Polygalaceae

Xanthophyllaceae

Epirixanthes Blume

  1. Epirixanthes cylindrica Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 82; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 491. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, NEGROS. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  2. Epirixanthes papuana J.J.Sm., Fedde, Rep. 10 (1912) 286; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 491. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sumatra. LUZON. Native.

Polygala L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 8 April 2022
  1. Polygala arillata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 199; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 469; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 469. Distribution: Bhutan, China, Hong Kong, India, Indochina, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: Forest understorey, 850m. Native.
  2. Polygala chinensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 704; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 278; EPFP 2 (1923) 383; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 478; Type: from India (lecto). = Polygala glomerata Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 426; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 383; Yang & Chen, Taiwania 58 (2013) 157; Type: from China. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. GOLO, JOLO, LUZON: Bataan, Cavite, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, PANAY (photos). Notes: Low to medium elevation grasslands and waste places. Native.
  3. Polygala japonica Houtt., Handleid. 10 (1779) 89; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 472. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Indochina, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Russia, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Open grassy slopes, 700-2400m. Native.
  4. Polygala longifolia Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 5 (1804) 501; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 474. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. CULION, LUZON: Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Cotabato. Notes: Open grasslands to 1300m. Rare. Native.
  5. Polygala malesiana Adema, Blumea 14 (1966) 257; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 463. = Polygala cardiocarpa auct. non Kurz; Ridl., Fl. Mal. Pen. 1 (1922) 139, pro parte; Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 383. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. BOHOL, NEGROS. Notes: Low elevation. Native.
  6. Polygala paniculata L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1154; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 475. Distribution: Neotropics. DINAGAT, LEYTE, MINDANAO: North Cotabato, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Naturalized. Waste places and fields, often abundant on various soil types, usually at medium elevation. Naturalized.
  7. Polygala persicariifolia DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 236; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 473. = Polygala persicariifolia var. wallichiana Chodat, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 312 (1893) 331; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384. = Polygala septemnervia Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 202. Distribution: Africa, Australia, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Cavite, Mountain Province. Notes: Open grassy slopes, 500-1800m. Native.
  8. Polygala polifolia C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1830) 101; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 476; Kerrigan, Australian Syst. Bot. 25 (2012) 121; Martinez et al. (2022), Brittonia; Type: Haenke s.n. (PRC, lecto; HAL, MO, PR, isolecto), Luzon: 1792. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, India, Indochina, ?Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Rizal, Tarlac, MINDANAO, MINDORO, SEMIRARA. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation grasslands. Native.
  9. Polygala tatarinowii Regel, Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 34 (1861) 523; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 462; Type: from China. = Polygala triphylla auct. non Buch.-Ham., nec Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, nec Burm.f; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384. Distribution: Africa, Japan, Korea, Middle East to China, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON, MINDANAO. Native.
  10. Polygala triflora L., Sp. Pl. 3 (1803) 877; Adema, Blumea 14 (1966) 273, pro parte; Blumea 17 (1969) 269; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 481. = Polygala elongata auct. non J.G.Klein ex Willd.; Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 383. = Polygala linarifolia Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 3 (1802) 877; Martinez et al. (2022), Brittonia; Type: Née s.n. (B-W, lecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga, 1792. Distribution: Asia, Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Cotabato, Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation grasslands, rare. Native.
  11. Polygala venenosa Juss. ex Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 5 (1804) 494; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 468. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.

Salomonia Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 September 2017
  1. Salomonia cantoniensis Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 14; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madura, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, PANAY. Notes: Not recorded from New Guinea; records from Japan and Australia are erroneous; medium elevation thickets and open slopes. Native.
  2. Salomonia ciliata (L.) DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 334; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 279; EPFP 2 (1923) 386; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 487; ≡ Polygala ciliata L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 701. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Japan, Java, Korea, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation grasslands. Native.

Securidaca L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Securidaca atroviolacea Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1671; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 484. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Disturbed lowland forests on ultramafic soil. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Securidaca inappendiculata Hassk., Flora 252 (1842) Beibl. 2, 32. Native.
    • ssp. corymbosa (Turcz.) Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 484; ≡ Securidaca corymbosa Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 272 (1854) 360; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385. Distribution: LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests.
  3. Securidaca philippinensis Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 233; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 484. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.

Xanthophyllum Roxb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 December 2019
  1. Xanthophyllum affine Korth. ex Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1864) 271; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386, pro parte, sub X. excelsum; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 503. Distribution: Borneo, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  2. Xanthophyllum angustigemma Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 104; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 519; Type: FB 21201 (P, holo), Camarines. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  3. Xanthophyllum bracteatum Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 258; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386; Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 105; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 519. = Xanthophyllum griffithii auct. non Hook.f. ex A.W.Benn.; Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 94; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 513. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  4. Xanthophyllum discolor Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 257. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. Native.
    • var. macranthum Meijden, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 67 (1973) 118; Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 109; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 520; Type: Ramos 24454, Samar. = Xanthophyllum flavovirens Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3776, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Voucher: Elmer 16902 (MO, NA, NY), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, among shrubberies of light woods at c. 1250ft (381m), Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Hill to montane forests, 380-1500(-1800)m. Native.
  5. Xanthophyllum flavescens Roxb., Pl. Coromandel. 3 (1820) 82; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 500; Type: Roxburgh 363 (BM). = Xanthophyllum excelsum (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 12 (1858) 129; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386. = Xanthophyllum floriferum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1674; Type: Elmer 12871 (L, holo; BISH, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), in rich humus-covered soil of dense forests at 750ft (229m) on the trail to Napsan, Mar-1911. = Xanthophyllum multiramosum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1676; Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 29; Type: Elmer 8701 (L, holo; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, along a creek in pine forest, Mar-1907. = Xanthophyllum glandulosum Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1905) 34; Type: Merrill 2335 (SING, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Tanay, May-1903. = Xanthophyllum loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 29; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; Type: Loher 14978 (HUH), Luzon: Rizal, Balacbac, Jun-1912. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. GUIMARAS, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  6. Xanthophyllum griffithii Hook.f. ex A.W.Benn., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1874) 210. Native.
    • ssp. angustifolium (Ng) Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 94; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 513. = Xanthophyllum pseudostipulaceum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 316; EPFP 2 (1923) 387; Type: BS 21135 Escritor (L, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Isabela, Palanan Bay, Jun-1913. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Bulacan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija. Notes: Lowland forests.
  7. Xanthophyllum impressum Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 90; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 513. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. CATANDUANES. Native.
  8. Xanthophyllum palawanense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1673; Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 101; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 516. = Xanthophyllum cordatum auct. non Korth.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386; Type: Elmer 12931 (syn) & Elmer 13170 (syn), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, Apr & May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. JOLO, LUZON: Isabela, PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  9. Xanthophyllum philippinense Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 261; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 387; Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 88; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 510; Type: Vidal (K). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  10. Xanthophyllum vitellinum (Blume) Dietr., Syn. Pl. (1840) 1277; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 514; ≡ Jakkia vitellina Blume, Cat. 17 (1823) 64; Type: from Java. = Xanthophyllum robustum Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 262; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 387; Type: Vidal 40 (L, lecto). Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Riau Arch, Sumatra. BABUYAN ISLS, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.

Literature