Rhizophoraceae

Bruguiera Lam.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 August 2019

Photos
  1. Bruguiera cylindrica (L.) Blume, Enum. Pl. Jav. 1 (1828) 93; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 348; EPFP 3 (1923) 147; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 467; --Rhizophora cylindrica L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 443. Andaman Isls, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Philippines, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Cambodia, Java, Indian Ocean, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Mangrove swamps throughout the Philippines. Photos
  2. Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Savigny in Lam., Encycl. Method. Bot. 4 (1798) 696; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 146; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 461; --Rhizophora gymnorrhiza L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 443. Africa, Madagascar, Pakistan, India, Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Ryukyu Isls, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. Mangrove swamps throughout the Philippines. Common. Photos
  3. Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. ex Griff., Trans. Med. Phys. Soc. Calc. 8 (1836) 10; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 464; --Rhizophora parviflora Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 461. India, Australia, Philippines, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Pacific Ocean, Vietnam. Mangrove swamps throughout the Philippines. Photos
  4. Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 4 (1816) 262; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 147; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 463; --Rhizophora sexangula Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 1 (1790) 297. --Bruguiera eriopetala Wight & Arn., Ann. Nat. Hist. 1 (1838) 368; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 347. Sri Lanka, India, Philippines, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Mangrove swamps throughout the Philippines. Photos

Carallia Roxb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 September 2017

Photos
  1. Carallia borneensis Oliver in Hook., Icon. Pl. (1896) t. 2459; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 484. --Carallia mindanaensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 146; --Sagittipetalum mindanaense Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 247. --Sagittipetalum palawanense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1830. Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea. PALAWAN, MINDANAO. Low elevation primary forests.
  2. Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr., PJS 15 (1919) 249; EPFP 3 (1923) 146; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 485; --Diatoma brachiata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 296. Africa, Madagascar, Indian Ocean, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarch Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, Pacific Ocean, Sri Lanka, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Hong Kong, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Australia. LUZON, PALAWAN, MINDANAO. Throughout the Philippines; chiefly in secondary forests at low and medium elevation, often common. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos

Ceriops Arn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 December 2019

Photos
  1. Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 306; EPFP 3 (1923) 144; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 469; --Rhizophora tagal Perr., Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1824) 138. Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, India, Andaman Isls, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Pacific Ocean, Australia, Solomon Isls, New Caledonia, Philippines. Throughout the Philippines. Common.
  2. Ceriops zippeliana Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1849) 143; --Sheue et al., Blumea 54 (2009) 224. --Ceriops decandra (Roxb. ex Griff.) Ding Hou (1958) 471, auct. non (Griff.) W.Theob., pro part; --Bruguiera decandra Roxb. ex Griff., Trans. Med. Soc. Calcutta 8 (1836) 10. Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Phili ppines. LUZON, MINDANAO. Luzon to Mindanao. Edges of mangrove swamps, but relatively rare, and much less common than Ceriops tagal. Photos

Gynotroches Blume

Photos
  1. Gynotroches axillaris Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1849) 127; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 144; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 488. --Gynotroches parvifolia Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 46; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 144. --Gynotroches puberula Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 333; EPFP 3 (1923) 144. --Gynotroches lanceolata Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 21; EPFP 3 (1923) 144. Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Nicobar Isls, Australia, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Myanmar, Thailand, Solomon Isls, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO, DINAGAT, BUCAS GRANDE. Lowland primary forests to mossy forests on exposed ridges. Photos

Kandelia Wight & Arn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 July 2021

Photos
  1. Kandelia candel (L.) Druce, Bot. Exch. Club (1914) 420; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 472; --Primavera, et al. (2004) Handb. Mangroves Philip.-Panay 50; --Malabrigo Jr. et al., PJS 150 (2021) 1121; --Rhizophora candel L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 443. Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Thailand, ?Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Muddy substrate along tidal creeks and rivers, associated with Nypa fruticans and Sonneratia alba. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos

Pellacalyx Korth.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 September 2017

Photos
  1. Pellacalyx axillaris Korth., Tijdrschr. Nat. Gesch. 3 (1836) 20; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 148; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 493. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low elevation forests.
  2. Pellacalyx lobbii (Hook.f.) Schimp. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 7 (1893) 54; -- Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 491; --Plaesiantha lobbii Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 1 (1865) 681. Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Known from Pagdanan Range (Soejarto & Fernando 7464, A, F, PNH).
  3. Pellacalyx pustulatus Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 47; EPFP 3 (1923) 148; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 492. Philippines, N Sulawesi. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao. Primary forests from lowlands up to 900m. Photos

Rhizophora L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 December 2019

Photos
  1. Rhizophora apiculata Blume, Enum. Pl. Jav. 1 (1828) 91; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 452. --Rhizophora candelaria DC., Prodr. 3 (1828) 32; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 145. --Rhizophora conjugata DC., Prodr. 3 (1828) 33; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 347; EPFP 3 (1923) 145. Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, Pacific Ocean, China, Indian Ocean, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Australia, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Mangrove swamps throughout the Philippines. Common. Photos
  2. Rhizophora × lamarckii Montrouz., Mem. Acad. Lyon 10 (1860) 201; --Primavera, Handbook of mangroves in the Philippines - Panay (2004) 64. Australia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. BOHOL, CEBU, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, PANAY. Rhizophora apiculata × Rhizophora stylosa. Photos
  3. Rhizophora mucronata Poir. in Lam., Tabl. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 2 (1794) 517; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 347; EPFP 3 (1923) 145; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 453; Addenda, Corrigenda & Emendanda, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1972) 966. Africa, Middle East, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Ryukyu Isls, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Mangrove swamps throughout the Philippines. Photos
  4. Rhizophora stylosa Griff., Not. Pl. As. 4 (1854) 665; --Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 456; --Rhizophora mucronata var. stylosa (Griff.) Schimp., Bot. Mitt. Tropen 3 (1891) 92; --Salvoza, Nat. Appl. Sc. Bull. Un. Philipp. 5 (1936) 218. Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Pacific Ocean, Australia. Exclusively along sandy shores and coral terraces, facing the open sea. Photos

Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Ding Hou. 1958. Rhizophoraceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 5: 429-493

Malabrigo Jr, PL, GT Eduarte, LD Malabrigo & EE Coracero. 2021. Kandelia candel (L.) Druce, a true native species in the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Science 150: 1121-1129

McLarnon E & The Malpighiales Team at Kew (Gill Challen, Sue Zmarzty). Interactive key to the genera of Euphorbiaceae s.l., Salicaceae and Achariaceae

Sheue, CR, HY Liu, CC Tsai, SMA Rashid, JWH Yong, YP Yang. 2009. On the morphology and molecular basis of segregation of Ceriops zippeliana and C. decandra (Rhizophoraceae) from Asia. Blumea 54: 220-227

Sheue, CR, HY Liu & YP Yang. 2010. Comparison of Ceriops pseudodecanda sp. nov. (Rhizophoraceae) , a new mangrove species in Australasia, with related species. Botanical Studies 51: 237-248

Sheue, C-R, SMA Rashid, JWH Yong & YP Yang. 2010. Ceriops zippeliana Blume (Rhizophoraceae), a new record of a mangrove species in Singapore. Taiwaniana 55: 72-77

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 16 January 2022