Rhamnaceae

Alphitonia Reissek ex Endl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 August 2019
  1. Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzl) Reissek ex Endl., Gen. Pl. (1840) 1098; Schirarend in Soepadmo & K.M.Wong, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 1 (1995) 308; ≡ Colubrina excelsa Fenzl, Enum. Pl. Hügel (1837) 20; Type: from Australia. = Alphitonia zizyphoides auct. non (Sol. ex Spreng.) A.Gray; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 525. = Alphitonia philippinensis Braid, Kew Bull. (1925) 183; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 244; Type: Elmer 9432 (CANB, K, L, MEL, iso), Elmer 10335 (CANB, K, L, MEL, iso), Negros: Dumaguete. = ?Alphitonia incana (Roxb.) Teijsm. & Binn. ex Kurz, J. Bot. 11 (1873) 208; ≡ ?Rhamnus incana Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1820, 2 (1824) 350; Type: from India. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines. GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Camarines, Ifugao, Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO: Surigao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Alphitonia excelsa, Alphitonia philippinensis, and Alphitonia incana are possibly distinct species (see Bean 2010, Hauenschild et al. 2018). Native.

Berchemia DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 August 2019
  1. Berchemia philippinensis S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 91; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 524. = Berchemia elmeri C.K.Schneid., Pl. Wilson. 2 (1914) 220. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Isabela, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Thickets on exposed slopes, 1200-1600m. Native.

Colubrina Rich. ex Brongn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 September 2017
  1. Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. I, 10 (1827) 369; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 309; EPFP 2 (1923) 525; Schirarend in Soepadmo & K.M.Wong, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 1 (1995) 311; ≡ Ceanothus asiaticus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 196. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Isabela, Pangasinan, PALAWAN. Notes: Widespread throughout the Philippines . Along seashores and borders of tidal streams. Native.

Gouania L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 May 2020
  1. Gouania fimbriata Reissek ex Lauterb., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 57 (1922) 338; Cahen et al., Kew Bull. 75 (2020) 25: 6; Type: Cuming 973 (W, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Albay, 1836. = Gouania domingensis auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 196; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 245. = Gouania microcarpa auct. non DC.; Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 211, pro parte; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 92, pro parte; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 309; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 245. = Gouania javanica auct. non Miq.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 525, pro parte. = Gouania tiliifolia auct. non Lam.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 526, pro parte. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Manila, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal. Conservation status: Least Concern (Cahen et al. 2020). Native.
  2. Gouania longipedunculata Cahen, Stenn & Utteridge, Kew Bull. 75 (2020) 25: 11; Type: Ramos BS 39368 (K, holo), Mindoro: Mt Calavite, Apr-1921. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS. Conservation status: Least Concern (Cahen et al. 2020). Native.
  3. Gouania nematostachya Reissek ex Lauterb., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 57 (1922) 339; Cahen et al., Kew Bull. 75 (2020) 25: 14; Type: Cuming 1578 (W, lecto; K, L, P, WRSL, isolecto), Luzon: Batangas, 1837. = Gouania microcarpa DC. var. subglabra Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2801; Type: Elmer 11308 (A, lecto; E, K, L, NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya (Mt Apo), Aug-1909. = Gouania microcarpa auct. non DC.; Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 211, pro parte; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 92, pro parte. = Gouania javanica auct. non Miq.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 525, pro parte. = Gouania tiliifolia auct. non Lam.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 526, pro parte. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. CEBU (photos), LUZON: Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, POLILLO, SAMAR. Conservation status: Least Concern (Cahen et al. 2020). Native.

Maesopsis Engl. (Not native)

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 May 2013
  1. Maesopsis eminii Engl., Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C (1895) 255; Engl. & Prantl, Naturl. Pflanzenfam. 3, 5 (1895) 399. Distribution: Africa. MINDANAO. Notes: Introduced for reforestation. Naturalized.

Rhamnus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 June 2018
  1. Rhamnus javanica Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1 (1856) 647; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995). Distribution: Java, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Known from Victoria Mtns (PNH 3830 Sulit) and Mt Mantalingahan (Edaño 1211). Native.
  2. Rhamnus mollis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 405; EPFP 2 (1923) 525. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forest, c. 1800m. Native.
  3. Rhamnus philippinensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 342; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 524. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Tayabas, MINDORO. Notes: Thickets, 600-1800m. Native.
  4. Rhamnus pulogensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 359; EPFP 2 (1923) 525. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal. Notes: Mossy forest, c. 2400m on Mt Pulog. Native.

Sageretia Brongn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 March 2019
  1. Sageretia hamosa Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. 10 (1826) 360; Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 35; EPFP 4 (1925) 253. Distribution: India, Java, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan. LUZON: Quezon. Native.
  2. Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C.Johnst., J. Arnold Arbor. 49 (1968) 378; ≡ Rhamnus thea Osbeck, Dagb. Ostind. Resa (1757) 232. = Sageretia theezans (L.) Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. I, 10 (1827) 360; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 524; ≡ Rhamnus theezans L., Mant. Pl. Altera (1771) 207. Distribution: Africa, China, Continental Asia, Japan, Korea, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Thickets, 900-1500m. Native.

