Poaceae

= Gramineae

Acroceras Stapf

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Acroceras munroanum (Balansa) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 444; --Panicum munroanum Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4 (1890) 140. --Panicum crassiapiculatum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 356; EPFP 1 (1923) 63. India, Sri Lanka to China, Java. PALAWAN, BALABAC, MINDANAO (Agusan). In thickets and along trails in forests at low elevation. 

 Agrostis L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 November 2020

Photos
  1. Agrostis gigantea Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 1 (1788) 31. --Agrostis stolonifera var. ramosa (Gray) Veldk., Blumea 28 (1982) 223; --Vilfa alba var. ramosa Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2 (1822) 145. --Agrostis alba auct. non L.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 81. --Agrostis stolonifera auct. non L.; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 273. Widespread in temperate and subtemperate countries, a native of Europe and Asia. Sumatra, introduced elsewhere, e.g. Java, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, along trails in open forest, c. 1500m. Photos
  2. Agrostis infirma Buse, Pl. Jungh. (1854) 342. --Agrostis rigidula Steud., Syn. 1 (1854) 171; --Veldk., Blumea 28 (1982) 214. --Agrostis elmeri Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 7; PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 375, 5 (1910) Bot. 328; EPFP 1 (1923) 81; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 53.

Alloteropsis J.Presl

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017

Photos
  1. Alloteropsis cimicina (L.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 487; --Milium cimicinum L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 184. Africa to China and N Australia. LUZON, CEBU, MINDANAO. 
  2. Alloteropsis semialata (R.Br.) Hitchc., Contr. US Nat. Herb. 12 (1909) 210; --Chase, Proc. BioI. Soc. Wash. 24 (1911) 159; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 70; --Santos, Guide to Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 53; --Panicum semialatum R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 192. Old World tropics and subtropics. Photos

 Amphilophis (Hack.) Nash = Botriochloa

Ancistrachne S.T.Blake

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Ancistrachne ancylotricha (Quisumb. & Merr.) S.T.Blake, Univ. Queensl. Papers, Dept. Biol., i. No. 19 (1941) 6; --Panicum ancylotrichum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 135; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 55. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mati), only known from one collection, Clemens 266. In thickets or open lands, c. 650m. 

Andropogon L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2020

Photos

Except for the following, no indigenous representative of Andropogon sensu stricto has been reported in the Philippines, but Bothriochloa, Capillipedium, Dichanthium and Schizachyrium have been placed in the genus by earlier authors.
  1. Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 163. Native of Africa.

 Aniselytron Merr.

No Photos
  1. Aniselytron agrostoides Merr. in Merr. & Merritt, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 329; EPFP 1 (1923) 82; --Aulacolepis agrostoides (Merr.) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 4 (1935) 30. Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Pulog). 2400-2800m. Easily confused with Agrostis infirma.

Anthoxanthum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser 8 September 2017

Photos
  1. Anthoxanthum horsfieldii (Kunth ex Benn.) Mez ex Reeder, J. Arnold Arb. 24 (1950) 325; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17 (1921) 291, nom. nud.; --Ataxia horsfieldii Kunth ex Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1838) 8. --Anthoxanthum horsfieldii var. luzoniense (Merr.) Y.Schouten, Blumea 30 (1985) 337; --Anthoxanthum luzoniense Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 178; 372; EPFP 1 (1923) 78; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 55. India to China and Guinea. LUZON: Benguet. In open grasslands and forest edges, 2000-2800m.

Apluda L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 February 2018

Photos
  1. Apluda mutica L. Sp. Pl. (1753) 82; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 79; EPFP 1 (1923) 36; --Apluda mutica var. aristata (L.) Rendle ex Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36 (1904) 279; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 80; EPFP 1 (1923) 36; --Apluda aristata L., Cent. Pl. II (1756) 7. Arabia eastward to India to S China across Malesia to Australia, New Caledonia and Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines in thickets and open grasslands up to 1800m. Photos

Aristida L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 October 2020

Photos
  1. Aristida chinensis Munro, Proc. Amer. Acad. 4 (1860) 363. Thailand to China, Philippines. MINDANAO.
  2. Aristida culionensis Pilg. ex Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 145; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 78; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 56. Thailand, N Peninsular Malaysia to S Vietnam, Philippines. BUSUANGA, CULION. In open grasslands at low elevation. Perennials.
  3. Aristida cumingiana Trin. & Rupr., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 7 (1849) 141; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 99; EPFP 1 (1923) 79. --Aristida diminuta (Mez) C.E.Hubb., Kew Bull. 1949 (1950) 480; --Stipa diminuta Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17 (1921) 208. Tropical Africa to India, China, across Malesia and Queensland. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cordillera Highlands, Pangasinan, Rizal, BUSUANGA, CULION, and MINDANAO: Bukidnon. In open dry grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m. Annuals.
  4. Aristida holathera Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 85 (1915) 340; --Veldkamp, Reinwardtia 12 (2004) 137. --Aristida tenuisetulosa (Pilg.) Mez, Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 147; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 79; --Aristida stipoides var. tenuisetulosa Pilg., Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 146. Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Zambales, Pampanga, Bataan. In dry open sandy soil at low and medium elevation.

Excluded:

  1. Aristida rigida Cav., Icon. 5 (1799) 44; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 79. Erroneously attributed to the Philippines (Merrill 1923).

Arthraxon P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 February 2018

Photos
  1. Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 26 (July, 1912) 214; --Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 229; EPFP 1 (1923) 41; 4 (1925) 241; --Phalaris hispida Thunb. in J.A.Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14 (1784) 104. --Arthraxon quartinianus (A.Rich.) Nash, N. Am. Flora 17 (18-Sep-1912) 99; --Merr., PJS 7 (30-Sep-1912) Bot. 229; Fl. Manila (1912) 77; EPFP 1 (1923) 42; --Alectoridia quartiniana A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2 (1850) 447.
  2. Arthraxon lancifolius (Trin.) Hochst., Flora 39 (1856) 188; --Andropogon lancifolius Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 271. --Arthraxon microphyllus (Trin.) Hochst., Flora 39 (1856) 188; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 42; --Andropogon microphyllus Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 275. Africa to SE Asia, and here and there in Malesia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, open slopes in the pine region, 1200-2000m, MINDANAO.

Arundinella Raddi

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 October 2020

No Photos
  1. Arundinella filiformis Janowski, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17 (1921) 85; --Type: Loher 7228 (M, holo; K, US, iso). --Arundinella humilior Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 232; --Type: from Taiwan. --Arundinella miliacea auct. non Nees; --S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 52. --Arundinella montalbanica Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3807, nom. nud., no Latin descr. Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumba), New Guinea, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Perennial.
  2. Arundinella furva Chase, J. Arnold Arbor. 24 (1943) 85; --Type: Clemens 5826-A (US, holo; B, L, NY, iso). New Guinea, Philippines. SIBUYAN. Only known from the Philippines from a single record (Argent & Reynoso 89127, Mayos Peak, c. 1550m.).
  3. Arundinella goeringii Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 116; --Type: from Java. Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra, ?Sumbawa, Philippines. PALAWAN.
  4. Arundinella holcoides (Kunth) Trin., Bull. Sc. Acad. Petersb. 1 (1836) 71; --Brandtia holcoides Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 2 (1830) 511. --Arundinella agrostoides Trin., Sp. Gram. Icon. (1836) 23; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 85; EPFP 1 (1923) 52; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 57; --Type: Anon. ‘Manila’ (LE, lecto; K 290214 p.p., K 290215, isolecto). --Arundinella pubescens Merr. & Hack., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 419; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 52; --Type: BS 856 Foxworthy (W, holo; L, NY, PNH lost, US, iso). India, Lesser Sunda Isls (Timor), Myanmar, Sulawesi, ?Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Prov., Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO, ?MINDANAO, PALAWAN.
  5. Arundinella setosa Trin., Diss. 2 (1824) 63; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 52; --Type: from Nepal. India to China through Peninsular Malaysia to Australia. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Rizal, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, CULION, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Open grasslands, on cliffs, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2000m.

Excluded:

  1. Arundinella ciliata Nees ex Miq., Nieuwe Verh. Eerste Kl. Kon. Ned. Inst. Wetensch. Amsterdam, ser. 3, 4 (1851) 30. Erroneously reported from Malesia (Veldkamp 2015).

Arundo L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 February 2018

Photos
  1. Arundo donax L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 81; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 58. --Arundo donax forma versicolor (Miller) Beetle, Phytologia 38 (1978) 174; --Arundo versicolor Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8 (1768) n.º 3. Mediterranean to S China. Not native in the Philippines. LUZON, SAMAR. Cultivated as an ornamental and escaping. Photos
  2. Arundo formosana Hack., Bull. Herb. Boiss. 7 (1899) 724; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 55. Ryukyus (Iriomote), Taiwan, Philippines. BATAN, SAMAR.

Asthenochloa Buse

No Photos
  1. Asthenochloa tenera Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1854) 367; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 49; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 59. Pulau Condor ('Andor'), Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, PANAY. Steep open slopes up to 1400m. A monotypic genus. One of the few endemic Malesian grass genera.

Aulacolepis Hack. = Aniselytron

Avenella Bluff ex Drejer

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer, Fl. Excurs. Hafn. (1838) 32; --Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin., Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. 1 (1836) 66; --Merr. & Merritt, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 330; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 83; --Aira flexuosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 65. Madeira, E North America, Europe, some high mountains in N and C Africa, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: (Mt. Pulag).

Axonopus P.Beauv. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2020

Photos
  1. Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrost. (1812) 12; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 59; --Milium compressum Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 24. Native of tropical America, now throughout the tropics. Introduced in the Philippines after World War II, now widely cultivated as a lawn grass. Naturalized in road sides, pastures, and plantations/nurseries.
  2. Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Comm. Linh. Telegr. Matto Grosso Amaz., Annexo 5 Bot., 11 (1922) 87; --Paspalum fissifolium Raddi, Agrostogr. Bras. (1823) 26. --Axonopus affinis Chase, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 28 (1938) 180. America, introduced elsewhere. LUZON. Not native. Often confused with the preceding and so undercollected. Naturalized in road sides, grassland, and plantations/nurseries. Usually above 900m.

Bambusa Schreb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020

Photos
  1. Bambusa merrillii Gamble, PJS 5 (1910) Bot. 269; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 94. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, c. 600m.
  2. Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl., Collect. Pl. 2 (1808) 26; --Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 74; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 105; EPFP 1 (1923) 95; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 10. Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated and naturalized. In most islands and provinces, in the settled areas at low and medium elevation. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos
Cultivated, not naturalized:
  1. Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss in Vilmorin, Blumengartnerei 1 (1896) 1189; --Duriyaprapan & Jansen in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 56; --Arundo bambos L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 81. --Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 2 (1799) 245; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 2; --Bambos arundinacea Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1789) 24. Indigenous to India, Myanmar and Thailand. Introduced in Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Sulawesi and the Philippines. N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Commonly planted in settled areas at low and medium elevation.
  2. Bambusa dolichoclada Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6 (1916) 144. China, Taiwan.
  3. Bambusa maculata Widjaja, Reinwardtia 11(2) (1997) 63. Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas.
  4. Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusch., Nomencl. ed. 3 (1797) 108; --Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 65; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 94; --Arundo multiplex Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 58. --Bambusa glaucescens Sieb. ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 89; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 105; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 5. --Bambusa dolichomerithalla Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6 (1916) 146. Probably a native of China, now widely distributed in cultivation. Planted here and there for ornamental purposes, especially as hedges, in many settled areas at low and medium elevation.
  5. Bambusa oldhamii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1) (1886) 109. China.
  6. Bambusa spinosa Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 25; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 94. --Bambusa blumeana Schult.f., Syst. 72 (1830) 1343; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 106; --Roxas in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 60; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 4. Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Sumatra. LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated. The most common and conspicuous bamboo at low and medium elevation throughout the settled areas; apparently always planted, probably of prehistoric introduction by the early Malay invaders. The species very rarely flowers and then usually only when clumps have been severely injured by fire or by too extensive cutting. The only spiny bamboo in the Philippines. Photos
  7. Bambusa tulda Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. Carey, 2 (1832) 193; Hort. Bengal. (1814) 25, nom. nud.; --Jansen & Duriyaprapan in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 69; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 7. Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand. Introduced and only known in cultivation in the Philippines.
  8. Bambusa tuldoides Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26 (1868) 93. Chine to Peninsular Malaysia.
  9. Bambusa ventricosa McClure, Lingnan Sc. Journ. 17 (1938) 57; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 9. Native of S China, introduced to the Philippines and other SE Asian countries. Ornamental garden plant in many settled areas at low and medium elevation.
  10. Bambusa utilis Lin, Bull. Taiwan For. Res. 98 (1964) 2; --Pancho & Obien, Philipp. Agric. 71 (1988) 214. Native to Taiwan. Introduced in the Philippines for its edible shoots.

Bothriochloa Kuntze

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 November 2020

Photos
  1. Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S.T.Blake, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 80 (1969) 62; --Andropogon bladhii Retz., Observ. Bot. 2 (1781) 27. --Andropogon intermedius var. haenkei (J.Presl) Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 486; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 83; EPFP 1 (1923) 46; --Andropogon haenkei J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 340. --Bothriochloa glabra (Roxb.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 1930, n. s. 76 (1931) 164; --Andropogon glaber Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 271. Africa to Australia. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal, Batangas, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, BOHOL, MINDANAO. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Photos
  2. Bothriochloa ewartiana (Domin) C.E.Hubb., Kew Bull. (1934) 444; --Andropogon ewartianus Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 20 (1915) 269. Australia, Sumbawa, Timor. LUZON.

Brachiaria (Trin.) Griseb. = Urochloa

Brachypodium P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 September 2016

No Photos
  1. Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 155; --Festuca sylvatica Huds., Fl. Angl. (1762) 38.

Bromus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 December 2020

Photos
  1. Bromus morrisonensis Honda, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42 (1928) 137; --Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 492. --Bromus pauciflorus auct. non (Thunb.) Hack.; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 386; EPFP 1 (1923) 92. Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. In wet open grassy places, 1500-2400m.

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Bromus catharticus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2 (1791) 22; --Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 487. Native of S America, introduced to many countries as a forage and naturalized. In the Philippines thus far known only from LUZON: Benguet (Haight’s Place). Note by P.B. Pelser (26-Nov-20): I have thus far not seen specimens or notes in the literature about this species in the Philippines, so I assume that it did not persist and should therefore not be considered naturalized in the Philippines. Photos

Calamagrostis Roth

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 September 2017

Photos

  1. Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 1 (1788) 33; --Agrostis arundinacea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 61; --Deyeuxia arundinacea (L.) Jansen, Act. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1952) 470, nom. illeg.. --Deyeuxia pyramidalis (Host) Veldk., Blumea 37(1) (1992) 230; --Calamagrostis pyramidalis Host, Icon. Descr. Gram. Austriac. 4 (1809) t. 49. --Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth var. nipponica (Franch. & Sav.) Hack., Bull. Herb. Boiss. 7 (1899) 652; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 82; --Calamagrostis nipponica Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2 (1878) 599. Temperate regions of Europe to India, China and Japan, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Cordillera Highlands, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Open grassy slopes 1800-2400m. Photos
  2. Calamagrostis filifolia Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 179; 375; EPFP 1 (1923) 82. --Deyeuxia suizanensis (Hayata) Ohwi, J. Jap. Bot. 33 (1958) 211; --Agrostis suizanensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 7 (1918) 83. --Deyeuxia stenophylla Jansen, Act. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1952) 472; --Deyeuxia suizanensis var. stenophylla (Jansen) Veldkamp, Taiwania 38 (1994) 3. Taiwan, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, MINDANAO. High montane grasslands, 1800-2200m.
  3. Calamagrostis stenophylla Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7 (1936) 1298. China, New Guinea, Philippines.

Capillipedium (Hack.) Stapf

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 February 2018

No Photos
  1. Capillipedium assimile (Steud.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 314; --Andropogon assimilis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 397. India to S China, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO.
  2. Capillipedium kwashotense (Hayata) Hsu, J. Jap. Bot. 37 (1962) 280; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 55; --Bothriochloa kwashotensis (Hayata) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. & Geobot., Kyoto 11 (1942) 168; --Andropogon kwashotensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 8 (1918) 80. S Ryukyus, Taiwan, Lanyu, Philippines. BATAN, ?LUZON. On littoral rocky cliff, locally frequent.
  3. Capillipedium parviflorum (R.Br.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1917) 169; --Holcus parviflorus R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 199. --Andropogon micranthus Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 165; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 46. --Capillipedium arachnoideum Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 458. --Andropogon cinctus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 398; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 43. Africa, Arabia, tropical and subtropical Asia to Australia, Philipines. BATAN, BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, MINDANAO. Open grasslands chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2300m.
  4. Capillipedium spicigerum S.T.Blake, Dept. Biol. Univ. Queensl. 22 (1944) 43. --Andropogon micranthus Kunth var. spicigerus (Benth.) Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 489; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 336; --Chrysopogon parviflorus var. spicigerus Benth., Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 538. An Australian species, also known from New Guinea, Timor, Flores, Philippines. CAMIGUIN, CEBU.

