Poaceae

Gramineae

Acroceras Stapf

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017
  1. Acroceras munroanum (Balansa) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 444; ≡ Panicum munroanum Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4 (1890) 140. = Panicum crassiapiculatum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 356; EPFP 1 (1923) 63. Distribution: India, Java, Sri Lanka to China. BALABAC, MINDANAO: Agusan, PALAWAN. Notes: In thickets and along trails in forests at low elevation. Native.

Agrostis L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 November 2020
  1. Agrostis gigantea Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 1 (1788) 31. = Agrostis stolonifera var. ramosa (Gray) Veldkamp, Blumea 28 (1982) 223; ≡ Vilfa alba var. ramosa Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2 (1822) 145. = Agrostis alba auct. non L.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 81. = Agrostis stolonifera auct. non L.; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 273. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, China, Europe, Korea, Middle East, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Thailand, W Asia. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Naturalized in the Philippines, along trails in open forest, c. 1500m. Naturalized.
  2. Agrostis infirma Buse, Pl. Jungh. (1854) 342. = Agrostis rigidula Steud., Syn. 1 (1854) 171; Veldk., Blumea 28 (1982) 214. = Agrostis elmeri Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 7; PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 375; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 328; EPFP 1 (1923) 81; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 53. Distribution: LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS. Native.
    • var. infirma. Distribution: China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. LUZON, MINDANAO, NEGROS. Notes: In Luzon in the Cordillera highlands, 1600-2800m. Native.

Alloteropsis J.Presl

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2022
  1. Alloteropsis cimicina (L.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 487; ≡ Milium cimicinum L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 184. Distribution: Africa to China and Australia. CEBU, LUZON, MINDANAO. Native.
  2. Alloteropsis semialata (R.Br.) Hitchc., Contr. US Nat. Herb. 12 (1909) 210; Chase, Proc. BioI. Soc. Wash. 24 (1911) 159; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 70; Santos, Guide to Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 53; ≡ Panicum semialatum R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 192. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Native.
    • ssp. semialata. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO. Notes: Perennials. Open grassy slopes at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1800m. Native.

Ancistrachne S.T.Blake

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017
  1. Ancistrachne ancylotricha (Quisumb. & Merr.) S.T.Blake, Univ. Queensl. Papers, Dept. Biol., i. No. 19 (1941) 6; ≡ Panicum ancylotrichum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 135; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 55. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Notes: only known from one collection, Clemens 266 from Mati. In thickets or open lands, c. 650m. Native.

Andropogon L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2020
  1. Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 163. Distribution: Africa. Naturalized.
    • var. bisquamulatus (Hochst.) Hack. in A.DC. & C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 6 (1889) 448; ≡ Andropogon bisquamulatus Hochst., Flora 27 (1844) 245. Distribution: Africa. Naturalized.
    • var. gayanus. Distribution: Africa. Naturalized.

Aniselytron Merr.

  1. Aniselytron agrostoides Merr. in Merr. & Merritt, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 329; EPFP 1 (1923) 82; ≡ Aulacolepis agrostoides (Merr.) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 4 (1935) 30. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: 2400-2800m. Easily confused with Agrostis infirma. Native.

Anthoxanthum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser 8 September 2017
  1. Anthoxanthum horsfieldii (Kunth ex Benn.) Mez ex Reeder, J. Arnold Arb. 24 (1950) 325; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17 (1921) 291, nom. inval., nom. nud.; ≡ Ataxia horsfieldii Kunth ex Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1838) 8. = Anthoxanthum horsfieldii var. luzoniense (Merr.) Y.Schouten, Blumea 30 (1985) 337; ≡ Anthoxanthum luzoniense Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 178; 372; EPFP 1 (1923) 78; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 55. Distribution: China, India, Java, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: In open grasslands and forest edges, 2000-2800m. Native.

Apluda L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 November 2022
  1. Apluda mutica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 82; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 79; EPFP 1 (1923) 36. = Apluda mutica var. aristata (L.) Rendle ex Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36 (1904) 279; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 80; EPFP 1 (1923) 36; ≡ Apluda aristata L., Cent. Pl. II (1756) 7. = Calamina humilis J.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 344. Distribution: Afghanistan, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, W Asia. SAMAR. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in thickets and open grasslands up to 1800m. Native.

Aristida L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 October 2020
  1. Aristida chinensis Munro, Proc. Amer. Acad. 4 (1860) 363. Distribution: Philippines, Thailand to China. MINDANAO. Native.
  2. Aristida culionensis Pilg. ex Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 145; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 78; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 56. Distribution: Malay Peninsula to Vietnam, Philippines, Thailand. BUSUANGA, CULION. Notes: In open grasslands at low elevation. Perennials. Native.
  3. Aristida cumingiana Trin. & Rupr., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 7 (1849) 141; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 99; EPFP 1 (1923) 79. = Aristida diminuta (Mez) C.E.Hubb., Kew Bull. 1949 (1950) 480; ≡ Stipa diminuta Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17 (1921) 208. Distribution: Africa to India, Australia, China, Malesia. BUSUANGA, CULION, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: In open dry grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m. Annuals. Native.
  4. Aristida holathera Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 85 (1915) 340; Veldkamp, Reinwardtia 12 (2004) 137. = Aristida tenuisetulosa (Pilg.) Mez, Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 147; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 79; ≡ Aristida stipoides var. tenuisetulosa Pilg., Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 146. Distribution: Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Pampanga, Zambales. Notes: In dry open sandy soil at low and medium elevation. Native.

Excluded

  1. Aristida rigida Cav., Icon. 5 (1799) 44; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 79. Notes: Erroneously attributed to the Philippines (Merrill 1923).

Arthraxon P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 February 2018
  1. Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 26 (1912) 214; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 229; EPFP 1 (1923) 41; 4 (1925) 241; ≡ Phalaris hispida Thunb. in Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14 (1784) 104. = Arthraxon quartinianus (A.Rich.) Nash, N. Am. Flora 17 (1912) 99; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 229; Fl. Manila (1912) 77; EPFP 1 (1923) 42; ≡ Alectoridia quartiniana A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2 (1850) 447. Distribution: LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao, MINDORO. Notes: Nash (1912) was published on 18-Sep-1912; Merrill (1912) was published on 30-Sep-1912. Native.
    • var. hispidus. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Cambodia, China, Continental Asia, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao. Notes: In the Cordillera Highlands in Luzon. In damp places about streams, in old rice paddies, etc., at medium elevation, ascending to 1600m. Occasionally near sea level. Native.
  2. Arthraxon lancifolius (Trin.) Hochst., Flora 39 (1856) 188; ≡ Andropogon lancifolius Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 271. = Arthraxon microphyllus (Trin.) Hochst., Flora 39 (1856) 188; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 42; ≡ Andropogon microphyllus Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 275. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Notes: Open slopes in the pine region, 1200-2000m, MINDANAO. Native.

Arundinella Raddi

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 October 2020
  1. Arundinella filiformis Janowski, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17 (1921) 85; Type: Loher 7228 (M, holo; K, US, iso). = Arundinella humilior Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 232; Type: from Taiwan. = Arundinella miliacea auct. non Nees; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 52. = Arundinella montalbanica Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3807, nom. inval., nom. nud. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Apayao, Bulacan, Laguna, Rizal, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Perennial. Native.
  2. Arundinella furva Chase, J. Arnold Arbor. 24 (1943) 85; Type: Clemens 5826-A (US, holo; B, L, NY, iso). Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Only known from the Philippines from a single record (Argent & Reynoso 89127, Mayos Peak, c. 1550m.). Native.
  3. Arundinella goeringii Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 116; Type: from Java. Distribution: Java, ?Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Native.
  4. Arundinella holcoides (Kunth) Trin., Bull. Sc. Acad. Petersb. 1 (1836) 71; ≡ Brandtia holcoides Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 2 (1830) 511. = Arundinella agrostoides Trin., Sp. Gram. Icon. (1836) 23; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 85; EPFP 1 (1923) 52; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 57; Type: Anon. ‘Manila’ (LE, lecto; K 290214 pro parte, K 290215, isolecto). = Arundinella pubescens Merr. & Hack., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 419; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 52; Type: BS 856 Foxworthy (W, holo; L, NY, PNH lost, US, iso). Distribution: India, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, ?Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Abra, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, ?MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
  5. Arundinella setosa Trin., Diss. 2 (1824) 63; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 52; Type: from Nepal. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BUSUANGA, CULION, LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO. Notes: Open grasslands, on cliffs, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2000m. Native.

Excluded

  1. Arundinella ciliata Nees ex Miq., Nieuwe Verh. Eerste Kl. Kon. Ned. Inst. Wetensch. Amsterdam, ser. 3, 4 (1851) 30. Notes: Erroneously reported from Malesia (Veldkamp 2015).

Arundo L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 January 2022
  1. Arundo donax L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 81; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 58. = Arundo donax forma versicolor (Mill.) Beetle, Phytologia 38 (1978) 174; ≡ Arundo versicolor Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8 (1768) n. 3. Distribution: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Laos, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Ryukyu Isls, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, W Asia. LUZON, SAMAR. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental and escaping. Naturalized.
  2. Arundo formosana Hack., Bull. Herb. Boiss. 7 (1899) 724; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 55. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATAN, SAMAR. Native.

Asthenochloa Buse

  1. Asthenochloa tenera Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1854) 367; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 49; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 59. = Garnotiella philippinensis Stapf, Hooker's Icon. Pl. 25 (1896) t. 2494. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Benguet, PANAY. Notes: Steep open slopes up to 1400m. A monotypic genus. One of the few endemic Malesian grass genera. Native.

Avena L. (Not native)

Possibly present

  1. Avena fatua L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 80; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 83. Distribution: Africa, Continental Asia, Europe, Middle East. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: 1500m. Wild Oat. Probably a mere casual (Merrill 1922) and not really naturalized. No longer persists (Veldkamp, unpubl. ms.).
  2. Avena sativa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 79; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 83. Distribution: Middle East. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Probably originated in the Near East, cultivated in many forms. Above 1500m. Oat. No longer persists (Veldkamp, unpubl. ms.).

Avenella Bluff ex Drejer

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 September 2017
  1. Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer, Fl. Excurs. Hafn. (1838) 32; ≡ Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin., Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. 1 (1836) 66; Merr. & Merritt, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 330; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 83; ≡ Aira flexuosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 65. Distribution: Africa, Borneo, Europe, Japan, Korea, N America, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON. Notes: Known from Mt Pulag. Native.

Axonopus P.Beauv. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2020
  1. Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrost. (1812) 12; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 59; ≡ Milium compressum Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 24. Distribution: America. Notes: Now throughout the tropics. Introduced in the Philippines after World War II, now widely cultivated as a lawn grass. Naturalized in road sides, pastures, and plantations/nurseries. Naturalized.
  2. Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Comm. Linh. Telegr. Matto Grosso Amaz., Annexo 5 Bot., 11 (1922) 87; ≡ Paspalum fissifolium Raddi, Agrostogr. Bras. (1823) 26. = Axonopus affinis Chase, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 28 (1938) 180. Distribution: America. LUZON. Notes: Often confused with the preceding and so undercollected. Naturalized in road sides, grassland, and plantations/nurseries. Usually above 900m. Naturalized.

