Polygalaceae

Xanthophyllaceae

Epirixanthes Blume

  1. Epirixanthes cylindrica Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 82; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 491. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, NEGROS. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  2. Epirixanthes papuana J.J.Sm., Fedde, Rep. 10 (1912) 286; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 491. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sumatra. LUZON: Aurora. Native.

Polygala L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 8 April 2022
  1. Polygala arillata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 199; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 469; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 469. Distribution: Bhutan, China, Hong Kong, India, Indochina, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: Forest understorey, 850m. Native.
  2. Polygala chinensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 704; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 278; EPFP 2 (1923) 383; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 478; Type: from India (lecto). = Polygala glomerata Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 426; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 383; Yang & Chen, Taiwania 58 (2013) 157; Type: from China. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. GOLO, JOLO, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cavite, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, Tarlac, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY (photos). Notes: Low to medium elevation grasslands and waste places. Native.
  3. Polygala japonica Houtt., Handleid. 10 (1779) 89; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 472. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Indochina, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Russia, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO. Notes: Open grassy slopes, 700-2400m. Native.
  4. Polygala longifolia Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 5 (1804) 501; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 474. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. CULION, LUZON: Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Cotabato. Notes: Open grasslands to 1300m. Rare. Native.
  5. Polygala malesiana Adema, Blumea 14 (1966) 257; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 463. ≠ Polygala cardiocarpa auct. non Kurz; Ridl., Fl. Mal. Pen. 1 (1922) 139, pro parte; Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 383. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. BOHOL, CEBU, NEGROS. Notes: Low elevation. Native.
  6. Polygala paniculata L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1154; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 475; Romeroso et al., J. Asia-Pacific Biodiv. 17 (2024) 12. Distribution: Neotropics. DINAGAT, HOMONHON, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon (photos), Cotabato, Davao del Sur (photos), NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Naturalized. Waste places and fields, often abundant on various soil types, usually at medium elevation. Naturalized.
  7. Polygala persicariifolia DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 236; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 473. = Polygala persicariifolia var. wallichiana Chodat, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 312 (1893) 331; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384. = Polygala septemnervia Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 202. Distribution: Africa, Australia, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Cavite, Mountain Province, PANAY. Notes: Open grassy slopes, 500-1800m. Native.
  8. Polygala polifolia C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1830) 101; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 476; Kerrigan, Australian Syst. Bot. 25 (2012) 121; Martinez et al. Brittonia 74 (2022) 116; Type: Haenke s.n. (PRC, lecto; HAL, MO, PR, isolecto), Luzon: 1792. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, India, Indochina, ?Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Rizal, Tarlac, MARARISON (photos), MINDANAO, MINDORO, SEMIRARA. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation grasslands. Native.
  9. Polygala tatarinowii Regel, Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 34 (1861) 523; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 462; Type: from China. ≠ Polygala triphylla auct. non Buch.-Ham., nec Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, nec Burm.f.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384. Distribution: Africa, Japan, Korea, Middle East to China, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Mountain Province, MINDANAO. Native.
  10. Polygala triflora L., Sp. Pl. 3 (1803) 877; Adema, Blumea 14 (1966) 273, pro parte; Blumea 17 (1969) 269; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 481. = Polygala linarifolia Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 3 (1802) 877; Martinez et al. Brittonia 74 (2022) 111; Type: Née s.n. (B-W, lecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga, 1792. ≠ Polygala elongata auct. non J.G.Klein ex Willd.; Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 383. Distribution: Asia, Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra. CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation grasslands, rare. Native.
  11. Polygala venenosa Juss. ex Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 5 (1804) 494; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 468. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. DINAGAT, JOLO, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.

Salomonia Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 September 2017
  1. Salomonia cantoniensis Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 14; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madura, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, PANAY. Notes: Not recorded from New Guinea; records from Japan and Australia are erroneous; medium elevation thickets and open slopes. Native.
  2. Salomonia ciliata (L.) DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 334; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 279; EPFP 2 (1923) 386; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 487; ≡ Polygala ciliata L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 701. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Japan, Java, Korea, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Bulacan, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, NCR, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: Low and medium elevation grasslands. Native.