Cenchrus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 November 2020

Photos
  1. Cenchrus alopecuroides (L.) Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. (1794) 24; --Panicum alopecuroides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 55; --Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng., Syst. 1 (1825) 303; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 75. --Cenchrus purpurascens Thunb., Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 2 (1794) 329. India, Andamans to Indochina, China, Japan and Australia, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Benguet, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte. On open slopes at medium elevation, chiefly in the pine region, ascending to 2000m. Photos
  2. Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 258. --Cenchrus echinatus auctt. males., non L. --Cenchrus viridis Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 301; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 74. C & S America, introduced elsewhere. CAMIGUIN, CEBU, CULION, JOLO, LUZON: Benguet, Rizal, MANTIGUI, MINDANAO: Davao, Misamis Oriental, Zamboanga del Sur, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized. Annual. A widely distributed weed in settled areas, occurring generally in open waste places in and about towns, open fields, sandy shores. Photos
  3. Cenchrus caliculatus Cav., IIcones descriptione plantarum 5 (1799) 39. Australia to New Zealand, S Pacific, Lesser Sunda Isls (Timor, Alor), Papua New Guinea, Philippines. MINDANAO. Perennials.
  4. Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 127; --Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov., Ann. Ist. Bot. Roma 8 (1903) 41. Africa. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Not native to the Philippines. Widely introduced as a soil-binder, but easily overlooked because of the hidden inflorescences.
  5. Cenchrus echinatus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1050; --J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 317; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 95. Warmer regions of the New World. CEBU, LUZON: Manila, Mountain Province, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Not native to the Philippines. Most specimens so far seen from the Philippines were misidentified Cenchrus brownii. Open waste places and road sides in and about towns (Merrill 1912), also along beaches.
  6. Cenchrus elegans (Hassk.) Veldk., Blumea 59 (2014) 56; --Sericura elegans Hassk., Flora 25, 2, Beibl. 1 (1842) 2. --Cenchrus caninus Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 127, nom. inval. --Pennisetum macrostachys (Brongn.) Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. vi, 32 (1835) 177, as ‘macrostachyum’; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 75; --Gymnotrix macrostachys Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1832) 104. W Malesia to Solomon Isls. Also as ornamental. LUZON: Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO, MASBATE, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, BOHOL, MINDANAO, BASILAN. In old clearings at low and medium elevation. Photos
  7. Cenchrus pedicellatus (Trin.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 128; --Pennisetum pedicellatum Trin., Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. 4, 32 (1835) 184. Africa and India to Myanmar. Cultivated elsewhere.
  8. Cenchrus polystachios (L.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 129; --Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schultes, Mant. 2 (1824) 146; --Panicum polystachion L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 870. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos
  9. Cenchrus purpureus (Schum.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 129; --Pennisetum purpureum Schum., Beskr. Guin. Pl. (1827) 44; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 112. Tropical Africa, widely introduced as a fodder. BASILAN, CEBU, LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Davao, Misamis Oriental, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Not native to the Philippines. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Forests, grasslands, old clearings and waste places at low and medium elevation.

    Cultivated, not naturalized:
  1. Cenchrus ciliaris L., Mant. (1771) 302; --Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. 1 (1827) 213; Handb. i. 85. Africa to India. LUZON: La Union, MINDANAO. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated, not naturalized. Perennial. Photos
  2. Cenchrus orientalis (Rich.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 128; --Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Pers., Syn. 1 (1805) 72. Africa. LUZON. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Possibly present:

  1. Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone, Ann. Bot. 106 (2010) 127; --Panicum americanum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 56. --Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 195; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 291; --Panicum glaucum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 56. Africa. Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited. Pearl millet.

Centosteca Desv. = Centotheca

Centotheca Desv.

Photos
  1. Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv., Nuov. Bull. Soc. Philom. 2 (1810) 189; --Cenchrus lappaceus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1488. --Centotheca latifolia Trin., Fund. Agrost. (1820) 141; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 100; EPFP 1 (1923) 91. India to Polynesia, Australia. Widespread in the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, SAN MIGUEL, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, PANAY, CEBU, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, JOLO. In thickets, forests, and clearings from sea level to c. 1000m. Shade-loving, usually the only grass in some types of forest. Photos
  2. Centotheca philippinensis (Merr.) Froideville, Blumea 19 (1971) 60; --Ramosia philippinensis Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 2; EPFP 1 (1923) 92; --Type: BS 23607 Ramos. Australia (Queensland), New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, GUIMARAS. Rare.

Cephalostachyum Munro

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020

No Photos
  1. Cephalostachyum mindorense Gamble, PJS 5 (1910) Bot. 272; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 97; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 12; --Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 148. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Sta Cruz; Mt Cabiguayan). Thickets, along river flats and forest edges, 0-800m.

Chamaeraphis R.Br. = Pseudoraphis

Chionachne R.Br.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Chionachne biaurita Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 263; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 29; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 253; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 63. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet (Bued River). On fresh talus slopes, untilled soil, etc., c. 1200m.
  2. Chionachne punctata (R.Br.) Jannink, Blumea 47 (2002) 566; --Sclerachne punctata R.Br., Benn. Pl. Jav. Rar. (1838) 15. Java, Kangean Isl, Madura, LUZON.

Chloris Sw.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 November 2020

Photos
  1. Chloris barbata Sw., Fl. Ind. Occ. 1 (1797) 200; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 103; EPFP 1 (1923) 84; --Andropogon barbatus L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 302, nom. illeg. --Chloris inflata Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 1 (1821) 105; --Llanos, Frag. Pl. Filip. (1851) 31; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 84. Pantropic weed of American origin. CEBU, LUZON, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao, Misamis Oriental, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Not native to the Philippines. Common in and about towns (along roadsides, wastelands) in many parts of lowland Philippines. Photos
  2. Chloris clementis Merr., PJS 40 (1929) 181; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 253; --Type: UC 347514. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan.
  3. Chloris gayana Kunth., Rev. Gram. 1 (1830) 89; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna (1986) t. 14; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 276. Africa. Arabian Peninsula. LUZON: La Union. Not native to the Philippines. 'Throughout the Philippines' (Santos 1986), only seen from LUZON (Veldkamp, unpubl. ms.). Naturalized as weed in rice fields. Photos

Possibly present:

  1. Chloris wightiana Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 206. India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, ?Philippines.

Excluded:

  1. Chloris rufescens Lag., Varied. Ci. 2 (1805) 143; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 85. Americas. According to Merrill (1923), this record stems from "an erroneously localized Malaspina Expedition collection".

Chrysopogon Trin.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 November 2020

Photos
  1. Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin., Fund. Agrost. (1820) 188; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 67; --Andropogon aciculatus Retz., Obs. 5 (1789) 22; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 83; EPFP 1 (1923) 42. India to China, across Malesia to tropical Australia and Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN, CEBU, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Open places at low and medium elevation; very common lawn and roadside grass, a veritable pest on account of its spikelets adhering to fur, clothing, etc. Photos
  2. Chrysopogon festucoides (J.Presl) Veldk., Austrobaileya 5 (1999) 512; --Vetiveria festucoides (J.Presl) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus., No. 18 (1947) 4; --Andropogon festucoides J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1828) 340; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 44. India to Vietnam, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga, Nueva Ecija. Rare. In open level lands, rice-paddy banks, etc., at low elevation. Roots not aromatic.
  3. Chrysopogon nemoralis (Balansa) Holttum, Gard. Bull. Sing. 11 (1947) 297; --Andropogon nemoralis Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4 (1890) 113. --Chrysopogon philippinensis (Merr.) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 532; --Andropogon gryllus var. philippinensis Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 368; EPFP 1 (1923) 45. Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. PANAY (BS 30964 Ramos & Edaño). On boulders and ledges along streams at low elevation. Very rare.
  4. Chrysopogon subtilis (Steud.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 492; --Andropogon subtilis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 396. Java, Sumba, Philippines. LUZON. Annuals.
  5. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, Bull. Inst. Franc. Afr. Noire, Ser. A, 22 (1960) 106; --Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash in Small, Fl. SE US. (1903) 67; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 131; --Andropogon zizanioides (L.) Urban, Symb. Antil. 4 (1903) 79; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 49; --Phalaris zizanioides L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 183. --Chamaeraphis muricata (L.f.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 75; --Andropogon muricatus Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 43. India. BATAN, LUZON: Cavite, Laguna, Rizal. Not native to the Philippines, naturalized. Planted about rice-paddy banks, often abundant.

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Chrysopogon serrulatus Trin., Mem.Acad. Petersb. Ser. 6, 2 (1833) 318. Africa to Sumatra. LUZON. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated. P.B. Pelser (27-Nov-20): I have thus far only seen specimens from plants grown in cultivation, so I here assume that it is not naturalized.

Coelachne R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Coelachne infirma Buse, Pl. Jungh. (1854) 350. Madagascar, Malesia to New Guinea, Philippines. Synonym of Coelachne simpliciuscula (Wight & Arn.) Munro ex Benth.?
  2. Coelachne simpliciuscula (Wight & Arn.) Munro ex Benth., J. Linn. Soc. 19 (1881) 93; --Panicum simpliciusculum Wight & Arn. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 96. --Coelachne hackelii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 8; EPFP 1 (1923) 82. Sumatra to New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet. Very wet places above 1000m, forming dense mats along small cool streams.

Possibly present:

  1. Coelachne perpusilla (Nees ex Steud.) Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1864) 373; --Panicum perpusillum Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 96. India, Sri Lanka, Indochina to ?Philippines.

Coelorhachis Brongniart = Mnesithea

Coix L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 September 2017

Photos
  1. Coix lacryma-jobi L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 972; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 29; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 70, as ‘lachryma’. Old World tropics. BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, NEGROS, SAMAR, SULU. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized. In settled areas and secondary forest. Photos
    The taxonomy of this species is not resolved and there are probably a lot of (ancient) cultivars. Some of these entities are as follows:

Cortaderia Stapf [Not native]

Photos
  1. Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Aschers. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(1) (1900) 325; --Arundo selloana Schult. & Schult.f., Mant. 3 (1827) 605. The female form is cultivated as 'pampas grass'. Only occurs under cultivation in the Philippines.

Cymbopogon Spreng.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 November 2020

Photos
  1. Cymbopogon tortilis (J.Presl) A.Camus, Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Colon. 5 (1925) 206; --Andropogon nardus var. tortilis (J.Presl) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 46; --Anthistiria tortilis J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 347. --Andropogon nardus var. hamatulus (Hook. & Arn.) Hack., Mon. Phan. 6 (1889) 606; --Andropogon hamatulus Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1838) 244. China, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Ryukyus, Taiwan, Vietnam, Philippines. BATAN, LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Pangasinan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, CAGAYAN DE SULU, MINDANAO. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation.

    Cultivated, not naturalized:
  1. Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Kew Bull. (1906) 257; --Andropogon citratus DC., Cat. Hort. Monsp. (1813) 78; --Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 82; EPFP 1 (1923) 43. Native of tropical Asia, now widely distributed in cultivation. Planted here and there about houses in most or all parts of the Philippines for its fragant leaves, but nowhere spontaneous. Very rarely flowering. Citronella grass or Lemon grass.
  2. Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) W.Watson in Atkins, Gaz. N.W. Prov. Ind. (1882) 392; --Andropogon flexuosus Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 388. India. Widely cultivated in Asia as a source of Lemon-Grass Oil. MINDANAO. Similar in habit and appearance to the preceding, and also found here only in cultivation.

Cynodon Rich.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 May 2021

Photos
  1. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Syn. 1 (1804) 85 --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 103; EPFP 1 (1923) 83; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 70; --Panicum dactylon L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 58. Cosmopolitan, and widely planted as a lawn grass. Throughout the Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, GUIMARAS, CEBU, BILIRAN, MINDANAO, SULU. Along roadsides, fallow rice paddies, waste places, pastures, etc. at low and medium elevation; common. Note by P.B. Pelser (29-May-2021): It is unclear to me if this species is native to the Philippines, because some resources suggest that it might be (e.g., Way 2014), whereas others indicate that it isn't (e.g., Harlan & De Wet 1969). Photos
  2. Cynodon radiatus Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 2 (1817) 411; --Nowack, Blumea 36 (1992) 478. --Cynodon arcuatus J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 290; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 103; EPFP 1 (1923) 83. --Cynodon dactylon ssp. arcuatus (J.Presl) Kern ex Henty, Man. Grasses New Guin. (1969) 57; --Cynodon arcuatus J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1829) 290. Madagascar to New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, PANAY, MINDANAO. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation.

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst, Bull. Agric. Congo Belge 13 (1922) 342. Africa. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated. P.B. Pelser (27-Nov-20): I have thus far not seen any specimens and assume here that it is not naturalized.

Cyrtochloa S.Dransf. [Endemic to the Philippines]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 December 2019

No Photos
  1. Cyrtochloa fenixii (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 864; --Schizostachyum fenixii Gamble, PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 289; PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 205; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 98; --Type: Fenix s.n. (K, holo), Luzon: Benguet Prov, Sablang, Dec-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Ilocos Sur, Benguet, Cagayan, Pampanga, PANAY. In thickets at low and medium elevation.
  2. Cyrtochloa hirsuta S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 869; --Type: Pennoyer 853 (PNH, holo), Luzon: Bataan prov., Dinalupihan, Barrio San Pablo, 27-Apr-1981. --Pseudostachyum polymorphum auct. non Munro; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 22. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan (Dinalupihan).
  3. Cyrtochloa luzonica (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 871; --Schizostachyum luzonicum Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 277; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 99; --Type: FB  8411 Curran & Merritt (K, holo), Luzon: Zambales, Nov/Dec-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. In forests and in ravines, c. 800m.
  4. Cyrtochloa major (Pilg.) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 58 (2003 publ. Feb-2004) 982; --Dinochloa major Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 149. Endemic to the Philippines.
  5. Cyrtochloa mindoroensis S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 58 (Feb-2004) 981. --Type: BS 39366 Ramos (K, holo), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental prov., Mt Calavite. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Mt Calavite).
  6. Cyrtochloa puser S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 867; --Type: McVey s.n. (K, holo), Luzon: Abra Prov, Banguet, Feb-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra (Bangued). Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  7. Cyrtochloa toppingii (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 862; --Schizostachyum toppingii Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 276; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 106; EPFP 1 (1923) 100; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 32; --Type: BS 5222 Topping (K, holo), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDORO. Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests.

Cyrtococcum Stapf

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 September 2017

Photos
  1. Cyrtococcum oxyphyllum (Hochst. ex Steud.) Stapf in Hook., Icon. Pl. 31 (1922) t. 3096; --Panicum oxyphyllum Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 65. --Panicum pilipes Nees in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 94; EPFP 1 (1923) 66. Seychelles to Society Isl. LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, MARINDUQUE, CEBU, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, JOLO.
  2. Cyrtococcum patens (L.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris 27 (1921) 118; --Panicum patens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 86; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 66. Photos
  3. Cyrtococcum trigonum (Retz.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 27 (1921) 118; --Panicum trigonum Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 9. Widespread from Sri Lanka to the Pacific. Very rare, in the Philippines twice collected. MINADANAO, SULU.

Dactyloctenium Willd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 September 2017

Photos
  1. Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd., Enum. Pl. (1809) 1029; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 104; EPFP 1 (1923) 86; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 72; --Cynosurus aegyptius L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 72. Pantropic. Throughout the Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, CEBU, MINDANAO. A common tufted to mat-forming annual weed along roadsides, cultivation, etc. in settled areas at low and medium elevation. Photos

Dallwatsonia B.K.Simon = Hymenachne

Danthonia DC. = Rytidosperma

Dendrocalamus Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020

No Photos
  1. Dendrocalamus asper (Schult.f.) Backer ex Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind. ed. 2, 1 (1927) 301; --Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 80; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 13; --Bambusa aspera Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 7 (1830) 1352. Probably from SE Asia. Not native to the Philippines. Planted and naturalized from low to high elevation to 1500m, but thrives best at 400-500m.
  2. Dendrocalamus merrillianus (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2675; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 97; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 16; --Bambusa merrilliana (Elmer) Rojo & Roxas in Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philipp. Trees (1999) 179; --Gigantochloa merrilliana Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 273. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Abra, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Zambales, Pangasinan, Bulacan, LEYTE, CEBU, BOHOL, MINDANAO: Lanao. In and about towns, chiefly planted. Rojo (1999) states that “..in the sense of Dransfield & Widjaja (1995), this species is conspecific with Dendrocalamus asper. However, current observation of the flowers and vegetative characteristics points to Bambusa rather than Dendrocalamus”. Notes by L.L.Co: If this is indeed a Bambusa, why was the epithet asper not used? Basionym Bambusa aspera Schult.f. (1830) clearly antedates basionym Gigantochloa merrilliana Elmer (1908).

