Rosaceae

Argentina Hill.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 August 2019
  1. Argentina papuana (Focke) Soják, Thaiszia 20 (2010) 95; ≡ Potentilla papuana Focke, Abh. Naturw. Ver. Bremen 13 (1895) 162; Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 294; Type: from New Guinea. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Alpine or subalpine grasslands. Native.
  2. Argentina parvula (Stapf) Soják, Thaiszia 20 (2010) 95; ≡ Potentilla parvula Staff, Hook. Icon. Plant. 4, 3 (1894) pl.2294; Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 294. = Argentina philippinensis (Merr.) Soják, Thaiszia 20 (2010) 95; ≡ Potentilla philippinensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 480; Type: Clemens 5006 (UC, holo), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulag, c. 2800m, seen in only one place on an old trail in the summit grasslands, associated with Schoenus (Cyperaceae), 24 to 27-Feb-1925. Distribution: Borneo, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Subalpine grassland, c. 2800m. Native.

Fragaria L. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Fragaria vesca L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 494; Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 285. Distribution: Eurasia. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Not native to the Philippines; commercially grown in N Luzon. Strawberry.

Malus Mill. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Malus baccata (L.) Borkh., Theor. Prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2 (1803) 1280; Hyland, Plant Inventory 169 (1967) 260; ≡ Pyrus baccata L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 75. Distribution: Continental Asia.
  2. Malus domestica Borkh., Handb. Forstbot. 2 (1803) 1272. Distribution: W Asia. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Apple.

Photinia Lindl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 November 2019
  1. Photinia serratifolia (Desf.) Kalkm., Blumea 21 (1973) 424; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 315; ≡ Crataegus serratifolia Desf., Tabl. École Bot., ed. 3 (Cat. Pl. Horti Paris.) (1829) 408. = Photinia serrulata Lindl., Trans. Linn. Soc. 13 (1821) 103; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 226. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Philippines, ?Sumatra, Taiwan. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Mossy forests, c. 2500m. Native.

Potentilla L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 August 2019
  1. Potentilla indica (Andrews) Th.Wolf in Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitt.-Eur. Fl. 6, 1 (1904) 661; Kalkm., Blumea 16 (1968) 344; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 291; ≡ Duchesnea indica (Andrews.) Focke in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 3 (1888) 33; ≡ Fragaria indica Andrews, Bot. Repos. 7 (1807) t. 479. Distribution: Afghanistan, China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. Notes: Mostly in disturbed habitats: roadside, plantations, rarely in forest, rather often in damp and waste places, 700-2300m. Native.

