Polygalaceae

Including Xanthophyllaceae

Epirixanthes Blume

Photos
  1. Epirixanthes cylindrica Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 82; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 491. Myanmar, Sumatra, W Java, Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Sorsogon, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  2. Epirixanthes papuana J.J.Sm., Fedde, Rep. 10 (1912) 286; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 491. N Sumatra, Enggano Is, W Java, Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas (Talaud, Seram), New Guinea, Solomon Isls (San Cristóbal). LUZON.

Polygala L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 September 2021

Photos
  1. Polygala arillata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 199; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 469; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 469. India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, S China, Hong Kong, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Philippines. PALAWAN. Forest understorey, 850m.
  2. Polygala chinensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 704; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 278; EPFP 2 (1923) 383; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 478; --Type: from India (lecto). --Polygala glomerata Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 426; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 383; --Yang & Chen, Taiwania 58 (2013) 157; --Type: from China. Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific, Peninsular Malaysia, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. GOLO, JOLO, LUZON: Bataan, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, Pangasinan, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, PANAY (photos). Low to medium elevation grasslands and waste places. Photos
  3. Polygala japonica Houtt., Handleid. 10 (1779) 89; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 472. Sri Lanka, NE India, Myanmar, China, Japan, Korea, E Siberia, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Indochina, Philippines, New Guinea, E Australia southwards to NE Victoria. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Open grassy slopes, 700-2400m.  
  4. Polygala longifolia Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 5 (1804) 501; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 474. Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Thailand, Indochina, China, Ryukyu Isls, N Sumatra, N Borneo, Philippines, SW Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumba), Moluccas (Kai Isls), New Guinea, N Australia. LUZON: Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya), CULION, MINDANAO: Cotabato. Open grasslands to 1300m. Rare.
  5. Polygala malesiana Adema, Blumea 14 (1966) 257; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 463. --Polygala cardiocarpa auct. non Kurz; --Ridl., Fl. Mal. Pen. 1 (1922) 139, pro parte; --Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 383. Peninsular Malaysia, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumba, Flores), Philippines, SE Sulawesi (Tukangbesi Isls), Moluccas (Buru, Seram, Kai and Aru Isls), W New Guinea (Sorong and Bird’s Head Peninsula). NEGROS: Negros Oriental (near Dumaguete), BOHOL. Low elevation. Photos
  6. Polygala paniculata L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1154; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 475. Native of the neotropics, from Brazil to Mexico. Not native to the Philippines. DINAGAT, LEYTE, MINDANAO: North Cotabato, NEGROS, SAMAR. Naturalized. Waste places and fields, often abundant on various soil types, usually at medium elevation. Photos
  7. Polygala persicariifolia DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 236; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 473. --Polygala persicariifolia var. wallichiana Chodat, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 312 (1893) 331; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384. --Polygala septemnervia Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 202. Africa, Australia, India, Myanmar, Thailand, China, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Cavite. Open grassy slopes, 500-1800m.
  8. Polygala polifolia C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1830) 101; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 476; --Kerrigan, Australian Syst. Bot. 25 (2012) 121; --Type: Haenke s.n. (MO, holo), Luzon: 1792. Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indochina, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, ?Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumba), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Seram, Ambon), New Guinea, N Australia, Micronesia (Ponape). LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Tarlac, Rizal, MINDORO, SEMIRARA, MINDANAO. Lowland and medium elevation grasslands. Photos
  9. Polygala tatarinowii Regel, Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 34 (1861) 523; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 462; --Type: from China. --Polygala triphylla auct. non Buch.-Ham., non Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, non Burm.f.; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384. Iran to N China, Korea, E Liberia, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, New Guinea (Sepik). LUZON, MINDANAO.
  10. Polygala triflora L., Sp. Pl. 3 (1803) 877; --Adema, Blumea 14 (1966) 273, pro parte; Blumea 17 (1969) 269; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 481. --Polygala elongata auct. non J.G.Klein ex Willd.; --Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 383. Sri Lanka, continental SE Asia, N Sumatra, N Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Ternate), New Guinea. LUZON, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Bukidnon. Low elevation grasslands, rare.
  11. Polygala venenosa Juss. ex Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 5 (1804) 494; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 468. Peninsular Thailand (Pattani), Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. Photos