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Dendrocalamus brandisii (Munro) Kurz, For. Fl. Brit. Myanmar 2 (1877) 560; --Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 83; --Bambusa brandisii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26 (1868) 109. China to Indochina. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated.
  2. Dendrocalamus giganteus Wall. ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 150; --Widjaja in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 85. Probably from Myanmar and Thailand. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated.
  3. Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 152; --Roxas in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 87; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 15. China, Myanmar, Taiwan. Cultivated in India, Indonesia, Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Cotabato. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated at low elevation.
  4. Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 149; --Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 90. Thailand, Myanmar, Laos. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated.
  5. Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees, Linnaea 9 (1834) 476; --Jansen & Duriyaprapan in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 93; --Bambos stricta Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1 (1798) 58. Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated.

Deschampsia P.Beauv. =  Avenella (for Philippine plants)

Deyeuxia P.Beauv. = Calamagrostis

Dichanthium Willem.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 November 2020

Photos
  1. Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1917) 178; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 21; --Andropogon annulatus Forssk., Fl. Aegypt-Arab. (1775) 173.
  2. Dichanthium aristatum (Poir.) C.E.Hubb., Kew Bull. (1939) 654; --Andropogon aristatus Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Meth. Bot. Suppl. 1 (1810) 585. Native of India. BOHOL, CEBU, LUZON: La Union. Not native to the Philippines. Introduded before 1947, but after 1923. Naturalized.
  3. Dichanthium caricosum (L.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris 27 (1921) 549; --Andropogon caricosus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1480. India to China and Malesia. In the Philippines once collected in MASBATE: Uson (Santos 6816; L, PUH).
  4. Dichanthium sericeum (R.Br.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris 27 (1921) 549; --Andropogon sericeus R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 201; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 82; EPFP 1 (1923) 48.

Diectomis Kunth

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Diectomis fastigiata (Sw.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. (1812) 132; --Andropogon fastigiatus Sw., Prodr. (1788) 26; --Merr. PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 335; EPFP 1 (1923) 44. Tropics and subtropics, incl. Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Pangasinan, HERMANA MAYOR, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN. On dry open grassy slopes at low and medium elevation.

Digitaria Haller

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020

Photos
  1. Digitaria abludens (Roem. & Schult.) Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 53; --Panicum abludens Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 457. --Digitaria pedicellaris Prain, Bengal Pl. (1903) 1182; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 54, nom. superfl. N Pakistan to Thailand, Java, Madura, Lesser Sunda Isl, Sulawesi, New Guinea. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, CULION, MINDANAO. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 850m.
  2. Digitaria bicornis (Lam.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. 2 (1817) 470; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 71; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 30; --Paspalum bicorne Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 176. --Digitaria corymbosa auct. non (Roxb.) Merr.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 53. --Digitaria sanguinalis auct. non (L.) Scop.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 54, pro parte. Pan(sub)tropical. LUZON (Zambales), BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, MINDANAO. Annuals.
  3. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel, Descr. Gram. (1802) 27; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 87; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 129; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 32; --Galinato et al., Upland rice weeds of south and southeast Asia (1999) 71; --Panicum ciliare Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 16. --Digitaria sanguinalis auct. non (L.) Scop.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 54, pro parte. --Digitaria adscendens (Kunth) Henrard, Blumea 1 (1934) 92; --Panicum adscendens Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1 (1816) 97. Pantropical. Widespread in the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, LEYTE, TURTLE ISLS. Rhachis with distinct spicules. Photos
  4. Digitaria fuscescens (J.Presl) Henrard, Meded. Rijksherb. Leiden 61 (1930) 8; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 61; --Paspalum fuscescens J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 213. Africa to the Pacific. LUZON, BALABAC, PANAY, BOHOL, CAGAYAN DE SULU, TURTLE ISLS. Perennials.
  5. Digitaria henrardii Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 55; --Type: Merrill Phil. Pl. 577 (L, holo; PRC, U, iso). --Digitaria pedicellaris auct. non Prain; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 54, pro parte. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Annuals.
  6. Digitaria heterantha (Hook.f.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 54; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 314; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 46; --Paspalum heteranthum Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 7 (1896) 16. --Digitaria heterantha var. pachyrhachis (Hack.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 54; --Panicum heteranthum var. pachyrhachis Hack., PJS 3 c (1908) 167. Scattered along the coast of the China Sea, collected here and there in the Philippines. BALABAC, LANGAAN, LUMBUCAN, TURTLE ISLS, URSULA IS. Perennials.
  7. Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, Ark. Bot. 11 (1912) 17; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 341; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 48; --Tricachne insularis (L.) Nees, Agrost. Bras. (1829) 86; --Andropogon insularis L., Syst. Nat. (1759) 1304. Tropical and subtropical America. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Misamis Oriental, Saranggani. Not native to the Philippines. Invasive species (CABI 2017).
  8. Digitaria junghuhniana (Nees ex Steud.) Henrard, Meded. Rijksherb. Leiden 61 (1930) 11; Monogr. Digit. (1950) 361; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 51; --Panicum junghuhnianum Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1853) 68. Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo (Mt Kinabalu), Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: (Mt Pulog), CEBU. Annuals.
  9. Digitaria longiflora (Retz.) Pers., Syn. 1 (1805) 85; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 88; EPFP 1 (1923) 54; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 66; --Paspalum longiflorum Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 15. --Paspalum filiculme Nees ex Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1859-64) 358; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 53. Old World tropics, very common throughout Malesia. LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Along roadsides, cultivated lands, open grass lands, etc. Up to c.1600m.
  10. Digitaria mariannensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 54; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 434; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 27. Christmas Isl, Guam, Kangean Arch., E Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Timor, Sawu, Sumba), Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan (FB 8399 Curran & Merritt). A sandy coast species and so probably much overlooked.
  11. Digitaria mollicoma (Kunth) Henrard., Blumea 1 (1934) 97; --Paspalum mollicomum Kunth, Enum. Pl. 1 (1833) 47. --Paspalum molle J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 213, nom. illeg. China to Taiwan, Indochina to New Guinea, Philippines. Rare in Malesia. LUZON.
  12. Digitaria nuda Schum., Beskr. Guin. Pl. (1827) 45. Pantropical. Throughout Malesia. LUZON, PALAWAN, MINDANAO.
  13. Digitaria philippinensis Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 563; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 70; --Type: BS 42890 Ramos (W, holo; L, P, PUH, SING, US, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Only known from the type collection.
  14. Digitaria radicosa (J.Presl) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 437; --Panicum radicosum J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 297. --Digitaria timorensis (Kunth) Balansa, J. Bot. Mor. Tom. 4 (1890) 138, nom. illeg.; --Panicum timorense Kunth, Enum. Pl. 1 (1833) 83. --Digitaria sanguinalis var. australis (Spreng.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 55, nom. illeg.; --Panicum australe Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 309, nom. superfl. Old World tropics. LUZON, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, MINDANAO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO Low and medium elevation, in thickets, waste places, etc.
  15. Digitaria setigera Roth in Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 2 (1817) 474; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1850) 684; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 37.
  16. Digitaria ternata (A.Rich.) Stapf, Fl. Cap. 7 (1898) 376; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1850) 737; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 59; --Cynodon ternatus A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2 (1850) 405. --Digitaria ropalotricha Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh., prepr. (1854) 41. Old World tropics and subtropics, from S Africa, N to Guinea, Ethiopia, India to S China, across Malesia from Sumatra to New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON, CEBU, MINDANAO.
  17. Digitaria violascens Link, Hort. Berol. 1 (1827) 229; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 88; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 790; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 63. --Digitaria chinensis auct. non Nees; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 53. Pantropical. Widespread in Malesia and Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, BOHOL, MINDANAO. Common along roadside, cultivated lands and abandoned fields, open grasslands, etc. from low to medium elevation.

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Digitaria milanjiana (Rendle) Stapf in Oliver et al., Fl. Trop. Afr. 9(3) (1919) 430; --Panicum milanjianum Rendle, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4 (1894) 56. Africa. Not native to the Philippines. Introduced in the Philippines according to 't Mannetje & Jones (1992). Cultivated. P.B. Pelser (29-Nov-20): I have thus far not seen any specimens and assume here that it is not naturalized.

Possibly present:

  1. Digitaria compacta (Roth ex Roem. & Schult.) Veldkamp, Blumea 21 (1973) 71; --Paspalum compactum Roth ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis, 2 (1817) 316. India, Myanmar, Vietnam. Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.
  2. Digitaria eriantha Steud., Flora 12 (1829) 468. Africa. Not native to the Philippines. Introduced in the Philippines according to 't Mannetje & Jones (1992: 121), but no vouchers were seen  by Veldkamp (unpubl. ms.). Perhaps cultivated as a forage grass?
  3. Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 1 (1771) 52; --Panicum sanguinale L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 57. Mediterranean to Asia and Malesia. Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.

Dimeria R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 December 2019

No Photos
  1. Dimeria chloridiformis (Gaudich.) K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee (1900) 165; --Veldkamp, Blumea 61 (2016) 208; --Andropogon chloridiformis Gaudich., Voy. Uranie (1829) 412; --Type: Gaudichaud s.n. (P, holo; BRI, K). --Dimeria ciliata Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 262; EPFP 1 (1923) 30. Peninsular Malaysia to New Guinea. PALAWAN. Open grasslands just above sea level. Rare. Perennial. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Dimeria ornithopoda Trin., Fund. Agrost. (1820) 167; --Veldkamp, Blumea 61 (2016) 210; --Type: Herb. Trinius 1254.1 (LE, holo). --Dimeria ornithopoda var. tenera (Trin.) Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 81; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 75; EPFP 1 (1923) 30; --Dimeria tenera Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 335. India to Japan, N Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Camarines, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Davao. Open grasslands, on rice-paddy banks, etc., 0-1500m, locally abundant. Weak annuals, easily overlooked.

Possibly present:

  1. Dimeria avenacea (Retz.) C.E.C.Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1932 (1932) 72; --Veldkamp, Blumea 61 (2016) 210; --Anthoxanthum avenaceum Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 8. India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, ?Philippines.

Dinebra Jacq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 August 2021

No Photos
  1. Dinebra chinensis (L.) P.M.Peterson & N.Snow, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 109 (2012) 1326; --Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees, Syll. Ratisb. 1 (1824) 4; --Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 102; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 105; EPFP 1 (1923) 86; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 90; --Nowack, Rheedea 4 (1994) 84; --Poa chinensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 69. E Africa to China, New Guinea, Philippines. CEBU, LUZON: Cagayan to Camarines, in most provinces, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Aquatic to semi- aquatic annual to short-lived perennial. In open usually wet places along or near streams.
  2. Dinebra neesii (Thwaites) P.M.Peterson & N.Snow, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 109 (2012) 1326; --Leptochloa neesii (Thwaites) Benth., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19 (1881) 108; --Nowack, Rheedea 4 (1994) 86; --Cynodon neesii Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1864) 371. Australia, India, Java, Sri Lanka, Philippines. CEBU.
  3. Dinebra panicea (Retz.) P.M.Peterson & N.Snow, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 109 (2012) 1326; --Leptochloa panicea (Retz.) Ohwi, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55 (1941) 311; --Poa panicea Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 11.

Dinochloa Buse

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 December 2019

No Photos
  1. Dinochloa acutiflora (Munro) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53(4) (1998) 877; --Schizostachyum acutiflorum Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26 (1868) 137. --Schizostachyum diffusum (Blanco) Merr., Amer. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 62; --Bambusa diffusa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 269. Taiwan, Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Apayao, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, MINDORO, ?PALAWAN, LEYTE. Common in thickets, secondary and primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1700m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Dinochloa dielsiana Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 148; --Schizostachyum dielsianum (Pilg.) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 391; EPFP 1 (1923) 97; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 25; --Type: Merrill 711 (K, NY, iso), Paragua (Palawan): Ewi-ig (Iwahig) River, 18-Feb-1903. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Synonym of Dinochloa acutiflora (Munro) S.Dransf.?
  3. Dinochloa elmeri Gamble, PJS 5 (1910) Bot. 280; --Camus, Bamb. (1913) 170; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 100; --Type: Elmer 6542 (K, 3 sheets; US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto. Tomas, Jun-1904. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Sto. Tomas). Mossy forests, c. 2200m.
  4. Dinochloa luconiae (Munro) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 100; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 17; --Bambusa luconiae Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26 (1868) 115. Philippines, Borneo. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ifugao, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Zambales, Cavite, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, MINDORO, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO, BASILAN. In forests at low and medium elevation.
  5. Dinochloa oblonga S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 113. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN.
  6. Dinochloa palawanensis (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 106; --Schizostachyum palawanense Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 274; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 99. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. In forests at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  7. Dinochloa robusta S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 47 (1992) 402. Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN.
  8. Dinochloa pubiramea Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 279; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 100; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 18. --Dinochloa tjankorreh Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh., prepr. (1854) 388, nom. superfl. Borneo, Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Surigao, BASILAN. In forests at low and medium elevation.

Excluded:

  1. Dinochloa scandens (Blume ex Nees) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 773; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 100; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 19; --S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 104; --Bambusa scandens Blume ex Nees, Flora 7 (1824) 291. Note by P.B. Pelser (23-Dec-19): According to Dransfield (1996), the distribution of this species is restricted to Java.

Diplachne P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 November 2020

No Photos

  1. Diplachne fusca (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 615; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 381; Fl. Manila (1912) 99; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 74; --Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. i. (1829) 91; --Festuca fusca L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 109; --Type: from Palestine.

Echinochloa P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 December 2020

Photos
  1. Echinochloa colona (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. 2 (1833) 209, as ‘colonum’; --Panicum colonum L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 870; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 91; EPFP 1 (1923) 62. Cosmopolitan. Throughout the Philippines. LUZON, SAN MIGUEL, MINDORO, PALAWAN, BALABAC, PANAY, CEBU, BOHOL, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, SULU. Low and medium elevation, in open, rather wet places. Photos
  2. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 53; --Panicum crus-galli L., Sp. Pl. (1753)  56; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 91; EPFP 1 (1923) 63. --Echinochloa glabrescens Munro ex Hook.f. & Kossenko, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 11 (1949) 40. Cosmopolitan. Throughout the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LUZON, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation, in open wet places, rice paddies, etc. Very polymorphic. Not native to the Philippines (CABI 2019), naturalized. Photos
  3. Echinochloa picta (J.Koenig) P.W.Michael, Philipp. J. Weed Sci. 5 (1978) 18; --Panicum pictum J.Koenig, Naturforscher (Halle) 23 (1788) 204. Africa to the Pacific. LUZON, MINDANAO. Often confused with the next, hence distribution uncertain.
  4. Echinochloa stagnina (Retz.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 57; --Panicum stagninum Retz., Obs. 4 (1786) 17; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 91; EPFP 1 (1923) 68; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 75. --Panicum crus-galli L. var. stagninum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 783. Africa to Philippines. BABUYANES, N LUZON to MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Open wet places, swamps, borders of lakes and streams, at low and medium elevation.

Possibly present:

  1. Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Kunth) Schult., Mant. 2 (1824) 269; --Oplismenus crus-pavonis Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1 (1816) 108. Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.
  2. Echinochloa oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch, Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 41 (1891) 742; --Panicum oryzoides Ard., Aminadv. Bot. Spec. Alt. (1764) 15. Caucasus to Japan. Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.

Ectrosia R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 June 2021

No Photos

  1. Ectrosia lasioclada (Merr.) S.T.Blake, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 84 (1973) 65; --Eragrostis lasioclada Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 382; EPFP 1 (1923) 90 ; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 177; --Ectrosiopsis lasioclada (Merr.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 268; --Type: Merrill 461. Australia, New Guinea, Philippines. CULION, PALAWAN. Fallow of rice paddies. Perennials.

Ectrosiopsis (Ohwi) Jansen =  Eragrostis 

Ehrharta Thunb.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

No Photos

  1. Ehrharta stipoides Labill., Pl. Nov. Holl. 1 (1804) 91; --Willemse, Blumea 28 (1982) 189; --Microlaena stipoides (Labill.) R.Br., Prodr. (1910) 210; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 78.

Eleusine Gaertn. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 August 2021

Photos
  1. Eleusine coracana Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1 (1788) 8; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 25. Presumably from Africa. LUZON, MINDANAO. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated in improved pastures of the Philippines (Santos 1986). Used to be widely cultivated and may persist here and there. Not truly naturalized (Peterson et al. 2021). Locally a preferred cereal. Finger millet.
  2. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1 (1788) 8; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 104; EPFP 1 (1923) 85; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 78; --Cynosurus indicus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 72. Old World tropics. Not native to the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, PALAWAN, CEBU, LEYTE, MINDANAO. An abundant weed along roadsides, cultivated lands, pastures, and other open sites in the settled areas throughout the Philippines, 0-2000m. Photos

Enteropogon Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Enteropogon dolichostachyus (Lag.) Keng ex Lazarides, Austral. J. Bot. Suppl. 5 (1972) 31; --Chloris dolichostachya Lag., Gen. et Sp. Nov. (1816) 5. --Chloris digitata (Roxb.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 207; --Melica digitata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1832) 328. --Chloris incompleta Roth, Nov. Sp. Pl. (1821) 60; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 84. --Chloris mearnsii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 220; EPFP 1 (1923) 84. India to China, Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Zambales, MINDORO, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, CEBU, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, JOLO. Dry open sandy soil at low elevation, sometimes along the seashore.

