 193; Type: BS 13315 Ramos (K, lecto; BM, CAL, E, F, G, L, LD, MO, S, isolecto), Luzon: Tayabas, Mar-1911. Native.
    • ssp. tetrandra. = Prismatomeris tetranda var. philippinensis Ridl., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1939 (1940) 603. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, Himalayas, India, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Quezon, MINDANAO: Surigao, SAMAR. Notes: In the Sierra Madre Range from Cagayan to Quezon. In primary forests at low and medium elevation.

Pseudomussaenda Wenham (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Pseudomussaenda flava Verdc., Kew Bull. 6 (1952) 378; ≡ Mussaenda flava (Verdc.) Bakh.f., Bekn. Fl. Java 15 (1956) 72. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental in the Philippines.

Psychotria L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 November 2021
  1. Psychotria acuminatissima Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 353; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 552; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 228; ≡ Grumilea acuminatissima (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 132; Type: Elmer 8752 (US, lecto; A, K, MO, NY, W, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, limestone shrubbery below Antop barrio, c. 1000m, Mar-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal. Notes: Shrubby forests, including those on limestone outcrops, c. 1000m. Fr. Jan, Mar, Dec. Last collected in 1925 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  2. Psychotria alabatensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 142; Type: BS 48006 Ramos & Edaño (K, holo; A, BM, K, NY, UC, iso), Alabat: Sep/Oct-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Low elevation (including sea-level) moist forest. Fl. Mar; fr. May, Jun, Sep-Oct. Last collected in Alabat in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  3. Psychotria alzapaniensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 123; Type: BS 45688 Ramos & Edaño (BM, holo; K, NY, UC, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Alzapan, on mossy forest slopes at c. 1600-1700m (5000ft), 20-May-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Notes: Forest, including mossy forest, c. 1600-1700m. Fl. Apr-Jun. Only collected once in 1925 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii), or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  4. Psychotria amaracarpoides (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 552; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 71; ≡ Grumilea amaracarpoides Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 134; Type: FB 8120 Curran & Merritt (US, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Zambales, Mt Tapulao (High Peak), Nov/Dec-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO. Notes: Primary forests, 1000-1600m. Fr. Jan-Mar, Jun, Oct-Dec. Last collected in 1926 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  5. Psychotria amplissima Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 444; EPFP 3 (1923) 552; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 125; Type: BS 15198 Ramos (US, lecto), Leyte: Leyte, Dagami, along streams in forests, 9-Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao, SAMAR. Notes: Moist forests, sometimes near streams, low elevations (eg. 150m). Fl. Aug; fr. Feb-Apr. Last collected in 1970 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Apparently photographed by L.L.Co in 2010. Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  6. Psychotria arborescens Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1030; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 552; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 94; ≡ Grumilea arborescens (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 130; Type: Elmer 11263 (US, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, 4000ft, Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Primary forests, c. 1000-1200m. Possibly lower in Leyte. Fr. Aug. Last collected in 1954 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  7. Psychotria banahaensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 26; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 553; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 186; ≡ Grumilea banahaensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 132; Type: H.N. Whitford 983 (US, lecto), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Banahaw, Oct-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. banahaensis. Distribution: ALABAT, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, MANGSEE, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, POLILLO, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: In forests, including lowland dipterocarp forest, primary or secondary (logged-over) forest, sometimes by streamsides, (35-)140-650m. Fl. Feb, Mar; fr. Feb-May, Aug-Nov. Last collected in 1993 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
    • var. montalbanensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 188; Type: Jacobs 7846 (L, holo; PNH, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Sierra Madre Mtns NNE of Dingalan, 1000-1100m, 18-Mar-1968. Distribution: LUZON: Aurora, Rizal. Notes: Forest, 1000-1100m. Fr. Mar. Last collected in 1968 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
  8. Psychotria barkleyi Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 26; ≡ Grumilea longipedunculata Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; EPFP 3 (1923) 562; ≡ Psychotria longipedunculata Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1027, nom. illeg., non (Gardner) Müll.Arg; Type: Elmer 12532-a (US, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, W, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, along Patos River in very humid, alluvial forest at 250m, May-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, SIBUYAN. Notes: Last collected in 1994 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  9. Psychotria bataanensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 23; Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. 1 (1906) 134; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 89; ≡ Grumilea bataanensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 132; Type: Elmer 6980 (K, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. = Grumilea alvarezii (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 132; ≡ Psychotria alvarezii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 56; Type: FB 22189 Alvarez (?lost), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Dec-1910. = Grumilea rizalensis (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 130; ≡ Psychotria rizalensis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 57; EPFP 3 (1923) 562; Type: Loher 6345 (K, lecto), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, Jul-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal. Notes: Montane forest on ridges, 700-1600m. Fl. Jan, Oct; fr. Jan, May, Jul-Dec. Last collected in 1947 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  10. Psychotria bayombongensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 203; Type: Vidal 3068 (K, holo; A, iso), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, Bayombong, Mar-1886. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Kalinga, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: Primary forest. Fl. May. Last collected in 1948 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  11. Psychotria boholensis Merr. ex Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 131; Type: BS 43201 Ramos (PNH, holo; BM, UC, W, iso), Bohol: Bohol, ?Kalingohan, rocky forest, 29-Jan-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Notes: Relatively dry or well-drained forest, including secondary forest; recorded on limestone, 600-700m. Fr. Jan, Mar, Aug, Oct. Last collected in 1993 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  12. Psychotria bontocensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1915) Bot. 456; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 166; Type: Vanoverbergh 2610, Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, along streams, c. 1500m, 9-Mar-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan, ?ROMBLON. Notes: The record of this species from Romblon is based on Elmer 12165; L.L.Co suspects this was actually from Mt Giting-giting in Sibuyan. Montane forests, in ravines and by streams, 1300-1800m. Note: Pauai in Benguet is at least 2200m. Fl. Mar-Jun. Last collected in 1967 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  13. Psychotria cadigensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 175; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 23; Type: BS 25484 Yates (US, lecto), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Cadig, in forests, 350-500m, Dec-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Forest, 350-500m. Fl. Dec; fr. Dec. The type number cited by Merrill in the original protologue was not seen by Sohmer & Davis, hence their designation of the syntype, BS 25533 Yates, as lecto (BM, lecto; K, P, isolecto). A duplicate of the type number has been located at US. Known only from two collections from Mt Cadig collected in 1916 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  14. Psychotria capizensis Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 445; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 170; Type: BS 30657 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Panay: Capiz, Mt Madia-as, in forests, 13-May-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Notes: A recent collection, Busemeyer et al. 350 (PNH, CMNH, PUH, MU), is from a primary forest near the peak, 1430m. Probably at medium elevation. Fr. Apr-May. Known from two collections, one of which was last collected in 1992 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  15. Psychotria cardiophylla Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 446; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 164; Type: BS 29166 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; K, P, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Infanta-Siniloan Trail, along small streams in forests, 12-Jun-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Forests along streams, low elevation. Fr. Jun. Known only from the type specimen collected in 1917 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  16. Psychotria casiguraensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 208; Type: BS 45291 Ramos & Edaño (BM, holo; K, NY, P, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Casiguran, along stream in forest, 4-May-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Quezon. Notes: Low elevation moist forest, including streamside forests. Fr. May, Jun. Last collected in 1925 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  17. Psychotria castroi Merr. & Quisumb. ex Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 98; Type: PNH 5855 Castro & Añonuevo (L, holo; K, iso), Samar: Eastern Samar, Borongan, Pinangasan. Primary forest, 150m, 23-Jun-1948. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation primary forest, 150m. Fr. Jun. Last collected in 1969 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  18. Psychotria catanduaniensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 184; Biag & Alejandro, Nordic J. Bot. 40 (2022) e03422; Type: BS 75589 Ramos & Edaño (NY, holo), Catanduanes: Masanganbahi, forested streams, 520ft, 21-Aug-1928. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Isabela, PANAY. Notes: Forests, including streamside forest, sea level to c. 160m. Fr. Apr-May, Aug. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007); Data Deficient (Biag & Alejandro 2022). Native.
  19. Psychotria cephalophora Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 438; EPFP 3 (1923) 554; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 60; ≡ Grumilea cephalophora (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; Type: BS 4048 Fénix (US, lecto), Camiguin de Babuyanes: in forests, 27-Jun-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, CATANDUANES, PANAY. Notes: Forest at low and medium elevation. Fr. Jun. Specimens identified as this species from Taiwan (e.g. Chang 8721, K) are similar to the Philippine species but are not conspecific. Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  20. Psychotria christarusselliae Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 39; Type: BS 43230 Ramos (P, holo; A, BM, K, iso), Bohol. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Notes: Fr. Aug-Oct. Known only from the type specimen collected in 1948 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  21. Psychotria conglomeratiflora Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 120; Type: PNH 6306 Sulit (PNH, holo; A, L, PNH, iso), Samar: Western Samar, Bagacay, bank of Kansulaban Creek, in dipterocarp forest, c. 200m, 26-Apr-1948. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Primary dipterocarp forest, 150-200m. Fr. Apr-Jun. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  22. Psychotria cordatula Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 447; EPFP 3 (1923) 554; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 166; Type: BS 37854 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Masapilid, mossy forest, c. 1250m, 15-Mar-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Mid-montane forest, inclusing secondary forest, 1250-1600m. Fr. Mar, Jul-Aug. Last collected in 1992 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  23. Psychotria crassifolia Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 205; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 155; Type: from Borneo. Native.
    • var. crassifolia. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao Oriental, PALAWAN. Notes: Forests, sometimes in secondary forest; often recorded on rocks and on steep slopes, (10-)250-650m. Fl. Feb-Jun; fr. Jan, Mar, May-Aug. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Least Concern (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
    • var. culionensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 157; Type: BS 41319 Ramos (L, holo; K, PNH, iso), Culion, Oct-1922. Distribution: CULION. Notes: Fl. Oct. Only known from the type specimen collected in 1922 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii), or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
  24. Psychotria crispipila Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 240; EPFP 3 (1923) 554; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 111; ≡ Grumilea crispipila (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 133; Type: Merrill 4490 (K, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data, in mossy forest, 2200m, Nov-1905. = Psychotria fusca (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 556; ≡ Grumilea fusca Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) 171; Type: BS 26232 Ramos & Edaño, Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan (Mingan), 14-Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Aurora, Benguet, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, PANAY. Notes: Montane forests, including drier types, chiefly between 1695-2500m, much lower elevation in Rizal. Fl. Mar, Jul, Nov; fr. Jan-Mar, Jun, Sep-Oct. Last collected in 1992 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  25. Psychotria cuernosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 521; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 554; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 45; Type: Elmer 10076 (L, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, mossy forests at c. 1500m, May-1908. = Psychotria mearnsii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 126; Type: FB 4770 Mearns & Hutchinson (US, lecto), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental, Mt Malindang, along Malabug River, 500m, May-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, South Cotabato, Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Primary and secondary forest, including moss forest, 500-2000m. Last collected in 1992 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Least concern. Native.
  26. Psychotria cuneata Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3261; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 63; Type: Elmer 17170 (UC, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, L, NA, NY, MO, P, PNH, US, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, woody ravine at medium elevation, Sep-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, TABLAS. Notes: Forests, including disturbed, ravines and ridges, recorded on limestone at 450m in Tablas. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii). Native.
  27. Psychotria diffusa Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 134; EPFP 3 (1923) 554; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 52; Type: Elmer 6811 (NY, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. = Grumilea microphylla (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 130; ≡ Psychotria microphylla Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 522; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 559; Type: Elmer 9505 (L, lecto; A, BISH, BM, K, MO, NY, US, W, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns. Moss-covered forests at 4500ft, Mar-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. diffusa. Distribution: BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Widely distributed throughout the Philippines. Humid forest, including secondary forest, 500-2500m. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened.
    • var. agusanensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 123; EPFP 3 (1923) 555; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 55; Type: Elmer 13667 (L, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, MO, NY, P, UC, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Cawilanan Peak, wind-swepy forested ridge at c. 1300m, Sep-1912. = Psychotria ovalis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1023; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 560; Type: Elmer 10567 (L, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, MO, NY, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, dense ridge forests S of Mt Calelan, c. 1400m, May-1909. Distribution: LUZON: Albay, Camarines Norte, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao Oriental. Notes: Forests, 350-1800m. Last collected in 1995 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened.
    • var. cervina Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 592; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 555; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 55; Type: Elmer 9800 (A, lecto; BM, K, L, MO, NY, US, W, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, in forest of wind-swept ridge at c. 1300m, Apr-1908. Distribution: NEGROS. Notes: Only known from the type collection (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
  28. Psychotria dingalanensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 171; Type: Jacobs 7654 (K, holo; L, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Sierra Madre Mtns NNE of Dingalan, primary dipterocarp forest, 300-400m, 12-Mar-1968. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Notes: Primary dipterocarp forest, 300-400m. Fl. Mar; fr. Mar. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  29. Psychotria elliptifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 66; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 555; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 47; Type: Elmer 7943 (A, lecto; K, L, NY, US, W, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Banahaw, wet mossy region at 1600m, Apr-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Last collected in 1994 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  30. Psychotria elliptilimba Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 448; EPFP 3 (1923) 555; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 92; Type: BS 30534 Ramos (US, lecto; A, K, P, isolecto), Catanduanes: Sto. Domingo River on low elevation forested slopes, 3-Dec-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Notes: Only known from the type collection (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  31. Psychotria elmeriana Hochr., Candollea 5 (1934) 270; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 41; ≡ Psychotria epiphytica Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1890; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 555, nom. illeg., non Krause; Type: Elmer 14199 (A, lecto; BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, UC, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, wet, stony forested slopes at c. 1800m, Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, MINDORO. Notes: Forest, c. 1800m. Last collected in 1985 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  32. Psychotria fenicis Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 449; EPFP 3 (1923) 555; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 176; Type: BS 29914 Fenix (US, lecto; L, isolecto), Luzon: Pangasinan, Labrador, Mt San Isidro, Nov-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Pangasinan, Zambales. Notes: Dry forest or well drained ridge forest, including secondary forest; recorded on rocky soils, 200-400m. Fl. May, Nov; fr. Apr, Nov-Jan. Last collected in 1992 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  33. Psychotria foxworthyi Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 145; Type: BS 657 (NY, holo; GH, K, iso), Palawan: Mar/Apr-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Fl. Mar-Apr; fr. Mar-Apr. Known only from type specimen collected in 1906 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  34. Psychotria frakei Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 147; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; Type: PNH 38038 Frake (A, holo; L, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Norte, 2-Jan-1958. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte. Notes: Primary or secondary forests, 300-600m. Fl. Jan; fr. Nov-Jan. Last collected in 1958 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  35. Psychotria galintanensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 188; Type: BS 48899 Ramos & Edaño (UC, holo; NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Mt Galintan, on forest slopes at 1000m, 13-Jun-1927. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Notes: Forest, low to medium elevation, eg. c. 1000m. Fr. Jun. Only known from the type specimen collected in 1927 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  36. Psychotria gitingensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1024; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 556; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 157; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 4526; Type: Elmer 12431 (BM, lecto; A, BISH, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (Magdiwang), on forested ridge, 2750ft, May-1910. = Grumilea similis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 134; ≡ Psychotria similis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1025; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 563; Type: Elmer 12439 (GH, lecto; BISH, L, NY, US, isolecto), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting, in red soil compressed in between rocks of a wind-swept forested ridge at 3000ft, May-1910. = Grumilea versicolor (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 130; ≡ Psychotria versicolor Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1352; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 564; Type: Elmer 12763 (A, lecto; BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), banks of Iwahig River, Mar-1911. = Psychotria lucida Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 452; Type: BS 29716 Ramos & Edaño (US, lecto; A, K, NY, P, isolecto), Luzon: Rizal, Mt Lumutan, Jul-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ?Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, BUCAS GRANDE, CALAYAN, CEBU, DANJUGAN, DINAGAT, GUIMARAS, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Batangas, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Misamis, Surigao, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, PONEAS, SAMAR, SEMIRARA, SIBUYAN, TABLAS, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Moist forest, including beach and mangrove forest, and secondary forest, sometimes on cultivated lands, on well-drained soils and limestone, 0-1000m. Fl. Jan-Sep; fr. all year round. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Least concern (Sohmer & Davis 2007); Data Deficient (Biag & Alejandro 2020). Native.
  37. Psychotria gracilipes Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 52; EPFP 3 (1923) 556; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 226; ≡ Grumilea gracilipes (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 132; Type: Weber 1572 (A, lecto; GH, K, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Cagayan, Abulug River, rocky, forested hillside on limestone, 5-Feb-1912. = Psychotria isarogensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 556; ≡ Grumilea isarogensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 136; Type: BS 1553 Ramos (BM, lecto; A, L, MO, NY, P, isolecto), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mt Isarog, mossy forest, 29-Nov-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Quirino, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental. Notes: Moist to wet forest, c. 700-1800m. Fl. Mar-Apr; fr. Jan, Apr-Aug, Oct. Last collected in 1988 (Sohmer & A.P.Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & A.P.Davis 2007). Native.