Prunus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 July 2022
  1. Prunus arborea (Blume) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 90; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 329; ≡ Polydontia arborea Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 17 (1826) 1105. Native.
    • var. arborea. = Pygeum euphlebium Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 311; EPFP 2 (1923) 232. = Pygeum merrillianum Koehne in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 51 (1913) 206; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 233. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Primary and secondary forests,.
  2. Prunus clementis (Merr.) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 70; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 334; ≡ Pygeum clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 227; EPFP 2 (1923) 232; Type: Clemens 760 (lecto); Clemens 990; both Mindanao. = Pygeum apoense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1623; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 232; Type: Elmer 11729, Mindanao. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO. Notes: Primary and secondary forests. Native.
  3. Prunus fragrans (Elmer) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 74; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 335; ≡ Pygeum fragrans Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 475; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 232; Type: Elmer 7504 (lecto), Luzon. = Pygeum coccineum (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1621; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 232; ≡ Parinari coccinea Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 578; Type: Elmer 9787, Negros. = Pygeum megaphyllum Merr. ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1621; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 233; Type: BS 14923 Ramos, Luzon. Distribution: Philippines, ?Taiwan. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LUZON, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Primary and secondary forests, (150-)600-2100(-2500)m. Native.
  4. Prunus grisea (Blume) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 58; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 338; ≡ Pygeum griseum Blume, Mél. Bot. nr. 2 (1855) 11; Muell. in Walp. Ann. 4 (1857) 642; Type: from Java. Native.
    • var. grisea. = Pygeum decipiens Koehne in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 51 (1913) 204; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 232. = Pygeum gitingense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1625; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 233. = Pygeum preslii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 227; EPFP 2 (1923) 233; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1621; ≡ Pygeum latifolium (C.Presl) Rehder, Bradl. Bibliogr. 2 (1912) 278, nom. illeg., non Miq.; ≡ Germaria latifolia C.Presl, Epim. Bot. (1851) 221; Type: Cuming 1815, Bohol. = Pygeum vulgare (Koehne) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 234; ≡ Pygeum preslii Merr. var. vulgare Koehne in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 51 (1913) 203; Type: FB 1806 Borden, Luzon. Distribution: Java, Java Sea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, ?Taiwan. BOHOL, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Primary and secondary forests, mostly between 0-2500m.
    • var. tomentosa (Koord. & Valeton) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 60; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 339; ≡ Pygeum latifolium var. tomentosum Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Booms. Java 5 (1900) 358; Type: from Java. = Pygeum microphyllum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1626; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 233. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  5. Prunus javanica (Teijsm. & Binn.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 1 (1855) 365; Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 47; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 328; ≡ Cerasus javanica Teijsm. & Binn., Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned. Indië 2 (1851) 309; Type: from Java. = Prunus junghuhnianus Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1855) 402; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 234; Type: from Java. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Native.
  6. Prunus kinabaluensis Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 64; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 339; Type: from Sabah. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON. Notes: Forests, 1300-2400m. Native.
  7. Prunus marsupialis Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 71; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 341l; ≡ Pygeum glandulosum Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 226; EPFP 2 (1923) 233; Type: R.S. Williams 642 (lecto); 25 syntypes, all Philippines. = Pygeum pubescens Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 359; EPFP 2 (1923) 234; Type: Wenzel 333 (lecto), Philippines. Both the epithet glandulosum and pubescens are not available in Prunus. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Forests and forest edges, 0-c. 1100m. Native.
  8. Prunus pulgarensis (Elmer) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 67; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 344; ≡ Pygeum pulgarense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1626; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 234; Type: Elmer 13200, Palawan. = Pygeum monticolum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 312; EPFP 2 (1923) 233; Type: Whitford 1203, Luzon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN. Notes: Montane forests, c. 1000-1200m. L.L.Co: Known only from four collections, no new material of this species has been collected since 1965. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  9. Prunus rubiginosa (Elmer) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 72; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 345; ≡ Pygeum rubiginosum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1624; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 234; Type: Elmer 11857 (holo); 14067, both Mindanao. = Pygeum elmerianum Koehne in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 51 (1913) 206; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 232; Type: Elmer 12210, Sibuyan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, SIBUYAN. Notes: Forests, 250-1200m. L.L.Cp: Known only from 1 or 2 specimens in each island. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  10. Prunus subglabra (Merr.) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 87; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 347; ≡ Pygeum subglabrum Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 395; Type: BS 45014 Ramos & Edaño (UC, holo; L, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulag, mossy forest, c. 2700m, 27-Feb-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Mossy forests, 2400-2700m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Possibly present

  1. Prunus spicata Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 69; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 346; Type: from Sabah. Distribution: ?LUZON, ?MINDORO. Notes: A doubtful sterile specimen seen by Kalkman from Mindoro.

Incertae sedis

  1. Prunus C; Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 350. = Prunus luzoniensis Merr. & Quisumb., in sched; Voucher: PNH 4337 Celestino. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Partly open field, close to stream, 2000m. Up to now the only Malesian specimen belonging to subgenus Padus. Native.
  2. Prunus ramiflorum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 447; EPFP 2 (1923) 234; Type: Vanoverbergh 2820, Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, in forests, c. 1500m, 4-Apr-1913. Distribution: LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Forests, 1400m. Not treated in Kalkman’s Flora Malesiana revision. But according to Merrill (1914), “a characteristic species, recognizable by its eglandular leaves which are comparatively small and few-nerved, and its rather congested, paniculate, short inflorescences which are borne on the larger branches below the leaves, not on the ultimate branchlets”. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Prunus armeniaca L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 474. Distribution: LUZON. Notes: Occasionally cultivated in the Cordillera Highlands of N Luzon. Apricot.
  2. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., Beitr. Entw. Pragm. Gesch. 1 (1801) 30; ≡ Amygdalus persica L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 472. Distribution: China. Notes: Cultivation spread from there, now cultivated wherever the climate is suitable; in Malesia rarely cultivated in montane areas; in the Philippines, grown to a limited scale in the Cordillera highlands. Peach.