Eragrostis Wolf

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 June 2021

Photos
  1. Eragrostis aspera Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill (1841) 408; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 166. Tropical Africa to India. Not native to the Philippines. LUZON: NCR. Cultivated and escaping. Annuals.
  2. Eragrostis atrovirens (Desf.) Trin. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1 (1840) 562; --Poa atrovirens Desf., Fl. Atlant. 1 (1798) 73. --Eragrostis elongata auct. non (Willd.) Jacq.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 88. --Eragrostis luzoniensis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 266 ; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 178. --Eragrostis chariis (Schult.) Hitchc., Lingnan Sci. J. 7 (1931) 193; --Poa chariis Schult., Mant. 2 (1824) 314. Old World tropics and subtropics, Philippines. LUZON, GUIMARAS, SEMIRARA, PALAWAN, NEGROS, MINDANAO.
  3. Eragrostis brownii (Kunth) Nees in Steud., Nom. Bot. 1 (1841) 562; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 169; --Poa brownii Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1 (1829) 112. Sri Lanka, India, to China, New Zealand. GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN.
  4. Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vignolo ex Janch., Mitt. Naturw. Ver. Univ. Wien 5 (1907) 110; --Vignolo-Lutati, Malpighia 18 (1904) 386; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 88; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 171; --Poa cilianensis All., Fl. Pedem. 2 (1785) 246. Widely distributed in (sub)tropics of the Old World. CEBU, NEGROS. Open waste places at low elevation. Photos
  5. Eragrostis cumingii Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 266; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 172.
  6. Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 6, 1 (1830) 450; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 384; EPFP 1 (1923) 89 ; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 176; --Diandrochloa japonica (Thunb.) A.N.Henry, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 9 (1968) 290; --Poa japonica Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 51. --Eragrostis interrupta auct. non P.Beauv.; --Doell in Mart., Fl. Bras. 3: 157; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 101. --Diandrochloa diarrhena (Schult. & Schult.f.) A.N.Henry, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 9 (1968) 290; --Eragrostis diarrhena (Schult. & Schult.f.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 266; --Poa diarrhena Schult. & Schult.f., Mant. 3 (1827) 616. --Eragrostis japonica var. interrupta (Lam.) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 424; --Poa interrupta Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 185. Old World tropics to New Guinea. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, La Union, Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Laguna, Zambales, MINDORO, PALAWAN, BALABAC, CULION, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Open wet grasslands, along streams, etc., at low and medium elevation.
  7. Eragrostis multicaulis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 426 ; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 181. Pan(sub)tropical, Philippines. LUZON. Annuals.
  8. Eragrostis nutans (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1 (1840) 563; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 57; --Poa nutans Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 19. India to Malesia, Philippines. BATAN.
  9. Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 71; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 102; EPFP 1 (1923) 90 ; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 183; --Poa pilosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 68. Old World. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal, MINDANAO, NEGROS. Not native to the Philippines. An introduced weed in open wasteland, abundant.
  10. Eragrostis riparia (Willd.) Nees in Mart., Fl. Bras. 2 (1829) 512; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 272 ; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 184; --Poa riparia Willd., Neue Schriften Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 4 (1803) 185. Sri Lanka, S India, Philippines. LUZON (several collections between 1902 and 1925, even in Manila, but not collected since). “Rather rare in Malesia. Some (specimens) from British New Guinea” (Jansen 1953).
  11. Eragrostis spartinoides Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 265; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 102; EPFP 1 (1923) 90; --Type: Cuming 668 (L), Luzon: Laguna. Australasia, tropical Asia, Pacific, Philippines. LUZON: IIocos Norte, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, MINDORO. Open grasslands at low elevation.
  12. Eragrostis tenella (L.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. 2 (1817) 576; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 101; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 274; --Peterson et al., Taxon 67 (2018) 644; --Poa tenella L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 69. --Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight & Arn., Cat. Indian Pl. 2 (1834) 105; --Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechy Voy. (1841) 251; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 88; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 164; --Poa amabilis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 68. ----Eragrostis mangalorica Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 265; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 101; EPFP 1 (1923) 90. Old World tropics. Widespread in the Philippines. BATAN, CEBU, LUZON, PALAWAN. In and about towns, a very common weed in open waste places. Photos
  13. Eragrostis tenuifolia (A.Rich.) Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 268 ; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 187; --Poa tenuifolia A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2 (1850) 425. Tropical Africa to Vietnam. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Not native to the Philippines. Roadsides.
  14. Eragrostis unioloides (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 264; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 102; EPFP 1 (1923) 90 ; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 187; --Poa unioloides Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1789) 19. Cryptogenic, but native to Old World yropics, introduced into the Neotropics. Widespread in SE Asia. LUZON: Zambales, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Perennials. Open wet places at low elevation.
  15. Eragrostis viscosa (Retz.) Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 1 (1830) 397; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 101; EPFP 1 (1923) 91; --Poa viscosa Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 20. Africa, Arabia, tropical Asia, Philippines. Note by P.B. Pelser (2-Dec-20): Or does this name refer to Eragrostis tenella for Philippine plants?

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. (1841) 397 ; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 173; --Poa curvula Schrad., Gött. Gel. Anz. 3 (1821) 2073. Africa. LUZON: NCR. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated. P.B. Pelser (29-Nov-20): I have thus far not seen any specimens and assume here that it is not naturalized. Weeping lovegrass.
  2. Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. (1841) 406 ; --Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 182; --Poa pectinacea Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1 (1803) 69. Americas. LUZON. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated. P.B. Pelser (29-Nov-20): I have thus far not seen any specimens and assume here that it is not naturalized. Tufted lovegrass. Photos

Possibly present:

  1. Eragrostis ciliaris (L.) R.Br. in J.H.Tuckey, Narr. Exped. Zaire (1818) 478; --Poa ciliaris L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 875. Old World tropics and subtropics, ?Philippines.
  2. Eragrostis elongata (Willd.) J.Jacq., Ecl. Gram. Rar. (1813) t. 3; --Poa elongata Willd., Enum. Pl. (1809) 108. Tropical and subtropical Asia to Australia, ?Philippines. Notes by L.L.Co: This has been misapplied to several species, e.g. Eragrostis atrovirens, Eragrostis brownii, Eragrostis cumingii, Eragrostis luzoniensis. Actually it is the same as the New Guinea - Australian Eragrostis diandra (R.Br.) Steud.

Excluded:

  1. Eragrostis interrupta P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 71; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 89. Australia. P.B. Pelser (29-Nov-20): The text in Veldkamp's unpublished 'Annotated checklist of Philippine herbaceous Gramineae' suggests that the name Eragrostis interrupta has been misapplied in the Philippines for plants of Egragrostis brownii (Kunth) Nees and Eragrostis cumingii Steud.

Eremochloa Buse

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 331; EPFP 1 (1923) 39; --Buitenhuis & Veldk., Blumea 46 (2001) 406; --Nardus ciliaris L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 53. Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China (SC and SE), Hainan, Taiwan, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sulawesi, Aru Isls, New Guinea, Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela. Open grasslands at low elevation. Rare.

Eriachne R.Br.

No Photos
  1. Eriachne pallescens R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 184; --Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 630; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 82; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 79. E India to S China through Malesia to Australia, Philippines. LUZON, HERMANA MAYOR, CULION, PALAWAN. Open grassy places up to 550m.
  2. Eriachne triseta Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 237; --Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 147; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 82; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 93; --Massia triseta (Nees ex Steud.) Balansa in Morot, J. de Bot. 4 (1890) 165. Sri Lanka to Australia. LUZON, CULION, PALAWAN. Open grasslands at low elevation.

Erianthus Michx. = Saccharum

Eriochloa Kunth

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 July 2020

Photos

  1. Eriochloa procera (Retz.) C.E.Hubb., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1930 (1930) 256; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 276; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 29; --Agrostis procera Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 19. --Eriochloa ramosa (Retz.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 775; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 85; EPFP 1 (1923) 58; --Milium ramosum Retz., Observ. Bot. 6 (1791) 22. --Eriochloa procera var. involucrata (Hack. ex Merr.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 276; --Eriochloa ramosa var. involucrata Hack. ex Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 349; EPFP 1 (1923) 58. Africa to Australia. Throughout the Philippines. LUZON, CATANDUANES, SAN MIGUEL (off Albay prov.), MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, CEBU, BOHOL, MINDANAO. Annual. Usually in open, damp grasslands at low and medium elevation. Photos

Eulalia Kunth

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 December 2019

No Photos
  1. Eulalia leschenaultiana (Decne.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18 (1947) 2; --Andropogon leschenaultianus Decne., Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 3 (1834) 357. --Pollinia fulva auct. non (R.Br.) Benth.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 33. India to China, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Benguet, Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDORO. Open grasslands, sandy river bars, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1200m.
  2. Eulalia maritima (Merr.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 68 (1922) 204; --Pollinia maritima Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 326; EPFP 1 (1923) 34. Endemic to the Philippines. LUMBACAN Isl. Sandy seashore. Distribution and habitat suggest sea dispersal. Synonym of Eulalia ridleyi (Hack.) Stapf ex Ridl.?

Eulaliopsis Honda

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 September 2017

Photos
  1. Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C.E.Hubb., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 33 (1935) 6; --Andropogon binatus Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1789) 21. --Ischaemum angustifolium (Trin.) Hack. ex Oliv. in Hook., Icon. III, 8 (1888) t. 1773, --Merr. EPFP 1 (1923) 37; --Spodiopogon angustifolius Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 300. Afghanistan to S China, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, PALAWAN. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Photos

Eustachys Desv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Eustachys tenera (J.Presl) A.Camus, Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Colon. 5 (1925) 208; --Chloris tenera (J.Presl) Scribn., Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 41; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 84; --Cynodon tener J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 291. Thailand to SE China, Hainan, Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Sorsogon, NEGROS, CEBU, BOHOL, SAMAR, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, SULU. Open places at low elevation.

Festuca L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 September 2017

Photos
  1. Festuca leptopogon Stapf. in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 (1896) 354. Sikkim to Yunnan, Taiwan, Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, Timor, Philippines. LUZON: Mt Simacoco (BS 40326 Ramos & Edaño, L).

Fimbribambusa Widjaja

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020

No Photos
  1. Fimbribambusa horsfieldii (Munro) Widjaja, Reinwardtia 11 (1997) 81; --Bambusa horsfieldii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 115; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 6. --Bambusa cornuta Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 113; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 94. Java, New Guinea, ?Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya. In ravines along small streams, 1000-1600m.

Garnotia Brongn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 February 2018

No Photos
  1. Garnotia stricta Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1831) 132; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 81.

Gigantochloa Kurz ex Munro [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020

Photos
  1. Gigantochloa levis (Blanco) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 61; EPFP 1 (1923) 96; --Wong in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 109; --Widjaja, Reinwardtia 10 (1987) 353; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 21; --Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3975; --Bambusa levis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 272; --Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 310 (K, holo; BM, BO, L, iso), Luzon: Tayabas, Mar-1914. --Dendrocalamus curranii Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) 271; --Type: Curran BF 10177 (K, holo; BO, iso), Luzon: Tayabas, Sampaloe, Mar-1908. --Gigantochloa scribneriana Merr., PJS 1 (Suppl. 5) (1906) 390; --Type: Lamson-Scribner 14 (PNH, holo, lost), Cuyo. Area of origin unknown. LUZON: Bulacan, Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, POLILLO, CULION, LEYTE, CAMIGUIN. Probably an introduced species in the Philippines. Usually planted, but reportedly naturalized to a certain degree (Wong 1995). Secondary forest and in and around settlements. Photos

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Gigantochloa atroviolacea Widjaja, Reinwardtia 10 (1987) 323; --Widjaja in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 102. Area of origin unknown. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Gigantochloa atter (Hassk.) Kurz, Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 27 (1864) 226; --Widjaja, Reinwardtia 10 (1987) 316; --Rifai in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 104; --Bambusa thouarsii var. atter Hassk., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1848) 41. Area of origin unknown. MINDANAO: Davao, POLILLO. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Guadua auct. mal. = Bambusa 

Hackelochloa Kuntze

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Hackelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 776; --Mnesithea granularis (L.) Koning & Sosef, Blumea 31 (1986) 295; --Cenchrus granularis L., Mant. Pl. Altera (1771) 575; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 329; Fl. Manila (1912) 79; EPFP 1 (1923) 41; --Santos, Guide to Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 83. Pantropic. In most islands and provinces (Santos 1986). BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, NEGROS, CEBU, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO, JOLO. In disturbed soil, open waste places, old clearings, etc., at low and medium elevation.

Heteropholis C.E.Hubb. = Mnesithea

Heteropogon Pers.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 June 2021

No Photos
  1. Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. 2 (1817) 836; --Andropogon contortus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1045; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 83; EPFP 1 (1923) 44; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 83. Tropical America, Africa, India to China, Japan, Australia, preferring regions with marked dry season. Not native to the Philippines (Merrill 1912). LUZON: IIocos Norte, La Union, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, CEBU, MINDANAO: Misamis, Bukidnon. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation, often very abundant.
  2. Heteropogon triticeus (R.Br.) Stapf ex Craib, Kew Bull. (1912) 432; --Andropogon triticeus R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 201; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 48. E India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar to Vietnam, tropical Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Pangasinan, BUSUANGA, MINDANAO. Open grasslands at low or medium elevation.

Hierochloe R.Br. = Anthoxanthum

Hymenachne P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 September 2017

Photos
  1. Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge) Nees, Agrost. Bras. (1829) 276; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 84; --Panicum amplexicaule Rudge, Pl. Guian. (1805) 21; --Merr.; Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1923) 61. S America, India to S China, N Australia. LUZON, ALABAT, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur. In open swamps and along swampy margins of lakes and streams at low elevation. Photos
  2. Hymenachne aurita (J.Presl ex Nees) Backer in Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind. ed. 2 (1922) 197; --Balansa, J. de Bot. 4 (1890) 144; --Dallwatsonia aurita (J.Presl ex Nees) J.R.Grande, Phytoneuron 2014-22 (2014) 3; --Panicum auritum J.Presl ex Nees in Von Martius, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2 (1829) 176; --J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 305. --Panicum auritum var. procerius J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 305; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1923) 61. Sri Lanka to China, across Malesia to New Guinea. LUZON, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, BALABAC, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO, SULU. Common in open, rather wet places, swampy margins of` lakes and sluggish rivers, at low and medium elevation. 

Hyparrhenia Andersson ex E.Fourn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 November 2020

No Photos
  1. Hyparrhenia filipendula (Hochst.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1918) 360; --Andropogon filipendulus Hochst., Flora 29 (1846) 115.
  2. Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 304; --Trachypogon rufus Nees in Von Martius, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2 (1829) 345.

Possibly present:

  1. Hyparrhenia newtonii (Hack.) Stapf in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 363; --Andropogon newtonii Hack., Bol. Soc. Brot. 3 (1885) 137.

Ichnanthus P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Ichnanthus pallens (Sw.) Benth., Fl. Hongk. (1861) 414; --Panicum pallens Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 23.