  38. Psychotria hilonghilongensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 220; Type: PNH 10760 Mendoza & Convocar (A, holo; L, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Hilong-hilong, Cabadbaran, mossy forest ridge, 1050m, 29-Apr-1949. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: In mossy forest, 1050m. Only known from the type specimen collected in 1949 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  39. Psychotria ilocana (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 556; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 220; ≡ Grumilea ilocana Merr., PJS 12c (1917) Bot. 173; Type: BS 27456 Ramos (K, lecto; A, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Bangui, low elevation forest, Feb-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Zambales. Notes: Dry forest, low elevation. Fr. Feb-Mar. Last collected in 1918 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  40. Psychotria iridensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 134; Type: BS 48443 Ramos & Edaño (A, holo; BM, K, NY, UC, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Mt Irid, on damp forest slopes, 13-Nov-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Rizal. Notes: Forests, including disturbed and possibly secondary forest, 1000-1700m. Fl. Apr; fr. Feb, Apr, Nov. Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  41. Psychotria iwahigensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1351; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 556; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 31; Type: Elmer 13052 (NY, lecto; BM, L, isolecto), Palawan: Mt Pulgar, in forests at c. 100m, Apr-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation humid forests c. 100m. Fr. Apr, Jun. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable (Sohmer & Davis 2007; DAO 2017-11). Native.
  42. Psychotria ixoroides Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 522; Merr., EPFP (1923) 556; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 41; Type: Haenke, s.n. (PR, holo), Luzon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, BALABAC, BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Bulacan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental, Surigao, Surigao del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, PONEAS, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: Disturbed vegetation generally liked logged-over and secondary forest and coconut plantation, reported on limestone and lateritic soils, from sea-level to 700m. Fl. Jan-Jun; fr. Feb, Aug-Sep. Last collected in 1997 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Least concern (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  43. Psychotria lagunensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 556; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 174; ≡ Grumilea lagunensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 169; Type: BS 23826 Ramos (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, in damp forest, 19-Oct-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, POLILLO. Notes: Moist forest and forested slopes, 70-1532m. Fl. Mar; fr. Jun-Dec. Last collected in 1928 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  44. Psychotria lanaensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 557; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 52; ≡ Grumilea lanaensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 136; Type: Clemens 924, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Camp Keithley. Swamps at c. 750m, Jun-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, LUZON: Ifugao, MINDORO, SIBUYAN. Notes: Primary and disturbed forests, including swamp forest, 650-700m. Last collected in 1991 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  45. Psychotria lancilimba Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 451; EPFP 3 (1923) 557; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 103; Type: BS 29713 Ramos & Edaño (US, lecto), Luzon: Rizal, Mt Lumutan, Jul-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Lower montane forest, 600-1000m. Fl. Jul; fr. Jul. Last collected in 1926 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  46. Psychotria leptothyrsa Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugtd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 208; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 557. Native.
    • var. leptothyrsa. = Coelospermum ahernianum Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 3; Type: Ahern 196 (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Pasacao (Dalupaon), Jan-1902. Distribution: Malesia, Papuasia, Philippines.
  47. Psychotria lianoides Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1029; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 557; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 47; Type: Elmer 11645 (P, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NA, NY 2 sheets, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, humid forest along Baruring River on trail to Talon at c. 1300m, Sep-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Notes: Humid forest, 1200-1300m. Only known from the type specimen collected in 1909 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  48. Psychotria linearis Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 522; Merr., EPFP (1923) 557; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 58; Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, holo), Luzon: Sorsogon. = Psychotria depauperata Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 174; EPFP 3 (1923) 554; Type: Merrill 10487 (US, lecto; A, BM, K, L, NY, P, PNH, isolecto), Alabat: back of Sangirin on dry ridges in virgin forest area at c. 100m, 23-Dec-1916. = Amaracarpus longifolius Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 1; Type: Merrill 4000 (?PNH, holo; US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Atimonan, Mar-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, LUZON: Camarines, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, SAMAR. Notes: Relatively dry ridge forest, 100-500m. Some of the cited localities are in predominantly limestone areas. Fl. Aug, Nov; fr. Jan, Mar, Aug-Oct, Dec. Last collected in 1970 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  49. Psychotria loheri Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 356; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 557; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 234; ≡ Grumilea loheri (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 132; Type: Elmer 8584 (K, lecto; A, L, NY, US, W, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Sto Tomas, dense oak woods at 7500ft, Mar-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Zambales. Notes: Mostly in the higher montane sites, including mossy forests, 1300-2200m. Presumably at considerably much lower elevations in Zambales province and Leyte. Native.
  50. Psychotria longipedicellata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 22; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 557; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 63; ≡ Grumilea longipedicellata (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; Type: H.N. Whitford 907 (K, lecto; NY, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Lagumanoc, Sep-1904; FB 1727 WW Clark (NY, US, syn), Burias, Jun-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BURIAS, LUZON: Aurora, Quezon. Notes: Low elevation forests. Fl. Jun; fr. Sep, Nov. Last collected in 1910 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii)] or Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  51. Psychotria longissima Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 206; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 179; Type: BS 45681 Ramos & Edaño (UC, lecto; A, K, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Alzapan, forested slopes, c. 1300m, 7-Jun-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Notes: Forests, c. 1300m. Fl. May, Jun. Known only from the type specimen collected in 1925 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  52. Psychotria luzoniensis (Cham. & Schltdl.) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 157; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 558; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 201; ≡ Coffea luzoniensis Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 4 (1829) 32; ≡ Grumilea luzoniensis (Cham. & Schltdl.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131, as ‘luçoniensis’; Type: Chamisso s.n. (LE, holo; K, iso), ‘Luçonia’. = Psychotria tacpo (Blanco) Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) 21 (1884) 312; ≡ Paederia tacpo Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 160. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, GUIMARAS, HERMANA MAYOR, LUZON: Abra, Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Kalinga, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MALAPACKUN, MARINDUQUE, MASBATE, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SEMIRARA. Notes: Widely distributed throughout the Philippines. Forest, including primary, disturbed, and secondary forest; recorded from limestone and well-drained substrates, 0-c. 2000m but mostly below 700m. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Least Concern (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  53. Psychotria macgregorii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 389; EPFP 3 (1923) 558; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 223; ≡ Grumilea macgregorii (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; Type: Merrill 6495 (published as 8495) (US, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulog (Pulag), mossy forest above 2400m, May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, PALAWAN. Notes: Montane forest, including mossy forest, with one record from grassland; on ultramafics on Dinagat, (?700-)1500-2800m. Fl. Jan, Mar-Jun; fr. Jan-Jun, Sep. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  54. Psychotria madulidii Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 60; Type: BS 78408 Edaño (A, holo), Luzon: Cagayan, Mt Cagua, Oct/Nov-1929. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, PALAWAN. Notes: Fr. Oct-Nov. Last collected in 1929 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  55. Psychotria magnifolia Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 453; EPFP 3 (1923) 558; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 120; Type: BS 28828 Ramos & Edaño (US, lecto; A, K, P, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Binuang, along small streams in damp forests, 11-May-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Moist forest, reported along streams. Fr. May. Last collected in 1917 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  56. Psychotria manillensis Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 522; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 559; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 138; Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, holo), Luzon: Sorsogon. = Psychotria propinqua (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 561; ≡ Grumilea propinqua Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 170; Type: BS 26570 Ramos & Edaño (K, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Dingalan, 27-Jan-1916. = Psychotria ridsdalei Sohmer & A.P.Davis, ined.; Type: SMHI 1648 Ridsdale (L, holo; L, iso). Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. ALABAT, BALABAC, BATAN, CALAYAN, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, CATANDUANES, DALUPIRI, LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDANAO: South Cotabato, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO. Notes: Primary forests (including remnant dipterocarp forest), disturbed forest, regrowth and regenerating forest, at the margins of forest (e.g. near meadows and fields), and secondary forest; recorded on limestone, 50-900m. Fl. Mar-Sep; Fr. Jan, Aug, Nov. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Least Concern (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  57. Psychotria mariguidonensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 208; ≡ Psychotria longipetiolata Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 451, nom. illeg., non Thwaites; Type: BS 30418 Ramos (K, lecto), Catanduanes: Sto. Domingo River and Mt Mariguidon, on forested slopes, Dec-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Ifugao, Isabela. Notes: Lowland forest near sea level at Palanan, Isabela, possibly 1000-1200m in Ifugao, reported at c. 180m by Sohmer & Davis. Fr. Apr, Aug-Dec. Last collected in 1991 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  58. Psychotria mendozii Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 214; Type: PNH 10789 Mendoza & Convocar (A, holo; K, L, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Hilong-hilong, mossy forest slopes, 1333m, 21-Apr-1949. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Forests, including mossy forest, and forested slopes; mid to higher elevations (e.g. c. 1333m). Fl. Apr, May. Last collected collected in 1954 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  59. Psychotria merrittii Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 493; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 168; Type: BS 40599 Ramos & Edaño (P, lecto; A, K, US, isolecto), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, on forested slopes at c. 1400m, 16-Mar-1922. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Usually at relatively high elevation (1350-1450m) mossy and stunted ridge forests, also at low elevation (e.g. 150-200m). Fl. Mar-May; fr. Apr. Last collected collected in 1991 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  60. Psychotria merrittioides Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 142; Type: PNH 19774 Edaño (PNH, holo; K, L, PNH, iso), Luzon: Apayao, Mt Magnas, summit of mountain at ‘2900m’ (elevation very excessive, most probably in feet). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao. Notes: In forest. Fr. Jun. Only collected once in 1953 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  61. Psychotria mindanaensis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 54; EPFP 3 (1923) 559; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 150; ≡ Grumilea mindanaensis (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 130; Type: Merrill 8096 (P, lecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River Mtns back of San Ramon, between 800-900m, Nov-1911; Merrill 8084 (A, BM, K, L, P, US, syn), Zamboanga, Nov/Dec-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, LUZON: Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental, Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Primary forest, 400-900m. Fl. Nov; fr. Nov-Dec. Last collected in 1984 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  62. Psychotria mindoroensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1031; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 559; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 36; Type: Elmer 12532b (PNH, lost), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, along Patos River in very humid, alluvial forest at 250m, May-1910; McGregor 312 (NY, neo; K, US, isoneo), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Baco River, Apr/May-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, BOHOL, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao, Misamis, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO. Notes: Wet forests, including disturbed dipterocarp and secondary forests, some collections reported on limestone, sea-level to 850m. Fl. Jan, May-Jun, Aug; fr.: Feb, Jun-Jul, Oct. Last collected in 1995 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  63. Psychotria nagapatensis Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 454; EPFP 3 (1923) 559; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 74; Type: BS 33193 Ramos (A, lecto; BM, K, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Mt Nagapatan, in forest on dry slopes, 700m, 8-Aug-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, PANAY. Notes: Forest, including forest on dry slopes, 700-1600m. Fr. Mar-Apr, Aug. Last collected in 1995 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Theatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  64. Psychotria negrosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 520; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 560; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 204; ≡ Grumilea negrosensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131; Type: Elmer 9686 (L, lecto; A, BM, K, MO, US, W, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, steep wooded slope at 1060m, Mar-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: Midmontane forests, including forest with Agathis, 976-1060m. Fl. Mar; fr. May, Sep. Last collected in 1991 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  65. Psychotria nitens (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 560; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 211; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 4527; ≡ Grumilea nitens Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 137; Type: BS 21157 Escritor (K, lecto), Luzon: Isabela, Palanan Bay, 25-Jun-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Quezon, SAMAR. Notes: Mossy forests and on forested slopes, 730-1100m, in Benguet up to 2400m. Fl. Mar; fr. May, Jun. Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007); Data Deficient (Biag & Alejandro 2020). Native.
  66. Psychotria obscurinervia Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 455; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot Misc. 27 (2007) 34; Type: BS 33077 Ramos (A, lecto; BM, K, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, between Bangui and Claveria in low elevation forest, 30-Aug-1918. = Psychotria vulcanica Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3264; Type: Elmer 14431 (A, lecto; BISH, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, UC, US, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan. Forest, c. 200m, Oct-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Sorsogon. Native.
  67. Psychotria olsenii Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida, Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 20; Type: S. Olsen 758 (L, holo), Tawi-tawi: Tarawakan, rainforest, 50m, 14-Nov-1961. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland rainforest, 50m. Fr. Nov. Only known from the type specimen collected in 1961 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  68. Psychotria palawanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1348; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 560; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 136; ≡ Grumilea palawanensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 134; Type: Elmer 12737 (A, lecto; BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, US, W, isolecto), Palawan: Mt Pulgar, in a slightly wooded flat at 76m, Mar-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forest, including those on well-drained soil. Fl. Mar; fr.: Mar. Last collected in 1961 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  69. Psychotria palimlimensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida, Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 223; Batuyong et al., Nordic J. Bot. 39 (2021) e03253; Type: BS 33364 Ramos (A, holo; K, P, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Mt Palimlim, Aug-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Forests, 1000m or less. Fr. Feb-Mar, Aug. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007;, Batuyong et al. 2021). Native.
  70. Psychotria pallidifolia Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 456; EPFP 3 (1923) 560; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 191; Type: BS 30510 Ramos (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Catanduanes: Mt Mariguidon and vicinity of Cololbong, on forested slopes, Nov/Dec-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Forest, including dipterocarp forest, 50-400m. Fl. Apr, Sep-Dec; fr. Sep-Nov. Last collected in 1992 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  71. Psychotria paloensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 65, as ‘paloense’; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 560; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 194; ≡ Grumilea paloensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131; Type: Elmer 7056 (A, lecto; K, NY, isolecto), Leyte: Leyte, Palo, gently sloping wooden ravine, Jan-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. bukidnonensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 196; Type: PNH 9977 Sulit (A, holo; PNH, iso), Mindanao: Bukidnon, Mt Katanglad (Kitanglad), S slope of south peak in dense forest above Bgy Kibangay, 1900m, 7-Mar-1949. Distribution: MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao. Notes: Montane forests, c. 1900m. Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
    • var. ovatifolia Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 197; Type: BS 39564 Ramos (US, holo; A, K, L, P, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental, Paluan, Apr-1921. Distribution: MINDORO. Notes: Forest, often on steep slopes, 300-630m. Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
    • var. paloensis. Distribution: CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Lanao del Sur, Misamis, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Forests, 200-1212m. Fl. Apr, Aug-Nov; fr. Jan, Apr-May, Sep-Oct. Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
    • var. subelliptifolia Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 199; Type: PNH 11913 Edaño (A, holo; L, PNH, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Ormoc, Lake Danao, along forested ridge, 666m, 21-Mar-1950. Distribution: LEYTE, SAMAR. Notes: Forested slopes, 666m. Fr. Mar. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
    • var. wenzeliana Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 201; Type: Wenzel 3261 (MO, holo; A, GH, K, NY, UC, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, ?Placer, “Turugaun Turbid Placer?”, in forest, 150m, 19-Apr-1928. Distribution: MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Notes: Low elevation forests (e.g. c. 150m). Fl. Apr, Aug; fr. Apr, Aug. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
  72. Psychotria panayensis Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 456; EPFP 3 (1923) 560; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 147; Type: BS 31198 Ramos & Edaño (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Panay: Capiz, Jamindan, moist forests along small streams, Apr/May-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Moist forest; recorded along small streams. Fl. Feb-May. Known only with certainty from Panay. Last collected in 1948 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  73. Psychotria papillata (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 560; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 68; ≡ Grumilea papillata Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 138; Type: BS 1701 Ramos (MO, lecto; A, BM, GH, L, NY, P, SING, US, isolecto), Samar: Cauayan Valley, in forests, along small streams, Apr-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, below 1000m. Fr. Apr-Jun, Nov-Dec. Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  74. Psychotria paracalensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 20; Type: BS 33697 Ramos & Edaño (A, holo; BM, P, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Paracale, Nov/Dec-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte. Notes: Fr. Nov-Dec. Known only from the type specimen collected in 1918 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  75. Psychotria patulinervia Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 206; Type: PNH 1420 Edaño (L, holo), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Miran River, in forest along stream at 1916m, 9-Nov-1946. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur. Notes: Forest, and streamside forest, in high montane forest on Mt Apo (1916-2123m). Fl. Aug-Nov; fr. May-Jul, Oct. Last collected in 1946 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  76. Psychotria pauciflora Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 522; Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 129; EPFP 3 (1923) 560; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 232; Type: Haenke s.n., (PR, holo), Luzon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Kalinga, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  77. Psychotria paucinervia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 176; EPFP 3 (1923) 561; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 34; Type: BS 27055 Ramos (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Abra, Mt Posooy, near summit of mountain in forests, 4-Feb-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra. Native.