Bambusa Schreb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020
  1. Bambusa merrillii Gamble, PJS 5 (1910) Bot. 269; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 94. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino. Notes: 600m. Native.
  2. Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex J.C.Wendl., Collect. Pl. 2 (1808) 26; Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 74; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 105; EPFP 1 (1923) 95; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 10. Distribution: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Cultivated and naturalized. In most islands and provinces, in the settled areas at low and medium elevation. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
    • var. vulgaris. Naturalized.
    • var. striata (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Gamble, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calc. 7 (1896) 44; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 105; EPFP 1 (1923) 96; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 11; ≡ Bambusa striata Lodd. ex Lindl., Penny Cyclop. 3 (1835) 357. Notes: Probably originating in China. Pantropic in cultivation, and in many parts of the Philippines mainly cultivated as an ornamental hedge and source of light construction material. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss in Vilmorin, Blumengartnerei 1 (1896) 1189; Duriyaprapan & Jansen in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 56; ≡ Arundo bambos L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 81. = Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 2 (1799) 245; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 2; ≡ Bambos arundinacea Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1789) 24. Distribution: India, Myanmar, Thailand. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Introduced in the Philippines; N Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Commonly planted in settled areas at low and medium elevation. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Bambusa dolichoclada Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6 (1916) 144. Distribution: China, Taiwan. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  3. Bambusa maculata Widjaja, Reinwardtia 11(2) (1997) 63. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  4. Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusch., Nomencl. ed. 3 (1797) 108; Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 65; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 94; ≡ Arundo multiplex Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 58. = Bambusa glaucescens Siebold ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 89; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 105; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 5. = Bambusa dolichomerithalla Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6 (1916) 146. Distribution: ?China. Notes: Widely distributed in cultivation. Planted here and there for ornamental purposes, especially as hedges, in many settled areas at low and medium elevation. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  5. Bambusa oldhamii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1) (1886) 109. Distribution: China. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  6. Bambusa spinosa Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 13 (1822) 480; Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 25, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 94. = Bambusa blumeana Schult.f., Syst. 72 (1830) 1343; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 106; Roxas in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 60; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 4. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Sumatra. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Cultivated. The most common and conspicuous bamboo at low and medium elevation throughout the settled areas; apparently always planted, probably of prehistoric introduction by the early Malay invaders. The species very rarely flowers and then usually only when clumps have been severely injured by fire or by too extensive cutting. The only spiny bamboo in the Philippines. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  7. Bambusa tulda Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. Carey, 2 (1832) 193; Hort. Bengal. (1814) 25, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Jansen & Duriyaprapan in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 69; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 7. Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand. Notes: Introduced and only known in cultivation in the Philippines. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  8. Bambusa tuldoides Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26 (1868) 93. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Vietnam. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  9. Bambusa utilis W.C.Lin, Bull. Taiwan For. Res. 98 (1964) 2; Pancho & Obien, Philipp. Agric. 71 (1988) 214. Distribution: Taiwan. Notes: Introduced in the Philippines for its edible shoots. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  10. Bambusa ventricosa McClure, Lingnan Sc. Journ. 17 (1938) 57; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 9. Distribution: China. Notes: Introduced to the Philippines and other SE Asian countries. Ornamental garden plant in many settled areas at low and medium elevation. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Bothriochloa Kuntze

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 November 2020
  1. Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S.T.Blake, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 80 (1969) 62; ≡ Andropogon bladhii Retz., Observ. Bot. 2 (1781) 27. = Andropogon intermedius var. haenkei (J.Presl) Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 486; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 83; EPFP 1 (1923) 46; ≡ Andropogon haenkei J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 340. = Bothriochloa glabra (Roxb.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 1930, n. s. 76 (1931) 164; ≡ Andropogon glaber Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 271. Distribution: Africa to Australia. BOHOL, LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Bothriochloa ewartiana (Domin) C.E.Hubb., Kew Bull. (1934) 444; ≡ Andropogon ewartianus Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 20 (1915) 269. Distribution: Australia, Lesser Sunda Isls. LUZON. Native.

Brachypodium P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 September 2016
  1. Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 155; ≡ Festuca sylvatica Huds., Fl. Angl. (1762) 38. Distribution: LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDORO. Native.
    • ssp. sylvaticum. = Brachypodium sylvaticum var. asperum Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 269; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 93. = Brachypodium sylvaticum var. pseudo-distachyon Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 7 (1896) 363. = Bromus luzonensis auct. non J.Presl; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 93. = Brachypodium sylvaticum ssp. luzoniense Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 269; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 93. = Bromus pauciflorus auct. non (Thunb.) Hack.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 92. Distribution: Africa, Eurasia, Philippines, SE Asia. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Open slopes, steep slopes in damp shaded ravines, 1600-2500m. Native.

Bromus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 December 2020
  1. Bromus morrisonensis Honda, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42 (1928) 137; Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 492. = Bromus pauciflorus auct. non (Thunb.) Hack.; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 386; EPFP 1 (1923) 92. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: In wet open grassy places, 1500-2400m. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Bromus catharticus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2 (1791) 22; Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 487. Distribution: S America. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Introduced to many countries as a forage and naturalized. In the Philippines thus far known only from Benguet (Haight’s Place). P.B. Pelser (26-Nov-20): I have thus far not seen specimens or notes in the literature about this species in the Philippines, so I assume that it did not persist and should therefore not be considered naturalized in the Philippines. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Calamagrostis Roth

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 June 2022
  1. Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 1 (1788) 33; ≡ Agrostis arundinacea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 61; ≡ Deyeuxia arundinacea (L.) Jansen, Act. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1952) 470, nom. illeg. = Deyeuxia pyramidalis (Host) Veldkamp, Blumea 37(1) (1992) 230; ≡ Calamagrostis pyramidalis Host, Icon. Descr. Gram. Austriac. 4 (1809) t. 49. = Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth var. nipponica (Franch. & Sav.) Hack., Bull. Herb. Boiss. 7 (1899) 652; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 82; ≡ Calamagrostis nipponica Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2 (1878) 599. Distribution: China, Europe to India, Japan, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: In the Cordillera Highlands of Luzon. Open grassy slopes 1800-2400m. Native.
  2. Calamagrostis filifolia Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 179; 375; EPFP 1 (1923) 82; ≡ Deyeuxia stenophylla Jansen, Act. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1952) 472; ≡ Deyeuxia suizanensis var. stenophylla (Jansen) Veldkamp, Taiwania 38 (1994) 3; Type: Merrill 4839 (PNH, lecto, lost; L, P, isolecto). = Calamagrostis filifolia forma cleistogama Hack. in Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 180; Type: Merrill 4537 (PNH, lecto, lost; BO, L, isolecto). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: High montane grasslands, 1800-2200m. P.B. Pelser (18-Jun-22): Veldkamp (1994) recognized three varieties in Deyeuxia suizanensis (i.e. var. chaseana (Bor) Veldkamp, var. suizanensis, var. stenophylla (Jansen) Veldkamp). Two of these were transfered to Pentapogon and recognized at the species level (Peterson et al. 2021): Pentapogon chaseianus (Bor) P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Soreng and Pentapogon suizanensis (Hayata) P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Soreng, but Peterson at al. (2021) did not mention the Philippine taxon (Calamagrostis filifolia Merr. and synonyms listed here). It seems likely that it belongs in Pentapogon, but it is presently unclear to me if it should be recognized at the species level. The name Deyeuxia filifolia is occupied by a different species: Deyeuxia filifolia Wedd. Native.
  3. Calamagrostis stenophylla Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7 (1936) 1298. Distribution: China, New Guinea, Philippines. Native.

Capillipedium (Hack.) Stapf

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 February 2018
  1. Capillipedium assimile (Steud.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 314; ≡ Andropogon assimilis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 397. Distribution: India to China, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON, MINDANAO. Native.
  2. Capillipedium kwashotense (Hayata) C.C.Hsu, J. Jap. Bot. 37 (1962) 280; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 55; ≡ Bothriochloa kwashotensis (Hayata) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. & Geobot., Kyoto 11 (1942) 168; ≡ Andropogon kwashotensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 8 (1918) 80. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATAN, ?LUZON. Notes: On littoral rocky cliff, locally frequent. Native.
  3. Capillipedium parviflorum (R.Br.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1917) 169; ≡ Holcus parviflorus R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 199. = Andropogon micranthus Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 165; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 46. = Capillipedium arachnoideum Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 458. = Andropogon cinctus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 398; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 43. Distribution: Africa, Middle East, Philippines, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia. BABUYAN ISLS, BATAN, LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, MINDANAO. Notes: Open grasslands chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2300m. Native.
  4. Capillipedium spicigerum S.T.Blake, Dept. Biol. Univ. Queensl. 22 (1944) 43. = Andropogon micranthus Kunth var. spicigerus (Benth.) Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 489; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 336; ≡ Chrysopogon parviflorus var. spicigerus Benth., Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 538. Distribution: Australia, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines. CAMIGUIN, CEBU. Native.

Cenchrus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 November 2020
  1. Cenchrus alopecuroides (L.) Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. (1794) 24; ≡ Panicum alopecuroides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 55; ≡ Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng., Syst. 1 (1825) 303; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 75. = Cenchrus purpurascens Thunb., Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 2 (1794) 329. Distribution: Andaman Isls to Indochina, Australia, China, India, Japan, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte. Notes: On open slopes at medium elevation, chiefly in the pine region, ascending to 2000m. Native.
  2. Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 258. = Cenchrus echinatus auct. non L.; auctt. males. = Cenchrus viridis Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 301; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 74. Distribution: C & S America. CAMIGUIN, CEBU, CULION, JOLO, LUZON: Benguet, Rizal, MANTIGUE, MINDANAO: Davao, Misamis Oriental, Zamboanga del Sur, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Naturalized. Annual. A widely distributed weed in settled areas, occurring generally in open waste places in and about towns, open fields, sandy shores. Naturalized.
  3. Cenchrus caliculatus Cav., IIcones descriptione plantarum 5 (1799) 39. Distribution: Australia, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. MINDANAO. Notes: Perennials. Native.
  4. Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 127; ≡ Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov., Ann. Ist. Bot. Roma 8 (1903) 41. Distribution: Africa. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Widely introduced as a soil-binder, but easily overlooked because of the hidden inflorescences. Naturalized.
  5. Cenchrus echinatus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1050; J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 317; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 95. Distribution: America. CEBU, LUZON: Manila, Mountain Province, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Most specimens so far seen from the Philippines were misidentified Cenchrus brownii. Open waste places and road sides in and about towns (Merrill 1912), also along beaches. Naturalized.
  6. Cenchrus elegans (Hassk.) Veldkamp, Blumea 59 (2014) 56; ≡ Sericura elegans Hassk., Flora 25, 2, Beibl. 1 (1842) 2. = Cenchrus caninus Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 127, nom. inval. = Pennisetum macrostachys (Brongn.) Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. vi, 32 (1835) 177, as ‘macrostachyum’; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 75; ≡ Gymnotrix macrostachys Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1832) 104. Distribution: Malesia, Solomon Isls. BASILAN, BOHOL, CEBU, LUZON: Batangas, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Also as ornamental. In old clearings at low and medium elevation. Native.
  7. Cenchrus pedicellatus (Trin.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 128; ≡ Pennisetum pedicellatum Trin., Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. 4, 32 (1835) 184. Distribution: Africa and India to Myanmar. LUZON: Bataan, La Union, MINDORO. Notes: Cultivated elsewhere. Naturalized.
    • var. pedicellatus. Distribution: LUZON: Bataan, La Union. Notes: Not native to the Philippines, cultivated and naturalized. Road sides. Naturalized.
  8. Cenchrus polystachios (L.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 129; ≡ Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult., Mant. 2 (1824) 146; ≡ Panicum polystachion L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 870. Distribution: CUYO ARCHIPELAGO, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO: Misamis Oriental, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
    • var. polystachios. = Pennisetum setosum (Sw.) Rich. in Pers., Syn. 1 (1805) 72; ≡ Cenchrus setosus Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 26. Distribution: Africa, India to Indochina, Middle East. CUYO ARCHIPELAGO, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO: Misamis Oriental, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Forests, grasslands, and along roads. Naturalized.
  9. Cenchrus purpureus (Schumach.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 129; ≡ Pennisetum purpureum Schumach., Beskr. Guin. Pl. (1827) 44; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 112. Distribution: Africa. BASILAN, CEBU, LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Davao, Misamis Oriental, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Widely introduced as a fodder. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Forests, grasslands, old clearings and waste places at low and medium elevation. Cultivated, not naturalized:. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Cenchrus ciliaris L., Mant. (1771) 302; ≡ Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. 1 (1827) 213; Handb. i. 85. Distribution: Africa to India. LUZON: La Union, MINDANAO. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized. Perennial. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Cenchrus orientalis (Rich.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 128; ≡ Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Pers., Syn. 1 (1805) 72. Distribution: Africa. LUZON. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone, Ann. Bot. 106 (2010) 127; ≡ Panicum americanum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 56. = Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 195; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 291; ≡ Panicum glaucum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 56. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited. Pearl millet. Naturalized.