Imperata Cyrillo

Photos

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 February 2018
  1. Imperata conferta (J.Presl) Ohwi, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55 (1941) 549; --Saccharum confertum J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 346. --Imperata exaltata ssp. merrillii Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 264; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 31. SE Asia to New Guinea. LUZON, SAN MIGUEL (off Albay prov.), PALAWAN, NEGROS, BOHOL, MINDANAO, SULU. Probably much more widespread, although much less common than the next species. On exposed ridges, 1500-2250m. Probably not really distinct from Imperata cylindrica (Delia Co, pers. comm.).
  2. Imperata cylindrica (L.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. (1812) 165; --Lagurus cylindricus L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 878. --Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii (Retz.) Benth. ex Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 137; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 76; --Saccharum koenigii Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1789) 16. --Imperata cylindrica var. major (Nees) C.E.Hubb. & Vaughan, Grasses of Mauritius & Rodriguez (1940) 96; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 34; --Imperata koenigii var. major Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. (1841) 90. Tropical parts of Africa, Asia to Australia and Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines. BATAN, CEBU, LUZON, ALABAT, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Open slopes, often gregariously occupying enormous areas, forming characteristic kogonales, the name of these areas being taken from its almost universal local name kogon. Ascending to 2300m. Photos

Isachne R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 September 2019

Photos
  1. Isachne albens Trin., Sp. Gram. 1 (1828) t. 85. --Isachne magna (Merr.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 327; EPFP 1 (1923) 59; --Isachne beneckei var. magna Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 350; --Merrill 4541 (PNH, lost;
    K, lecto). --Isachne apoensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2676; --Type: Elmer 11578 (US 00134039, lecto; PNH lost, BO, BISH, E, HBG, K, L, NY, isolecto).
  2. Isachne clarkei Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 7 (1896) 24; --Type: from India. --Isachne beneckei Hack., Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 51 (1901) 459; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 350; EPFP 1 (1923) 58. Borneo, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan, Pampanga. Open wet places, borders of cold pools and sphagnum swamps, and on narrow forested ridges, 800-2600m.
  3. Isachne globosa (Thunb.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 778; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 59; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 86; --Milium globosum Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 49. Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea; Australia, New Zealand, Nicobar Isls, Pacific, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO: Lanao. Usually below 700m.
  4. Isachne minutula (Gaudich.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 2 (1831) t. 117; --Panicum minutulum Gaudich., Voy. Uranie (1829) 410. Australia, Borneo, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Pacific, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam, Philippines. BASILAN, BILIRAN, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, PANAY.
  5. Isachne myosotis Nees in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 98; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 349; EPFP 1 (1923) 60. --Isachne debilis Rendle ex Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36 (1904) 322; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 350; EPFP 1 (1923) 58. --Isachne micrantha Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 168; EPFP 2 (1922) 59. --Isachne incrassata (Hack.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 168; EPFP 1 (1923) 59; --Isachne debilis var. incrassata Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 268. --Isachne pauciflora Hack., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 80; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 60. --Isachne depauperata (Hack.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 58; --Isachne pauciflora var. depauperata (Hack.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 288; --Isachne beneckei f. depauperata Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 350. Australia, Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS.
  6. Isachne pangerangensis Zoll. & Moritzi, Syst. Verz. Zoll. (1846) 102. --Isachne pangerangensis var. halconensis Hack., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 167; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 60; --Type: Merrill 6203 (W, lecto; K, L, PNH lost, isolecto), Mindoro: Mt. Halcon. Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO.
  7. Isachne pulchella Roth ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 2 (1817) 476. --Isachne conferta Merr., PJS 9 (1914) Bot. 261; EPFP 1 (1923) 58. --Isachne miliacea Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 58; --Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 89; EPFP 1 (1923) 59. Borneo, China, India, Java, Nepal, Pacific, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Philippines. BUSUANGA, LUZON, BILIRAN, PANAY, MINDANAO. Open wet places, old rice paddies, boulders and ledges along streams at low or medium elevation, often abundant.
  8. Isachne schmidtii Hack., Bot. Tidsskr. 24 (1901) 97. --Isachne kunthiana auct. non (Wight & Arn. ex Steud.) Nees ex Miq., Fl. Ind. Bot. 3 (1855) 460. Borneo, Java, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, Vanuatu, Philippines. BOHOL, LUZON. Below 700m.
  9. Isachne stricta Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 463; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 60; --Type: Elmer 10425 (US, lecto; PNH lost, B, BISH, BO, E, HBG, K, L, NY, U, US, Z, isolecto). New Guinea, Sulawesi, Philippines. NEGROS.
  10. Isachne vulcanica Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 169; EPFP 1 (1923) 60; --Isachne clementis var. vulcanica (Merr.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 282; --Type: Merrill 6975 (US, lecto; PNH lost, B, BO, K, L, isolecto), Negros: Kanlaon Volcano, Apr-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Kanlaon). Cushion plant on bare slopes of the old crater of Kanlaon Volcano, 1100-2100m.

Doubtfully present in the Philippines:

  1. Isachne arfakensis Ohwi, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 56 (1942) 4; --Type: not from the Philippines. New Guinea, Vanuatu, ?Philippines. ?LUZON. 2400m. Note by P.B. Pelser (8-Sep-2019): Not listed for the Philippines by Veldkamp (2018). Misapplied name for the morphologically similar Isachne albens var. albens?
  2. Isachne brassii Hitchc., Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 54 (1929) 146. Moluccas, New Guinea, Sulawesi, ?Philippines. ?LUZON, ?DINAGAT. 200-975m. Note by P.B. Pelser (8-Sep-2019): Not listed for the Philippines by Veldkamp (2018). Misapplied name for the morphologically similar Isachne minutula?
  3. Isachne villosa (Hitchc.) Reeder, J. Arn. Arb. 29 (1948) 314; --Henty, Man. Grasses New Guin. (1969) 114; --Isachne brassii var. villosa Hitchc., Brittonia 2 (1936) 123. New Guinea, Vanuatu, ?Philippines. Notes by L.L.Co: Philippine materials determined by Santos as Isachne cf. brassii may belong to this species; this species is mentioned by Henty (1969) but not seen. Note by P.B. Pelser (8-Sep-2019): Not listed for the Philippines by Veldkamp (2018). Misapplied name for the morphologically similar Isachne clarkei?

Ischaemum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 September 2017

Photos
  1. Ischaemum barbatum Retz., Observ. Bot. 6 (1791) 35. --Ischaemum barbatum var. gibbum (Trin.) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11 (1942) 175; --Ischaemum aristatum var. gibbum (Trin.) Hack. in A.DC. & C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 6 (1889) 204; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 80; EPFP 1 (1923) 37; --Ischaemum gibbum Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 295. India to China, Queensland. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Camarines, BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, BOHOL, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation; often common.
  2. Ischaemum ciliare Retz., Obs. 6 (1791) 36; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 37, excluding Batan specimens cited (which are Ischaemum setaceum). Africa, Madagascar, India to China and Taiwan to Moluccas, Philippines. BATAN, LUZON.
  3. Ischaemum glaucescens Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 263; EPFP 1 (1923) 37. Borneo (Sabah), Philippines. PALAWAN (Merrill 9459). In shallow water, borders of Lake Manguao, at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  4. Ischaemum merrillii Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 266; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 38. --Ischaemum arundinaceum var. radicans Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 266. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. In open rather wet places, c.1500m.
  5. Ischaemum minus J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1829) 329. South America, Ogasawara-shoto to Philippines. Native?
  6. Ischaemum muticum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1049; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 330; EPFP 1 (1923) 38. India to Australia, Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN, BALABAC, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, SULU. A common beach grass in the Philippines.
  7. Ischaemum philippinense Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11 (1942) 175. Endemic to the Philippines.
  8. Ischaemum polystachyum J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 328. --Ischaemum digitatum Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1831) 70. --Ischaemum intermedium Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1831) Bot. 73; Fl. Manila (1912) 80; EPFP 1 (1923) 38. --Ischaemum todayense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2678; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 39. Peninsular Malaysia to New Guinea and Micronesia, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO, LEYTE, SAMAR , MINDANAO: Davao, Surigao. Open wet grassy places, ravines in secondary forests, etc. at low elevation to c. 900m.
  9. Ischaemum pubescens Merr., PJS 9 (1914) Bot. 264; EPFP 1 (1923) 38. New Guinea (Irian Jaya), Philippines. DUMARAN. Twice found. open grasslands at low elevation.
  10. Ischaemum rugosum Salisb., Icon. (1791) 1; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 87. --Ischaemum rugosum var. distachyum (Cav.) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 330; Fl. Manila (1912) 80; EPFP 1 (1923) 38; --Colladoa distachya Cav., Icon. 5 (1799) 37. India to China, Malesia, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Rizal, Bataan, POLILLO, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, GUIMARAS, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Annual. Open usually rather wet grasslands.
  11. Ischaemum setaceum Honda, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 38 (1924) 54; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 57. --Ischaemum ciliare auct. non Retz.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 37, as to Batan specimens cited only. Taiwan (S tip and Lanyu), Philippines. BATAN. Open grasslands and wet littoral cliff, locally rare.

Possibly present:

  1. Ischaemum australe R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 205. Indochina to Australia, ?Philippines.
  2. Ischaemum timorense Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1 (1830) 369. India to Pacific, ?Philippines.

Koordersiochloa Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Koordersiochloa longiarista (A.Rich.) Veldkamp, Reinwardtia 13 (2012) 301; --Streblochaete longiarista (A.Rich.) Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 516; --Steenis, Mountain Fl. Java (1972) pl. 22-15; --Trisetum longiaristum A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2 (1850) 417. --Koordersiochloa javanica Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 67; PJS 30 (1926) 390. Africa, Mascarenes, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Mossy forest, c. 2400m.

Leersia Sw.

Photos
  1. Leersia hexandra Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 21; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 78; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 88. Pan(sub)tropical. Widespread from N LUZON to MINDANAO. Open freshwater wetlands, rice paddies, etc. at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m. Photos

Possibly present:

  1. Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 21; --Phalaris oryzoides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 55. N America, Europe, W and E Asia. Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.

Leptaspis R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 September 2017

Photos
  1. Leptaspis banksii R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1 (1810) 211. --Leptaspis cumingii Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 416; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 76. Australia to W New Guinea, Goodenough Isls, Java, Philippines, Taiwan. MINDANAO: Misamis, Davao, JOLO, BONGAO. In forests at low or medium elevation. Photos
  2. Leptaspis zeylanica Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1853) 8. Tropical Africa to the Solomons, Philippines. MINDANAO.

Leptatherum Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 September 2019

No Photos
  1. Leptatherum nudum (Trin.) C.Hui Chen, Kuoh & Veldkamp, Blumea 54 (2009) 179; --Microstegium nudum (Trin.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon 68 (1921) 201; --Pollinia nuda Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 6 (1833) 307; --Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 178; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 34. Pakistan to China and SE Asia to New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Mossy forest clearings, 2000-2400m.

Leptochloa P.Beauv. = Dinebra [Philippine species]

Lepturus P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser. 13 September 2017

Photos
  1. Lepturus repens (G.Forst.) R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 207; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 91; --Monerma repens (G.Forst.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 117; --Hack., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 81; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 93; --Rottboellia repens G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. (1786) 9. Photos

Lolium L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 November 2020

Photos
  1. Lolium temulentum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 83. Macaronesia, Mediterranean, Eurasia. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized as a weed in rice (Moody 1989).

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Lolium multiflorum Lam., Fl. Franç. 3 (1779) 621. Macaronesia, Mediterranean, Eurasia. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated, not naturalized. Photos

Lophatherum Brongn.

Photos
  1. Lophatherum gracile Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1831) 50; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 91; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 92. --Lophatherum gracile var. pilosum A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 25 (1919) 495; --Merr., EPFP 1(1922) 91. India to Japan, across Malesia to Australia (Queensland), Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO, BASILAN, JOLO. In forests, along trails, and in old clearings, chiefly at medium elevation. Photos

Manisuris auct. non L. = Coelorhachis

Massia Balansa = Eriachne

Melinis P.Beauv. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020

Photos
  1. Melinis minutiflora P.Beauv., Ess. Agrost. (1812) 54; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 94. Africa, Brazil. LUZON, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Zamboanga del Sur. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized in open fields. Forage grass.
  2. Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka, Biblioth. Bot. 55 (1988) 138; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 118; --Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E.Hubb., Kew Bull. (1934) 110; --Saccharum repens Willd., Sp. Pl. 1 (1797) 322. Africa and Arabia. Photos

Microchloa R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter Pelser, 14 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Microchloa indica (L.f.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3 (1893) 356; --Hack., Fedde Repert. 7 (1909) 373; --Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 74; EPFP 1 (1923) 83; --Nardus indica L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 105. Pan(sub)tropical. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Rizal. Open dry grasslands at low and medium elevation.

Microlaena R.Br. = Ehrharta

Microstegium Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 September 2019

Photos
  1. Microstegium biaristatum (Steud.) Keng, Sinensia 3 (1932) 92; --Andropogon biaristatus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 379. --Pollinia glabrata var. elmeri (Hack.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 34; --Pollinia monantha var. elmeri Hack., PJS 3 (1908) 167. Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. MINDORO.
  2. Microstegium eucnemis (Nees ex Steud.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n. s., 68 (1922) 200; --Pollinia eucnemis Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 409. India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isl, Thailand, Philippines. LUZON.
  3. Microstegium fasciculatum (L.) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 453; --Andropogon fasciculatus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1047. --Microstegium ciliatum (Trin.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon 68 (1921) 201; --Pollinia ciliata Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 42 (1832) 306. --Microstegium monanthum (Nees ex Steud.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 257; --Pollinia monantha Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 410. --Microstegium vagans (Nees ex Steud.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n. s., 68 (1922) 200; --Pollinia vagans Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 410. --Microstegium gratum (Hack.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 258, nom. superfl.; --Pollinia grata Hack. in A.DC. & C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 6 (1889) 175. --Microstegium montanum (Nees ex Steud.) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 455; --Pollinia montana Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 409; --Type: from Java. Africa, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Thickets in damp ravines, 1200-1500m.
  4. Microstegium glabratum (Brongn.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n. s., 68 (1922) 201; --Pollinia glabrata (Brongn.) Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 4, 4 (1836) 90; --Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 179; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 34; --Eulalia glabrata Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1831) 93. Borneo, China, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Caledonia, Pacific, Palau Isls, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Philippines. BALUT, LUZON: Pangasinan, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR. Open ravines, thickets, and old clearings at low and medium elevation.
  5. Microstegium spectabile (Trin.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon 68 (1921) 200; --Pollinia spectabilis Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 42 (1832) 305. Borneo, Hong Kong, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO. Usually in rather wet grasslands, particularly in gullies and at forest margins.
  6. Microstegium tenue (Trin.) Hosok., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 28 (1938) 150; --Pollinia tenuis Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 6, 2 (1833) 307; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 35. Kosrae, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Bataan, Rizal. Annual. Dry open slopes, on and about cliffs, etc., 0-1200m.
  7. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 260; --Pollinia viminea (Trin.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 35; --Andropogon vimineus Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 268. Africa, Bhutan, India, Indochina, Japan, Java, Korea, Middle East, Nepal, Pakistan, Ryukyu Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Rizal. Annuals. Open wet slopes and in the mossy forest, 1200-2200m. Photos

Miscanthus Andersson

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 September 2017

Photos
  1. Miscanthus depauperatus Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 170; EPFP 1 (1923) 32. Endemic to the Philippines. Synonym of Miscanthus sinensis Andersson?
  2. Miscanthus floridulus (Labill.) Warb., Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Sudsee (1901) 166; --Saccharum floridulum Labill., Sert. Austro-Caledon. (1824) 13. --Miscanthus japonicus auct. non (Thunb.) Anders.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 32. --Miscanthus sinensis auct. non Anders.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 32. China to Pacific, New Guinea, Philippines. BATAN, BABUYANES, LUZON, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, SAMAR, MINDANAO. In thickets, exposed ridges, road cuts and ravines, along streams, volcanic craters, fumaroles, etc. from 300-2700m, often gregarious. Photos
  3. Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Oefvers. Vet. Akad. Stockh. (1855) 166. Japan, China, Korea, Borneo, Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Mt Halcon), NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Kanlaon, 1800-2000m), occurs along volcanic crater vegetation on Mt Kanlaon. Cultivated forms with striped leaves are possibly also present. Photos

Mnesithea Kunth

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 September 2017

Photos
  1. Mnesithea glandulosa (Trin.) Koning & Sosef, Blumea 31 (1986) 290; --Coelorachis glandulosa (Trin.) Ridl., Fl. Mal. Penins. 5 (1925) 204; --Rottboellia glandulosa Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 6, 2 (1833) 250; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 40; --Santos, Guide to Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 67; --Type: from Java. Myanmar to New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (once collected: Elmer 5823), MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, BALABAC, BUSUANGA, PANAY: Antique, GUIMARAS, CAMIGUIN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, BOHOL, SIARGAO, MINDANAO, JOLO, TAWI-TAWI. In thickets, old clearings, along roads and railroads, etc., up to 1525m.
  2. Mnesithea laevis (Retz.) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 154; --Rottboellia laevis Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 11.
  3. Mnesithea mollicoma (Hance) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 25 (1919) 57; --Rottboellia mollicoma Hance, J. Bot. 9 (1871) 134; --Type: Hance 7558 (G, lecto; K, fragm. L, W, isolecto). --Rottboellia triflora F.T.Hubb., PJS 9 (1914) Bot. 257; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 40; --Type: Ledesma s.n. (BH, holo; A, US, W, iso). Vietnam and Thailand to S China, Sumatra, Java, Philippines. PALAWAN. Borders of thickets at low elevation.
  4. Mnesithea rottboellioides (R.Br.) Koning & Sosef, Blumea 31 (1986) 291; --Coelorhachis rottboellioides (R.Br.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon 68 (1921) 197; --Ischaemum rottboellioides R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 206; --Rottboellia ophiuroides Benth., Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 514, nom. superfl.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 40; --Type: R. Brown 6156 (BM, holo; ?CANB, MEL, NSW). --Rottboellia ophiuroides var. intermedia Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 265; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 40; --Type: Elmer 6393 (BO, K, PNH lost, W, lecto). Philippines to Pacific, N Australia. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Tarlac, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Zambales, Rizal, MASBATE, PANAY, GUIMARAS, CEBU, BOHOL, SIARGAO, MINDANAO. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation, pine forest, disturbed sites, ascending to 2320m, often common. Photos

Monerma P.Beauv. = Lepturus

Monostachya Merr. = Danthonia

Muhlenbergia Schreb.

Photos
  1. Muhlenbergia huegelii Trin., Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. 6, 62 (1845) 293. --Muhlenbergia arisanensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Taiwan 7 (1918) 87; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 80. India to China and Taiwan, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Cordillera Highlands. Along small streams, in old clearings, and in the mossy forest, 1300-3000m.

Neololeba Widjaja [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020

No Photos
  1. Neololeba atra (Lindl.) Widjaja, Reinwardtia 11 (1997) 114; --Bambusa atra Lindl., Penny Cyclop. 3 (1835) 357; --Widjaja in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 53. Australia, Moluccas, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Planted in gardens and bambuseta.

Ophiuros Gaertn.