  78. Psychotria phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 243; EPFP 3 (1923) 561; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 131; ≡ Grumilea phanerophlebia (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 131; Type: BS 7404 (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Cagayan, near Pamplona, 17-Mar-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan. Notes: Low elevation forests. Now apparently known only from the type collected in 1909. Two collections other than the type not accounted for by Sohmer & Davis. Conservation status: Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  79. Psychotria philippensis Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 4 (1829) 21; ≡ Uragoga philippensis (Cham. & Schltdl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 962. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Not included in L.L.Co's version of the checklist. Native.
  80. Psychotria pilosella Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 353; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 561; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 106; ≡ Grumilea pilosella (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 131; Type: Elmer 9213 (US, lecto; A, K, L, MO, NY, W, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Banahaw, in forested ravine at 850m, May-1907. = Psychotria heteromera Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 449; EPFP 3 (1923) 556; Type: BS 28773 Ramos & Edaño (K, lecto; BM, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Binuang, in forest, c. 1000m, May-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, BUCAS GRANDE, CATANDUANES, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, PANAY, SAMAR. Native.
    • ssp. erythrotricha (Elmer) Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 109; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 4527; ≡ Psychotria erythrotricha Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1891; ≡ Grumilea erythrotrica (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; Type: Elmer 13486 (K, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, L, MO, NY 2 sheets, P, UC, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, c. 1200m, Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Camarines Norte, Isabela, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Moist forest, including disturbed forest, 300-1200m. Fl. Apr-May, Aug; fr.: Jun-Aug, Nov. Last collected in 1969 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007); Data Deficient (Biag & Alejandro 2020). Native.
    • ssp. pilosella. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, SAMAR. Notes: Moist forest, including dipterocarp forest, 150-1000m. Fl. Jan-Feb, May, Jun, Dec; fr. May-Dec. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
    • var. camarinensis (Merr.) Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 111; ≡ Psychotria camarinensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 553; ≡ Grumilea camarinensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 135; Type: BS 1552 Ramos (BM, lecto; A, L, MO, NY, P, isolecto), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mt Iriga, 29-Nov-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, SAMAR. Notes: Forest on slope, 900-1500m. Fl. Apr-May; fr. Feb, Aug. Last collected in 1969 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
    • var. samarensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 108; Type: PNH 14346 Sulit (A, holo; K, L, iso), Samar: Northern Samar, Mt Cansayao, Catarman, primary dipterocarp forest, 200m, 3-Apr-1951. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Moist forest, 50-250m. Fl. Apr. Last collected in 1971 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  81. Psychotria pinnatinervia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 26; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 561; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 179; ≡ Grumilea pinnatinervia (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131; Type: Whitford 932 (US, lecto; K, NY, P, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Banahaw, Oct-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO, POLILLO. Notes: Drier parts of montane forests, 600-1600m. Fl. Feb-May; fr. Jan-Feb, May-Aug, Oct-Dec. Last collected in 1994 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  82. Psychotria piperi Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 457; EPFP 3 (1923) 561; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 26; Type: BS 513 Piper, Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Hinatuan, 16-May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Dipterocarp forests, 100-400m. Fl. Jan; fr. Apr-May. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  83. Psychotria plumeriifolia Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1026; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 561; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 211; ≡ Grumilea plumeriifolia (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 31; Type: Elmer 12550 (US, lecto; A, BISH, BM, K, L, MO, US, W, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting- giting, Magallanes (Magdiwang), along wooded banks at c. 250m, Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland forests, including forests along streams, 100-250m. Last collected in 1964 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  84. Psychotria pubilimba Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 366; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 181; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 4527; Type: BS 47221 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; A, BM, NY, isolecto), Luzon: Isabela, San Mariano, along streams in damp forests at c. 700m, 1-Mar-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela. Notes: Streamside forest (along watercourses), or on forested slopes, (50-)610-1128m. Fl. Apr-May; fr. Mar-May. Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007); Critically Endangered (Biag & Alejandro 2020). Native.
  85. Psychotria pulgarensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 103; ≡ Psychotria repens Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1349; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 562, nom. illeg., non (L.) L.; Type: Elmer 12991 (L, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, MO, P, US, W, isolecto), Palawan: Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), in moist, dense forest, c. 80m, Apr-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, PALAWAN. Notes: Moist forest, c. 80m. Fl. Apr. Last collected in 1927 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  86. Psychotria pygmaea Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 458; EPFP 3 (1923) 561; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 94; Type: BS 29271 Ramos & Edaño (US, lecto), Luzon: Rizal, Mt Susong Dalaga, in forests, 14-Aug-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Forest. Fr. Aug. Only known from the type specimen collected in 1917 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  87. Psychotria pyramidata Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1350; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 562; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 150; ≡ Grumilea pyramidata (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 134; Type: Elmer 13183 (NY, lecto; BISH, BM, L, isolecto), Palawan: Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), shaded forest near watercourses from c. 200-800m, May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, PALAWAN. Notes: Undisturbed or disturbed moist forests, including dipterocarp forest and dipterocarp-swamp forest, 150-1200m. Fl. Jan, Apr, May; fr. Apr-Jun, Aug. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable (Sohmer & A.P.Davis 2007; DAO 2017-11). Native.
  88. Psychotria quisumbingiana Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 136; Type: BS 43188 Ramos (UC, holo; BM, K, iso), Bohol: Bohol, Sevilla, along stream in the forest, 15-Sep-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Notes: Humid forest, recorded near stream, 300-700m. Fr. Aug-Oct. Last collected in 1923 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  89. Psychotria radicans (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 562; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 29; ≡ Grumilea radicans Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 139; Type: Wenzel 1193 (BM, lecto; MO, isolecto), Leyte: Buenavista, near Jaro, in forests, c. 500m, 10-Oct-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, 500-1000m. Fr. Oct. Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  90. Psychotria ramosii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 244; EPFP 3 (1923) 562; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 170; Type: BS 7499 Ramos (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Cagayan, near Pamplona, 17-Mar-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: Low elevation forest. Fl. Mar. Known only from the type specimen collected in 1909 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  91. Psychotria ramosissima Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 355; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 562; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 50; Type: Elmer 9178 (US, lecto; A, K, L, MO, NY, W, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban. Dense shrubby forest of gulches at c. 200m, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, 100-600m. Fl. Feb-May, Jul-Aug. Last collected in 1947 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  92. Psychotria reynosoi Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 191; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 4528; Type: BS 44808 Ramos & Edaño (UC, holo; A, K, L, NY, P, US, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Mt Marayep, on forested slopes, c. 700m, 9-Dec-1924. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Quezon, Quirino, Zambales, NEGROS. Notes: Forested slopes, including good condition secondary forests, 400-1300m. Fl. Mar, May; fr. Jun-Jul, Dec-Jan. Last collected in 1995 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007); Data Deficient (Biag & Alejandro 2020). Native.
  93. Psychotria rigidifolia (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 128; EPFP 3 (1923) 562; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 29; ≡ Randia rigidifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 352; Type: Elmer 9118 (A, iso), Luzon: Quezon, road between Lucban and Sampaloc, in humid forest. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Quezon, SAMAR. Notes: Humid low elevation forests. Fr. Aug. Last collected in 1954 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  94. Psychotria rubiginosa Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 25; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 135; EPFP 3 (1923) 562; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 127; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 4528; ≡ Grumilea rubiginosa (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131; Type: Elmer 6718 (K, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Rizal, Zambales, NEGROS. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Biag & Alejandro 2020). Native.
    • var. rubiginosa. Distribution: CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, ?Isabela, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Forest; ridges and ravines, 600-900m. Fl. Jan, Mar-May; fr. Mar, May, Aug. Last collected in 1993 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
    • var. jacobsii Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 129; Type: Jacobs 7847 (L, holo; A, CANB, K, iso), Luzon: Aurora, mtns NNE of Dingalan, low mixed mossy primary forest at 1000-1100m, 18-Mar-1968. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Ilocos Norte, NEGROS. Notes: Humid mixed forest, 1000-1100m. Fl. Feb, Mar. Last collected in 1992 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  95. Psychotria sarcocarpa Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 53; EPFP 3 (1923) 563; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 31; Type: Merrill 8077 (US, lecto; A, BM, K, L, P, isolecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Sax River Mtns, in wet, dense forest along small streams at 650-1000m, 27-Nov-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: Forests, including disturbed dipterocarp forest; recorded from wet streamside forests, 600-1000m. Fr. Jun, Nov-Dec. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  96. Psychotria scaberula Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 459; EPFP 3 (1923) 563; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 89; Type: BS 35159 Ramos & Pascasio (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Dinagat. Forest at low elevation, 11-May-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT. Notes: Two collections cited by Sohmer & Davis (2007). Low elevation forests. Fr. May. Last collected in 1931 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  97. Psychotria sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1028; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 563; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 23; Type: Elmer 12355 (BM, lecto; BISH, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, forested ridge at c. 700m, Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Primary forests, including forest with dipterocarps and dipterocarp forests, also in open and exposed places such as ridges, 150-700m. Fl. Jan-May; fr. Apr-Sep. Last collected in 1995 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  98. Psychotria sohotonensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 228; Type: PNH 117798 Madulid et al. (L, holo), Samar: Western Samar, Mt Sohoton, Babasian Na Gatti, 12km, Apr-1970. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Moist forest, probably at low to mid elevations. Fl. Apr. Last collected in 1970 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii), or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  99. Psychotria sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3264; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 153; Type: Elmer 16772 (A, lecto; BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, UC, US, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Irosin, deeply shaded forest at 606m, Jul-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: Humid forest, c. 600m. Fr. Jul. Only known from the type specimen collected in 1916 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  100. Psychotria subalpina Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 64; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 563; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 231; ≡ Grumilea subalpina (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131; Type: Elmer 7942 (K, lecto; A, L, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Banahaw, Lucban, mossy forest, 1500m, May-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Aurora, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Misamis Occidental, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Humid forests, primary and disturbed, including mossy and elfin forest, 1200-2100m. Fl. Mar-Jul; fr. Jan-Oct. Last collected in 1995 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  101. Psychotria subcucullata Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 492; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 71; Type: BS 43144 Ramos (UC, lecto; A, K, P, US, iso), Bohol: Kalingohan, rocky slopes in forest, 300-700m, 20-Aug-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Notes: Forest, on rocky slopes, 300-700m. Fr. Aug-Oct. Last collected in 1923 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  102. Psychotria subsessiliflora Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 24; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 563; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 77; ≡ Grumilea subsessiliflora (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131; Type: H.N. Whitford 722 (P, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Atimonan, Aug/Sep-1904. = Psychotria edanoi Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 555, as ‘edanoii’. = Grumilea brachybotrys Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 172; Type: BS 26256 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan (Mingan), Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, BILIRAN, CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, POLILLO, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. carinata (Quisumb. & Merr.) Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 79; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 4529; ≡ Psychotria carinata Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 205; Type: BS 45278 Ramos & Edaño (US, lecto; A, BM, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora, Casiguran, in damp forest, 28-May-1925. Distribution: CATANDUANES, LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Isabela. Notes: Low elevation forests. Fr. May-Sep. Last collected in 1961 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007); Data Deficient (Biag & Alejandro 2020).
    • var. subsessiliflora. Distribution: ALABAT, BILIRAN, CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, including submossy secondary forest, and plantations, 35-900m. Forests, including sub-mossy secondary forest, and plantations, 35-900m. Fl. Feb-May, Sep; Fr. all year round. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
  103. Psychotria sulitii Merr. & Quisumb. ex Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 100; Type: PNH 6408 Sulit (A, holo; K, L, iso), Samar: Western Samar, Mt Calbiga, Wright, midmontane forest, c. 300m, 23-May-1948. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Forest, c. 300m. Fl. May; fr. May. Only collected once in 1948 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  104. Psychotria surigaoensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 100; Type: BS 34581 Ramos & Pascasio (BM, holo; K, PNH, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Apr-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Notes: Forest, including dipterocarp forest, often near rivers, c. 50m. Fl. Apr; fr. Aug-Sep. Last collected in 1991 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  105. Psychotria tayabensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 354; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 79; ≡ Grumilea tayabensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; Type: Elmer 7581 (US, lecto; A, K, L, MO, NY, W, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. castanea (Merr.) Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 82; ≡ Psychotria castanea Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 446; EPFP 3 (1923) 554; Type: BS 33212 Ramos (A, lecto; BM, K, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Mt Nagapatan, Aug-1918. Distribution: LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Drier forests, on slopes, c. 700m. Last collected in 1975 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
    • var. euphlebia (Merr.) Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 84; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 4529; ≡ Grumilea euphlebia (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; ≡ Psychotria euphlebia Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 55; EPFP 3 (1923) 555; Type: BS 14582 Ramos, Luzon: Cagayan, Abulug River, Jan-1912. = Psychotria tricarpa Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 460; EPFP 3 (1923) 563; Type: BS 31224 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Panay: Capiz, Jamindan, Apr/May-1918. Distribution: ALABAT, LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Quezon, PANAY. Notes: Forests, including mixed forests with dipterocarps, 400-1000m. Fl. Dec; fr. Apr-Jul. Last collected in 1995 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007); Data Deficient (Biag & Alejandro 2020).
    • var. fasciculiflora (Merr.) Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 84; ≡ Psychotria fasciculiflora (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 555; ≡ Grumilea fasciculiflora Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 135; Type: BS 17519 Ramos (BM, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Samar: Yabong, on forested slopes, 15-Mar-1914. Distribution: SAMAR. Notes: Forests, 100-200m. Fr. Mar. Last collected in 1951 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
    • var. pinagteponanensis (Merr.) Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 88; Type: BS 78343 Edaño (A, holo), Luzon: Cagayan, Pinagteponan River, Oct-1929. Distribution: LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Sur. Notes: Forests, including mixed forest with dipterocarps, c. 500m. Fr. Oct. Last collected in 1995 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Vulnerable (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
    • var. tayabensis. Distribution: BOHOL, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Drier forests, sea-level to 1300m. Fl. Feb, May, Sep; fr. Mar-Aug, Oct-Nov. Last collected in 1996 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007).
  106. Psychotria urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1893; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 563; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 74; ≡ Grumilea urdanetensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 130; Type: Elmer 13703 (UC, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, humid forest near Lake Danao, c. 1600m, Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Humid forest, including mossy forest, 1500-1600m. Fr. Sep. Known only from the type collected in 1912 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  107. Psychotria vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 9 c (1915) Bot. 457; EPFP 3 (1923) 563; Type: Vanoverbergh 2818 (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Mountain Province, Bauco, in forests from 1300-1600m, Apr-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Considered a synonym of Psychotria loheri Elmer by L.L.Co. Native.
  108. Psychotria velutina Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1894; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 564; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 176; ≡ Grumilea velutina (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 33; Type: Elmer 13615 (UC, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, in moist fertile soil of dense forest at 3500ft, Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Humid forest, c. 1060m. Fr. Aug. Last collected in 1923 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  109. Psychotria weberi Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 54; EPFP 3 (1923) 564; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 217; ≡ Grumilea weberi (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; Type: Weber 1573 (US, lecto; A, GH, K, P, UC, isolecto), Luzon: Cagayan, Abulug River, rocky hillsides, c. 30m, Jan-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Quezon. Notes: Humid forest, including dipterocarp forest and secondary forest; along stream or on slopes, 30-610m. Fl. Apr-Jun; fr. May-Jun, Sep. Last collected in 1991 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  110. Psychotria wenzelii (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 564; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 94; ≡ Grumilea wenzelii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 140; Type: Wenzel 1142 (MO, lecto; A, BM, isolecto), Leyte: Leyte, Buenavista near Jaro, in forests, c. 500m, 1-Oct-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR. Notes: Forest, 500-700m. Fr. Oct. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  111. Psychotria yagawensis Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 66; Type: PNH 18687 Conklin (A, holo; L, PNH, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Yagaw, SE slope, 330m, 17-Jul-1953. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Forests, c. 330m. Fr. Jul. Known only from the type collected in 1953 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) or possibly Extinct (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  112. Psychotria yatesii (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 564; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 217; ≡ Grumilea yatesii Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) 172; Type: BS 25518 Yates (K, lecto; A, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Cadig, low elevation forests, Dec-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Forest, once recorded on steep sea cliff; also on ultramafics, 50-200m. Fl. Mar-May; fr. Apr, Dec. Last collected in 1992 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.
  113. Psychotria yenii Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 68; Type: Yen 173 (BISH, holo), Mindanao: South Cotabato, Tasaday Forest, dipterocarp forest at 1220m, Aug/Dec-1972. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: South Cotabato. Notes: Known only from the type collection, only collected once in 1972 (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Conservation status: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) (Sohmer & Davis 2007). Native.