Pyracantha M.Roem.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 February 2021
  1. Pyracantha crenulata (D.Don) M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 3 (Rosifl.) (1847) 220; Feng et al., Phytotaxa 478 (2021) 244; ≡ Mespilus crenulata D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 238. Distribution: China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Tibet. Notes: P.B. Pelser (27-Feb-21): This species is listed for the Philippines by Feng et al. (2021), but no specimens were cited. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Pyracantha angustifolia (Franch.) C.K.Schneid., Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1 (1906) 761; ≡ Cotoneaster angustifolius Franch., Pl. Delav. (1889) 221; Type: from China. Distribution: China. LUZON. Notes: Known in Luzon from the Cordillera Highlands, Baguio-Bontoc Road, based on PNH 20368 Mendoza and Steenis 17923, collected from the same locality and date, apparently from cultivated plants, as well as PNH 39575 Steiner, probably collected in the same general locality. According to Kalkman, these specimens represent a glabrous form of Pyracantha angustifolia which is wild in Yunnan and is sometimes planted as an ornamental in Europe and N America.

Pyrus L. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.f.) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 40 (1926) 564; Hyland, Plant Inventory 169 (1967) 260; ≡ Ficus pyrifolia Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 226. = Pyrus serotina Rehder, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts l (1915) 231. Notes: Oriental pear.

Rhaphiolepis Lindl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 April 2022
  1. Rhaphiolepis oblongifolia (Merr. & Rolfe) B.B.Liu & J.Wen, Front. Plant Sci. 10-1731 (2020) 11; Liu et al., PhytoKeys 154 (2020) 41; ≡ Eriobotrya oblongifolia Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 102; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 226; Type: FB 4680 Mearns & Hutchinson (NY, lecto; US, isolecto), Mindanao: Misamis, Mt Malindang, May-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental. Native.
  2. Rhaphiolepis philippinensis (S.Vidal) Kalkm., Blumea 21 (1973) 434; Liu et al., PhytoKeys 154 (2020) 42; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 318; ≡ Pyrus philippinensis (S.Vidal) M.F.Fay & Christenh., Global Fl. 4 (2018) 115; ≡ Eriobotrya philippinensis S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 123; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 226; Type: Vidal 1350 (K, lecto; MA, isolecto), Luzon: Zambales, Santa Cruz. = Eriobotrya luzonensis (Merr.) Nakai, J. Arnold Arb. 5 (1924) 69; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 242; ≡ Photinia luzonensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 18; EPFP 2 (1923) 226; Type: Merrill 3223 (NY, lecto; K, P), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Oct-1903. = Eriobotrya acuminatissima Nakai, J. Arnold Arb. 5 (1924) 71; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 242; Type: BS 35622 Martelino & Edaño (A, lecto; BM, L, P, isolecto), Panay: Capiz, Mt Salibongbong, Jun-1919. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Zambales, PANAY. Notes: In forests, 300-2600m. Also on ultramafics near sea level. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Rhaphiolepis bibas (Lour.) Galasso & Banfi, Ital. Botanist 9 (2020) 66; Liu et al., PhytoKeys 154 (2020) 26; ≡ Crataegus bibas Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 1 (1790) 319. = Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Trans. Linn. Soc. 13 (1822) 102; ≡ Mespilus japonicus Thunb., Fl. Japon. (1784) 206; Type: from Japan. Distribution: China, Japan. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: China, there and in Japan cultivated for many years. Now throughout the tropics and subtropics cultivated as a fruit tree. In the Philippines, grown in Mountain Province, particularly common in the vicinity of Sagada, 1400-1500m. Loquat. Not naturalized?.