Last edited by Pieter Pelser, 14 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Ophiuros exaltatus (L.f.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 780; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 329; EPFP 1 (1923) 41; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 96; --Rottboellia exaltata L.f., Suppl. (1781) 114; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 78; EPFP 1 (1923) 39. --Ophiuros tongcalingii (Elmer) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 520; --Rottboellia tongcalingii Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2680. India to China, across Malesia to tropical Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. In open rather damp places, borders of thickets, etc. at low and medium elevation. Common.

“Ophiurus” = Ophiuros

Oplismenus P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 September 2017

Photos
  1. Oplismenus burmanni (Retz.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 54; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 94; EPFP 1 (1923) 71; --Panicum burmanni Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 10. Pantropical. LUZON: Pangasinan. Rizal, Bataan, PANAY, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. In thickets at low elevation.
  2. Oplismenus compositus (L.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 54; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 94; EPFP 1 (1923) 71; --Santos, Guide to Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 98; --Panicum compositum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 57. --Oplismenus compositus var. lasiorhachis Hack., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 81; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 71. --Oplismenus compositus var. rariflorus (J.Presl) U.Scholz, Phanerogam. Monogr. 13 (1981) 96; --Oplismenus rariflorus J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 320. Pan(sub)tropical. Throughout the Philippines (Santos 1986). BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, PANAY, GUIMARAS, CEBU, BOHOL, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, JOLO, MINDANAO. In thickets, old clearings, etc., at low and medium elevation; often common. Photos
  3. Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrost. 54 (1812) 168; --Panicum hirtellum L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 870. --Oplismenus undulatifolius var. imbecillis (R.Br.) Hack., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 81; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 72; --Orthopogon imbecillis R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 194. --Oplismenus aemulus (R.Br.) Kunth, Enum. Plant. 1 (1833) 142; --Orthopogon aemulus R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1 (1810) 194. Pantropical. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Mountain Province, Ifugao, La Union, Cagayan, Pangasinan, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, NEGROS, CEBU, LEYTE, MINDANAO, SULU. In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation. Along streams in shaded places and on ridges in the mossy forest, at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2400m. A variable species.
  4. Oplismenus undulatifolius (Ard.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 54; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 72; --Panicum undulatifolium Ard., Animadv. Bot. Spec. Alt. (1764) 14. Eurasia, Arabia, Africa, Malesia, Australia, Philippines. Synonym of Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P.Beauv.?

Oryza L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020

Photos
  1. Oryza meyeriana (Zoll. & Moritzi) Baill., Hist. Pl. 12 (1894) 166; --Benth. ex Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 145; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 77; --Padia meyeriana Zoll. & Moritzi in Moritzi, Syst. Verz. Java (1846) 103. --Oryza meyeriana var. granulata (Nees & Arn. ex Watt) Duistermaat, Blumea, 32 (1987) 185; --Oryza granulata Nees & Arn. ex Watt, Dict. Econ. Prod. India 5 (1891) 500. Sri Lanka to China, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS.
  2. Oryza minuta J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 208; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 77. --Oryza manilensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 219; Fl. Manila (1912) 98. Philippines to New Guinea. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, BOHOL, LEYTE, SAMAR. In open wet places at low and medium elevation.
  3. Oryza officinalis Wall. ex Watt, Dict. Econ. Prod. India 5 (1891) 501; --Steud., Syn. Pl. Gram. (1854) 3. --Oryza minuta var. silvatica (A.Camus) Veldkamp, Blumea 37 (1992) 232; --Oryza latifolia var. silvatica A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27 (1921) 456. Sri Lanka to China, Queensland, Philippines. MINDORO, NEGROS, BOHOL, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga.
  4. Oryza rufipogon Griff., Not. Pl. As. 3 (1851) 5. --Oryza nivara S.D.Sharma & Shastry, Indian J. Genet. Pl. Breed. 25 (1965) 161; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 290. Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. MINDANAO.
  5. Oryza sativa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 333; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 97; EPFP 1 (1923) 77; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 98. Extensively cultivated throughout the Philippines but not a native of the Archipelago, although of prehistoric introduction. The rice plant is enormously variable and probably several hundred distinct cultural forms occur in the Archipelago. No attempt has been made to compile the very numerous local names currently applied to special varieties. Rice. Photos

Ottochloa Dandy

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 February 2018

Photos
  1. Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy, J. Bot. 69 (1931) 55; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1923) 65; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 49; --Panicum nodosum Kunth, Enum. Pl. 1 (1833) 97. --Ottochloa arnottiana (Steud.) Dandy, J. Bot. 69 (1931) 55; --Panicum arnottianum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1853) 59 (Merrill 4182). --Ottochloa fusca (Ridl.) Dandy, J. Bot. 69 (1931) 55; --Hemigymnia fusca Ridl., Fl. Malay Pen. 5 (1928) 228. Africa, India to China, across Malesia to Australia (Queensland), Philippines. In most islands and provinces (Santos 1986). LUZON, ALABAT, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO, SULU. Shaded places, thickets, old clearings, etc., low and medium elevation; common. Photos

Panicum L.  

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020

Photos
  1. Panicum bisulcatum Thunb., Nov. Acta Soc. Sc. Upsal. 7 (1815) 141; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 188. --Panicum acroanthum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 87; --Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 315. India to Japan, China, Indochina, Sulawesi, Philippines. BALABAC (Mt Caunayan, BS 49704 Ramos & Edaño), MINDANAO: Davao. Secondary forest near stream at low elevation.
  2. Panicum brevifolium L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 59; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 61; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 189. Tropical Africa and Asia, possibly introduced in at least part of Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Banka, Java, Borneo, Philippines. BALABAC, TAWI-TAWI. In thickets, along trails in shaded places, etc., at low elevation.
  3. Panicum caudiglume Hack., Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 51 (1901) 428; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1923) 62; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 101; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 190. Java, Kangean Archipelago, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Bataan, CULION, PALAWAN. MINDANAO. In open waste places at low elevation, in regions with distinct seasonal climate.
  4. Panicum curviflorum Hornem., Hort. Bot. Hafn. Suppl. (1819) 116; --Veldk., Eijs & Zoetemeyer, Blumea 34 (1989) 77. --Panicum curviflorum var. suishaense (Hayata) Veldk. in Veldk., Eijs & Zoetemeyer, Blumea 34 (1989) 81; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 191; --Panicum suishaense Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 7 (1918) 62. --Panicum trypheron auct. non Schult.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 69; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 107. India, Myanmar, Thailand to S China (Hainan), across Malesia to New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Cagayan, MINDORO, SEMIRARA, BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). In open grasslands at low and medium elevation.
  5. Panicum flexuosum Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 9. --Panicum sumatrense Roth ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 2 (1817) 434; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 108; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 205. --Panicum psilopodium Trin., Gram. Pan. (1826) 17; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 93; EPFP 1 (1923) 66. Africa (Senegal & E part), Pakistan, Sri Lanka to N Vietnam. In Malesia along the ‘drought track’ through Wallacea: Sumatra (?Bengkulu), Java (E of Ceribon), Madura, SW Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores, Roti, Timor), Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal. In open wet places, forest edge, edge of rice fields, grassy roadside, low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Annual.
  6. Panicum humile Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 84; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 64; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 100; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 194. --Panicum walense Mez, Bot. Jahrb. 34 (1904) 146, as ‘watense’. Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Andamans, S China, Taiwan, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Tarlac, Pangasinan, Zambales, Rizal, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO. In dry areas, open waste places, grasslands, etc., at low and medium elevation. Annual.
  7. Panicum luzonense J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1828) 308; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 64; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 102; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 195. --Panicum cambogiense Balansa, J. Bot. 4 (1890) 142; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 290. --Panicum tuberculatum auct. non J.Presl.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 69. Sri Lanka, eastward across Malesia to Australia, Solomon Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, PALAWAN, PANAY, MINDANAO, TAWI-TAWI. Annual. In open waste places, old clearings, rice fields, etc., at low and medium elevation.
  8. Panicum maximum Jacq., Icon. Pl. Rar. 1 (1781) t. 13; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 93; EPFP 1 (1923) 65; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 53; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 197; --Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R.D.Webster, Australian Paniceae (Poac.) (1987) 241; --Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) B.K.Simon & Jacobs, Austrobaileya 6 (2003) 572. Tropical Africa, Mascarenes, Arabia, introduced (sub)pantropically. In Malesia widespread from Sumatra to New Guinea. Extensively cultivated for forage purposes. LUZON, PALAWAN, CEBU, MINDANAO. Waste areas, roadsides. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Note by L.L.Co: the correct name seems to be Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R.D.Webster. Guinea grass. Photos
  9. Panicum miliaceum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 58; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 39; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 28; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 52; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 358; EPFP 1 (1923) 65; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 198. Originally from C Asia, now cultivated as a cereal or fodder in warm and temperate regions, sporadically so in former times in Malesia. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized.
  10. Panicum mindanaense Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 360; EPFP 1 (1923) 65; --Veldk., Blumea 41  (1996) 199. Philippines to New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Rizal, Batangas, Zambales, BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO: Lanao. In open places, abandoned gardens, grasslands, etc., 0-75m.
  11. Panicum notatum Retz., Obs. 4 (1786) 18; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 199. --Panicum cordatum Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1854) 376; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 63; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 104. India to S China and Taiwan, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Riau, Banka, Java, Kangean Archipelago, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, SW Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, La Union, Bataan, Bulacan, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS. Perennial. in thickets, roadsides, old clearings, steep slopes, etc., at low and medium elevation.
  12. Panicum paludosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 310; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 93; EPFP 1 (1923) 66; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 104; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 200. India, Sri Lanka to S China, across Malesia from Sumatra to New Guinea and Australia (Northern Territory to New South Wales), Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Rizal, Laguna, PANAY: Iloilo, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO: Lanao. In shallow water along margins of streams and lakes, rice fields, often floating, locally dominant. Low and medium elevation.
  13. Panicum repens L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 87; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 93; EPFP 1 (1923) 67; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 106; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 202. Pan(sub)tropic. LUZON, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PANAY, CEBU, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Probably not native to the Philippines (Veldkamp 1996). In open lowlands, sunny to slightly shaded, especially near the sea, but also inland locally and ascending to 1500m.
  14. Panicum sarmentosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 311; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 68; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 106; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 203. India to S China, Taiwan, across Malesia (from Sumatra to New Guinea) to tropical Australia (Queensland), Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Cavite, Zambales, Quezon, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, BALABAC, PANAY, NEGROS. In thickets and secondary forests, old clearings, steep river banks, at low and medium elevation, often locally common.
  15. Panicum trichoides Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 24; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 68; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 207. Tropical America, introduced elsewhere. In Malesia extending from Java to New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, CULION. Annual. In thickets at low and medium elevation.

Possibly present:

  1. Panicum elegantissimum Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 7 (1896) 52. China to Indochina and ?Philippines.
  2. Panicum incomtum Trin., Gram. Panic. (1826) 200. Tropical and subtropical Asia to Australia, ?Philippines.

Paspalidium Stapf = Setaria

Paspalum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020

Photos
  1. Paspalum conjugatum P.J.Bergius, Act. Helvet. 7 (1772) 129; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 87; EPFP 1 (1923) 56; --Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 290; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 62. Native of tropical America, now pantropic. Common throughout and widespread throughout the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PALAWAN, CEBU, BILIRAN, MINDANAO, BASILAN, SULU. In the settled areas, about towns, along trails, streams, etc., often very abundant.
  2. Paspalum dilatatum Poir., Tabl. Encycl. 5 (1804) 35; --Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 293; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 291. S American. Pantropical weed of unknown origin, probably introduced. LUZON. Naturalized in rice fields. Photos
  3. Paspalum distichum L., Syst. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 855; --Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 295. Pantropical weed, probably introduced in Malesia. Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Moluccas, Philippines. LUZON. Wet marshlands, swamps, in polluted, shallow`water, along irrigation ditches, etc., up to 1725m. Invasive species (CABI 2017).
  4. Paspalum notatum Flüggé, Gram. Monog. (1810) 106; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 291. Originally from S America, widely cultivated. LUZON. Naturalized in rice fields.
  5. Paspalum paniculatum L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10 (1759) 855. Tropical South America and West Africa, introduced elsewhere in the tropics. LUZON.
  6. Paspalum scrobiculatum L., Mant. 1 (1767) 29; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 344; Fl. Manila (1912) 86; EPFP 1 (1923) 56; --Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 302. --Paspalum scrobiculatum var. auriculatum (J.Presl) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 345; Fl. Manila (1912) 86; EPFP 1 (1923) 57; --Paspalum auriculatum J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 217. --Paspalum scrobiculatum var. bispicatulum Hack. ex Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 86; EPFP 1 (1923) 57. --Paspalum scrobiculatum var. horneri (Henrard) Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 307; --Paspalum horneri Henrard, Blumea 1 (1935) 306. --Paspalum orbiculare G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. (1786) 7; --Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 299. --Paspalum longifolium Roxb. var. pseudo-orbiculare Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 321; --Type: Santos 5 (MICH, holo). World distribution uncertain due to doubtful identifications in the literature: India, Sri Lanka to the Pacific (Vanuatu), Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Philippines. Throughout the Philippines, in open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m; common and somewhat variable. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos
  7. Paspalum sumatrense Roth in J.J.Roemer & J.A.Schultes, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 316. --Paspalum scrobiculatum var. philippinense Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 345; EPFP 1 (1923) 57. --Paspalum longifolium Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 283; Hort. Beng. (1814) 7, nom. nud.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 86; EPFP 1 (1923) 56; --Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 297; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 111. --Paspalum longifolium var. trichocoleum Hack., PJS 3 (1908) Bot. 167; EPFP 1 (1923) 56. Tropical and subtropical Asia to W Pacific, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Albay, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, BALABAC, GUIMARAS, BOHOL, CEBU, LEYTE, SAMAR, JOLO, MINDANAO: Surigao, SULU. In open, usually rather wet lands, open level grasslands at low and medium elevation. Photos
  8. Paspalum urvillei Steud., Syn. Pl. Gram. (1854) 24. Native to northern South America, cultivated and escaping. LUZON. Not native to the Philippines.
  9. Paspalum vaginatum Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 21; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 57. --Paspalum distichum auct. non L.; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1882) 310; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 87. (Sub)tropical sea coasts. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, La Union, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, PANAY, GUIMARAS, CEBU, LEYTE, SAMAR. In open wet lands, usually in places subject to the influence of salt or brackish water.

Possibly present:

  1. Paspalum plicatulum Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1 (1803) 45. S America. Veldkamp pers. comm.: Said by 't Mannetje & Jones (Prosea 4, 1992) to be widely cultivated in Malesia, but only two New Guinea collections have been seen.

Pennisetum Rich. = Cenchrus

Perotis Aiton

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Perotis indica (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 787; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 51; --Anthoxanthum indicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 28. India to Queensland, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, MINDORO, MINDANAO: Agusan. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation.
  2. Perotis rara R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 172; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 51; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 113. Thailand and N Peninsular Malaysia through the Philippines to Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Zambales, MINDORO. On dry open slopes at low and medium elevation.

Possibly present:

  1. Perotis hordeiformis Nees ex Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1838) 248. China to tropical Asia, ?Philippines.

Phragmites Adans.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020

Photos
  1. Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud., Nomencl. ed. 2, 2 (1840) 324; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 381; EPFP 1 (1923) 87; --Arundo karka Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 21. --Phragmites vallatorius (Pluk. ex L.) Veldk., Blumea 37 (1992) 233; --Arundo vallatoria L., Herb. Amb. (1754) 15, nom. inval. --Phragmites vulgaris auct. non (Lam.) Trin.; --Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 100; EPFP 1 (1923) 87. --Phragmites australis auct. non (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 291. Tropical Africa to Japan, Polynesia, Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Bataan, Laguna, Camarines, PALAWAN, NEGROS, CEBU, MINDANAO, TURTLE ISLS, no doubt elsewhere. Along slow streams and margins of lakes at low and medium elevation, often forming dense thickets. Photos

Poa L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 July 2017

Photos
  1. Poa annua L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 68; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 181 386; EPFP 1 (1923) 92; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 115. Cosmopolitan temperate areas. LUZON: Benguet. Very common in open waste places, 1500-2400m. Annual. Invasive species (CABI 2017).  Photos
  2. Poa pratensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 67. --Poa luzoniensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 180; EPFP 1 (1923) 92. Temperate regions of the Old World; introduced elsewhere. LUZON: Benguet. Borders of cold marshes and streams, c. 2400m. Perennials. Photos

Pogonatherum P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017

Photos
  1. Pogonatherum crinitum (Thunb.) Kunth, Enum. 1 (1833) 478; --Andropogon crinitus Thunb. in Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14 (1784) 903. --Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack., Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 12 (1906) 178; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 76; EPFP 1 (1923) 35; --Saccharum paniceum Lam., Encycl. 1 (1785) 595. India to China through Malesia to Australia. BATAN, LUZON, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, BOHOL, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Common on banks of ravines, along streams on cliffs and steep banks, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2000m. Photos

Pollinia Trin. non Spreng. = Microstegium

Polytoca R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Polytoca digitata (L.f.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Cl. Brit. Isles, 1916 (1917) 641; --Apluda digitata L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 434. --Polytoca heteroclita (Roxb.) Koord., Exksfl. Java 1 (1911) 99; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 29; --Coix heteroclita Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 572. India to New Guinea, Philippines. BUSUANGA, BOHOL, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. In open grasslands at medium elevation.