Needs name

  1. Psychotria A; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 236; Voucher: PPI 13205 Gaerlan, Romero & Sagcal (BRIT), Palawan: Rizal, Ransang, Kumaraka; PPI 38209 Pipoly & Romero et al. (BRIT), Quezon, Brgy Bundog. Native.
  2. Psychotria B; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 236; Voucher: SMHI 2160 Podzorski (K, L), Palawan: Brookes Point, Pulot, c. 50km N of town; SMHI 1000 Ridsdale (K, L), Brookes Point, Pulot, Massin River, 12km N of Brookes Point. Native.
  3. Psychotria C; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 237; Voucher: PPI 18318 Garcia, Fuentes & Romero (BRIT, K), Luzon: Cagayan, Claveria, Brgy Kilkiling, Taggat Watershed Area. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Psychotria cagayanensis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 51; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 237; ≡ Grumilea cagayanensis (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; Type: FB 15491 Bernardo, Luzon: Cagayan, Casambalangan, in forest, c. 10m, Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: Lowland primary forests. According to Merrill’s original description, this taxon resembles Psychotria pinnatinervia and Psychotria luzoniensis, and that the pyrenes are not ridged or grooved. Probably belonging to Sohmer and Davis’ Luzoniensis species group. Native.
  2. Psychotria irosinensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3262; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 238; Type: Elmer 17356, Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Sep-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: According to Elmer’s description, this taxon has unbranched inflorescences but is otherwise similar to Psychotria manillensis and Psychotria pallidiflora. Species group unknown. Native.
  3. Psychotria samarensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 174; EPFP 3 (1923) 562; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 238; Type: FB 23576 Lasquet, Samar: Eastern Samar, Salcedo, on ridges, c. 200m, 11-Mar-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Now known only from description. Native.
  4. Psychotria voluta Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1347; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 564; Sohmer & A.P.Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 238; Type: Elmer 13253, Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), Apr-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Now only known from description. A member of the Ixoroides species group, but identity and relationship with other climbing species of this group not certain. Native.