Centotheca Desv.

  1. Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv., Nuov. Bull. Soc. Philom. 2 (1810) 189; ≡ Cenchrus lappaceus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1488. = Centotheca latifolia Trin., Fund. Agrost. (1820) 141; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 100; EPFP 1 (1923) 91. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BATAN, BUSUANGA, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, CEBU, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SAN MIGUEL. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines. In thickets, forests, and clearings from sea level to c. 1000m. Shade-loving, usually the only grass in some types of forest. Native.
  2. Centotheca philippinensis (Merr.) C.Monod, Blumea 19 (1971) 60; ≡ Ramosia philippinensis Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 2; EPFP 1 (1923) 92; Type: BS 23607 Ramos. Distribution: Australia, New Guinea, Philippines. GUIMARAS, LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: Rare. Native.

Cephalostachyum Munro

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020
  1. Cephalostachyum mindorense Gamble, PJS 5 (1910) Bot. 272; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 97; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 12; Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 148. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines, Camarines Norte, MINDORO. Notes: Thickets, along river flats and forest edges, 0-800m. Native.

Chionachne R.Br.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016
  1. Chionachne biaurita Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 263; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 29; Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 253; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 63. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province. Notes: On fresh talus slopes, untilled soil, etc., c. 1200m. Native.
  2. Chionachne punctata (R.Br.) Jannink, Blumea 47 (2002) 566; ≡ Sclerachne punctata R.Br. in Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1838) 15. Distribution: Java, Java Sea, Madura. LUZON. Native.

Chloris Sw.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 January 2022
  1. Chloris barbata Sw., Fl. Ind. Occ. 1 (1797) 200; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 103; EPFP 1 (1923) 84; ≡ Andropogon barbatus L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 302, nom. illeg. = Chloris inflata Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 1 (1821) 105; Llanos, Frag. Pl. Filip. (1851) 31; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 84. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. CEBU, LUZON, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao, Misamis Oriental, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Common in and about towns (along roadsides, wastelands) in many parts of lowland Philippines. Native.
  2. Chloris clementis Merr., PJS 40 (1929) 181; Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 253; Type: UC 347514. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan. Native.
  3. Chloris gayana Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1830) 89; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna (1986) t. 14; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 276. Distribution: Africa, Middle East. LUZON: La Union. Notes: 'Throughout the Philippines' (Santos 1986), only seen from Luzon (Veldkamp, unpubl. ms.). Naturalized as weed in rice fields. Naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Chloris wightiana Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 206. Distribution: India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, ?Philippines.

Excluded

  1. Chloris rufescens Lag., Varied. Ci. 2 (1805) 143; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 85. Distribution: America. Notes: According to Merrill (1923), this record stems from "an erroneously localized Malaspina Expedition collection".

Chrysopogon Trin.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 November 2020
  1. Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin., Fund. Agrost. (1820) 188; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 67; ≡ Andropogon aciculatus Retz., Obs. 5 (1789) 22; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 83; EPFP 1 (1923) 42. = Rhaphis trivialis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 553. Distribution: Australia, India to China, Malesia, Pacific Ocean. CEBU, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Open places at low and medium elevation; very common lawn and roadside grass, a veritable pest on account of its spikelets adhering to fur, clothing, etc. Native.
  2. Chrysopogon festucoides (J.Presl) Veldkamp, Austrobaileya 5 (1999) 512; ≡ Vetiveria festucoides (J.Presl) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus., No. 18 (1947) 4; ≡ Andropogon festucoides J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1828) 340; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 44. Distribution: India to Vietnam, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Pampanga. Notes: Rare. In open level lands, rice-paddy banks, etc., at low elevation. Roots not aromatic. Native.
  3. Chrysopogon nemoralis (Balansa) Holttum, Gard. Bull. Sing. 11 (1947) 297; ≡ Andropogon nemoralis Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4 (1890) 113. = Chrysopogon philippinensis (Merr.) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 532; ≡ Andropogon gryllus var. philippinensis Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 368; EPFP 1 (1923) 45. Distribution: Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. PANAY. Notes: Known from Panay from BS 30964 Ramos & Edaño. On boulders and ledges along streams at low elevation. Very rare. Native.
  4. Chrysopogon subtilis (Steud.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 492; ≡ Andropogon subtilis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 396. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. LUZON. Notes: Annuals. Native.
  5. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, Bull. Inst. Franc. Afr. Noire, Ser. A, 22 (1960) 106; ≡ Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash in Small, Fl. SE US. (1903) 67; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 131; ≡ Andropogon zizanioides (L.) Urb., Symb. Antil. 4 (1903) 79; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 49; ≡ Phalaris zizanioides L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 183. = Chamaeraphis muricata (L.f.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 75; ≡ Andropogon muricatus Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 43. Distribution: India. BATAN, LUZON: Cavite, Laguna, Rizal. Notes: Not native to the Philippines, naturalized. Planted about rice-paddy banks, often abundant. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Chrysopogon serrulatus Trin., Mem.Acad. Petersb. Ser. 6, 2 (1833) 318. Distribution: Africa to Sumatra. LUZON. Notes: Cultivated. P.B. Pelser (27-Nov-20): I have thus far only seen specimens from plants grown in cultivation, so I here assume that it is not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Coelachne R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 September 2017
  1. Coelachne infirma Buse, Pl. Jungh. (1854) 350. Distribution: Madagascar, Malesia, New Guinea, Philippines. Notes: Synonym of Coelachne simpliciuscula (Wight & Arn.) Munro ex Benth.? Native.
  2. Coelachne simpliciuscula (Wight & Arn.) Munro ex Benth., J. Linn. Soc. 19 (1881) 93; ≡ Panicum simpliciusculum Wight & Arn. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 96. = Coelachne hackelii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 8; EPFP 1 (1923) 82. Distribution: Sumatra to New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Very wet places above 1000m, forming dense mats along small cool streams. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Coelachne perpusilla (Nees ex Steud.) Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1864) 373; ≡ Panicum perpusillum Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 96. Distribution: India, Indochina to ?Philippines, Sri Lanka.

Coix L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 January 2022
  1. Coix lacryma-jobi L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 972; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 29; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 70, as ‘lachryma’. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. BATAN, JOLO, LUZON: Rizal, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, NEGROS, SAMAR, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: In settled areas and secondary forest. Native.
    • var. lacryma-jobi. = Coix lacryma-jobi forma agrestis (Lour.) Backer, Handb. Fl. Java 2 (1928) 33; ≡ Coix agrestis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 551; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1882) 314. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Naturalized.
    • var. ma-yuen (Rom.Caill.) Stapf in Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 7 (1897) 100; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 321; ≡ Coix ma-yuen Rom.Caill., Bun. Soc. Acclim. Paris iii, 8 (1881) 442. Distribution: Borneo, China, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. JOLO, LUZON: Rizal, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Occasionally cultivated for its edible grain or for use in making fermented drinks. Native.
    • var. stenocarpa Oliv., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 18 (1888) t. 1764. Distribution: India, Myanmar, Vietnam. Naturalized.

Cortaderia Stapf (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(1) (1900) 325; ≡ Arundo selloana Schult. & Schult.f., Mant. 3 (1827) 605. Notes: The female form is cultivated as 'pampas grass'. Only occurs under cultivation in the Philippines. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Cymbopogon Spreng.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 November 2020
  1. Cymbopogon tortilis (J.Presl) A.Camus, Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Colon. 5 (1925) 206; ≡ Andropogon nardus var. tortilis (J.Presl) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 46; ≡ Anthistiria tortilis J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 347. = Andropogon nardus var. hamatulus (Hook. & Arn.) Hack., Mon. Phan. 6 (1889) 606; ≡ Andropogon hamatulus Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1838) 244. Distribution: China, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Vietnam. BATAN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, LUZON: Abra, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Zambales, MINDANAO. Notes: In open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Cultivated, not naturalized:. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Kew Bull. (1906) 257; ≡ Andropogon citratus DC., Cat. Hort. Monsp. (1813) 78; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 82; EPFP 1 (1923) 43. Distribution: India, Sri Lanka. Notes: Now widely distributed in cultivation. Planted here and there about houses in most or all parts of the Philippines for its fragant leaves, but nowhere spontaneous. Very rarely flowering. Citronella grass or Lemon grass. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) W.Watson in Atkins, Gaz. N.W. Prov. Ind. (1882) 392; ≡ Andropogon flexuosus Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 388. Distribution: India. MINDANAO. Notes: Widely cultivated in Asia as a source of Lemon-Grass Oil. Similar in habit and appearance to the preceding, and also found here only in cultivation. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Cynodon Rich.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 May 2021
  1. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Syn. 1 (1804) 85; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 103; EPFP 1 (1923) 83; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 70; ≡ Panicum dactylon L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 58. Distribution: BILIRAN, BUSUANGA, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Cosmopolitan, and widely planted as a lawn grass. Along roadsides, fallow rice paddies, waste places, pastures, etc. at low and medium elevation; common. P.B. Pelser (29-May-2021): It is unclear to me if this species is native to the Philippines, because some resources suggest that it might be (e.g., Way 2014), whereas others indicate that it isn't (e.g., Harlan & De Wet 1969). Native.
  2. Cynodon radiatus Roth ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 2 (1817) 411; Nowack, Blumea 36 (1992) 478. = Cynodon arcuatus J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 290; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 103; EPFP 1 (1923) 83. = Cynodon dactylon ssp. arcuatus (J.Presl) Kern ex Henty, Man. Grasses New Guin. (1969) 57; ≡ Cynodon arcuatus J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1829) 290. Distribution: Madagascar to New Guinea. LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Rizal, Tarlac, MINDANAO, PANAY. Notes: In open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst, Bull. Agric. Congo Belge 13 (1922) 342. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Cultivated. P.B. Pelser (27-Nov-20): I have thus far not seen any specimens and assume here that it is not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.
    • var. nlemfuensis. = Cynodon lemfuensis Vanderyst, Bull. Agric. Congo Belge 11 (1920) 121, nom. inval., nom. provis. Notes: Usually erroneously spelt ‘nlemfuensis’. Veldkamp (unpubl. ms.): “Reported for the Philippines with 3 (!) vernacular names for it by 't Mannetje & Jones (1992). No material was seen, however, so it is not clear which of the at least 2 cultivated with varieties occur(s). Similar to C. dactylon, but rhizome absent, taller, blades 4-7 mm wide, spikes up to 13, up to 10 cm long”. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Cyrtochloa S.Dransf.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 December 2019
  1. Cyrtochloa fenixii (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 864; ≡ Schizostachyum fenixii Gamble, PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 289; PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 205; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 98; Type: Fenix s.n. (K, holo), Luzon: Benguet, Sablang, Dec-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Pampanga, PANAY. Notes: In thickets at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Cyrtochloa hirsuta S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 869; Type: Pennoyer 853 (PNH, holo), Luzon: Bataan, Dinalupihan, Barrio San Pablo, 27-Apr-1981. = Pseudostachyum polymorphum auct. non Munro; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 22. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Native.
  3. Cyrtochloa luzonica (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 871; ≡ Schizostachyum luzonicum Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 277; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 99; Type: FB 8411 Curran & Merritt (K, holo), Luzon: Zambales, Nov/Dec-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Notes: In forests and in ravines, c. 800m. Native.
  4. Cyrtochloa major (Pilg.) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 58 (2004) 982; ≡ Dinochloa major Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 149. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Native.
  5. Cyrtochloa mindoroensis S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 58 (2004) 981; Type: BS 39366 Ramos (K, holo), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental, Mt Calavite. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Native.
  6. Cyrtochloa puser S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 867; Type: McVey s.n. (K, holo), Luzon: Abra, Banguet, Feb-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Cyrtochloa toppingii (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 862; ≡ Schizostachyum toppingii Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 276; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 106; EPFP 1 (1923) 100; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 32; Type: BS 5222 Topping (K, holo), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Native.