Polytrias Hack.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020

Photos
  1. Polytrias indica (Houtt.) Veldk., Blumea 36 (1991) 180; --Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 29 (1938) 320; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 285; --Phleum indicum Houtt., Nat. Hist. 2(13) (1782) 198. --Polytrias amaura (Buse) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 788; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 35, as ‘amaurea’; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 116; --Andropogon amaurus Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh., prepr. (1854) 20, nom. superfl. Malesia (widespread), originally apparently from Java, introduced and escaping pantropically. Not native th the Philippines, naturalized. Commonly used as a lawn grass (Santos 1986). LUZON, MINDORO, CEBU, MINDANAO, JOLO. In open grasslands in and about towns at low elevation, weed in rice fields. Photos

Pseudechinolaena Stapf

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Pseudechinolaena polystachya (Kunth) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 495; --Echinolaena polystachya Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1 (1816) 119. --Panicum uncinatum Raddi, Agrost. Bras. (1823) 41; --Trin., Gram. Pan. (1826) 174; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 362; EPFP 1 (1923) 69. Pantropic. PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Davao. Occurring as ground cover under plantation shade or thickets, also on open land, c. 650m.

Pseudopogonatherum A.Camus

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 December 2019

No Photos
  1. Pseudopogonatherum contortum (Brongn.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 255; --Pollinia contorta (Brongn.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 33; --Eulalia contorta (Brongn.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 775; --Pogonatherum contortum Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1831) 90. --Pseudopogonatherum koretrostachys (Trin.) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 521; --Eulalia koretrostachys (Trin.) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 521; --Andropogon koretrostachys Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 273. China, Indochina, Thailand to Aru Isls, Philippines.. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. In open grasslands chiefly at medium elevation. Weak annual.
  2. Pseudopogonatherum irritans (R.Br.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon ser. 2, (1922) 68; --Pollinia irritans (R.Br.) Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 155; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 34; --Saccharum irritans R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 203. Thailand to Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. In open grasslands, c. 1000m. Perennial.
  3. Pseudopogonatherum quadrinerve (Hack.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18 (1947) 3; --Eulalia quadrinervis (Hack.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 775; --Pollinia quadrinervis Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 158; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 35. India to S China, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Open slopes in pine forest, 1400-2200m.
  4. Pseudopogonatherum trispicatum (Schult.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18 (1947) 3; --Eulalia trispicata (Schult.) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 453; --Andropogon trispicatus Schult., Mant. 2 (1824) 452. --Eulalia lagopus (Hack.) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 521; --Pollinia argentea var. lagopus Hack., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 79; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 33. --Pollinia argentea (Brongn.) Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 6, 4 (1836) 90; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 77; EPFP 1 (1923) 33. China to New Guinea, Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Pampanga, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, SEMIRARA. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1600m.

Possibly present:

  1. Pseudopogonatherum speciosum (Debeaux) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18 (1947) 3; --Erianthus speciosus Debeaux, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 32 (1878) 53. India to Japan and Peninsula Malaysia, ?Philippines.

Pseudoraphis Griff.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Pseudoraphis brunoniana (Griff.) Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10 (1928) 209; --Panicum brunonianum Griff., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 5 (1836) 547. India to Philippines. LUZON.
  2. Pseudoraphis spinescens (R.Br.) Vickery, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 62 (1952) 69; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 116; --Panicum spinescens R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 193. --Chamaeraphis aspera Nees in Wall, Cat. (1849) No. 8679; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 96, nom. nud. India to China through Malesia to tropical Australia, Philippines. Central LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. In shallow stagnant water, floating in ponds, ride fields, ditches, etc. at low elevation.

Pseudosorghum A.Camus

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 Septembet 2017

No Photos
  1. Pseudosorghum fasciculare (Roxb.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 26 (1920) 662; --Andropogon fascicularis Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 269. India to China and Philippines.
  2. Pseudosorghum zollingeri (Steud.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 26 (1920) 663; --Andropogon zollingeri Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 369. Indochina to Java, Philippines. Not in Taiwan! BATAN, LUZON. 

Ramosia Merr. = Centotheca

Rhaphis Lour. = Chrysopogon

Rhynchelytrum Nees = Melinis

Racemobambos Holttum

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020

No Photos
  1. Racemobambos hirsuta Holttum, Gard. Bull. Singapore 15 (1956) 272; --Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 153. Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN.

Rottboellia L.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Kew Bull. 35 (1981) 817; --Stegosia cochinchinensis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 51. --Rottboellia exaltata L.f., Suppl. (1781) 114; –Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 39. Tropics and subtropics of Old World, incl. SE Asia to Australia. BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, NEGROS, BOHOL, CAGAYAN DE SULU, MINDANAO, JOLO, TAWI-TAWI.
  2. Rottboellia paradoxa Sosef & Koning, Blumea 31 (1986) 306. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Sto. Tomas), once found. 

Rytidosperma Steud.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017

Photos
  1. Rytidosperma oreoboloides (F.Muell.) H.P.Linder, Telopea 6 (1996) 614; --Danthonia oreoboloides (F.Muell.) Stapfin, Hook. Icon. Pl. (1901) t. 2606; --Festuca oreoboloides F.Muell., Trans. Roy. Soc. Victoria, n.s., 1(2) (1889) 39. --Monostachya centrolepidioides Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 331; EPFP 1 (1923) 92; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 95. Widespread on high mountains in N and E Malesia. N Sumatra, Borneo (Sabah), N Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet (near summit of Mt Pulag). Cushion-forming perennial in open grasslands, 2800m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).

Saccharum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 December 2020

Photos
  1. Saccharum arundinaceum Retz., Obs. 4 (1786) 14; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1922) 32; --Erianthus arundinaceus (Retz.) Jeswiet, Arch. Suikerind. Ned.-Ind., Meded. Proefst. Javasuikerind. (1925) 399. --Imperata exaltata (Roxb.) Brongn., Voy. Coq. Bot. (1829) 101; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 322; --Saccharum exaltatum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 245. India to S China. LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO.
  2. Saccharum officinarum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 54; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 78; EPFP 1 (1923) 32; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 118. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated throughout the Philippines, in some islands and provinces very extensively, being one of the major crops of the Philippines. Naturalized. Sugar cane. Photos
  3. Saccharum spontaneum L., Mant. 2 (1771) 183. --Saccharum spontaneum ssp. indicum Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 117; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 77; EPFP 1 (1923) 32. Photos

Sacciolepis Nash

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017

Photos
  1. Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 21 (1908) 8; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 120; --Panicum indicum L., Mant. 1 (1767) 184; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1923) 64. --Sacciolepis indica var. angusta (Trin.) Keng, Clav. Gen. Sp. Gram. Prim. Sin. (1957) 220; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 64; --Panicum angustum Trin., Sp. Gram. 3 (1835) t. 334. Tropical Africa to Japan, Australia, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, BALABAC, PANAY, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, BOHOL, MINDANAO, SULU. Common in open wet grasslands at low and medium elevation. Photos
  2. Sacciolepis myosuroides (R.Br.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 460; --Panicum myosuroides R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 189; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 65. India to the W Pacific, Australia, Philippines. PANAY, MINDANAO: Misamis. Open wetlands at low and medium elevation.

Saccolepis = Sacciolepis

Schizachyrium Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017

Photos
  1. Schizachyrium brevifolium (Sw.) Nees ex Buse, Pl. Jungh. (1854) 359; --Andropogon brevifolius Sw., Prodr. (1788) 26; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 335; EPFP 1 (1923) 43. --Schizachyrium brevifolium subsp. paradoxum (Buse) Henrard, Blumea 1 (1935) 308; --Schizachyrium paradoxum Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh., prepr. (1854) 19. Pantropic. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Bulacan, Zambales, Bataan, Laguna, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, BOHOL, MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Annual.
  2. Schizachyrium fragile (R.Br.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon. n.s. 70 (1924) 87; --Andropogon fragilis R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 202; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 82. Pacific, Australia, Aru Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, MANAMOC. In dry open grasslands at medium elevation. Annual.
  3. Schizachyrium pseudeulalia (Hosok.) S.T.Blake, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 80 (1969) 77; --Microstegium pseudeulalia Hosok., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 28 (1938) 151. --Schizachyrium fragile var. luzoniense (Hack.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 338; --Andropogon fragilis var. luzoniensis Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 267; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 45. --Schizachyrium fragile var. malayanum (Merr.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 338; --Andropogon fragilis var. malayanus Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 45. Philippines to N Australia. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO (Lanao), MINDORO, BOHOL. Annual. Very close to the preceding.
  4. Schizachyrium sanguineum (Retz.) Alston in Trimen, Handbook Fl. Ceylon 6 (1931) Suppl. 334; --Andropogon sanguineus (Retz.) Merr., PJS 12 (1917) Bot. 101; EPFP 1 (1923) 47; --Rottboellia sanguinea Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 25. Madagascar, India to S China, New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, CULION. On open slopes at low elevation. Perennial.

Schizostachyum Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020

Photos
  1. Schizostachyum brachycladum Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 392 (1870) 89; --Dransfield in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 132; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 23. Native of tropical Asia. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated mainly as an ornamental in the Philippines and has spread out in the settled areas of the archipelago.
  2. Schizostachyum curranii Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 277; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 97; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 24. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Benguet. Mossy forest edges, c. 2000m.
  3. Schizostachyum lima (Blanco) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1918) 62; EPFP 1 (1923) 98; --Roxas & Dransfield in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 138; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 29; --Bambusa lima Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 271. Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO, BASILAN. In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium elevation, sometimes gregarious; a species having unusually long internodes, these being up to 120 cm in length.
  4. Schizostachyum lumampao (Blanco) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 65; EPFP 1 (1923) 99; --Virtucio & Sinohin in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 140; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 30; --Bambusa lumampao Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 272. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, IIocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY. In secondary forests, but more frequently gregarious and occupying extensive areas at low and medium elevation where forests have been destroyed.  Photos
  5. Schizostachyum textorium (Blanco) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 64; EPFP 1 (1923) 99; --Bambusa textoria Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 270. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Batangas. In secondary forests at low elevation.

Sclerachne R.Br. = Chionachne (all spp.?)

Scrotochloa Judz.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017

Photos
  1. Scrotochloa urceolata (Roxb.) Judz., Phytologia 56 (1984) 300; --Leptaspis urceolata (Roxb.) R.Br. in Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1838) 23; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 76; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 89; --Pharus urceolatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 611. Sri Lanka across Malesia to New Guinea and the Solomon Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, PALAWAN, SAMAR, LEYTE, NEGROS, MINDANAO. In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation.

Sehima Forssk.

No Photos
  1. Sehima nervosum (Rottler) Stapf in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1917) 36; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 120; --Andropogon nervosus Rottler, Neue Schriften Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 4 (1803) 218. --Andropogon philippinensis Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 367; EPFP 1 (1923) 47. Africa to Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Dry open rocky slopes at low elevation. Indigenous in Ilocos Norte. An introduced grass cultivated in some improved grasslands in Luzon and Mindanao (fide Santos 1986).

Setaria P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 December 2020

Photos
  1. Setaria barbata (Lam.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1 (1829) 47; --Panicum barbatum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 171. Africa, pantropically introduced. CEBU, no doubt elsewhere. Annuals. Naturalized.
  2. Setaria clivalis (Ridl.) Veldk., Misc. Pap. Landbouwhogesch. Wageningen 19 (1980) 317; --Panicum clivale Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 45 (1906) 242. --Setaria laxa Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 366; Fl. Manila (1912) 96; EPFP 1 (1923) 73. Sumatra to Christmas Isl. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, MINDANAO. Thickets and fallow lands at low elevation.
  3. Setaria flavida (Retz.) Veldk., Blumea 39 (1994) 376; --Paspalidium flavidum (Retz.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 419; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 108; --Panicum flavidum Retz., Obs. 4 (1786) 15; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 90; EPFP 1 (1923) 64. Mascarenes to the Pacific, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, CEBU, BOHOL, LEYTE, CAGAYAN DE SULU, MINDANAO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Terrestrial perennials. A common weed in open waste places in and about towns at low elevation. Photos
  4. Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 51; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 73; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 122; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 295; --Panicum italicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 56. C Asia, formerly widely cultivated. Not native to the Philippines, very rarely cultivated. Naturalized in rice fields. BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS. SULU. Annuals. Italian Millet. Photos
  5. Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 42 (1914) 186; EPFP 1 (1923) 73; --Panicum palmifolium J.Koenig, Naturforscher (Halle) 23 (1788) 208. --Setaria palmifolia var. blepharoneuron (A.Braun) Veldk., Floribunda 1 (1988) 22; --Panicum neurodes var. blepharoneuron A.Braun, Index Seminum (B, Berolinensis) 1855(App.) (1855) 20. India to China, Japan, to New Guinea. Introduced in tropical America. Widespread in the Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, MINDANAO. Perennials. Common in thickets, old clearings, abaca plantations, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 200m. Photos
  6. Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen, Lejeunia 120 (1987) 161; --Cenchrus parviflorus Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 6 (1804) 52. --Setaria geniculata auct. non (Lam.) P.Beauv.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 72; --?Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 295. --Setaria flava (Nees) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 46; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 95; --Panicum flavum Nees in Mart., Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2 (1829) 238. Pan(sub)tropical. Widespread in the Philippines, perhaps not native? LUZON, CATANDUANES, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, CEBU, BOHOL, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1800m.  Photos
  7. Setaria punctata (Burm.f.) Veldk., Blumea 39 (1994) 381; --Paspalidium punctatum (Burm.f.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-chine 7 (1922) 419; --Panicum punctatum Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 26; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 90; EPFP 1 (1923) 67. Africa to Mauritius, China, Malesia, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis, Davao, Agusan. In shallow water and in open muddy places at low elevation.
  8. Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 51; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 74; --Panicum verticillatum L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 82. --Setaria adhaerens (Forssk.) Chiov., Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital., n. s., 26 (1919) 77; --Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 415; --Panicum adhaerens Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 20. Old World, perhaps native in Malesia, now widely cultivated. BATAN, LUZON: Rizal, CAMIGUIN. Open waste places.
  9. Setaria viridis (L.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 51; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 95; EPFP 1 (1923) 74; --Panicum viride L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 870. Old World. Not native to the Philippines (Merrill 1912). LUZON: Mountain Province, Cagayan, Rizal, PALAWAN. Occurring rarely in open waste places and along road sides. Photos

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Setaria sphacelata (Schum.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb. ex Chipp, Kew Bull. (1929) 184; --Panicum sphacelatum Schum., Beskr. Guin. Pl. (1827) 78. --Setaria splendida Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1930) 799; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 123. Africa, now widely cultivated. Not native to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO. South African pigeon grass, African bristlegrass. Cultivated. P.B. Pelser (11-Dec-20): I have thus far only seen specimens from plants grown in cultivation, so I here assume that it is not naturalized.

Possibly present:

  1. Setaria geminata (Forssk.) Veldkamp, Blumea 39 (1994) 377; --Paspalidium geminatum (Forssk.) Stapf, in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1920) 583; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 291; --Panicum geminatum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 18. Africa, Arabian Peninsula, India, Madagascar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.
  2. Setaria helvola (L.f.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 491; --Panicum helvolum L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 107. Old World, ?Philippines.
  3. Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 891; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 295; --Panicum pumilum Poir. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl., Suppl. 4 (1816) 273. Africa, Continental Asia, Europe, Afghanistan, Andaman Isls, Arabian Peninsula, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, China, India, Java, Japan, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Moluccas, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Peninsular Malaysia, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.

Sorghum Moench

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 December 2020

Photos
  1. Sorghum x almum Parodi, Rev. Argent. Agron. 10 (1943) 361. Hybrid of Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum halepense. Introduced in the Philippines ('t Mannetje & Jones 1992), but no specimens have been seen. Rhizomatous perennial. Johnson grass, a back-cross of this with Sorghum halepense is reported for Malesia as a noxious weed, but no records seen.
  2. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, Methodus (1794) 207; --Holcus bicolor L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 301. --Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot., Fl. Lusit. 1 (1804) 88; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 84; EPFP 1 (1923) 48; --Holcus sorghum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1047. --Sorghum vulgare Pers. Syn. 1 (1804) 101. A native of Asia or Africa, now cultivated in all warm countries. Not native to the Philippines. Widely cultivated in the Philippines with innumerable forms. Naturalized. Annual. Photos
  3. Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 1 (1805) 101; --Holcus halepensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1047. Macaronesia to C Asia and Indochina. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos
  4. Sorghum laxiflorum F.M.Bailey, Syn. Queensl. Fl. Suppl. 3 (1890) 84. --Andropogon baileyi F.Muell., Vict. Nat. 7 (1891) 16; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 43. Philippines to Australia. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Rizal. MINDANAO. Annual. Open grassy slopes at medium elevation, ascending to 1200m.
  5. Sorghum nitidum (Vahl) Pers., Syn. 1 (1805) 101; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 174; --Andropogon nitidus (Vahl) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 166; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 84; EPFP 1 (1923) 47; --Holcus nitidus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2 (1791) 102. --Andropogon nitidus forma hirsuta Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 140; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 47. --Andropogon serratus Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 41; --Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 520; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 337; Fl. Manila (1912) 84; EPFP 1 (1923) 48. Sri Lanka to SE China, Taiwan, Japan, across Malesia to N Australia. Widespread in the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Rizal, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao. Perennials. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation.  Photos
  6. Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc., Lingnan Sc. Journ. 7 (1931) 249; --Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot. var. propinquus (Kunth) Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 84; EPFP 1 (1923) 45; --Andropogon propinquus Kunth, Enum. Pl. 1 (1833) 502. Sri Lanka to S China, Palau. Widespread in the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, PALAWAN, BALABAC, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Rhizomatous perennials. Often common.