Psydrax Gaertn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 September 2021
  1. Psydrax amplifolia (Elmer) A.P.Davis, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157 (2008) 120; ≡ Plectronia amplifolia Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3261; Type: Elmer 16739 (BISH, L, NA, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Jul-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, SAMAR. Native.
  2. Psydrax elmerianus Mahyuni, Floribunda 5 (2018) 325; Type: Elmer 6365 (BO, holo), Luzon: Benguet, Twin Peaks. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, PALAWAN. Native.
  3. Psydrax gynochthodes (Baill.) Arriola, Yayen & Alejandro, Botanical studies 55 (2014) 65; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; ≡ Canthium gynochthodes Baill., Adansonia 12 (1878) 199; ≡ Plectronia gynochthodes (Baill.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 536; Type: Cuming 1848 (K, holo), Luzon: Batangas, 1917. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Cagayan, ?Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: In most islands and provinces. Low and medium secondary forests generally, ascending to 1500m. Native.
  4. Psydrax multiflora Arriola & Alejandro, Nordic Journal of Botany 35 (2017) 182; Type: Cobankiat, Chavez & Alejandro 13068 (PNH, holo; PNH, USTH, iso), Palawan: Rizal, Brgy Pulikbaha, Sitio Palikpikan, 12-May-2013. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B2 (Arriola et al. 2017). Native.
  5. Psydrax puberula Arriola & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 149 (2013) 28; Type: Reynoso, Sagcal, & Fuentes 14758 (L, holo; PNH, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Caramoan, Brgy Guijalo, 11-Feb-1995. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur, Quezon, POLILLO. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Pyrostria Comm. ex Juss.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 October 2020
  1. Pyrostria arayatensis Suba, Arriola & Alejandro, Ann. Bot. Fennici 57 (2020) 310; Type: Suba & Arriola UE17-105 (PNH, holo; PNH, USTH, iso), Luzon, Pampanga, Arayat, Mt Arayat, 10-May-2017. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga. Native.
  2. Pyrostria elmeri (Merr.) Arriola, Meve & Alejandro, Ann. Bot. Fennici 53 (2016) 217; ≡ Canthium elmeri Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; ≡ Plectronia gracilipes Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1008, nom. illeg., non Kurz; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 536; Type: Elmer 12550 (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; BRIT, K, MO, NY, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Guiting-guiting, May-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Forests along streams, c. 225m. Native.
  3. Pyrostria obovatifolia (Merr.) A.E.D.Wong, Magdaleno & Alejandro, Botanical studies 55 (2014) 65; ≡ Canthium obovatifolium (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; ≡ Plectronia obovatifolia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 167; EPFP 3 (1923) 538; Type: BS 26526 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; K, lecto; A, US, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Dingalan (Mt Dalingdingan in the protologue), forested slopes at medium elevation, 9-Sep-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Ilocos Norte. Notes: Medium elevation forests, 200-350m. Native.
  4. Pyrostria oligophlebia (Merr.) Pacia, Quiogue & Alejandro, Botanical studies 55 (2014) 65; ≡ Canthium oligophlebium (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; ≡ Plectronia oligophlebia Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 442; EPFP 3 (1923) 538; Type: BS 29342 Ramos and Edaño (PNH, lost; US, lecto; A, K, isolecto), Luzon: Rizal, Mt Susong Dalaga, mossy forest at the summit, apparently at or above 900m, 7-Aug-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: 500-900m. Native.
  5. Pyrostria ramosii (Merr.) Arriola, Paraguison & Alejandro, Botanical studies 55 (2014) 65; ≡ Canthium ramosii (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 9; ≡ Plectronia ramosii Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 443; EPFP 3 (1923) 539; Type: BS 28973 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Umiray, forest along the Umiray River at low elevation, 1-Jun-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Lowland forests, 200-350m. Native.
  6. Pyrostria subsessilifolia (Merr.) Arriola & Alejandro, Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 7 (2013) 8; ≡ Canthium subsessilifolium (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 9; ≡ Plectronia subsessilifolia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 168; EPFP 3 (1923) 539; Type: BS 27205 Ramos (A, US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, in thickets at low elevation, 2-Mar-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Lowland thickets. Native.
  7. Pyrostria triflora Arriola, Calaramo & Alejandro, Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 22 (2015) 56; Type: Arriola, Calamaro & Alejandro 13098 (PNH, holo; USTH, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Mun Adams, 623m, 26-Mar-2013. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Native.

Randia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 November 2021

Incertae sedis

  1. Randia loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 57; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; Type: BS 12067 Loher, cited by Merrill as ‘12967’ in the protologue (A, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, Paningtingan, Oct-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Merrill (1925) listed two collections, from rather adjacent localities on the foothills of the Sierra Madre. P.B. Pelser (27-Nov-21): A number of Philippine species previously referred to Randia have been assigned to the following genera, viz. Aidia, Atractocarpus, Fagerlindia, Oxyceros, and Tarennoidea. It is not clear to me in which genus this species should be placed. Native.
  2. Randia mindoroensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 28; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 527; Type: Merrill 3326 (NY, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Puerto Galera, Oct-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Lowland forests. P.B. Pelser (27-Nov-21): A number of Philippine species previously referred to Randia have been assigned to the following genera, viz. Aidia, Atractocarpus, Fagerlindia, Oxyceros, and Tarennoidea. It is not clear to me in which genus this species should be placed. Native.
  3. Randia pubifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1895; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 528; Type: Elmer 14060, Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta), Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Humid forests, c. 1000m. “May be the fruiting specimen of Tricalysia negrosensis Elmer”, Elmer (1913). P.B. Pelser (27-Nov-21): A number of Philippine species previously referred to Randia have been assigned to the following genera, viz. Aidia, Atractocarpus, Fagerlindia, Oxyceros, and Tarennoidea. It is not clear to me in which genus this species should be placed. Native.
  4. Randia rostrata Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 460; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 528; Type: BS 35102 Ramos & Pascasio (A, US, iso), Bucas Grande, dry forests, 11-Jun-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE. Notes: Lowland forests. P.B. Pelser (27-Nov-21): A number of Philippine species previously referred to Randia have been assigned to the following genera, viz. Aidia, Atractocarpus, Fagerlindia, Oxyceros, and Tarennoidea. It is not clear to me in which genus this species should be placed. Native.
  5. Randia samalensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 29; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 528; Type: Copeland 847, Samal, Apr-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAL. Notes: Lowland forests. P.B. Pelser (27-Nov-21): A number of Philippine species previously referred to Randia have been assigned to the following genera, viz. Aidia, Atractocarpus, Fagerlindia, Oxyceros, and Tarennoidea. It is not clear to me in which genus this species should be placed. Native.

Richardia L. (Not native)

Possibly present

  1. Richardia scabra L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 330. Distribution: America. Notes: P.B. Pelser (14-Dec-20): Listed for the Philippines on the Plants of the World Online website, but I could not find any specimens or literature.

Ridsdalea J.T.Pereira & K.M.Wong

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 January 2022
  1. Ridsdalea graciliflora (Merr.) J.T.Pereira, Sandakania 21 (2016) 45; ≡ Rothmannia graciliflora (Merr.) J.T.Pereira & Ridsdale, Sandakania 18 (2012) 17; ≡ Randia graciliflora Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 109; EPFP 3 (1923) 527; Type: FB 17988 Miranda (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; K, L, NY, P, SING, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental, Mt Malindang, in forests along streams, 120m, 26-Feb-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga. Notes: Lowland forests along streams, c. 120m. Native.
  2. Ridsdalea lagunensis (Merr.) J.T.Pereira, Sandakania 21 (2016) 47; ≡ Rothmannia lagunensis (Merr.) J.T.Pereira & Ridsdale, Sandakania 18 (2012) 18; ≡ Rothmannia lagunensis (Merr.) J.G.Chavez & Alejandro, Philippine Science Letters 5 (2012) 218, nom. inval., superfl; ≡ Gardenia lagunensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 110; EPFP 3 (1923) 530; Type: Baker 3176 (PNH, holo, lost); BS 14934 Ramos (L, neo; P, isoneo), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, Jun-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, LUZON: Batangas, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  3. Ridsdalea leytensis (J.T.Pereira & Ridsdale) J.T.Pereira, Sandakania 21 (2016) 47; ≡ Rothmannia leytensis J.T.Pereira & Ridsdale, Sandakania 18 (2012) 27; Type: Wenzel 641 (A, holo; BM, iso), Leyte: Leyte, 8-Mar-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Native.
  4. Ridsdalea merrillii (Elmer) J.T.Pereira, Sandakania 21 (2016) 48; ≡ Rothmannia merrillii (Elmer) J.T.Pereira & Ridsdale, Sandakania 18 (2012) 20; ≡ Rothmannia merrillii (Elmer) J.G.Chavez & Alejandro, Philippine Science Letters 5 (2012) 220, nom. inval., superfl; ≡ Gardenia merrillii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 5; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 530; Type: Merrill 669 (US, lecto; A, K, NY, SING, isolecto), Culion: Calomian, Halsey, Feb-1903. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BUSUANGA, CULION, GOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Quezon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, ROMBLON. Notes: In thickets, secondary and primary forest at low elevation. Native.
  5. Ridsdalea negrosensis (Merr.) J.T.Pereira, Sandakania 21 (2016) 48; ≡ Rothmannia negrosensis (Merr.) J.T.Pereira & Ridsdale, Sandakania 18 (2012) 25; ≡ Rothmannia negrosensis (Merr.) J.G.Chavez & Alejandro, Philippine Science Letters 5 (2012) 220, nom. inval., superfl; ≡ Gardenia negrosensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 111; EPFP 3 (1923) 530; Type: FB 7255 Everett (PNH, holo. ?lost), FB 7255 Celestino (L, neo), Negros: Negros Occidental, vicinity of Cadiz and Gimagaan River, Feb/Mar-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (photos by Pelser & Barcelona), MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Native.
  6. Ridsdalea philippinensis R.Bustam. & Pelser, Blumea 67 (2022) 17; Type: PTI 4 with W. Cabanillas & L. Magarce-Camangeg (PNH, holo; FEUH, PSU, USTH, iso), Palawan: El Nido-Taytay Managed Resource Protected Area (ENTMRPA), El Nido, 150 m, 6-Jun-2020. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Bustamante & Pelser 2022). Native.
  7. Ridsdalea quadrasii (Elmer) J.G.Chavez, Meve & Liede, Nordic Journal of Botany 38 e02730 (2020) 13; ≡ Rothmannia quadrasii (Elmer) J.G.Chavez, Liede & Meve, Webbia (2017) 218; ≡ Timonius quadrasii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 36; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 542; Type: J.F. Quadras sub G.P. Ahern 245 (also numbered Ahern 545 and J.F. Quadras 545; Chavez et al. 2017) (US, lecto) Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Tetuan, May/Jun-1901. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: Probably from lowland forests. Only known from the type locality (Chavez et al. 2017). Native.

Rubia L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016
  1. Rubia cordifolia L., Syst. ed. 12 (1767) 229; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 575. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, E Asia, Europe, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Malay Peninsula, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Vietnam. Native.
    • ssp. cordifolia. Distribution: LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao. Notes: In thickets and forests, chiefly above 1000m, extending to 2400m, and often common in the mossy forest. Philippine plants so-named not certainly corresponding to the Linnaean species.
  2. Rubia philippinensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3214; Type: Elmer 22216 (K), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Pinatubo, May-1927. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga. Notes: Philippine specimens of Rubia cordifolia might belong to this species. Native.

Rubovietnamia Tirveng.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 August 2016
  1. Rubovietnamia coronula Alejandro & Meve, Nordic J. Bot. 34 (2016) 386; Type: Alejandro & Lemana 25091 (PNH, holo; Univ. of Santo Tomas Herbarium, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Brgy Manacan, Santa Maria, Little Boracay, 16-Feb-2010. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Notes: Limestone cliffs along the coast and from elevations of about 50m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B2a,b(iii) (Alejandro & Meve 2016). Native.

Saprosma Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 March 2019
  1. Saprosma philippinensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1035; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 568; Type: Elmer 9222 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, well-drained soil of light woods at 800m, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon. Notes: In forests, c. 750m. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Saprosma ternata (Wall.) Hook.f. in Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 2 (1873) 131; ≡ Serissa ternata (Wall.) Kurz, Rep. Veg. Andaman Is. (1870) 40; ≡ Paederia ternata Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 520. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, ?Philippines, Thailand.

Schradera Vahl

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016
  1. Schradera elmeri Puff, Buchner & Greimler, Blumea 43 (1998) 315; ≡ Lucinaea involucrata Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 997; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 520. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Davao Oriental. Notes: Exposed ridges, mossy forests, 750-1900m. Fl. in Mar, Jun-Jul, Oct; fr. Mar, Jun-Jul. Native.
  2. Schradera monocephala (Merr.) Puff, Buchner & Greimler, Blumea 43 (1998) 299; ≡ Lucinaea monocephala Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 241; EPFP 3 (1923) 520; Type: BS 10034 Ramos (?PNH, holo, presumed lost by Puff et al. (1998); an isotype however, is extant in US (barcode 00137914)). BS 1111 Ramos (BM, K), was earlier designated by Puff et al. as neotype. The above collections from Luzon: Laguna, Paete, near Dahican River. = Lucinaea epiphytica Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1873; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 520; Type: Elmer 14147 (?PNH, holo, ?lost), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: In primary montane forests with Agathis, 620-850m. Fl. Mar-Sep, fr. Nov. Native.

Scleromitrion (Wight & Arn.) Meisn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 July 2020
  1. Scleromitrion angustifolium (Cham. & Schltdl.) Benth., Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 4 (1852) 172; Wang, Phytotaxa 414 (2019) 121; ≡ Oldenlandia angustifolia (Cham. & Schltdl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 292, nom. illeg., non (Michx.) A.Gray; ≡ Sclerococcus angustifolius (Cham. & Schltdl.) Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 436; ≡ Hedyotis angustifolia Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 4 (1829) 153. = Hedyotis tenelliflora auct. non Blume; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 500. Distribution: ?Australia, Borneo, China, Himalayas, Japan, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m, along streams, clearings, etc. Native.
  2. Scleromitrion brachypodum (DC.) T.C.Hsu, Taiwania 62 (2017) 152; ≡ Oldenlandia brachypoda DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 424. Distribution: Korea, Nepal to China and Malesia, Philippines, Taiwan. Native.
  3. Scleromitrion diffusum (Willd.) R.J.Wang, J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 22 (2014) 440; ≡ Oldenlandia diffusa (Willd.) Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 11; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 447; EPFP 3 (1923) 493; ≡ Hedyotis diffusa Willd., Sp. Pl. 1 (1797) 566. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, Himalayas, India, Japan, Korea, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, ?Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Native.
  4. Scleromitrion verticillatum (L.) R.J.Wang, J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 22 (2014) 440; ≡ Oldenlandia verticillata L., Mant. (1767) 40; ≡ Hedyotis verticillata (L.) Lam., Tabl. Encycl. (1791) 271; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 501. = Scleromitrion hispidum (Retz.) Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (1851) 155; ≡ Oldenlandia hispida (Retz.) Lam., Encycl. 4 (1798) 536; ≡ Hedyotis hispida Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 23. = Hedyotis verticillata var. scaberrima Hatus., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 26 (1936) 224. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. Lowlands in thickets, old clearings and other open sites. Native.