Smythea Seem.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 June 2018
  1. Smythea batanensis Cahen & Utteridge, Kew Bull. 73(1)-2 (2017) 6; Type: BS 80170 Ramos (K, holo; K, iso), Batan Islands, Batanes, Mt Iraya, May-1930. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Cahen & Utteridge 2017). Native.
  2. Smythea lanceata (Tul.) Summerh., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(10) (1928) 389; ≡ Ventilago lanceata Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 4, 8 (1857) 121; Type: from the Seychelles. = Smythea pacifica Seem., Bonplandia 9 (1861) 255; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 521. Distribution: Borneo, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Isls, Sumatra. LUZON: Isabela, Quezon, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, SIARGAO, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Thickets on coastal coral limestone. Native.
  3. Smythea oblongifolia (Blume) Cahen & Utteridge, Kew Bull. 73(1)-2 (2017) 18; ≡ Ventilago oblongifolia Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1144; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 521; Type: from Indonesia (lecto). = Ventilago luzoniensis S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 90; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 521; Type: Vidal 198 (MA, lecto; K, L, isolecto), Luzon: Tarlac, La Paz. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Riau Arch, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Rizal, Tarlac, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets and forests. Conservation status: Least Concern (Cahen & Utteridge 2017). Native.

Ventilago Gaertn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 June 2018
  1. Ventilago brunnea Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 25; EPFP 2 (1923) 521. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Quezon, PANAY. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  2. Ventilago dichotoma (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 27 (1905) 32; EPFP 2 (1923) 521; ≡ Enrila dichotoma Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 709. = Kurrimia gracilis S.Vidal, Revis. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 89; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 284; Type: Vidal 1122 (MA, syn), Luzon: San Mateo. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Isabela, Laguna, NCR, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests and thickets. Native.
  3. Ventilago lanceolata Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 330; EPFP 2 (1923) 521. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets. Native.
  4. Ventilago lucens Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1861) 330; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 521. Distribution: Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Aurora. Notes: Known from Merrill 1105, in thickets or forests at low elevation. According to Merrill (1923), identification to Miquel’s species not certainly correct. Native.
  5. Ventilago multinervia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 369; EPFP 2 (1923) 521. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao. Notes: Lowland thickets. Native.
  6. Ventilago palawanensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1829; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 521; Type: Elmer 13224 (A, F, GH, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Mt Pulgar. Primary forest along stream, c. 150m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Isabela, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Ziziphus Mill.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2022
  1. Ziziphus angustifolia (Miq.) Hatus. ex Steenis, Nova Guinea, Bot. 3 (1960) 13; Cahen et al., Kew Bull. 76 (2021) 771; ≡ Solenostigma angustifolium Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 412; Type: from Sumatra. = Ziziphus inermis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 37; EPFP 2 (1923) 522; Type: FB 3075 Ahern's collector (NY, lecto; US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, May-1905. = Ziziphus grewioides (Warb.) Perry, Blumea 7 (1954) 595; ≡ Celtis grewioides Warb., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 13 (1891) 287; Type: from New Guinea. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Lanao, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Conservation status: Least Concern (Cahen et al. 2021). Native.
  2. Ziziphus crebrivenosa C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 201; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 522; Schirarend in Soepadmo & K.M.Wong, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 1 (1995) 318; Cahen et al., Kew Bull. 76 (2021) 781; Type: Williams 2335 (NY, lecto; K, NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, 21-Feb-1905. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao, Zamboanga, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests along streams at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Near Threatened (Cahen et al. 2021). Native.
  3. Ziziphus cumingiana Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 206; EPFP 2 (1923) 522; Schirarend in Soepadmo & K.M.Wong, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 1 (1995) 317; Type: Cuming 453 (L, lecto; L, MEL, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna, Calawang [Calauan], 1836-1840. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. ALABAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Lanao, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. cumingiana; Cahen et al., Kew Bull. 76 (2021) 782. = Ziziphus bulusanensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 522, nom. inval., nom. nud. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. ALABAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Lanao, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets and forests. Conservation status: Least Concern (Cahen et al. 2021). Native.
    • var. pilosa Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 522. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  4. Ziziphus horsfieldii Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1 (1856) 643; Cahen et al., Kew Bull. 76 (2021) 791; Type: from Java. = Ziziphus palawanensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1828; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 523; Type: Elmer 12891 (A, lecto; F, GH, L, NY, P, U, US, isolecto), Palawan: Puerto Pincesa, Mt Pulgar, Mar-1911. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sumatra. MINDORO, PALAWAN. Conservation status: Least Concern (Cahen et al. 2021). Native.
  5. Ziziphus hutchinsonii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 288; EPFP 2 (1923) 522. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Davao, Zamboanga. Notes: Low elevation forests. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Ziziphus mauritiana Lam., Encycl. 3 (1789) 319. = Ziziphus jujuba Lam., Encycl. 3 (1789) 318, nom. illeg., non Mill.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 308; EPFP 2 (1923) 523. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Widely distributed in the Philippines as a cultivated or semi-cultivated tree, scarcely naturalized, here universally known as manzanitas. Naturalized.
  7. Ziziphus otanesii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 40; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 523; Type: BS 17964 Otañes. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan. Notes: Lowland thickets or forests. Native.
  8. Ziziphus suluensis Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 408; Schirarend in Soepadmo & K.M.Wong, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 1 (1995) 318; Cahen et al., Kew Bull. 76 (2021) 799; Type: BS 44295 Ramos & Edaño (UC, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Tawi-tawi, 5-Aug-1924. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland forests. Possibly synonymous with Ziziphus havilandii Ridl. (Cahen et al. 2021). Conservation status: Near Threatened (Cahen et al. 2021). Native.
  9. Ziziphus talanai (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 244; EPFP 2 (1923) 523; ≡ Rhamnus talanai Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 170. = Ziziphus zonulata Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 120; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 308. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philipines; common in lowland forests. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  10. Ziziphus trinervis (Cav.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 3 (1813) 192; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 308; EPFP 2 (1923) 523; ≡ Rhamnus trinervis Cav., Icon. 6 (1800) 3. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Laguna, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Common in low elevation forests and thickets. Native.

References