Sphaerobambos S.Dransf.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Sphaerobambos philippinensis (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 44 (1989) 432; --Bambusa philippinensis (Gamble) McClure, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 9 (1973) 68; --Guadua philippinensis Gamble, PJS 8 (1913) Bot. 203; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 96. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mati: Piper 475). Probably from thickets or secondary forests.

Spinifex L.

Last edited to Pieter B. Pelser, 20 September 2017

Photos
  1. Spinifex littoreus (Burm.f.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 229; Fl. Manila (1912) 97; EPFP 1 (1923) 76; --Stipa littorea Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 29. India to China, across Malesia to Australia. BATAN, LUZON, HERMANA MAYOR, MINDORO, APO IS, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, CEBU, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, JOLO. Common on sandy sea shores. Inflorescences unisexual, forming large spiny balls. Magsaysay Isl. Photos

Sporobolus R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 December 2020

Photos
  1. Sporobolus africanus (Poir.) Robyns & Tournay, Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 25 (1955) 242; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 295; --Agrostis africana Poir. in Lam., Encycl., Suppl. 1 (1810) 254. --Sporobolus indicus var. capensis Engl., Hochgebirgsfl. Afrika (1892) 127. Africa, Peninsular Arabia, Sri Lanka. LUZON: Benguet. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized.
  2. Sporobolus diandrus (Retz.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. (1812) 26; --Merr. EPFP 1 (1923) 80; --Sporobolus indicus var. diandrus (Retz.) Jovet & Guédès, Taxon 22 (1973) 163; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 125; --Agrostis diandra Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1789) 19. --Sporobolus indicus var. flaccidus (Roem. & Schult.) Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 433; --Agrostis elongata var. flaccida Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 368. Arabia, W Indian Ocean, tropical and subtropical Asia. BATAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Pampanga, Rizal, Quezon, Albay, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, GUIMARAS, CEBU, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Lanao, JOLO, TURTLE ISLS. Common in open grasslands, lawns and waste places about towns, ascending to 2000m.
  3. Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton, Kew Bull. 19 (1965) 291; --Agrostis fertilis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 170. --Sporobolus indicus var. major (Buse) Baaijens, Blumea 35 (1991) 437; --Sporobolus diandrus var. major Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh., prepr. (1854) 3. --Sporobolus indicus auct. non (L.) R.Br.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 80. Tropical and subtropical Asia, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, GUIMARAS, CEBU, MINDANAO.
  4. Sporobolus humilis J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 241.
  5. Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 170; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 98; EPFP 1 (1923) 80; --Agrostis indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 63. Americas. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized? Photos
  6. Sporobolus pilifer (Trin.) Kunth, Enum. 1 (1833) 611; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 80; --Vilfa pilifera Trin., Gram. Unifl. Sesquifl. (1824) 157. Africa to India, Peninsular Malaysia to LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. On banks, in open grasslands, etc., at medium elevation, ascending to 1800m.
  7. Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 67; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 99; EPFP 1 (1923) 81; --Agrostis virginica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 63. Pan(sub)tropical. LUZON: Cagayan, Rizal. Sandy beach, along tidal streams within the influence of salt or brackish water.

Possibly present:

  1. Sporobolus hancei Rendle, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 36 (1904) 387. China to ?Philippines.

Stenotaphrum Trin.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 December 2020

Photos
Cultivated, not naturalized:
  1. Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 794, as 'secundum'; --Ischaemum secundatum Walter, Fl. Carol. (1788) 249. Tropical Atlantic sea shores. LUZON. Not native to the Philippines. Grown as a lawn grass. P.B. Pelser (11-Dec-20): I have thus far only seen specimens from plants grown in cultivation, so I here assume that it is not naturalized. Photos

Possibly present:

  1. Stenotaphrum helferi Munro ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 7 (1896) 91. China to Peninsular Malaysia to ?Philippines.

Streblochaete Hochst. ex A.Rich. = Koordersiochloa

Themeda Forssk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 September 2017

Photos
  1. Themeda arguens (L.) Hack. in A.DC. & C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 6 (1889) 657; --Jansen, Act. Bot. Neerl.1 (1952) 479; --Stipa arguens L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 117. Andamans to N Vietnam and N Australia, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, MINDANAO. Photos
  2. Themeda arundinacea (Roxb.) Ridl., Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, 2 (1893) 401; --A.Camus in Lecompte, Fl. Gén. Indochine 7 (1922) 363; --Jansen, Act. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1952) 481; --Sajise et al., Kalikasan 3 (1974) 73; --Anthistiria arundinacea Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 251. --Themeda gigantea var. vulpina (Andersson) Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 670; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 50; --Anthistiria vulpina Andersson, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 3, 2 (1856) 245. N India to S China, Peninsular Malaysia (Kelantan, Pahang, Perak), W Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Timor), Borneo (Sabah). LUZON.
  3. Themeda gigantea (Cav.) Hack. ex Duthie, Fodder Grasses N. India (1888) 89; --Merr. EPFP 1 (1923) 50; --Anthistiria gigantea Cav., Icon. 5 (1799) 36. Moluccas, Solomon Isls, Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO, SAMAR. Open grasslands on dry steep slopes, up to 2000m. Photos
  4. Themeda triandra Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 178; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 81; EPFP 1 (1923) 50; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 125. --Themeda australis (R.Br.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 420; --Anthistiria australis R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 200. S. Africa to Australia, Indonesia, Moluccas, New Guinea, Thailand, Philippines. BATANES, GOLO, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Albay, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, SEMIRARA, MINDANAO. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2300m. Frequently abundant and gregarious over large areas. Photos
  5. Themeda villosa (Lam.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 364; --Dur. & Jacks., Index Kew. Suppl. 1 (1906) 424; --Anthistiria villosa Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 5 (1799) t. 841.

Thuarea Pers.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 September 2017

Photos
  1. Thuarea involuta (G.Forst.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. 2 (1817) 782; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 97; EPFP 1 (1923) 75; --Ischaemum involutum G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. (1786) 73. Sri Lanka to Madagascar through Malesia to Australia and Polynesia. Widespread in the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, URSULA, BALABAC, CAGAYAN DE SULU, KEENAPUSAN, GUIMARAS, CEBU, SAMAR, MAGASAYSAY (off E of Camiguin), SIARGAO, MINDANAO, Cagoacan, Tangao. On sandy beaches and in thickets back of the beach, often common. Photos

Thysanolaena Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 February 2018

Photos
  1. Thysanolaena latifolia (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Honda, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 3, 3 (1930) 312; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 127; --Melica latifolia Roxb. ex Hornem., Hort. Bot. Hafn., Suppl. (1819) 117. --Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 794; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 53; --Agrostis maxima Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 319. India, S China, Indochina, across Malesia to New Guinea. Widespread in the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Apayao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Zambales, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, SAN MIGUEL (off Albay prov.), MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, CEBU, BILIRAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Banks of ravines, slopes, about cliffs, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1600m. Photos

Trichachne Nees = Digitaria

Tricholaena Stapf non Schrader =  Melinis

Tripogon Roem. & Schult.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Tripogon chinensis (Franch.) Hack., Bull. Herb. Boiss. ii, 3 (1903) 503; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 85; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 128; --Nardurus filiformis var. chinensis Franch., Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., sér. 2, 7 (1884) 147. C Asia to China, Korea, Taiwan and LUZON: Ilocos Norte (BS 33237 Ramos). On dry open rocky slopes at low elevation.

Tripsacum L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 December 2020

Photos
  1. Tripsacum andersonii J.R.Gray, Phytologia 33 (1976) 204. --Tripsacum lanceolatum auct. non Fourn.; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 129. From C America. Introduced in the Philipines in 1909 and is cultivated in improved pastures throughout the archipelago (Santos 1986). According to Veldkamp (pers. comm.), only seen from LUZON. Open fields.

Urochloa P.Beauv.

(Here interpreted in the broad sense, incl. Brachiaria)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 December 2020

Photos
  1. Urochloa brizantha (A.Rich.) R.D.Webster, Australian Paniceae (Poac.) (1987) 233; --Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 417; --Brachiaria brizantha (A.Rich.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 531; --Panicum brizanthum A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2 (1850) 363. --Urochloa decumbens (Stapf) R.D.Webster, Austral. Paniceae (1987) 234; --Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 528. Africa, Arabia, Indian Ocean. Not native to Philippines.
  2. Urochloa fusiformis (Reeder) Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 420; --Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 420; --Brachiaria fusiformis Reeder, J. Arnold Arb. 29 (1948) 274; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 236. --Brachiaria fusiformis var. pilicoronata (Ohwi) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 236; --Brachiaria villosa var. pilicoronata Ohwi, Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 18 (1947) 5; --Type: Merrill 11606 (BO). Papua New Guinea, Timor, Philippines. LUZON, CULION, MINDANAO.
  3. Urochloa glumaris (Trin.) Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 420; --Panicum glumare Trin., Gram. Panic. (1826) 143. --Brachiaria paspaloides (J.Presl) C.E.Hubb., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 34 (1938) t. 3363; --Urochloa paspaloides J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 318; --Scribn., Rept. Missouri Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 54. --Panicum ambiguum Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 6, 32 (1835) 243; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 61. --Panicum distachyum auct. non L.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 63. Mascarene Isls to India, across Malesia to Polynesia. Widespread in the Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN, PALMAS, BOHOL, MINDANAO. Open, more or less waste places, old clearings, etc., at low and medium elevation.
  4. Urochloa mutica (Forssk.) T.Q.Nguyen, Novit. Syst. Pl. Vasc., Acad. Sci. URSS (1966) 13; --Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 424; --Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1919) 526; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 60; --Panicum muticum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 20. Originally from Brazil, now planted as pasture grass throughout the tropics. Widely established in the Philippines (Santos 1986). LUZON, PANAY. Perennials. Invasive species (CABI 2017, as Brachiaria mutica).
  5. Urochloa reptans (L.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1920) 601; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 67; --Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 427; --Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gardn. & C.E.Hubb., Hook. Icon. Pl. (1938) t. 3363; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 62; --Panicum reptans L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 871. Pantropic. Throughout the Philippines (Santos 1986). LUZON, ALABAT, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PALMAS, PANAY, GUIMARAS, CEBU, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. A weed of cultivation and overgrazed pasture. Low and medium elevation.
  6. Urochloa subquadripara (Trin.) R.D.Webster, Australian Paniceae (Poac.) (1987) 252; --Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 429; --Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc., Lingnan Sc. J. 7 (1928) 21; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 239; --Panicum subquadriparum Trin., Gram. Panic. (1826) 145. --Brachiaria miliiformis (J.Presl) Chase, Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. 22 (1920) 35; --Panicum miliiforme J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 300. --Panicum distachyum auct. non L.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 91; EPFP 1 (1923) 63. Kashmir to S China, through Malesia to tropical Australia (Queensland). Widespread in the Philippines. LUZON, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, CEBU, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Annuals. Open waste places in and about towns at low and medium elevation; common. Withstands dry conditions and a useful lawn grass on gravelly soil.
  7. Urochloa villosa (Lam.) T.Q.Nguyen, Novit. Syst. Pl. Vasc., Acad. Sci. URSS (1966) 14; --Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 431; --Brachiaria villosa (Lam.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gén. Indochine 7 (1922) 433; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 236; --Panicum villosum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 173. --Panicum coccospermum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 62; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 62. W Africa to Japan. Probably introduced in the Philippines where found before 1905. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, CULION, MINDANAO: Lanao. Open grassy slopes and banks chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 1500m.

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Urochloa ruziziensis (Germain & Evrard) Morrone & Zuloaga, J. Arn. Arb. Suppl. Ser. 1 (1991) 269; --Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 429; --Brachiaria ruziziensis Germain & Evrard, Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux. 23 (1953) 373. Tropical Africa. Not native to the Philippines. LUZON. Widely cultivated. P.B. Pelser (14-Dec-20): I have thus far only seen specimens from plants grown in cultivation, so I here assume that it is not naturalized.

Possibly present:

  1. Urochloa distachya (L.) T.Q.Nguyen, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 3 (1966) 13; --Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 420; --Brachiaria distachya (L.) Stapf in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 565; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 276; --Panicum distachyon L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 183. Arabia, Tropical Asia to Pacific. ?SULU. Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.
  2. Urochloa ramosa (L.) T.Q.Nguyen, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 3 (1966) 13; --Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 427; --Brachiaria ramosa (L.) Stapf in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 542; --Panicum ramosum L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 29. Africa, tropical and subtropical Asia, ?Philippines.

Vetiveria Bory = Chrysopogon

Vulpia C.C.Gmel. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 December 2020

Photos
  1. Vulpia bromoides (L.) Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2 (1822) 124; --Festuca bromoides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 75. Probably originally from Europe, introduced elsewhere. Not native to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Naturalized.
  2. Vulpia myuros (L.) Gmel., Fl. Bad. 1 (1806) 8; --Festuca myuros L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 74; --Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 369. --Festuca megalura Nutt., J. Acad. Sci. Phila. ii, 1 (1847) 188; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 92; --Vulpia megalura (Nutt.) Rydb., Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 36 (1909) 358; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 131. Native of Europe and W Asia, now widespread worldwide. LUZON: Benguet. In open grassy places, 1460-2300m. Merrill (1922): “A native of the west coast of North and South America, introduced in Portugal, and a recent introduction in Benguet”. Photos

Yushania Keng

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 November 2020

Photos
  1. Yushania niitakayamensis (Hayata) Keng f., Acta Phytotax. Sin. 6 (1957) 357; --Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 154; --Arundinaria niitakayamensis Hayata, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 21 (1907) 49; --Merr.,  EPFP 1 (1923) 94. China, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, MINDORO. In mossy thickets, sphagnum swamps, and open grasslands, 2200-2700m. Photos

Zoisia = Zoysia

Zoysia Willd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 September 2017

Photos
  1. Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 230; Fl. Manila (1912) 85; EPFP 1 (1923) 51; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 133; --Agrostis matrella L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 185. Photos

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Phyllostachys aurea Carrière ex Rivière & C.Rivière, Bull. Soc. Natl. Acclim. France ser. 3, 5 (1878) 716; --Chengde & Widjaja in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 129. China, Japan. LUZON: Benguet. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Triticum aestivum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 85; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 130. --Triticum vulgare Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauph. 2 (1779) 153; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 93. Native to Mediterranean and SW Asia.
  3. Zea mays L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 971; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 74; EPFP 1 (1923) 28. Introduced from America.
  4. Zea mexicana (Schrad.) Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan. (1903) 600; --Euchlaena mexicana Schrad., Index Seminum (GOET, Gottingensis) 1832 (1832) 3. --Euchlaena luxurians Durieu & Aschers., Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris 1 (1877) 107. Native of Mexico, introduced into the Philippines in the late years of the Spanish occupation and again in the early years of the American occupation and was cultivated experimentally for forage purposes. It has not persisted in cultivation. Mexico, cultivated in Luzon and in other islands (Santos 1986). Photos

Possibly present:

  1. Avena fatua L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 80; --Merr, EPFP 1 (1923) 83. Probably originated in the Near East, introduced elsewhere. LUZON: Benguet, 1500m. Wild Oat. Probably a mere casual (Merrill 1922) and not really naturalized. No longer persists (Veldkamp, unpubl. ms.).
  2. Avena sativa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 79; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 83. Probably originated in the Near East, cultivated in many forms. LUZON: Mountain Province, above 1500m. Oat. No longer persists (Veldkamp, unpubl. ms.). Photos
  3. Holcus lanatus L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 1048. Not native to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (photos). Possibly represented in photos by Leonard Co. Photos
  4. Phalaris minor Retz., Obs. 3 (1783) 8; --Merr., PJS 2 (1907) Bot. 421; EPFP 1 (1923) 78; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 114. Originally from the Mediterranean, cultivated elsewhere. LUZON: Benguet (BS 2785 Mearns), c. 1500m. Probably a mere casual and not truly naturalized.
  5. Pseudostachyum polymorphum Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 142; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 22. Himalayas to China and Peninsular Malaysia, ?Philippines.
  6. Sphaerocaryum malaccense (Trin.) Pilg., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 45 (1938) 2; --Panicum malaccense Trin., Gram. Panic. (1826) 204. Sri Lanka to China and ?Philippines.

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Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 30 August 2021