Cyrtococcum Stapf

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 November 2022
  1. Cyrtococcum oxyphyllum (Hochst. ex Steud.) Stapf in Hook., Icon. Pl. 31 (1922) t. 3096; ≡ Panicum oxyphyllum Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 65. = Panicum pilipes Nees in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 94; EPFP 1 (1923) 66. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. CAMIGUIN, CEBU, JOLO, LUZON: Pampanga, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAUI, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
  2. Cyrtococcum patens (L.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris 27 (1921) 118; ≡ Panicum patens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 86; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 66. Distribution: BALABAC, BASILAN, BATAN, BOHOL, BUSUANGA, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, CULION, LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Lanao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SAN MIGUEL. Native.
    • var. latifolium (Honda) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11 (1942) 47; ≡ Panicum patens forma latifolium Honda, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 37 (1923) 25. = Cyrtococcum accrescens (Trin.) Stapf in Hook., Icon. Pl. 31 (1922) 2; Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 257; ≡ Panicum accrescens Trin., Sp. Gram. Icon. 1 (1827) pl. 88. Distribution: India to China, Solomon Isls. BALABAC, BATAN, BOHOL, BUSUANGA, CEBU, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SAN MIGUEL. Notes: Widespread and common in the Philippines. Naturalized.
    • var. patens. = Panicum warburgii Mez in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 143; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 93; EPFP 1 (1923) 69. = Panicum carinatum J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 309; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 62. Distribution: Australia, Sri Lanka to China. BALABAC, BASILAN, BATAN, BOHOL, BUSUANGA, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, CULION, LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Lanao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Common and widespread in the Philippines. Common in thickets, some secondary forests, old clearings, etc., 0-1200m. Naturalized.
  3. Cyrtococcum trigonum (Retz.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 27 (1921) 118; ≡ Panicum trigonum Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 9. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Very rare, in the Philippines twice collected. Native.

Dactyloctenium Willd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 September 2017
  1. Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd., Enum. Pl. (1809) 1029; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 104; EPFP 1 (1923) 86; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 72; ≡ Cynosurus aegyptius L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 72. Distribution: Pantropic. CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. A common tufted to mat-forming annual weed along roadsides, cultivation, etc. in settled areas at low and medium elevation. Native.

Dendrocalamus Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020
  1. Dendrocalamus asper (Schult.f.) Backer ex K.Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind. ed. 2, 1 (1927) 301; Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 80; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 13; ≡ Bambusa aspera Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 7 (1830) 1352. Distribution: ?SE Asia. Notes: Planted and naturalized from low to high elevation to 1500m, but thrives best at 400-500m. Naturalized.
  2. Dendrocalamus merrillianus (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2675; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 97; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 16; ≡ Bambusa merrilliana (Elmer) Rojo & Roxas in Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philipp. Trees (1999) 179; ≡ Gigantochloa merrilliana Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 273. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Bulacan, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Lanao, Lanao del Sur, PALAWAN. Notes: In and about towns, chiefly planted. Rojo (1999) states that “..in the sense of Dransfield & Widjaja (1995), this species is conspecific with Dendrocalamus asper. However, current observation of the flowers and vegetative characteristics points to Bambusa rather than Dendrocalamus”. L.L.Co: If this is indeed a Bambusa, why was the epithet asper not used? Basionym Bambusa aspera Schult.f. (1830) clearly antedates basionym Gigantochloa merrilliana Elmer (1908). Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Dendrocalamus brandisii (Munro) Kurz, For. Fl. Brit. Myanmar 2 (1877) 560; Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 83; ≡ Bambusa brandisii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26 (1868) 109. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Cultivated. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Dendrocalamus giganteus Wall. ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 150; Widjaja in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 85. Distribution: China, India, Laos, Myanmar, ?Thailand. Notes: Cultivated. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  3. Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 152; Roxas in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 87; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 15. Distribution: China, Myanmar, Taiwan. MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao. Notes: Cultivated at low elevation in the Philippines, not native. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  4. Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 149; Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 90. Distribution: Laos, Myanmar, Thailand. Notes: Cultivated. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  5. Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees, Linnaea 9 (1834) 476; Jansen & Duriyaprapan in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 93; ≡ Bambos stricta Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1 (1798) 58. Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand. Notes: Cultivated. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Dichanthium Willem.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 November 2020
  1. Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1917) 178; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 21; ≡ Andropogon annulatus Forssk., Fl. Aegypt-Arab. (1775) 173. Distribution: LUZON: Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDORO. Naturalized.
    • var. annulatum. Distribution: Africa to SE Asia and Malesia. LUZON: Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: Throughout the Philippines (Santos 1986), but seen only from Luzon by Veldkamp (unpubl. ms.). Introduced in the Philippines after WW-II but before 1950. Cultivated. Naturalized in grassland and rocky places. Naturalized.
  2. Dichanthium aristatum (Poir.) C.E.Hubb., Kew Bull. (1939) 654; ≡ Andropogon aristatus Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Meth. Bot. Suppl. 1 (1810) 585. Distribution: India. BOHOL, CEBU, LUZON: La Union. Notes: Introduded before 1947, but after 1923. Naturalized.
    • var. heteropogonoides (Hack.) Jansen; ≡ Andropogon caricosus var. heteropogonoides Hack. in A.DC. & C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 6 (1889) 569. Notes: A strain of this variety, called “Alabang X” originated from the Philippines and was introduced elsewhere as pasture grass. Naturalized.
  3. Dichanthium caricosum (L.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris 27 (1921) 549; ≡ Andropogon caricosus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1480. Distribution: India to China and Malesia. MASBATE. Notes: In the Philippines once collected from Uson (Santos 6816; L, PUH). Native.
  4. Dichanthium sericeum (R.Br.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris 27 (1921) 549; ≡ Andropogon sericeus R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 201; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 82; EPFP 1 (1923) 48. Distribution: LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDORO. Native.
    • ssp. sericeum. Distribution: Indochina to Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: In open grasslands at low elevation. Native.

Diectomis Kunth

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 September 2017
  1. Diectomis fastigiata (Sw.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. (1812) 132; ≡ Andropogon fastigiatus Sw., Prodr. (1788) 26; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 335; EPFP 1 (1923) 44. Distribution: Africa, America, Bangladesh, Caribbean, India, Java, Laos, Madagascar, Middle East, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. BUSUANGA, HERMANA MAYOR, LUZON: Mountain Province, Pangasinan, PALAWAN. Notes: On dry open grassy slopes at low and medium elevation. Native.