Securidaca L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Securidaca atroviolacea Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1671; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 484. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Disturbed lowland forests on ultramafic soil. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Securidaca inappendiculata Hassk., Flora 252 (1842) Beibl. 2, 32. Distribution: LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY (photos). Native.
    • ssp. corymbosa (Turcz.) Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 484; ≡ Securidaca corymbosa Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 272 (1854) 360; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  3. Securidaca philippinensis Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 233; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 484. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. BILIRAN, BOHOL, CATANDUANES (photos), CEBU (photos), LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga del Sur, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.

Xanthophyllum Roxb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 October 2022
  1. Xanthophyllum affine Korth. ex Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1864) 271; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386, pro parte, sub X. excelsum; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 503. Distribution: Borneo, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. BUSUANGA, CULION, LUZON: Bataan, Rizal, Sorsogon, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  2. Xanthophyllum angustigemma Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 104; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 519; Type: FB 21201 (P, holo), Camarines. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  3. Xanthophyllum bracteatum Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 258; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386; Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 105; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 519. ≠ Xanthophyllum griffithii auct. non Hook.f. ex A.W.Benn.; Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 94; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 513. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  4. Xanthophyllum discolor Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 257. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. BASILAN, CAMIGUIN, LUZON: NCR, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
    • ssp. macranthum Chodat ex Meijden, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 67 (1973) 118; Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 109; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 520; Type: Ramos 24454, Samar. = Xanthophyllum flavovirens Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3776, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Voucher: Elmer 16902 (MO, NA, NY), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, among shrubberies of light woods at c. 1250ft (381m), Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: NCR, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Hill to montane forests, 380-1500(-1800)m. Native.
  5. Xanthophyllum flavescens Roxb., Pl. Coromandel. 3 (1820) 82; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 500; Romeroso et al., J. Asia-Pacific Biodiv. 17 (2024) 12; Type: Roxburgh 363 (BM). = Xanthophyllum excelsum (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 12 (1858) 129; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386. = Xanthophyllum floriferum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1674; Type: Elmer 12871 (L, holo; BISH, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), in rich humus-covered soil of dense forests at 750ft (229m) on the trail to Napsan, Mar-1911. = Xanthophyllum multiramosum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1676; Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 29; Type: Elmer 8701 (L, holo; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, along a creek in pine forest, Mar-1907. = Xanthophyllum glandulosum Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1905) 34; Type: Merrill 2335 (SING, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Tanay, May-1903. = Xanthophyllum loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 29; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; Type: Loher 14978 (HUH), Luzon: Rizal, Balacbac, Jun-1912. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. GUIMARAS, HOMONHON, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Isabela (photos), Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  6. Xanthophyllum griffithii Hook.f. ex A.W.Benn., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1874) 210. Distribution: LUZON: Bulacan, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, MINDORO. Native.
    • ssp. angustifolium (Ng) Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 94; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 513. = Xanthophyllum pseudostipulaceum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 316; EPFP 2 (1923) 387; Type: BS 21135 Escritor (L, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Isabela, Palanan Bay, Jun-1913. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Bulacan, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  7. Xanthophyllum impressum Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 90; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 513. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. CATANDUANES. Native.
  8. Xanthophyllum palawanense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1673; Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 101; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 516; Type: Elmer 12931 (syn) & Elmer 13170 (syn), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, Apr & May-1911. ≠ Xanthophyllum cordatum auct. non Korth.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. JOLO, LUZON: Isabela, PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  9. Xanthophyllum philippinense Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 261; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 387; Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 88; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 510; Type: Vidal (K). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  10. Xanthophyllum vitellinum (Blume) D.Dietr., Syn. Pl. (1840) 1277; Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 514; ≡ Jakkia vitellina Blume, Cat. 17 (1823) 64; Type: from Java. = Xanthophyllum robustum Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 262; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 387; Type: Vidal 40 (L, lecto). Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Riau Arch, Sumatra. ALABAT, BABUYAN ISLS, BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, NCR, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.

References