Scyphiphora C.F.Gaertn.

  1. Scyphiphora hydrophylacea C.F.Gaertn., Fruct. 3 (1805) 91; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 533. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, India, Malay Peninsula, New Caledonia, Philippines, Sri Lanka. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: N Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in mangrove swamps and along most tidal streams subject to the influence of salt or brackish water. Native.

Serissa Comm. ex Juss. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 February 2018
  1. Serissa japonica (Thunb.) Thunb., Nov. Gen. Pl. 8 (1798) 132; ≡ Lycium japonicum Thunb., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 2, 3 (1780) 207. = Serissa serissoides Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Cl. Brit. Isles 1916 (1917) 646. Distribution: China, Taiwan. MINDANAO: North Cotabato. Notes: Not native?. Naturalized.

Spermacoce L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 November 2021
  1. Spermacoce alata Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane (1775) 60; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630. Distribution: S America. LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: Moist areas of secondary growth forest (Biag, pers. comm. 1-Sep-21). Naturalized.
  2. Spermacoce articularis L.f., Suppl. (1872) 118; ≡ Borreria articularis (L.f.) F.N. Williams, Bull. Herb. Boiss. sér. 5, 2 (1905) 956. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Vietnam. Native.
  3. Spermacoce exilis (L.O.Williams) C.D.Adams ex W.C.Burger & C.M.Taylor, Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 33 (1993) 316; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3975; ≡ Borreria exilis L.O.Williams, Phytologia 28 (1974) 227. = Borreria gracilis L.O.Williams, Phytologia 26 (1973) 487, nom. illeg. Distribution: Pantropic. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: L.L.Co considered this a synonym of Spermacoce gracilis Ruiz & Pav. Native.
  4. Spermacoce hispida L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 102; DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 555; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 455; ≡ Borreria articularis var. hispida (L.) Sivar. & Manilal, Int. Quart. J. Pl. Sci. Res. 2 (1975) 89, nom. inval.; ≡ Borreria hispida (L.) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(4) (1891) 144, nom. illeg.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 574. = Spermacoce mutilata Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 43. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, BATAN. Notes: Batan to Basilan; open dry places at low and medium elevation. Native.
  5. Spermacoce lasiocarpa R.Br. ex Wall., Numer. List (1829) 832. = Spermacoce ramanii Sivar. & R.V.Nair, Taxon 35 (1986) 367, nom. superfl; ≡ Borreria ramanii M.R.Almeida, Fl. Maharashtra 3A (2001) 6. Distribution: Africa, China, Himalayas, India, Japan, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  6. Spermacoce manillensis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(2) (1898) 123; ≡ Spermacoce discolor (DC.) Fern.-Vill. in Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 4(13A) (1880) 113, nom. illeg.; ≡ Borreria discolor DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 545. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  7. Spermacoce meyeniana Walp., Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 353; ≡ Hedyotis philippensis var. meyeniana (Walp.) Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 38; EPFP 3 (1923) 499; Type: Meyen s.n. (B), Luzon: Laguna. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Native.
  8. Spermacoce ocymoides Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 34; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 455; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; ≡ Borreria ocymoides (Burm.f.) DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 544; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 574. = Spermacoce laevis Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 401, nom. illeg., non Lam. Distribution: India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka. BASILAN, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Rizal. Notes: Introduced in the neotropics and tropical Africa. Lowland thickets. Native.
  9. Spermacoce pusilla Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 379; ≡ Borreria pusilla (Wall.) DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 543; ≡ Bigelovia pusilla (Wall.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 405. Distribution: ?Borneo, Himalayas, India, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, ?Sumatra. Native.
  10. Spermacoce remota Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1792) 273; Ordas et al., Check List 15 (2019) 309; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; ≡ Borreria remota (Lam.) Bacigalupo & E.L.Cabral, Darwiniana 37 (1999) 334. Distribution: America. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, SAMAR. Naturalized.
  11. Spermacoce scaberrima Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 946; ≡ Borreria scaberrima (Blume) Koord., Exkurs.-Fl. Java 3 (1912) 282. = Spermacoce muriculata Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 44. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Spermacoce laevis Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 273. Distribution: C & S America. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited. Naturalized.

Streblosa Korth.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 October 2017
  1. Streblosa axilliflora Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 141; Type: BS 22018 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mt Isarog, Nov-1913. = Streblosa glabra Valeton ex Winkler in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 44 (1910) 567; Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1356; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 564. = Streblosa axilliflora Merr. var. angustifolia Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 28 (1947) 184. = Streblosa axilliflora Merr. var. latifolia Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 28 (1947) 184. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: In primary forest at low elevation. Streblosa glabra, fide Merr. 1923. Native.
  2. Streblosa palawanensis Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 28 (1947) 182. = Streblosa palawanensis var. elmeri Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 28 (1947) 183. = Streblosa palawanensis var. merrillii Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 28 (1947) 183. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.

Tarenna Gaertn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 September 2021
  1. Tarenna acuminata Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 462; EPFP 3 (1923) 525; Type: BS 13904 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  2. Tarenna angustifolia Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 472. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand. Notes: Not included in L.L.Co's version of the checklist. Native.
  3. Tarenna arborea (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1359; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 525; ≡ Randia arborea Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1005; Type: Elmer 10978. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Laguna, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Forests, up to 500m. Native.
  4. Tarenna bakeri (Merr.) Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37 (1934) 187; ≡ Pavetta bakeri Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 117; EPFP 3 (1923) 544; Type: Baker 3214, Luzon: Laguna, hills back of Paete, 10-Apr-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon. Notes: Low or medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  5. Tarenna bartlingii Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 47 (1939) 97. = Tarenna pubescens (Bartl. ex DC.) Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37 (1934) 203, nom. illeg., non Craib; ≡ Pavetta pubescens (Bartl. ex DC.) Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 545; ≡ Webera pubescens Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 108; ≡ Stylocoryna pubescens Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 377; Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 206; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 33; Type: Cuming 1236. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Lowland thickets or secondary forests. Native.
  6. Tarenna catanduanensis Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 463; EPFP 3 (1923) 525; Type: BS 30387. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  7. Tarenna costata (Miq.) Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 472; ≡ Stylocoryna costata Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 203. Distribution: Thailand to Sumatra and Philippines. Notes: Not included in L.L.Co's version of the checklist. Native.
  8. Tarenna cumingiana (S.Vidal) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1898; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 525; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; ≡ Webera cumingiana S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 178; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 152; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 40; Type: Cuming 685. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Cagayan, Camarines, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  9. Tarenna ebracteata (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1898; ≡ Randia ebracteata Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1354. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: L.L.Co considered this a synonym of Tarennoidea wallichii (Hook.f.) Tirveng. & Sastre. Native.
  10. Tarenna elongata Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 464; EPFP 3 (1923) 525; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; Type: BS 35218 Ramos & Pascasio. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  11. Tarenna eucrantha (Elmer) Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 471; EPFP 3 (1923) 525; ≡ Pavetta eucrantha Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1015; LPB 5 (1913) 1886; Type: Elmer 12492. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: L.L.Co considered this a synonym of Tarenna luzoniensis (S.Vidal) Bremek. Native.
  12. Tarenna fragrans (Blume) Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Boom. Java 8 (1902) 77; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 525; Wong in Ng, Tree Fl. Malaya 4 (1989) 411; ≡ Webera fragrans (Blume) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1880) 103; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 108; ≡ Stylocoryna fragrans Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 982. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests. According to Merrill (1923), identification of Palawan material is not certainly correct. Native.
  13. Tarenna littoralis Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 465; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; Type: Merrill 9418. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. APO DE MINDORO, BURIAS, CORON, DUMARAN, LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales, PALAWAN, UBIAN. Notes: Lowland forests, often on or near the seashore. Native.
  14. Tarenna loheri (Merr.) Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37 (1934) 197; ≡ Pavetta loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 55; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; Type: Loher 13151, Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, Paningtingan, Mar-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Native.
  15. Tarenna luzoniensis (S.Vidal) Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37 (1934) 198; ≡ Pavetta luzoniensis (S.Vidal) Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 544; ≡ Webera luzoniensis S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 179; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 152; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 40; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 133; Type: Cuming 1323. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Batangas, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SIARGAO, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  16. Tarenna meyeri (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1898; Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37 (1934) 199; ≡ Pavetta meyeri (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1015; Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 545; ≡ Webera meyeri (Elmer) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 133; ≡ Ixora meyeri Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 68; Type: FB 2764 Meyer, Luzon: Bataan, Lamao Forest Reserve, Feb-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Notes: Primary forest, c. 650m. Note: The type material cited for the basionym Ixora meyeri Elmer is Elmer 7958 from Quezon province (Mt Banahaw), collected in Apr-1906. Why this disparity?. Native.
  17. Tarenna multinervia (Merr.) Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37 (1934) 200; ≡ Pavetta multinervia Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 545; Type: FB 9013 Whitford & Hutchinson. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  18. Tarenna nitida Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 466; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; Type: FB 23388 Contreras. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  19. Tarenna obtusifolia Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 467; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; Type: BS 1257 McGregor. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, BUCAS GRANDE. Notes: Thickets and forests near the seashore. Native.
  20. Tarenna palawanensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 471; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; ≡ Pavetta palawanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1344; Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 117; Type: Elmer 12940 (L, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), in humus-covered compact soil of a densely wooded flat at 250ft, Apr-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland primary forests, to 300m. Native.
  21. Tarenna pangasinensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 458; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; Type: FB 28419 Zamuco. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan. Notes: Near streams at low elevation. Native.
  22. Tarenna scaberula (Merr.) Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 471; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; ≡ Pavetta scaberula Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 118; Type: BS 13114 Ramos & Foxworthy, Luzon: Quezon, Dayap, in forests, c. 30m, 9-Mar-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  23. Tarenna stenantha Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 468; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; Type: BS 29003 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Ilocos Norte, Quezon, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.

Tarennoidea Tirveng. & Sastre

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 September 2021
  1. Tarennoidea wallichii (Hook.f.) Tirveng. & Sastre, Mauritius Inst. Bull. 8 (1979) 90; Biag & Alejandro, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 3630; ≡ Tarenna wallichii (Hook.f.) Ridl., Fl. Mal. Pen. 2 (1923) 106; Wong in Ng, Tree Fl. Malaya 4 (1989) 413; ≡ Randia wallichii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1860) 113. = Stylocoryna incerta (Koord. & Valeton) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 33; ≡ Tarenna incerta Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Boom. Java 8 (1902) 269; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 526. = Tarenna kotoensis (Hayata) Masamune, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formos. 20 (1932) 462; Hatus., Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 52; ≡ Chomelia kotoensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 9 (1920) 58. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BATANES, CORON, JOLO, LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Chiefly in low and medium elevation secondary forests. Native.