Digitaria Haller

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 November 2022
  1. Digitaria abludens (Roem. & Schult.) Veldkamp, Blumea 21 (1973) 53; ≡ Panicum abludens Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 457. = Digitaria pedicellaris Prain, Bengal Pl. (1903) 1182, nom. illeg., nom. superfl.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 54. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madura, New Guinea, Pakistan to Thailand, Sulawesi. CULION, LUZON: Bataan, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal, MINDANAO. Notes: In open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 850m. Native.
  2. Digitaria bicornis (Lam.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. 2 (1817) 470; Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 71; Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 30; ≡ Paspalum bicorne Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 176. = Digitaria sanguinalis auct. non (L.) Scop.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 54, pro parte. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BUSUANGA, LUZON: Zambales, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Annuals. Native.
  3. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler, Descr. Gram. (1802) 27; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 87; Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 129; Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 32; Galinato et al., Upland rice weeds of south and southeast Asia (1999) 71; ≡ Panicum ciliare Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 16. = Digitaria sanguinalis auct. non (L.) Scop.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 54, pro parte. = Digitaria adscendens (Kunth) Henrard, Blumea 1 (1934) 92; ≡ Panicum adscendens Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1 (1816) 97. Distribution: Pantropic. BATAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Rizal, MINDORO, PALAWAN, TURTLE ISLS. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines. Rhachis with distinct spicules. Native.
  4. Digitaria fuscescens (J.Presl) Henrard, Meded. Rijksherb. Leiden 61 (1930) 8; Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 61; ≡ Paspalum fuscescens J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 213. Distribution: Africa to Pacific Ocean. BALABAC, BOHOL, CAGAYAN DE SULU, LUZON, PANAY, TURTLE ISLS. Notes: Perennials. Native.
  5. Digitaria henrardii Veldkamp, Blumea 21 (1973) 55; Type: Merrill Phil. Pl. 577 (L, holo; PRC, U, iso). = Digitaria pedicellaris auct. non Prain; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 54, pro parte. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, NCR, Pampanga. Notes: Annuals. Native.
  6. Digitaria heterantha (Hook.f.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 54; Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 314; Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 46; ≡ Paspalum heteranthum Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 7 (1896) 16. = Digitaria heterantha var. pachyrhachis (Hack.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 54; ≡ Panicum heteranthum var. pachyrhachis Hack., PJS 3 c (1908) 167. Distribution: BALABAC, LANGAAN, LUMBUCAN, TURTLE ISLS, URSULA. Notes: Scattered along the coast of the China Sea, collected here and there in the Philippines. Perennials. Native.
  7. Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, Ark. Bot. 11 (1912) 17; Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 341; Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 48; ≡ Trichachne insularis (L.) Nees, Agrost. Bras. (1829) 86; ≡ Andropogon insularis L., Syst. Nat. (1759) 1304. Distribution: America. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Misamis Oriental, Sarangani. Notes: Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  8. Digitaria junghuhniana (Nees ex Steud.) Henrard, Meded. Rijksherb. Leiden 61 (1930) 11; Monogr. Digit. (1950) 361; Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 51; ≡ Panicum junghuhnianum Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1853) 68. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. CEBU, LUZON. Notes: Annuals. Native.
  9. Digitaria longiflora (Retz.) Pers., Syn. 1 (1805) 85; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 88; EPFP 1 (1923) 54; Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 66; ≡ Paspalum longiflorum Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 15. = Paspalum filiculme Nees ex Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1859-64) 358; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 53. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, W Asia. CAMIGUIN, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Along roadsides, cultivated lands, open grass lands, etc. Up to c.1600m. Native.
  10. Digitaria mariannensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 54; Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 434; Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 27. Distribution: Indian Ocean, Java, Java Sea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan. Notes: A sandy coast species and so probably much overlooked. Native.
  11. Digitaria mollicoma (Kunth) Henrard, Blumea 1 (1934) 97; ≡ Paspalum mollicomum Kunth, Enum. Pl. 1 (1833) 47. = Paspalum molle J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 213, nom. illeg. Distribution: China, Indochina to New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON. Notes: Rare in Malesia. Native.
  12. Digitaria nuda Schumach., Beskr. Guin. Pl. (1827) 45. Distribution: Africa, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Native.
  13. Digitaria philippinensis Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 563; Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 70; Type: BS 42890 Ramos (W, holo; L, P, PUH, SING, US, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, BOHOL. Notes: Only known from the type collection. Native.
  14. Digitaria radicosa (J.Presl) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 437; ≡ Panicum radicosum J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 297. = Digitaria timorensis (Kunth) Balansa, J. Bot. Mor. Tom. 4 (1890) 138, nom. illeg.; ≡ Panicum timorense Kunth, Enum. Pl. 1 (1833) 83. = Digitaria sanguinalis var. australis (Spreng.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 55, nom. illeg.; ≡ Panicum australe Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 309, nom. illeg., nom. superfl. Distribution: Palaeotropics. CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, CULION, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Low and medium elevation, in thickets, waste places, etc. Native.
  15. Digitaria setigera Roth in Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 2 (1817) 474; Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1850) 684; Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 37. Distribution: BALABAC, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. setigera. = Digitaria microbachne (J.Presl) Henrard, Meded. Rijksherb. 61 (1930) 13; ≡ Panicum microbachne J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 298; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 53. = Panicum pruriens var. glabrum Nees, Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 2 (1850) 97; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 53. = Digitaria lanosa Llanos, Fragm. Pl. Filip. (1851) 28; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 53. = Digitaria consanguinea auct. non Gaudich.; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 347; Fl. Manila (1912) 88; EPFP 1 (1923) 53. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines. Usually common at low and medium elevation in open waste places, old clearings, etc. Native.
    • var. calliblepharata (Henrard) Veldkamp, Blumea 21 (1973) 40; ≡ Digitaria microbachne ssp. calliblepharata Henrard, Monogr. Digitaria (1950) 452. Distribution: Bangladesh, Java, Java Sea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON. Native.
  16. Digitaria ternata (A.Rich.) Stapf, Fl. Cap. 7 (1898) 376; Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1850) 737; Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 59; ≡ Cynodon ternatus A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2 (1850) 405. = Digitaria ropalotricha Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh., prepr. (1854) 41. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam. CEBU, LUZON, MINDANAO. Native.
  17. Digitaria violascens Link, Hort. Berol. 1 (1827) 229; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 88; Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 790; Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 63. = Digitaria chinensis auct. non Nees; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 53. Distribution: Afghanistan, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. BATAN, BOHOL, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Common along roadside, cultivated lands and abandoned fields, open grasslands, etc. from low to medium elevation. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Digitaria milanjiana (Rendle) Stapf in Oliver et al., Fl. Trop. Afr. 9(3) (1919) 430; ≡ Panicum milanjianum Rendle, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4 (1894) 56. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Introduced in the Philippines according to 't Mannetje & Jones (1992). Cultivated. P.B. Pelser (29-Nov-20): I have thus far not seen any specimens and assume here that it is not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Digitaria compacta (Roth ex Roem. & Schult.) Veldkamp, Blumea 21 (1973) 71; ≡ Paspalum compactum Roth ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis, 2 (1817) 316. Distribution: India, Myanmar, Vietnam. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.
  2. Digitaria eriantha Steud., Flora 12 (1829) 468. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Introduced in the Philippines according to 't Mannetje & Jones (1992: 121), but no vouchers were seen by Veldkamp (unpubl. ms.). Perhaps cultivated as a forage grass? Naturalized.
  3. Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 1 (1771) 52; ≡ Panicum sanguinale L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 57. Distribution: Europe to Asia and Malesia. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.

Excluded

  1. Digitaria corymbosa (Roxb.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 53; ≡ Panicum corymbosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 295. Notes: Now considered a synonym of Digitaria compacta (Roth) Veldkamp which does not occur in the Philippines.

Dimeria R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 December 2019
  1. Dimeria chloridiformis (Gaudich.) K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee (1900) 165; Veldkamp, Blumea 61 (2016) 208; ≡ Andropogon chloridiformis Gaudich., Voy. Uranie (1829) 412; Type: Gaudichaud s.n. (P, holo; BRI, K). = Dimeria ciliata Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 262; EPFP 1 (1923) 30. Distribution: Malay Peninsula to New Guinea. PALAWAN. Notes: Open grasslands just above sea level. Rare. Perennial. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Dimeria ornithopoda Trin., Fund. Agrost. (1820) 167; Veldkamp, Blumea 61 (2016) 210; Type: Herb. Trinius 1254.1 (LE, holo). = Dimeria ornithopoda var. tenera (Trin.) Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 81; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 75; EPFP 1 (1923) 30; ≡ Dimeria tenera Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 335. Distribution: Australia, India to Japan, Philippines. CULION, LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Camarines, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Open grasslands, on rice-paddy banks, etc., 0-1500m, locally abundant. Weak annuals, easily overlooked. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Dimeria avenacea (Retz.) C.E.C.Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1932 (1932) 72; Veldkamp, Blumea 61 (2016) 210; ≡ Anthoxanthum avenaceum Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 8. Distribution: India, Myanmar, ?Philippines, Sri Lanka.
    • forma latilanceifolia Roberty, Boissiera 9 (1960) 398; Voucher: Merrill 3226 (G?), Luzon: Bataan.

Dinebra Jacq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 August 2021
  1. Dinebra chinensis (L.) P.M.Peterson & N.Snow, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 109 (2012) 1326; ≡ Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees, Syll. Ratisb. 1 (1824) 4; Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 102; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 105; EPFP 1 (1923) 86; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 90; Nowack, Rheedea 4 (1994) 84; ≡ Poa chinensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 69. Distribution: Africa to China, New Guinea, Philippines. CEBU, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: In most provinces in Luzon. Aquatic to semi- aquatic annual to short-lived perennial. In open usually wet places along or near streams. Native.
  2. Dinebra neesii (Thwaites) P.M.Peterson & N.Snow, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 109 (2012) 1326; ≡ Leptochloa neesii (Thwaites) Benth., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19 (1881) 108; Nowack, Rheedea 4 (1994) 86; ≡ Cynodon neesii Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1864) 371. Distribution: Australia, India, Java, Philippines, Sri Lanka. CEBU. Native.
  3. Dinebra panicea (Retz.) P.M.Peterson & N.Snow, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 109 (2012) 1326; ≡ Leptochloa panicea (Retz.) Ohwi, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55 (1941) 311; ≡ Poa panicea Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 11. Distribution: CEBU, JOLO, LUZON: Abra, La Union, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
    • ssp. panicea; Nowack, Rheedea 4 (1994) 87; ≡ Leptochloa filiformis auct. non (Pers.) Roem. & Schult.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 86. Distribution: Philippines, Tropical & Subtropical Asia. CEBU, JOLO, LUZON: Abra, La Union, PALAWAN. Notes: Annual to short-lived terrestrial perennial. In open lowlands, along streams, in disturbed soil, gardens, etc., at low elevation. Native.

Dinochloa Buse

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 March 2022
  1. Dinochloa acutiflora (Munro) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53(4) (1998) 877; ≡ Schizostachyum acutiflorum Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26 (1868) 137. = Schizostachyum diffusum (Blanco) Merr., Amer. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 62; ≡ Bambusa diffusa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 269. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO, ?PALAWAN. Notes: Common in thickets, secondary and primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1700m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Dinochloa dielsiana Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 148; ≡ Schizostachyum dielsianum (Pilg.) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 391; EPFP 1 (1923) 97; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 25; Type: Merrill 711 (K, NY, iso), Paragua (Palawan): Ewi-ig (Iwahig) River, 18-Feb-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Ifugao, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Zambales, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Synonym of Dinochloa acutiflora (Munro) S.Dransf.? Native.
  3. Dinochloa elmeri Gamble, PJS 5 (1910) Bot. 280; Camus, Bamb. (1913) 170; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 100; Type: Elmer 6542 (K, 3 sheets; US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Sto. Tomas, Jun-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Mossy forests, 2200m. Native.
  4. Dinochloa luconiae (Munro) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 100; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 17; ≡ Bambusa luconiae Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26 (1868) 115. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Cavite, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: ?Zamboanga del Norte (photos), MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: In forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  5. Dinochloa oblonga S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 113. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  6. Dinochloa palawanensis (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 106; ≡ Schizostachyum palawanense Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 274; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 99. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: In forests at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Dinochloa pubiramea Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 279; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 100; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 18. = Dinochloa tjankorreh Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh., prepr. (1854) 388, nom. illeg., nom. superfl. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Surigao, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: In forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  8. Dinochloa robusta S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 47 (1992) 402. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.

Excluded

  1. Dinochloa scandens (Blume ex Nees) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 773; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 100; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 19; S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 104; ≡ Bambusa scandens Blume ex Nees, Flora 7 (1824) 291. Distribution: Java. Notes: P.B. Pelser (23-Dec-19): According to Dransfield (1996), the distribution of this species is restricted to Java.

Diplachne P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 November 2020
  1. Diplachne fusca (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 615; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 381; Fl. Manila (1912) 99; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 74; ≡ Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. i. (1829) 91; ≡ Festuca fusca L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 109; Type: from Palestine. Distribution: LUZON: Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO: Cotabato, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PALMAS. Native.
    • ssp. fusca. = Diplachne polystachya (Forssk.) Backer, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 2 (1920) 325; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 87. = Leptochloa malabarica (L.) Veldkamp, Blumea 19(1) (1971) 64; Nowack, Rheedea 4 (1994) 84; ≡ Panicum malabaricum (L.) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 248; EPFP 1 (1923) 65; ≡ Poa malabarica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 69, nom. rej. Distribution: Africa, Asia, Australia. LUZON: Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO: Cotabato, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PALMAS. Notes: Perennial. In swampy often brackish places at low elevation. Conservation status: Not threatened (Snow et al. 2018). Naturalized.