Rosa L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Rosa luciae Franch. & Rochebr. ex Crépin, Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 10 (1871) 324; Kalkm., Blumea 21 (1973) 284; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (199) 305; Type: from Japan. = Rosa philippinensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 260; EPFP 2 (1923) 231; Type: Elmer 5794. = Rosa philippinensis var. depauperata Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 260. Distribution: China, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. LUZON. Notes: Thickets, 1200-1700m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Rosa transmorrisonensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 3 (1913) 97; Kalkm., Blumea 21 (1973) 284; Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 11 (199) 305; Type: from Taiwan. = Rosa luzoniensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 259; Type: BS 31876 (syn); Mearns 4300 (syn); BS 8336 McGregor (syn), Luzon: Benguet, Pauai. = Rosa luzoniensis var. parvifolia Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 259. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Thickets, c. 1200m and higher. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Rubus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 November 2021
  1. Rubus benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 296; LPB 2 (1908) 449; Focke, Bibl. Bot. 17, 72 (1910) 66; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 227; Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 337; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 268; Type: Elmer 8383 (K, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, in rock crevices of limestone outcroppings in the pine region at 4500ft, Mar-1907. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Benguet, Isabela. Notes: Montane thickets, on limestone at c. 1300m in Benguet. Native.
  2. Rubus clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 139; Kalkm., Blumea 32 (1987) 325; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 253; ≡ Rubus lucens Focke ssp. clementis (Merr.) Focke, Bibl. Bot. 72 (1911) 213; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 228; Type: M.S. Clemens 740 (PNH, holo, lost; K, US and as Clemens s.n. in G, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Camp Keithley. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur. Native.
  3. Rubus copelandii Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. 3 (1906) 194, as ‘copelandi’; EPFP 2 (1923) 227; Zandee & Kalkm., Blumea 27 (1981) 98; Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 259; Type: Merrill 4810 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Pauai. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: More or less open spots in mossy forest, forest edges and thickets, 1700-2450m. Native.
  4. Rubus cumingii Kuntze, Meth. Speciesbeschr. (1879) 72; Focke, Bibl. Bot. 17, 72 (1910) 58; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 227; Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 332; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 271; Type: Cuming s.n. (B, holo), Philippines. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Known only from the type which has no indicated definite locality on the label; according to Focke, this comes from Luzon. Native.
  5. Rubus edanoi Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 14; EPFP 2 (1923) 227, as ‘edanoii’; Type: BS 26505 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan. Mossy forest, c. 300m, 6-Sep-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. Notes: Known only from the type. According to Merrill (1918), this is allied to Rubus cumingii Kuntze, from which it is distinguished at once, among other characters, by its sharply acuminate leaves. Native.
  6. Rubus ellipticus Sm. in Rees, Cyclop. (1815) 30; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 227; Zandee & Kalkm., Blumea 27 (1981) 109; Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 260; Type: from Nepal. Distribution: China, India, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Montane oak forest, pine forest and in secondary growth, 1000-2400m. Native.
  7. Rubus fraxinifolius Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Méth. 6 (1806) 242; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 227; Zandee & Kalkm., Blumea 27 (1981) 87; Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 261; Type: from Java. = Rubus fraxinifolius Poir. var. haightii Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 461; Type: a Mearns specimen from Pauai (Mr. Haight’s Place), Luzon. This may be BS 4459 Mearns, cited by Merrill under Rubus merrillii. = Rubus merrillii Focke, Bibl. Bot. 72 (1911) 153; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 228; Type: BS 862 Merrill or BS 6637, Luzon: Benguet, Pauai. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao. More or less open sites such as forest edges and gaps, along trails, streambanks, abandoned cultivations, etc, 0-2500m. Native.
  8. Rubus heterosepalus Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 387; EPFP 2 (1923) 228; Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 344; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 273; Type: BS 37609 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, ?lost; A, K, L, US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Polis, mossy forest, 1800m, Feb-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forest and associated thickets, 1800-1900m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  9. Rubus luzoniensis Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. 1 (1906) 195; Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 452; Focke, Bibl. Bot. 17, 72 (1910) 59; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 228; Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 328; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 274; Type: Merrill 4596 (PNH, holo, lost; BO, K, L, NY, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data, Nov-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forest and associated clearings, c. 2000- 2500m. Native.
  10. Rubus mearnsii Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 448; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 353; EPFP 2 (1923) 228; Focke, Bibl. Bot. 17, 72 (1910) 74; Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 341; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 275; Type: BS 4304 Mearns (?lost), Luzon: Benguet, Pauai near Mr Haights’ place, Jul-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Reported from mossy forest, but seen along roadside clearings, c. 2200-2400m. Kalkman (1984) hints at some possibility that this taxon might be conspecific with Rubus benguetensis Elmer. Native.
  11. Rubus moluccanus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1197; Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 346; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 275; Type: Rumph. Herb. Amboin. 5 (1747) 88, pl. 47, Fig. 2 (lecto). Native.
    • var. moluccanus. = Rubus vidalii Focke, Bibl. Bot. 17, 72 (1910) 98; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 230; Type: Cuming 750 (A, BM, K, L, NY, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Banahaw. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, ?Vietnam. CEBU, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Benguet, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Isabela, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Davao Oriental, Misamis Occidental, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Forest edges and gaps, secondary forests, streambanks, thickets, along trails, chiefly at medium to higher elevations, in the everwet regions down to near sea-level.