Timonius DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 May 2022
  1. Timonius alejandroanus J.G.Chavez, Meve & Liede, Nordic Journal of Botany 38 e02730 (2020) 2; Type: Sulit PNH 6459 (=Sulit & Coñese 3034) (PNH, holo; L, iso), Samar: Taft, Mt Calbiga, along road km 64, 250m, 25-May-1948. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,iv) (Chavez et al. 2020). Native.
  2. Timonius appendiculatus Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 327; EPFP 3 (1923) 541; Type: BS 2164 Ramos (NY, US, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, Jan-1904; BS 2651 Ramos (NY, US, syn), Luzon: Rizal, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Camarines, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDORO. Notes: Medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  3. Timonius arboreus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 72; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 541; Type: Elmer 7960, Luzon: Quezon, Mt Banahaw, forests, 500m, Apr-1906. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN, TICAO. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  4. Timonius auriculatus Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 480; EPFP 3 (1923) 541; Type: BS 35190 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  5. Timonius caudatifolius Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1898; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 541; Type: Elmer 14190 (BISH, L, MO, NA, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, lax epiphytic shrub upon moss covered ascending tree trunks 15ft above the very humus wet stony soil in humid forests at 5250ft or some distance above the lagoon, Oct-1912. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon (photos). Notes: Exposed ridges in the mossy forest, c. 1550m. Native.
  6. Timonius confertiflorus Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 114; EPFP 3 (1923) 541; Type: Merrill Phil. Pl. 1698, leg. M. Ramos (L, NY, US, iso), Samar: Yabong, in dry thickets, 16-Mar-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland dry thickets. Native.
  7. Timonius dumagat J.G.Chavez, Nordic Journal of Botany 38 e02730 (2020) 3; Type: Co 3569 (L, holo; A, CAHUP, PUH, US, iso), Luzon: Isabela, Divilacan, Aubarede Peninsula, west side facing Bicobian, Salniwan Spring, ca 17 km NNW of Palanan Point, 25-May-1991. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Conservation status: Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,iv) (Chavez et al. 2020). Native.
  8. Timonius epiphyticus Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1011; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 541; Type: Elmer 10706. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao del Sur. Notes: Primary forests, 800-1050m. Native.
  9. Timonius eremiticus J.G.Chavez & Banag, Blumea 65 (2020) 105; Type: J.G. Chavez & S.G.S. Zamudio PL 110 (PNH, holo; A, CAHUP, FEUH, GB, L, P, PPC, UBT, US, USTH, iso), Palawan:, Puerto Princesa City, Mt Pulgar, 1200 m, 1-Oct-2020. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B2ab(iv) (Chavez et al. 2020). Native.
  10. Timonius ferrugineus Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 115; EPFP 3 (1923) 541; Type: Merrill 9210 (L, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Taytay, in forests immediately back of mangroves, 30-Apr-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Primary forests behind mangroves. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  11. Timonius finlaysonianus (Wall. ex G.Don) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1880) 127; Chavez et al., Nordic J. Bot. 38 e02730 (2020) 11; ≡ Guettarda finlaysoniana Wall. ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 3 (1834) 552. = Timonius philippinensis Merr., Philipp. Bur. Forestry Bull. 1 (1903) 54; EPFP 3 (1923) 542; Type: Ahern 463 (NY, US, syn); Ahern 456 (syn), both from Dinagat, 1902. = Timonius compressicaulis (Miq.) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1891) 133; ≡ Polyphragmon compressicaule Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 235. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, SAMAR. Native.
  12. Timonius gammillii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1013; LPB 4 (1912) 1359; Type: Elmer 12469 (A, GH, L, NY, US), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (Magdiwang), in moist gravelly soil of wooded banks of the Pauala River at 1000ft, May-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Considered a synonym of Timonius arboreus Elmer in L.L.Co's version of the checklist. Native.
  13. Timonius gracilipes Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 60; EPFP 3 (1923) 541; Type: BS 11110 Ramos (US, iso), Cebu: Cebu, Buacao, dry hill thickets, Mar-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets. Native.
  14. Timonius lanceolatus Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 542; Type: BS 35211 Ramos & Pascasio. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  15. Timonius longiflorus (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 542; ≡ Greenea longiflora Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 323; Type: FB 9430 Whitford & Hutchinson (US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Tibucuy, in forest, c. 20m, Feb-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  16. Timonius longistipulus Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 59; EPFP 3 (1923) 542; Type: BS 15371 Ramos (L, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, mtns back of Dagami, on trees in the mossy forests, 13-Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Notes: Mossy forests, at or above 1000m. Native.
  17. Timonius noli-tangere J.G.Chavez, Alejandro & Meve, Botany Letters 167 (2020) 365; Type: B. Lemana BC012 (PNH, holo; L, USTH, iso), Samar: Eastern Samar, Balangiga, Brgy Sta. Rosa, 23-May-2012. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B2ab(iii) (Chavez et al. 2020). Native.
  18. Timonius obovatus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 36; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 542; Type: Merrill 1048, leg. S Gracia, Luzon: Aurora, Aug-1902. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  19. Timonius oligophlebius Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 34; EPFP 3 (1923) 542; Type: BS 23367 Ramos (BISH 3 sheets, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Kililibong, in forests near the summit, apparently at c. 1000m, 17-Aug-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: Forests, c. 1000m. Native.
  20. Timonius pachyphyllus Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 494; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; Type: BS 40794 Ramos, Luzon: Rizal, Mt Angilog (?Angelo or Angilo), 20-Apr-1922. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Forested slopes, c. 1200m. Native.
  21. Timonius palawanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1360; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 542; Chen et al., Pl. Ecol. Evol. 148 (2015) 426; Type: Elmer 12705 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BISH, L, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Brookes Point, on earthen banks of well-shaded woods at 100ft along a rivulet, Feb-1911. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  22. Timonius pseudoarboreus J.G.Chavez, Nordic Journal of Botany 38 e02730 (2020) 5; Type: Romero, Garcia & Majaducon PPI 15415 (L, holo; BRIT, GH, iso), Polillo: Bgy Amot, Sitio Igad, Burdeos Watershed area, 2-Aug-1995. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, POLILLO. Conservation status: Vulnerable B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v) (Chavez et al. 2020). Native.
  23. Timonius pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1360; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 542, erroneously as ‘palawanensis’; Type: Elmer 13201 (L, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Dense thickets near the summit of Mt Pulgar, c. 1300m. Native.
  24. Timonius quinqueflorus Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 116; EPFP 3 (1923) 543; Type: BS 20885 Escritor (L, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Guinayangan, 8-Mar-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Low or medium elevation forests. Native.
  25. Timonius ridsdalei J.G.Chavez, Nordic Journal of Botany 38 e02730 (2020) 6; Type: Ridsdale, Dejan & Baquiran ISU 108 (L, holo; A, CAHUP, L, iso), Luzon: Isabela, Palanan, Diguyo, 50m, 22-Apr-1991. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Notes: Conservatio status: Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,iv) (Chavez et al. 2020). Native.
  26. Timonius rotundus Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 543; Type: BS 35176 Ramos & Pascasio. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  27. Timonius samarensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 165; EPFP 3 (1923) 543; ≡ Timonius macrophyllus Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 246; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1010, nom. illeg., non Valeton; Type: FB 12856 (US, iso), Samar: Western Samar, near Catbalogan, hillsides along streams, c. 200m, 7-Feb-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  28. Timonius spes-vitarum J.G.Chavez, Nordic Journal of Botany 38 e02730 (2020) 8; Type: Ridsdale SMHI 1813 (PNH, holo; CAHUP, L, iso), Palawan: Narra, Victoria Peaks, Trident Mining Company concession area, along access track, 300-450m, 22-May-1984. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable B1+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) (Chavez et al. 2020). Native.
  29. Timonius stevendarwinii J.G.Chavez, Nordic Journal of Botany 38 e02730 (2020) 10; Type: Soejarto, Gaerlan, Sagcal & Fernando 8360 (A, holo; L, iso), Palawan: Brooke’s Point, Brgy Malis, Magagong settlement at the southern reaches of Mantalingajan Range, 600-700 m, 16-Jun-1994. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Rizal, PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable B1+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv) (Chavez et al. 2020). Native.
  30. Timonius sulitii Merr. & Quisumb. ex J.G.Chavez & Tandang, Botany Letters 167 (2020) 368; Type: PNH 6429 Sulit & Coñese 2938 (PNH, holo; L, iso), Samar: Eastern Samar, Taft, Mt Calbiga, dipterocarp forest along road, Km 64, c. 250m, 18-May-1948. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B2ab(iii) (Chavez et al. 2020). Native.
  31. Timonius ternifolius (Bartl. ex DC.) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 109; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 36; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 543; ≡ Petesia ternifolia Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 395; Type: Haenke s.n. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, CULION, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Lowland forests and thickets. Native.
  32. Timonius trichophorus Merr., PJS 9 c (1915) Bot. 388; ≡ Timonius hirsutus (Elmer) Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 480; EPFP 3 (1923) 542, nom. illeg., non Merr.; ≡ Greenea hirsuta Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1857; Type: Elmer 13476. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests up to 900m. Native.
  33. Timonius urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1899; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 543; Type: Elmer 14197. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Exposed ridges in the mossy forest, c. 1650m. Native.
  34. Timonius valetonii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1012; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 543; Chavez et al., Nordic J. Bot. 38 e02730 (2020) 12; Type: Elmer 12342. = Timonius panayensis Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 542; Type: BS 35445 Martelino & Edaño (L, US, iso), Panay: Aklan, Libacao, May-Jun 1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Native.

Excluded

  1. Timonius nitidus (Bartl. ex DC.) Fern.-Vill. in Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 4(13A) (1880) 109; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 543; Chavez et al., Nordic J. Bot. 38 e02730 (2020) 14; ≡ Petesia nitida Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 395. Distribution: Pacific Ocean. Notes: Erroneously reported for the Philippines (Merrill 1923, Chavez et al. 2020).

Uncaria Schreb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2021
  1. Uncaria acida (W.Hunter) Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 86; Fl. Ind. ed. 1, 2 (1824) 129; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 508; Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 80; ≡ Nauclea acida W.Hunter, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 9 (1808) 223; Type: from Penang, Malaysia. Native.
    • var. acida. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, ?Thailand, Vietnam.
  2. Uncaria attenuata Korth., Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bot. (1840) 170; Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 79; Type: from Sumatra. = Uncaria canescens auct. non Korth.; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 37; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 509. = Uncaria attenuata ssp. bulusanensis Ridsdale ex Phillipson & Hemingway, Phytochem. 14 (1975) 1855, nom. nud.; ≡ Uncaria bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3270; Type: Elmer 14917 (L, lecto; A, BM, BRIT, CAL, CAS, G, GH, HBG, MICH, MO, NY, U, US, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Nov-1915. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Sorsogon, SAMAR. Native.
  3. Uncaria callophylla Blume ex Korth., Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bot. (1840) 170; Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 85; Type: from Borneo. = Uncaria luzoniensis Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 57; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; Type: Loher 14457 (M, lecto; UC, L isolectotype fragment), Luzon: Rizal, Mabiluang, Oct-1913. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. Native.
  4. Uncaria cordata (Lour.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 509; Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 75; ≡ Restiaria cordata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 639. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Isabela. Native.
    • var. cordata. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam.
    • forma sundaica Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 76; Type: from Malaysia. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra.
    • var. ferruginea (Blume) Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 76; ≡ Nauclea ferruginea Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 1013; Type: from Java. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand.
    • forma insignis (Bartl. ex DC.) Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 77; ≡ Uncaria insignis Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 348; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 509. Distribution: Borneo, ?Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra.
  5. Uncaria lanosa Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 131. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Batangas, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
    • forma philippinensis (Elmer) Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 89; ≡ Uncaria philippinensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 38; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 510; Type: R.C. McGregor 322 (K, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Baco River, Apr-May 1905. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. MINDORO.
    • forma setiloba (Benth.) Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 89; ≡ Uncaria setiloba Benth., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 223; Type: from Ambon. = Uncaria glabrata Fern.-Vill. in Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 4 (13A) (1880) 105. = Uncaria florida S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 176; Type: Cuming 1504 (K, lecto; A, BM, E 2 sheets, FR, K, L 2 sheets, M, MW, NY 2 sheets, isolecto), Luzon: Batangas, 1841. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. LUZON: Batangas.
    • var. ferrea (Blume) Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 87; ≡ Uncaria ferrea (Blume) DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 348; ≡ Nauclea ferrea Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1014; ≡ Uncaria lanosa forma ferrea (Blume) Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 87; Type: from Java. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN.
  6. Uncaria longiflora (Poir.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 480; EPFP 3 (1923) 509; Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 82; ≡ Nauclea longiflora Poir., Encycl. Suppl. 4 (1816) 63. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, ?Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Native.
    • var. longiflora. = Uncaria pachyphylla Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 102; Type: BS 16652 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, Sep-1912. = Nauclea luzonensis D.Dietr., Syn. Pl. 1 (1839) 791; Type: T.P.X. Haenke s.n. (PR612226, lecto; PR612227, isolecto), Luzon. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, ?Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Laguna.
    • var. pteropoda (Miq.) Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 82; ≡ Uncaria pteropoda Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 143; Type: from Sumatra. = Uncaria laevifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1902; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 509; Type: Elmer 14178 (NY00162864, lecto; BO, E, L, NY00162863), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, ?Philippines, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte.
  7. Uncaria nervosa Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 985; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 510; Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 79; Type: Elmer 11794 (NY, lecto; BM, E, G, HBG, K, L, MO, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, in dense humid forested flats at 4000ft (1219m), south of the Baruring River, Sep-1909. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, SAMAR. Native.
  8. Uncaria perrottetii (A.Rich.) Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 60; EPFP 3 (1923) 510; Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 85; ≡ Sabicea perrottetii A.Rich., Mém. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 5 (1834) 228; Type: Perrottet s.n. (P01900268, lecto; L, P01900269, isolecto), Philippines: “Manille”. = Uncaria hookeri S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 177; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 149; Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 86; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 37; Type: Cuming 619 (BM, lecto; K 2 sheets), Philippines, 1841. Distribution: Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests. Native.
  9. Uncaria roxburghiana Korth., Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bot. (1840) 172; Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 89; Type: from Sumatra. = Uncaria brevicarpa Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3271; Type: Elmer 16842 (K000760039, lecto; A, BM, BO, BRIT, CAL, G, GH, HBG, K, L, MICH, MO, NY, U, US, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Aug-1916. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. Native.
  10. Uncaria velutina Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 84; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 509; Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 80; Type: Cuming 1503 (K000760045, lecto; A, BM, G, K, L, MW, P 2 sheets, isolecto), Luzon: Batangas. = Nauclea canescens Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 346; Type: T.P.X. Haenke s.n. (GOET, lecto; PR 2 sheets, isolecto?), Luzon. = Uncaria canescens var. velutina Ridsdale ex Phillipson & Hemingway, Phytochem. 14 (1975) 1855, nom. nud. = Uncaria clavisepala Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 350; ≡ Nauclea clavisepala (Elmer) Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 266, nom. inval., in syn; Type: Elmer 8262 (NY, lecto; BO, CAL, E, K, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños, Apr-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.