Salomonia Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 September 2017

Photos
  1. Salomonia cantoniensis Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 14; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385. E India, Nepal, Bangladesh, SW China (Yunnan), Myanmar, Thailand, S Vietnam, Sumatra, Nias, Riouw Archipelago, Banka, Peninsular Malaysia, Langkawi Isls, Java, Madura, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumbawa, Timor), Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas (Seram, Ambon, Tinambar Isls, Misool). Not recorded from New Guinea. Records from Japan and Australia are erroneous. LUZON: Mountain Province, PANAY, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Medium elevation thickets and open slopes. Photos
  2. Salomonia ciliata (L.) DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 334; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 279; EPFP 2 (1923) 386; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 487; --Polygala ciliata L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 701. Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, S & E India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, China, Japan, S Korea, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Marianas (Guam), Carolines (Yap), Sumatra, Banka, Billiton, W Java, Madura, Borneo (N Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah), Karimata Is, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Sula & Tanimbar Isls), New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bulacan, Rizal. Low and medium elevation grasslands. 

Securidaca L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Securidaca atroviolacea Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1671; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 484. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Disturbed lowland forests on ultramafic soil. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  2. Securidaca inappendiculata Hassk., Flora 252 (1842) Beibl. 2, 32. Photos
  3. Securidaca philippinensis Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 233; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 484. Borneo (Sarawak), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Ambon, Buru). LUZON: Sorsogon, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, BOHOL, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos

Xanthophyllum Roxb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 December 2019

Photos
  1. Xanthophyllum affine Korth. ex Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1864) 271; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386, pro parte, sub X. excelsum; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 503. Borneo, India, Laos, Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, Philippines. BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  2. Xanthophyllum angustigemma Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 104; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 519; --Type: FB 21201 (P, holo), Camarines. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, SAMAR. Low and medium elevation forests.
  3. Xanthophyllum bracteatum Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 258; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386; --Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 105; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 519. --Xanthophyllum griffithii auct. non Hook.f. ex A.W.Benn.; --Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 94; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 513. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela (Palanan), Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, SAMAR. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  4. Xanthophyllum discolor Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 257. Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines.
  5. Xanthophyllum flavescens Roxb., Pl. Coromandel. 3 (1820) 82; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 500; --Type: Roxburgh 363 (BM). --Xanthophyllum excelsum (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 12 (1858) 129; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386. --Xanthophyllum floriferum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1674; --Type: Elmer 12871 (L, holo; BISH, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), in rich humus-covered soil of dense forests at 750ft (229m) on the trail to Napsan, Mar-1911. --Xanthophyllum multiramosum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1676; --Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 29; --Type: Elmer 8701 (L, holo; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, along a creek in pine forest, Mar-1907. --Xanthophyllum glandulosum Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1905) 34; --Type: Merrill 2335 (SING, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Tanay, May-1903. --Xanthophyllum loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 29; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; --Type: Loher 14978 (HUH), Luzon: Rizal prov., Balacbac, Jun-1912. Throughout continental SE Asia, Sumatra, Simalur, Banka, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, MASBATE, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low and medium elevation forests. Photos
  6. Xanthophyllum griffithii Hook.f. ex AW Bennett, Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1874) 210.
  7. Xanthophyllum impressum Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 90; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 513. Borneo, Philippines. CATANDUANES.
  8. Xanthophyllum palawanense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1673; --Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 101; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 516. --Xanthophyllum cordatum auct. non Korth.; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386; --Type: Elmer 12931 (syn) & Elmer 13170 (syn), Palawan: Puerto Princesa (Mt. Pulgar), Apr & May-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela (Palanan), PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI, JOLO. Low and medium elevation forests. Photos
  9. Xanthophyllum philippinense Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 261; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 387; --Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 88; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 510; --Type: Vidal (K). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Zambales, Albay, MINDORO, MINDANAO. Lowland primary forests.
  10. Xanthophyllum vitellinum (Blume) Dietr., Syn. Pl. (1840) 1277; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 514; --Jakkia vitellina Blume, Cat. 17 (1823) 64; --Type from Java. --Xanthophyllum robustum Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 262; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 387; --Type: Vidal 40 (L, lecto). Sumatra, Siberut, Simalur, Riouw, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. BABUYAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, MINDORO, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation primary forests.

Literature

Adema, F. 1966. A review of the herbaceous species of Polygala in Malesia (Polygonaceae). Blumea 14: 253-276

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Kerrigan, RA. 2012. A treatment for Polygala of northern Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 25: 83-137

Meijden, R van der. 1982. Systematics and evolution of Xanthophyllum (Polygalaceae). Leiden Botanical Series 7: 3-159

Meijden, R van der. 1988. Polygalaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 10: 455-539

Yang, AT & CF Chen. 2013. A revision of the genus Polygala L. (Polygalaceae) in Taiwan. Taiwania 58: 156-162


Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 3 September 2021