Echinochloa P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 January 2022
  1. Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. 2 (1833) 209, as ‘colonum’; ≡ Panicum colonum L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 870; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 91; EPFP 1 (1923) 62. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. BALABAC, BOHOL, CAMIGUIN, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SAN MIGUEL, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation, in open, rather wet places. Native.
  2. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 53; ≡ Panicum crus-galli L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 56; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 91; EPFP 1 (1923) 63. = Echinochloa glabrescens Munro ex Hook.f. & Kossenko, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 11 (1949) 40. Distribution: Cosmopolitan. BALABAC, CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO, PALMAS. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation, in open wet places, rice paddies, etc. Very polymorphic. Not native to the Philippines (CABI 2019). Naturalized.
    • var. mutica (Elliott) Rydb., Bull. Colorado Agric. Exp. Sta. 100 (1906) 21; Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 268; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 63; ≡ Panicum crus-galli var. muticum Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 1 (1821) 114. Distribution: Pantropic. BALABAC, LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal, PALMAS. Naturalized.
  3. Echinochloa picta (J.Koenig) P.W.Michael, Philipp. J. Weed Sci. 5 (1978) 18; ≡ Panicum pictum J.Koenig, Naturforscher (Halle) 23 (1788) 204. Distribution: Africa to Pacific Ocean. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Often confused with the next, hence distribution uncertain. Native.
  4. Echinochloa stagnina (Retz.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 57; ≡ Panicum stagninum Retz., Obs. 4 (1786) 17; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 91; EPFP 1 (1923) 68; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 75. = Panicum crus-galli L. var. stagninum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 783. Distribution: Africa to Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Babuyan Isls and Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. Open wet places, swamps, borders of lakes and streams, at low and medium elevation. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Kunth) Schult., Mant. 2 (1824) 269; ≡ Oplismenus crus-pavonis Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1 (1816) 108. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed, in rice, but no specimens cited.
  2. Echinochloa oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch, Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 41 (1891) 742; ≡ Panicum oryzoides Ard., Aminadv. Bot. Spec. Alt. (1764) 15. Distribution: Afghanistan, China, Japan, Korea, Pakistan, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam, W Asia. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.

Ehrharta Thunb.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016
  1. Ehrharta stipoides Labill., Pl. Nov. Holl. 1 (1804) 91; Willemse, Blumea 28 (1982) 189; ≡ Microlaena stipoides (Labill.) R.Br., Prodr. (1910) 210; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 78. Distribution: LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Mountain Province, Zambales, MINDORO. Native.
    • ssp. stipoides. Distribution: Australia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, New Zealand, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Mountain Province, Zambales. Notes: Open slopes and ridges, along mountain trails, etc., 1500-2300m. Common in the pine forest. Native.

Eleusine Gaertn. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 August 2021
  1. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1 (1788) 8; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 104; EPFP 1 (1923) 85; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 78; ≡ Cynosurus indicus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 72. Distribution: Palaeotropics. BATAN, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: An abundant weed along roadsides, cultivated lands, pastures, and other open sites in the settled areas throughout the Philippines, 0-2000m. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Eleusine coracana Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1 (1788) 8; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 25. Distribution: Africa. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Cultivated in improved pastures of the Philippines (Santos 1986). Used to be widely cultivated and may persist here and there. Not truly naturalized (Peterson et al. 2021). Locally a preferred cereal. Finger millet. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Enteropogon Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 September 2017
  1. Enteropogon dolichostachyus (Lag.) Keng ex Lazarides, Austral. J. Bot. Suppl. 5 (1972) 31; ≡ Chloris dolichostachya Lag., Gen. et Sp. Nov. (1816) 5. = Chloris digitata (Roxb.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 207; ≡ Melica digitata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1832) 328. = Chloris incompleta Roth, Nov. Sp. Pl. (1821) 60; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 84. = Chloris mearnsii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 220; EPFP 1 (1923) 84. Distribution: India to China, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan. CEBU, GUIMARAS, JOLO, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Zambales, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Dry open sandy soil at low elevation, sometimes along the seashore. Native.

Eragrostis Wolf

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 March 2022
  1. Eragrostis aspera Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill (1841) 408; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 166. Distribution: Africa to India. LUZON: NCR. Notes: Cultivated and escaping. Annuals. Naturalized.
  2. Eragrostis atrovirens (Desf.) Trin. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1 (1840) 562; ≡ Poa atrovirens Desf., Fl. Atlant. 1 (1798) 73. = Eragrostis elongata auct. non (Willd.) Jacq.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 88. = Eragrostis luzoniensis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 266; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 178. = Eragrostis chariis (Schult.) Hitchc., Lingnan Sci. J. 7 (1931) 193; ≡ Poa chariis Schult., Mant. 2 (1824) 314. Distribution: Old World tropics & subtropics, Philippines. GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SEMIRARA. Native.
  3. Eragrostis brownii (Kunth) Nees in Steud., Nom. Bot. 1 (1841) 562; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 169; ≡ Poa brownii Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1 (1829) 112. Distribution: India to China, New Zealand, Sri Lanka. GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
  4. Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vignolo ex Janch., Mitt. Naturw. Ver. Univ. Wien 5 (1907) 110; Vignolo-Lutati, Malpighia 18 (1904) 386; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 88; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 171; ≡ Poa cilianensis All., Fl. Pedem. 2 (1785) 246. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, C Asia, China, Europe, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, W Asia. CEBU, NEGROS. Notes: Open waste places at low elevation. Native.
  5. Eragrostis cumingii Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 266; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 172. = Uniola paniculata Llanos, Fragm. Pl. Filip. (1851) 32. Distribution: CULION, HERMANA MAYOR, LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
    • var. cumingii; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 172. = Eragrostis elongata auct. non (Willd.) Jacq.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 88. = Eragrostis elegantula auct. non Steud.; Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 148; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 102. = Eragrostis distans Hack., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 81; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 102; EPFP 1 (1923) 88. = Eragrostis reflexa Hack., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 168; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 90. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, China, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. CULION, HERMANA MAYOR, LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Common in open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Naturalized.
  6. Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 6, 1 (1830) 450; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 384; EPFP 1 (1923) 89; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 176; ≡ Diandrochloa japonica (Thunb.) A.N.Henry, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 9 (1968) 290; ≡ Poa japonica Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 51. = Eragrostis interrupta auct. non P.Beauv.; Doell in Mart., Fl. Bras. 3: 157; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 101. = Diandrochloa diarrhena (Schult. & Schult.f.) A.N.Henry, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 9 (1968) 290; ≡ Eragrostis diarrhena (Schult. & Schult.f.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 266; ≡ Poa diarrhena Schult. & Schult.f., Mant. 3 (1827) 616. = Eragrostis japonica var. interrupta (Lam.) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 424; ≡ Poa interrupta Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 185. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, W Asia. BALABAC, CULION, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Benguet, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Open wet grasslands, along streams, etc., at low and medium elevation. Native.
  7. Eragrostis lasioclada Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 382; EPFP 1 (1923) 90; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 177; ≡ Ectrosia lasioclada (Merr.) S.T.Blake, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 84 (1973) 65; ≡ Ectrosiopsis lasioclada (Merr.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 268; Type: Merrill 461. Distribution: Australia, New Guinea, Philippines. CULION, PALAWAN. Notes: Fallow of rice paddies. Perennials. Native.
  8. Eragrostis multicaulis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 426; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 181. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, W & E Asia. LUZON. Notes: Annuals. Native.
  9. Eragrostis nutans (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1 (1840) 563; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 57; ≡ Poa nutans Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 19. Distribution: India to Malesia, Philippines. BATAN. Native.
  10. Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 71; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 102; EPFP 1 (1923) 90; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 183; ≡ Poa pilosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 68. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Andaman Isls, Asia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Europe, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal, MINDANAO, NEGROS. Notes: An introduced weed in open wasteland, abundant. Naturalized.
  11. Eragrostis riparia (Willd.) Nees in Mart., Fl. Bras. 2 (1829) 512; Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 272; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 184; ≡ Poa riparia Willd., Neue Schriften Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 4 (1803) 185. Distribution: India, Philippines, Sri Lanka. LUZON. Notes: Several collections between 1902 and 1925, even in Manila, but not collected since. “Rather rare in Malesia. Some (specimens) from British New Guinea” (Jansen 1953). Native.
  12. Eragrostis spartinoides Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 265; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 102; EPFP 1 (1923) 90; Type: Cuming 668 (L), Luzon: Laguna. Distribution: Australasia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, SE Asia. LUZON: Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Open grasslands at low elevation. Native.
  13. Eragrostis tenella (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. 2 (1817) 576; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 101; Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 274; Peterson et al., Taxon 67 (2018) 644; ≡ Poa tenella L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 69. = Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight & Arn., Cat. Indian Pl. 2 (1834) 105; Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechy Voy. (1841) 251; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 88; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 164; ≡ Poa amabilis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 68. = Eragrostis mangalorica Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 265; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 101; EPFP 1 (1923) 90. Distribution: Palaeotropics. BATAN, CEBU, LUZON, PALAWAN. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines. In and about towns, a very common weed in open waste places. Native.
  14. Eragrostis tenuifolia (A.Rich.) Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 268; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 187; ≡ Poa tenuifolia A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2 (1850) 425. Distribution: Africa to Vietnam. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Roadsides. Naturalized.
  15. Eragrostis unioloides (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 264; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 102; EPFP 1 (1923) 90; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 187; ≡ Poa unioloides Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1789) 19. Distribution: Cryptogenic. BUSUANGA, LUZON: Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Cryptogenic, but native to Old World tropics. Widespread in SE Asia. Perennials. Open wet places at low elevation. Native.
  16. Eragrostis viscosa (Retz.) Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 1 (1830) 397; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 101; EPFP 1 (1923) 91; ≡ Poa viscosa Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 20. Distribution: Africa, Middle East, Philippines, SE Asia. Notes: P.B. Pelser (2-Dec-20): Or does this name refer to Eragrostis tenella for Philippine plants? Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. (1841) 397; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 173; ≡ Poa curvula Schrad., Gött. Gel. Anz. 3 (1821) 2073. Distribution: Africa. LUZON: NCR. Notes: Cultivated. P.B. Pelser (29-Nov-20): I have thus far not seen any specimens and assume here that it is not naturalized. Weeping lovegrass. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. (1841) 406; Veldkamp, Blumea 47 (2002) 182; ≡ Poa pectinacea Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1 (1803) 69. Distribution: America. LUZON. Notes: Cultivated. P.B. Pelser (29-Nov-20): I have thus far not seen any specimens and assume here that it is not naturalized. Tufted lovegrass. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Eragrostis ciliaris (L.) R.Br. in J.H.Tuckey, Narr. Exped. Zaire (1818) 478; ≡ Poa ciliaris L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 875. Distribution: Old World tropics & subtropics, ?Philippines.
  2. Eragrostis elongata (Willd.) J.Jacq., Ecl. Gram. Rar. (1813) t. 3; ≡ Poa elongata Willd., Enum. Pl. (1809) 108. Distribution: ?Philippines, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia. Notes: L.L.Co: This has been misapplied to several species, e.g. Eragrostis atrovirens, Eragrostis brownii, Eragrostis cumingii, Eragrostis luzoniensis. Actually it is the same as the New Guinea - Australian Eragrostis diandra (R.Br.) Steud.

Excluded

  1. Eragrostis interrupta P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 71; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 89. Distribution: Australia. Notes: P.B. Pelser (29-Nov-20): The text in Veldkamp's unpublished 'Annotated checklist of Philippine herbaceous Gramineae' suggests that the name Eragrostis interrupta has been misapplied in the Philippines for plants of Egragrostis brownii (Kunth) Nees and Eragrostis cumingii Steud.

Eremochloa Buse

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 September 2017
  1. Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 331; EPFP 1 (1923) 39; Buitenhuis & Veldk., Blumea 46 (2001) 406; ≡ Nardus ciliaris L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 53. Distribution: Australia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela. Notes: Open grasslands at low elevation. Rare. Native.

Eriachne R.Br.

  1. Eriachne pallescens R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 184; Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 630; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 82; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 79. Distribution: India to China through Malesia to Australia, Philippines. CULION, HERMANA MAYOR, LUZON, PALAWAN. Notes: Open grassy places up to 550m. Native.
  2. Eriachne triseta Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 237; Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 147; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 82; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 93; ≡ Massia triseta (Nees ex Steud.) Balansa in Morot, J. de Bot. 4 (1890) 165. Distribution: Sri Lanka to Australia. CULION, LUZON, PALAWAN. Notes: Open grasslands at low elevation. Native.