    • var. angulosus Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 364; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 278; Type: from Banka. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam.
    • var. discolor (Blume) Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 359; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 278; ≡ Rubus sundaicus Blume var. discolor Blume, Bijdr. 17 (1827) 1111; Type: from Java. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON.
    • var. obtusangulus Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 1 (1855) 383; Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 362; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 280; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam.
  12. Rubus niveus Thunb., Diss. Rubo (1813) 9; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 229; Zandee & Kalkm., Blumea 27 (1981) 107; Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 264; Type: from Java. Distribution: India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Vietnam. Native.
  13. Rubus pectinellus Maxim., Mél. Biol. Acad. St. Pétersb. 8 (1872) 324 (Bull. Acad. St. Pétersb. 17); Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 229; Zandee & Kalkm., Blumea 27 (1981) 78; Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 284; Type: from Japan. Distribution: China, Japan, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, MINDORO. Notes: Primary and secondary forests, also in mossy forest, c. 750-2750m. Native.
  14. Rubus perfulvus Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 386; EPFP 2 (1923) 229; Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 374; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 280; Type: BS 38566 Ramos & Edaño, Mindanao: Bukidnon, Mt Lipa. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Only known from the type collection (Mt Lipa). Native.
  15. Rubus pirifolius Sm., Pl. Icon. Hact. Ined. 3 (1791) t. 61; Focke, Bibl. Bot. 17, 72 (1910) 64; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 229; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 516; Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 333; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 280; Type: from Java. = Rubus philippinensis Focke in Elmer & Focke, LPB 5 (1913) 1617; Focke, Bibl. Bot. 17, 83 (1914) 28; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 229; Type: Elmer 13606 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BISH, BM, BO, GH, K, L, NY, P, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, moist stony soil of dense woods at 3750ft or between Duros & Cawilanan peaks, Aug-1912. = Rubus brevipetalus Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 450; Type: Elmer 10099 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BISH, BM, BO, K, L, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, in humid woods at 4000ft, May-1908. Distribution: Borneo, China, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Zamboanga, NEGROS. Notes: 900-1200m, forest and forest edges. Native.
  16. Rubus rolfei S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. (1885) 171; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 281; Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 371; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 281; Type: Cuming 808 (lecto); Vidal 294, both from Luzon. = Rubus elmeri Focke, Bibl. Bot. 72 (1910) 112; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 227; Type: Merrill 4651, BS 4305 Mearns, Luzon. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Forests and more open places like clearings at higher elevation, (900-)1500-2700m. Native.
  17. Rubus rosifolius Sm., Pl. Icon. Hact. Ined. 3 (1791) t. 60, as 'rosaefolius'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 230; Zandee & Kalkm., Blumea 27 (1981) 81; Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 265; Type: from Mauritius. = Rubus tagallus Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 2 (1827) 9; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 230; Type: Chamisso s.n. (LE, holo; B, iso), Luzon. = Rubus comintanus Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 298; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 721 (L, neo), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, Dec-1914. = Rubus apoensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1618; Type: Elmer 10464 (L, holo; NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, 4000ft, May-1909. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, India, ?Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Vietnam. LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Misamis Occidental, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: In open secondary places like clearings, forest edges, roadsides, landslides, grasslands, riverbanks, fallow gardens, also in shrubberies and rarely in the undergrowth of the lighter types of forest, from sea-level up to 2000m, rarely higher. Native.
  18. Rubus sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3777; Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 339; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 282; Type: Elmer 14607 (A, BISH, BM, BO, K, L, MO, NY, P, U, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, climbing upon trees and sprawling over their tops in wet earth of deep woods at 1500ft, Oct-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: Only known from the type on Mt Bulusan. 450m. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Rubus mindanaensis Focke, Ann. Cons. Jard. Bot. Genève 20 (1917) 104; Type: Warburg 14483. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Notes: Considered by Focke to be related to Rubus niveus which, according to the material seen, is in the Philippines restricted to Luzon (Kalkman 1992). Native.
  2. Rubus vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 448; EPFP 2 (1923) 230; Type: Vanoverbergh 2683 (PNH, holo, lost; K, US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Possibly represents Rubus glomeratus Blume in the Philippines (Kalkman 1984). Native.
  3. Rubus zambalensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 451; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 231; Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 385; Type: FB 8085 Curran & Merritt, Luzon: Zambales. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Notes: The correct disposition of this name remains enigmatic. The type specimen obviously had only young flower buds and Elmer described them as placed in small glomerules and as subtended by a 4-lobed involucrum, which seems rather strange (Kalkman 1984). Native.

Stranvaesia Lindl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 August 2020
  1. Stranvaesia nussia (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Decne., Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Ser. I, 10 (1874) 178; Li et al., J. Syst. Evol. (2019); ≡ Photinia nussia (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Kalkm., Blumea 21 (1973) 429; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 314; ≡ Pyrus nussia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal (1825) 237. = Stranvaesia ambigua (Merr.) Nakai, J. Arn. Arb. 5 (1924) 72; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 242; ≡ Eriobotrya ambigua Merr., Gov’t. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 18; EPFP 2 (1923) 226; Type: FB 2796 Meyer, Luzon. Distribution: China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand. Notes: In the Philippines up to 2500m. Native.

Literature