Urophyllum Jack ex Wall.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 November 2021
  1. Urophyllum acuminatissimum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 106; EPFP 3 (1923) 521; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 39; Type: BS 20423 Ramos, Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, in forest, Feb-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon. Notes: In primary forests, at low elevation. An easily recognizable species, of which the flowers are still unknown. Native.
  2. Urophyllum bataanense Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 40; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 522; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 40; Type: Elmer 6810 (NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: In primary forests chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 1200m in the mossy forests. Notes: Bremekamp (1940) is of the opinion that specimens collected in parts of Luzon other than Bataan, as well as from Mindoro, Bohol, and Jolo belong in the neighborhood of Urophyllum mindorense Merr. Native.
  3. Urophyllum caudatum Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 481; EPFP 3 (1923) 522; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 38; Type: BS 33348 Ramos (A, US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Mt Palimlim, on forested slopes, 900m, 20-Aug-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, PANAY. Notes: In primary forests, extending into the mossy forests, 900-1100m. Native.
  4. Urophyllum elliptifolium Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 247; EPFP 3 (1923) 522; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 998; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940); Type: FB 3871 Curran, Palawan: Mt Pulgar, on forested slopes, 700-1300m, Feb-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: In forests, 700-1300m. Merrill compares this with the Bornean Urophyllum subanurum Stapf. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Urophyllum lanaense (Merr.) Smedmark & B.Bremer, Taxon 60 (2011) 1405; ≡ Pleiocarpidia lanaensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 462; EPFP 3 (1923) 524; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 40; Type: Clemens 882, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Jan-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur. Notes: In forests along streams at low and medium elevation, ascending to 800m. Native.
  6. Urophyllum leytense Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 62; EPFP 3 (1923) 522; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 40; Type: BS 15289 Ramos, Leyte: Leyte, mnts back of Dagami, in forests, 13-Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, NEGROS. Notes: In forests, probably at or above 900m. Native.
  7. Urophyllum memecyloides (C.Presl) S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 63; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 38; ≡ Cymelonema memecyloides C.Presl, Epim. (1851) 210; Type: Cuming 1678, Samar. = Urophyllum arboreum auct. non (Reinw. ex Blume) Korth.; C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 227; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 521. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  8. Urophyllum mindorense Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 464; EPFP 3 (1923) 523; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 39; Type: BS 39379 (A, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental, Mt Calavite, forested slopes, 600-700m, Apr-1921. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Known only from the type locality. Native.
  9. Urophyllum panayense Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 482; EPFP 3 (1923) 523; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 39; Type: BS 31421 Ramos & Edaño (A, US, iso), Panay: Capiz, Jamindan, in forests along small streams, 22-May-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Notes: In primary forests along streams at low or medium elevation. Native.
  10. Urophyllum platyphyllum Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 999; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 523; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 39; Type: Elmer 12363 (A, GH, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (Magdiwang), moist gravelly soil of humid forested gulleys at 1750ft on the España side of the trail leading over the ridge, Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, SIBUYAN. Notes: In forest at low and medium elevation. Apparently related to Urophyllum macrophyllum (Blume) Korth., but still imperfectly known. Native.
  11. Urophyllum reticulatum Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 999; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 523; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 39; Type: Elmer 12506 (A, GH, L, MO, NY, US), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (Magdiwang), stony moist soil on a forested ridge, 4000ft, May-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: On ridges in the mossy forest, c. 1200m. Known only from the type collection. Native.
  12. Urophyllum subglabrum Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 162; EPFP 3 (1923) 523; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 38; Type: BS 26507 Ramos & Edaño (US, holo; A, NY, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan (Mingan), dry slopes, c. 100m, 6-Sep-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Rizal. Notes: In primary forests at low medium elevation. Native.
  13. Urophyllum urdanetense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1900; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 524; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 38; Type: Elmer 13788 (US, holo; A, L, NY 2 sheets, U, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Mossy forest, 1500-1650m. Very near Urophyllum memecyloides (C.Presl) S.Vidal, but imperfectly described. Nearly related, but apparently distinct from the two preceding species is a plant collected from Jolo: Mt Dajo, BS 4391 (L), staminate. Native.

Needs name

  1. Urophyllum A; Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 39; Voucher: BS 31165 Ramos & Edaño (A); BS 31000 (L), Panay: Capiz, Jamindan. Distribution: PANAY. Notes: 'Urophyllum spec. aff. reticulatum' in Bremekamp (1940): "doubtless a good species…" but inavailability of flowers prevented him from formally naming it. Native.
  2. Urophyllum B; Bremek., J. Arnold. Arb. 21 (1940) 40; Voucher: BS 40963 Ramos (A), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Pinamalayan; BS 40595 (A), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon. Distribution: MINDORO. Notes: Discussed by Bremekamp (1940) under Urophyllum leytense. Native.
  3. Urophyllum C; Bremek., J. Arnold. Arb. 21 (1940) 40; Voucher: BS 40707 Ramos & Edaño (A); BS 40603 (A), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon. Distribution: MINDORO. Notes: Discussed by Bremekamp (1940) under Urophyllum leytense and referred to as 'Urophyllum halconense Merr. in sched.'. Native.
  4. Urophyllum D; Bremek., J. Arnold. Arb. 21 (1940) 40; Voucher: BS 40885 & 41022 Ramos (A, L), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Pinamalayan. Distribution: MINDORO. Notes: A very curious plant with solitary subsessile flowers, provided with a 6-merous calyx and corolla and surrounded by a fairly large involucel; the buds are too young for a good description. Discussed by Bremekamp (1940) under Urophyllum leytense. Native.

Vidalasia Tirveng.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016
  1. Vidalasia morindifolia (Elmer) Tirveng., Biogeographica (The Hague) 74 (1998) 166; ≡ Gardenia morindifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 67; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 530; Type: BS 32706 Ramos. = Gardenia pubifolia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 112; EPFP 3 (1923) 531; Type: BS 19343 Wester (US, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Mati, 19-Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental, PALAWAN, TICAO. Notes: In thickets and low elevation forest, often along seashore on cliffs. Native.

Villaria Rolfe

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2021
  1. Villaria acutifolia (Elmer) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 248; LPB 3 (1911) 1007; EPFP 3 (1923) 532; ≡ Gardenia acutifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 6; Type: Copeland 437 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mar-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Forest at low elevation. Alejandro et al. (2011): "Probably a coastal species, on clay-sandy soils". Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Villaria coriacea (Merr.) Arriola & Alejandro, Blumea 65 (2020) 87; ≡ Hypobathrum coriaceum Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 490; Type: BS 42615 Ramos (US, lecto; A, K, UC, isolecto), Bohol: Bohol, Bilar. On forested slopes, c. 600m, Sep-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Tarlac, Zambales. Native.
  3. Villaria fasciculiflora Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 207; Type: BS 46775 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; K, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Isabela, San Mariano. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Rizal. Notes: Alejandro et al. (2011): "in secondary forest, on forest margins, on clayey-sandy soils, 700m". Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Villaria glomerata (Bartl. ex DC.) Mulyan. & Ridsdale, Reinwardtia 12 (2004) 195; ≡ Platymerium glomeratum Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 619; ≡ Hypobathrum glomeratum (Bartl. ex DC.) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 44 (1891) 156; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 450; EPFP 3 (1923) 533; Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, holo), Luzon. = Serissa myrtifolia Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 164; Type: Merrill 71 (US, neo), Luzon, Bulacan, Baliuag, Jan-1910. = Serissa pinnata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 163; ≡ Gardenia pinnata (Blanco) Merr., Philipp. Gov. Lab. Bur. Bull. 27 (1905) 53; Type: Merrill (Species Blancoanae 223) (US, neo; L, NY, isoneo), Luzon, Bulacan, Angat, Jul-1914. = Remijia obscura Blanco, Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 116; ≡ Randia obscura (Blanco) Fern.-Vill., Fl. Filip. 3, 4(13A) (1880) 108; ≡ Gardenia obscura (Blanco) S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. 18 (1885) 119; Type: Vidal 387 (A, neo), Tarlac, Murcia. = Remijia angatensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 115; ≡ Randia angatensis (Blanco) Fern.-Vill., Fl. Filip. 3, 4(13A) (1880) 108; Type: Merrill (Species Blancoanae 688) (US, neo; L, isoneo), Luzon, Bulacan, Angat, Jul-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Isabela, Manila, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Tarlac, ?MINDANAO. Notes: Mindanao was included in the distribution range by L.L.Co, but not by Alejandro et al. (2011). In thickets, hedges, and secondary forests at low elevation (L.L.Co); in low-elevation secondary forest, on stream-sides, in shaded ravines, on clay or sandy soils, 50–550 m. (Alejandro et al. 2011). Native.
  5. Villaria lanceolata (Merr.) Alejandro & Meve, Phytotaxa 253 (2016) 172; ≡ Randia lanceolata Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 57; EPFP 3 (1923) 527; Type: FB 11626 Fischer (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Cagayan, Abulug River, near Tauit, on sandstone cliff along the river, apparently in situations subject to overflow during times of high water, c. 30m, Feb-1912; E. Fenix 28123 (US, neo), Luzon: Apayao, May-1917. = Randia stenophylla Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 245, nom. illeg., non Krause; EPFP 3 (1923) 528; Type: FB 7170 Curran (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Luzon: Bulacan, Norzagaray, on rocky river banks, 16-Jun-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Bulacan, Cagayan. Notes: On rocky river banks subjected to periodic flashfloods. Low elevation. Conservation status: Endangered C2ai (Alejandro & Meve 2016). Native.
  6. Villaria leytensis Alejandro & Meve, Plant Systematics and Evolution 296 (2011) 16; Type: Wenzel C.A. 1381 (A, holo; G, GH, US, iso), Leyte, 30-Jun-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Notes: Alejandro et al. (2011): "Probably also a coastal species near the boarder of Leyte gulf". Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Villaria marinduquensis Arriola & Alejandro, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 55 (2018) 326; Type: H.B.Dalit & A.H.Arriola UE17306 (PNH, holo; USTH, iso), Marinduque: Boac, 25-Oct-2017. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MARINDUQUE. Native.
  8. Villaria multibracteata (Elmer) Arriola & Alejandro, Blumea 65 (2020) 88; ≡ Hypobathrum multibracteatum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3250; Type: Elmer 15674 (NY, lecto), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, Zambales, SAMAR. Native.
  9. Villaria odorata (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 363; EPFP 3 (1923) 532; ≡ Remijia odorata Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 115; Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877) 205; Type: Vidal 3003 (K, neo; A, isoneo), Luzon, Albay, Montufar. = Gardenia elliptica Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 6; Type: H.N. Whitford 705 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Atimonan, Aug/Sep-1904. = Villaria littoralis S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 180; Revis. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 154; PJS 3 (1908) 437; LPB 3 (1911) 1007; Type: Cuming M. 874 (PNH, holo lost; P, lecto), Albay. = Villaria rolfei S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 180; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 532; ≡ Randia rolfei (S.Vidal) Hatus., Mem. Fac. Agric. Kagoshima Univ. 7 (1970) 326; ≡ Gardenia rolfei (S.Vidal) Hatus., Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 50; Type: Cuming 1271 (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; P, G, isolecto). = Villaria philippinensis Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 311; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 532; Type: Vidal 836 (PNH, holo, lost; K, lecto). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, BATAN, CATANDUANES, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Surigao, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: In coastal forests, forest margins, upper beaches, gully forest, or low- to mid-elevation secondary forest; on clay or sandy soils, 0-1500m (Alejandro et al. 2011). Native.
  10. Villaria purpurea (Elmer) Arriola & Alejandro, Blumea 65 (2020) 88; ≡ Hypobathrum purpureum (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 534; ≡ Tricalysia purpurea Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 70; Type: Elmer 7659 (PNH, holo, lost), FB 2928 Borden (K, neo; K, L, isoneo), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles. = Randia purpuricarpa Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3267; Type: Elmer 15511 (syn), Elmer 16598 (syn), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt Bulusan). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Surigao, SAMAR. Notes: In primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  11. Villaria uniflora Arriola & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 111 (2013) 58; Type: Arriola, Roa & Tansiongco T026 (USTH, holo; PNH, iso), Luzon: Cavite, Mts Palaypalay and Mataas na Gulod National Park, Brgy Palicpican, Ternate, 660m, 22-Dec-2011. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cavite. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Wendlandia Bartl. ex DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 May 2022
  1. Wendlandia brachyantha Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 128; EPFP 3 (1923) 505; Type: Whitford 449 (US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles. On ridges on the mossy forest, c. 1050m, Jul-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Notes: Known only from the type collection. Native.
  2. Wendlandia luzoniensis DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 412; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 506. = Wendlandia uvariifolia auct. non Hance; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 506. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam. BATANES, CAMIGUIN, CULION, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Zamboanga, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. luzoniensis. = Wendlandia luzoniensis var. membranifolia (Elmer) Cowan, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 16 (1932) 294; ≡ Wendlandia membranifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 357; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 506. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam. BATANES, CAMIGUIN, CULION, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. According to Merrill, very close to Wendlandia paniculata DC.
    • var. williamsii (Merr.) Cowan, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 18 (1934) 188; ≡ Wendlandia williamsii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 101; EPFP 3 (1923) 506; Type: Williams 2084 (NY 2 sheets, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, c. 130m, 1-Feb-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  3. Wendlandia nervosa Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 263; EPFP 3 (1923) 506; Type: BS 5007 Ramos (NY, US, IT), Luzon: Zambales, Nov/Dec-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Notes: Forests, probably above 1000m. Native.
  4. Wendlandia philippinensis Cowan, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 16 (1932) 274; Alejandro & Liede, Blumea 48 (2003) 270; Type: Merrill 4409 (NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Daklan to Kabayan, Oct/Nov-1905. = Wendlandia glabrata auct. non DC.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 505. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDORO. Native.
  5. Wendlandia sibuyanensis Cowan, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 16 (1932) 299; Type: Elmer 12345 (A, NY), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (Magdiwang), moist gravelly soil of wooded banks along Pauala River, 1000ft, Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  6. Wendlandia syringoides (Cowan) Cowan, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 18 (1934) 187; ≡ Wendlandia luzoniensis var. syringoides Cowan, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 16 (1932) 295. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Notes: Included as a variety of Wendlandia luzoniensis DC. by L.L.Co. Native.
  7. Wendlandia warburgii Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 495; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; Type: Warburg 12016, Luzon: Isabela Prov Apr-1888. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Native.

Xanthophytum Blume

  1. Xanthophytum ferrugineum (DC.) Merr., Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamb. 7 (1937) 270; Axelius, Blumea 34 (1990) 462; ≡ Metabolus ferrugineus DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 436; Type: Haenke s.n. (Herb Prague), Luzon. = Xanthophytum fruticulosum Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 989; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 492. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, PANAY, POLILLO. Notes: Low and medium elevation damp primary forests. Native.

Literature