Eriochloa Kunth

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 July 2020
  1. Eriochloa procera (Retz.) C.E.Hubb., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1930 (1930) 256; Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 276; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 29; ≡ Agrostis procera Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 19. = Eriochloa ramosa (Retz.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 775; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 85; EPFP 1 (1923) 58; ≡ Milium ramosum Retz., Observ. Bot. 6 (1791) 22. = Eriochloa procera var. involucrata (Hack. ex Merr.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 276; ≡ Eriochloa ramosa var. involucrata Hack. ex Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 349; EPFP 1 (1923) 58. Distribution: Africa to Australia. BOHOL, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LUZON: Bulacan, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAN MIGUEL. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Annual. Usually in open, damp grasslands at low and medium elevation. Native.

Eulalia Kunth

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 December 2019
  1. Eulalia leschenaultiana (Decne.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18 (1947) 2; ≡ Andropogon leschenaultianus Decne., Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 3 (1834) 357. = Pollinia fulva auct. non (R.Br.) Benth.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 33. Distribution: India to China, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, MINDORO. Notes: Open grasslands, sandy river bars, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1200m. Native.
  2. Eulalia maritima (Merr.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 68 (1922) 204; ≡ Pollinia maritima Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 326; EPFP 1 (1923) 34. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUMBUCAN. Notes: Sandy seashore. Distribution and habitat suggest sea dispersal. Synonym of Eulalia ridleyi (Hack.) Stapf ex Ridl.? Native.

Eulaliopsis Honda

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 September 2017
  1. Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C.E.Hubb., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 33 (1935) 6; ≡ Andropogon binatus Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1789) 21. = Ischaemum angustifolium (Trin.) Hack. ex Oliv. in Hook., Icon. III, 8 (1888) t. 1773; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 37; ≡ Spodiopogon angustifolius Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 300. Distribution: Afghanistan to China, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, PALAWAN. Notes: Open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Native.

Eustachys Desv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 September 2017
  1. Eustachys tenera (J.Presl) A.Camus, Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Colon. 5 (1925) 208; ≡ Chloris tenera (J.Presl) Scribn., Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 41; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 84; ≡ Cynodon tener J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 291. Distribution: China, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand. BOHOL, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, CEBU, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO, NEGROS, SAMAR, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Open places at low elevation. Native.

Festuca L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 March 2022
  1. Festuca bromoides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 75; ≡ Vulpia bromoides (L.) Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2 (1822) 124. Distribution: Europe. LUZON: Benguet. Naturalized.
  2. Festuca leptopogon Stapf in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 (1896) 354. Distribution: India to China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. LUZON. Notes: Known from Mt Simacoco (BS 40326 Ramos & Edaño, L). Photos. Native.
  3. Festuca myuros L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 74; Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 369; ≡ Vulpia myuros (L.) J.F.Gmel., Fl. Bad. 1 (1806) 8. = Festuca megalura Nutt., J. Acad. Sci. Phila. ii, 1 (1847) 188; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 92; ≡ Vulpia megalura (Nutt.) Rydb., Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 36 (1909) 358; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 131. Distribution: Europe, W Asia. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: In open grassy places, 1460-2300m. Merrill (1922): “A native of the west coast of North and South America, introduced in Portugal, and a recent introduction in Benguet”. Naturalized.

Fimbribambusa Widjaja

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020
  1. Fimbribambusa horsfieldii (Munro) Widjaja, Reinwardtia 11 (1997) 81; ≡ Bambusa horsfieldii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 115; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 6. = Bambusa cornuta Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 113; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 94. Distribution: Java, New Guinea, Philippines, ?Sulawesi. LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: In ravines along small streams, 1000-1600m. Native.

Garnotia Brongn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 February 2018
  1. Garnotia stricta Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1831) 132; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 81. Distribution: BASILAN, BOHOL, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. acutigluma (Steud.) Veldkamp, Blumea 59 (2015) 232; ≡ Garnotia acutigluma (Steud.) Ohwi, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 55 (1941) 393; ≡ Urachne acutigluma Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 121; Type: from Java. Distribution: China, Moluccas, Nepal, Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON, MINDANAO. Native.
    • var. longiseta Hack., Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 12 (1909) 141; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 81; Type: Merrill in Kneucker Gram. Exsicc. 744 (W, holo; B, BM, E, G, K, L, UC, US, WAG, iso). = Garnotia mindanaensis Santos, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 33 (1943) 135; Type: Bartlett 17235 (MICH, holo; US, iso). Distribution: Australia, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, ?Sumatra. BOHOL, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO. Notes: Chiefly in the montane zone up to 2300m, but occurring also at low or medium elevation. Native.
    • var. stricta. = Garnotia philippinensis Santos, J. Arnold Arbor. 25 (1944) 94; Ramos BS 42963 (US, holo; K, PNH (lost), UC, iso). Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao. On talus slopes, along streams, etc., at low and medium elevation. Native.

Gigantochloa Kurz ex Munro (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020
  1. Gigantochloa levis (Blanco) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 61; EPFP 1 (1923) 96; Wong in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 109; Widjaja, Reinwardtia 10 (1987) 353; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 21; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3975; ≡ Bambusa levis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 272; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 310 (K, holo; BM, BO, L, iso), Luzon: Tayabas, Mar-1914. = Dendrocalamus curranii Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) 271; Type: Curran BF 10177 (K, holo; BO, iso), Luzon: Tayabas, Sampaloe, Mar-1908. = Gigantochloa scribneriana Merr., PJS 1 (Suppl. 5) (1906) 390; Type: Lamson-Scribner 14 (PNH, holo, lost), Cuyo. Area of origin unknown. Distribution: CAMIGUIN, CULION, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, POLILLO. Notes: Probably an introduced species in the Philippines. Usually planted, but reportedly naturalized to a certain degree (Wong 1995). Secondary forest and in and around settlements. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Gigantochloa atroviolacea Widjaja, Reinwardtia 10 (1987) 323; Widjaja in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 102. Notes: Area of origin unknown. Cultivated, not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Gigantochloa atter (Hassk.) Kurz, Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 27 (1864) 226; Widjaja, Reinwardtia 10 (1987) 316; Rifai in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 104; ≡ Bambusa thouarsii var. atter Hassk., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1848) 41. Distribution: Cryptogenic. MINDANAO: Davao, POLILLO. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Hackelochloa Kuntze

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 September 2017
  1. Hackelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 776; ≡ Mnesithea granularis (L.) de Koning & Sosef, Blumea 31 (1986) 295; ≡ Cenchrus granularis L., Mant. Pl. Altera (1771) 575; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 329; Fl. Manila (1912) 79; EPFP 1 (1923) 41; Santos, Guide to Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 83. Distribution: Pantropic. BATAN, CEBU, GUIMARAS, JOLO, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: In most islands and provinces (Santos 1986). In disturbed soil, open waste places, old clearings, etc., at low and medium elevation. Native.

Heteropogon Pers.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 December 2021
  1. Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. 2 (1817) 836; ≡ Andropogon contortus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1045; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 83; EPFP 1 (1923) 44; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 83. Distribution: Africa, America, Australia, China, Europe, India, Japan, Middle East. CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, La Union, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Misamis, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Not native to the Philippines (Merrill 1912); in open grasslands at low and medium elevation, often very abundant. Naturalized.
  2. Heteropogon triticeus (R.Br.) Stapf ex Craib, Kew Bull. (1912) 432; ≡ Andropogon triticeus R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 201; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 48. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. BUSUANGA, LUZON: Abra, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, MINDANAO. Notes: Open grasslands at low or medium elevation. Native.

Holcus L. (Not native)

Possibly present

  1. Holcus lanatus L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 1048. Distribution: LUZON: Benguet (photos). Notes: Possibly represented in photos by Leonard Co. Naturalized.

Hymenachne P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 September 2017
  1. Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge) Nees, Agrost. Bras. (1829) 276; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 84; ≡ Panicum amplexicaule Rudge, Pl. Guian. (1805) 21; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1923) 61. Distribution: Australia, India to China, S America. ALABAT, LUZON, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur, PALAWAN. Notes: In open swamps and along swampy margins of lakes and streams at low elevation. Native.
  2. Hymenachne aurita (J.Presl ex Nees) Backer in Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind. ed. 2 (1922) 197; Balansa, J. de Bot. 4 (1890) 144; ≡ Dallwatsonia aurita (J.Presl ex Nees) J.R.Grande, Phytoneuron 2014-22 (2014) 3; ≡ Panicum auritum J.Presl ex Nees in Mart., Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2 (1829) 176; J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 305. = Panicum auritum var. procerius J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 305; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1923) 61. Distribution: Malesia, New Guinea, Sri Lanka to China. BALABAC, CATANDUANES, CULION, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Common in open, rather wet places, swampy margins of` lakes and sluggish rivers, at low and medium elevation. Native.

Hyparrhenia Andersson ex E.Fourn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 November 2020
  1. Hyparrhenia filipendula (Hochst.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1918) 360; ≡ Andropogon filipendulus Hochst., Flora 29 (1846) 115. Distribution: LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. filipendula. Distribution: Africa, Madagascar. Naturalized.
    • var. pilosa (Hochst.) Stapf in Oliv. et al., Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 304; ≡ Andropogon filipendulus var. pilosus Hochst., Flora 29 (1846) 115. = Hyparrhenia filipendula var. lachnatherus (Benth.) Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 635; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 44. = Andropogon filipendulus forma bispiculata Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 269; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 45. Distribution: Africa to Australia, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: In the Cordillera Highlands of Luzon. Open grasslands at 1100-1600m. Native.
  2. Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf in D.Oliver et al., Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 304; ≡ Trachypogon rufus Nees in Mart., Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2 (1829) 345. Distribution: LUZON: Bataan, MINDORO. Naturalized.
    • var. rufa. Distribution: Africa, Indian Ocean. LUZON: Bataan. Notes: Naturalized in open grassland. P.B. Pelser (30-Nov-20): Not listed by Veldkamp in his unpublished 'Annotated checklist of Philippine herbaceous Gramineae', but he did annotate a specimen in L using this name (Vera Santos 7713). Naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Hyparrhenia newtonii (Hack.) Stapf in D.Oliver et al., Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 363; ≡ Andropogon newtonii Hack., Bol. Soc. Brot. 3 (1885) 137.
    • var. newtonii. Distribution: Africa, China to Indochina and New Guinea, Madagascar, ?Philippines.

Ichnanthus P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 September 2017
  1. Ichnanthus pallens (Sw.) Munro ex Benth., Fl. Hongk. (1861) 414; ≡ Panicum pallens Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 23. Distribution: BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Kalinga, Laguna, Mountain Province, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. pallens. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, S America. LUZON, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. major (Nees) Stieber, Syst. Bot. 12 (1987) 207; ≡ Panicum pallens var. majus Nees in Mart., Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2 (1829) 138. = Ichnanthus vicinus (F.M.Bailey) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 70; ≡ Panicum vicinum F.M.Bailey, Syn. Queensl. Fl., Suppl. 3 (1890) 82. Distribution: Africa, America, Australia, Bangladesh, Caribbean, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Kalinga, Laguna, Mountain Province, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: On forested slopes and ridges up to 1400. Known from Cebu from Bicknell 1172. Native.

Imperata Cyrillo

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 February 2018
  1. Imperata conferta (J.Presl) Ohwi, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55 (1941) 549; ≡ Saccharum confertum J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 346. = Imperata exaltata ssp. merrillii Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 264; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 31. Distribution: SE Asia to New Guinea. BOHOL, LUZON, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAN MIGUEL, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Probably much more widespread, although much less common than the next species. On exposed ridges, 1500-2250m. Probably not really distinct from Imperata cylindrica (Delia Co, pers. comm.). Native.
  2. Imperata cylindrica (L.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. (1812) 165; ≡ Lagurus cylindricus L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 878. = Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii (Retz.) Benth. ex Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 137; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 76; ≡ Saccharum koenigii Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1789) 16. = Imperata cylindrica var. major (Nees) C.E.Hubb. & Vaughan, Grasses of Mauritius & Rodriguez (1940) 96; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 34; ≡ Imperata koenigii var. major Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. (1841) 90. Distribution: Africa, Asia, Australia, Pacific Ocean. ALABAT, BATAN, CEBU, LUZON, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Open slopes, often gregariously occupying enormous areas, forming characteristic kogonales, the name of these areas being taken from its almost universal local name kogon. Ascending to 2300m. Native.

Isachne R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 September 2019
  1. Isachne albens Trin., Sp. Gram. 1 (1828) t. 85. = Isachne magna (Merr.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 327; EPFP 1 (1923) 59; ≡ Isachne beneckei var. magna Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 350; Type: Merrill 4541 (PNH, lost; K, lecto). = Isachne apoensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2676; Type: Elmer 11578 (US 00134039, lecto; PNH lost, BO, BISH, E, HBG, K, L, NY, isolecto). Distribution: LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao, MINDORO, NEGROS. Native.
    • var. albens. Distribution: India to Taiwan, New Guinea, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao, NEGROS. Notes: In the mossy forest, 600-2400m. Native.
  2. Isachne clarkei Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 7 (1896) 24; Type: from India. = Isachne beneckei Hack., Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 51 (1901) 459; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 350; EPFP 1 (1923) 58. Distribution: Borneo, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Pampanga. Notes: Open wet places, borders of cold pools and sphagnum swamps, and on narrow forested ridges, 800-2600m. Native.
  3. Isachne globosa (Thunb.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 778; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 59; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 86; ≡ Milium globosum Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 49. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO: Lanao. Notes: Usually below 700m. Native.
  4. Isachne minutula (Gaudich.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 2 (1831) t. 117; ≡ Panicum minutulum Gaudich., Voy. Uranie (1829) 410. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam. BASILAN, BILIRAN, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, PANAY. Native.
  5. Isachne myosotis Nees in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 98; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 349; EPFP 1 (1923) 60. = Isachne debilis Rendle ex Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36 (1904) 322; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 350; EPFP 1 (1923) 58. = Isachne micrantha Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 168; EPFP 2 (1922) 59. = Isachne incrassata (Hack.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 168; EPFP 1 (1923) 59; ≡ Isachne debilis var. incrassata Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 268. = Isachne pauciflora Hack., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 80; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 60. = Isachne depauperata (Hack.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 58; ≡ Isachne pauciflora var. depauperata (Hack.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 288; ≡ Isachne beneckei forma depauperata Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 350. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS. Native.
  6. Isachne pangerangensis Zoll. & Moritzi, Syst. Verz. Zoll. (1846) 102. = Isachne pangerangensis var. halconensis Hack., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 167; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 60; Type: Merrill 6203 (W, lecto; K, L, PNH lost, isolecto), Mindoro: Mt Halcon. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON, MINDORO. Native.
  7. Isachne pulchella Roth ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 2 (1817) 476. = Isachne conferta Merr., PJS 9 (1914) Bot. 261; EPFP 1 (1923) 58. = Isachne miliacea Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 58; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 89; EPFP 1 (1923) 59. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. BILIRAN, BUSUANGA, LUZON, MINDANAO, PANAY. Notes: Open wet places, old rice paddies, boulders and ledges along streams at low or medium elevation, often abundant. Native.
  8. Isachne schmidtii Hack., Bot. Tidsskr. 24 (1901) 97. = Isachne kunthiana auct. non (Wight & Arn. ex Steud.) Nees ex Miq. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. BOHOL, LUZON. Notes: Below 700m. Native.
  9. Isachne stricta Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 463; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 60; Type: Elmer 10425 (US, lecto; PNH lost, B, BISH, BO, E, HBG, K, L, NY, U, US, Z, isolecto). Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. NEGROS. Native.
  10. Isachne vulcanica Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 169; EPFP 1 (1923) 60; ≡ Isachne clementis var. vulcanica (Merr.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 282; Type: Merrill 6975 (US, lecto; PNH lost, B, BO, K, L, isolecto), Negros: Kanlaon Volcano, Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: Cushion plant on bare slopes of the old crater of Kanlaon Volcano, 1100-2100m. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Isachne arfakensis Ohwi, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 56 (1942) 4; Type: not from the Philippines. Distribution: New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, ?Philippines. ?LUZON. Notes: 2400m. P.B. Pelser (8-Sep-2019): Not listed for the Philippines by Veldkamp (2018). Misapplied name for the morphologically similar Isachne albens var. albens?
  2. Isachne brassii Hitchc., Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 54 (1929) 146. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, ?Philippines, Sulawesi. ?DINAGAT, ?LUZON. Notes: 200-975m. P.B. Pelser (8-Sep-2019): Not listed for the Philippines by Veldkamp (2018). Misapplied name for the morphologically similar Isachne minutula?
  3. Isachne villosa (Hitchc.) Reeder, J. Arn. Arb. 29 (1948) 314; Henty, Man. Grasses New Guin. (1969) 114; ≡ Isachne brassii var. villosa Hitchc., Brittonia 2 (1936) 123. Distribution: New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, ?Philippines. Notes: L.L.Co: Philippine materials determined by Santos as Isachne cf. brassii may belong to this species; this species is mentioned by Henty (1969) but not seen. P.B. Pelser (8-Sep-2019): Not listed for the Philippines by Veldkamp (2018). Misapplied name for the morphologically similar Isachne clarkei?

Ischaemum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 September 2017
  1. Ischaemum barbatum Retz., Observ. Bot. 6 (1791) 35. = Ischaemum barbatum var. gibbum (Trin.) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11 (1942) 175; ≡ Ischaemum aristatum var. gibbum (Trin.) Hack. in A.DC. & C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 6 (1889) 204; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 80; EPFP 1 (1923) 37; ≡ Ischaemum gibbum Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 295. Distribution: Australia, India to China. BOHOL, BUSUANGA, CULION, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Bulacan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Open grasslands at low and medium elevation; often common. Native.
  2. Ischaemum ciliare Retz., Obs. 6 (1791) 36; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 37, excl. Batan specimens cited (which are Ischaemum setaceum). Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BATAN, LUZON. Native.
  3. Ischaemum glaucescens Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 263; EPFP 1 (1923) 37. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: In shallow water, borders of Lake Manguao, at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Ischaemum merrillii Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 266; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 38. = Ischaemum arundinaceum var. radicans Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 266. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: In open rather wet places, c.1500m. Native.
  5. Ischaemum minus J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1829) 329. Distribution: Pacific Ocean to Philippines, S America. Notes: Native? Native.
  6. Ischaemum muticum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1049; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 330; EPFP 1 (1923) 38. Distribution: India to Australia, Philippines. BALABAC, CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: A common beach grass in the Philippines. Native.
  7. Ischaemum philippinense Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11 (1942) 175. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  8. Ischaemum polystachyum J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 328. = Ischaemum digitatum Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1831) 70. = Ischaemum intermedium Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1831) Bot. 73; Fl. Manila (1912) 80; EPFP 1 (1923) 38. = Ischaemum todayense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2678; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 39. Distribution: Malay Peninsula to New Guinea and Pacific Ocean, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, Surigao, MINDORO, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Open wet grassy places, ravines in secondary forests, etc. at low elevation to c. 900m. Native.
  9. Ischaemum pubescens Merr., PJS 9 (1914) Bot. 264; EPFP 1 (1923) 38. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. DUMARAN. Notes: Twice found. open grasslands at low elevation. Native.
  10. Ischaemum rugosum Salisb., Icon. (1791) 1; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 87. = Ischaemum rugosum var. distachyum (Cav.) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 330; Fl. Manila (1912) 80; EPFP 1 (1923) 38; ≡ Colladoa distachya Cav., Icon. 5 (1799) 37. Distribution: India to China, Malesia, Philippines. BUSUANGA, CATANDUANES, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Annual. Open usually rather wet grasslands. Native.
  11. Ischaemum setaceum Honda, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 38 (1924) 54; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 57. = Ischaemum ciliare auct. non Retz.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 37, as to Batan specimens cited only. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN. Notes: Open grasslands and wet littoral cliff, locally rare. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Ischaemum australe R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 205. Distribution: Indochina to Australia, ?Philippines.
  2. Ischaemum timorense Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1 (1830) 369. Distribution: India to Pacific Ocean, ?Philippines.

Koordersiochloa Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 September 2017
  1. Koordersiochloa longiarista (A.Rich.) Veldkamp, Reinwardtia 13 (2012) 301; ≡ Streblochaete longiarista (A.Rich.) Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 516; Steenis, Mountain Fl. Java (1972) pl. 22-15; ≡ Trisetum longiaristum A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2 (1850) 417. = Koordersiochloa javanica Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 67; PJS 30 (1926) 390. Distribution: Africa, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Mossy forest, c. 2400m. Native.

Leersia Sw.

  1. Leersia hexandra Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 21; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 78; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 88. Distribution: Africa, America, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: N Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Open freshwater wetlands, rice paddies, etc. at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 21; ≡ Phalaris oryzoides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 55. Distribution: Europe, N America, W & E Asia. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.

Leptaspis R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 September 2017
  1. Leptaspis banksii R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1 (1810) 211. = Leptaspis cumingii Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 416; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 76. Distribution: Australia, Java, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan. BONGAO, JOLO, MINDANAO: Davao, Misamis. Notes: In forests at low or medium elevation. Native.
  2. Leptaspis zeylanica Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1853) 8. Distribution: Africa to Solomon Isls, Philippines. MINDANAO. Native.

Leptatherum Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 September 2019
  1. Leptatherum nudum (Trin.) C.Hui Chen, Kuoh & Veldkamp, Blumea 54 (2009) 179; ≡ Microstegium nudum (Trin.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon 68 (1921) 201; ≡ Pollinia nuda Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 6 (1833) 307; Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 178; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 34. Distribution: Africa, China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Mossy forest clearings, 2000-2400m. Native.

Lepturus P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser. 13 September 2017
  1. Lepturus repens (G.Forst.) R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 207; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 91; ≡ Monerma repens (G.Forst.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 117; Hack., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 81; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 93; ≡ Rottboellia repens G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. (1786) 9. Distribution: BANCORAN, BATAN, CEBU, CULION, CUYO ARCHIPELAGO, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PALMAS, SAN MIGUEL, SULU ARCHIPELAGO, URSULA. Native.
    • ssp. repens. Distribution: Africa to Pacific Ocean, Philippines. BANCORAN, BATAN, CEBU, CULION, CUYO ARCHIPELAGO, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PALMAS, SAN MIGUEL, SULU ARCHIPELAGO, URSULA. Notes: Sandy and rocky seashores, also as a coarse lawn grass. CAGOACAN, Magsaysay, TAMLANGON. Native.

Lolium L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 November 2020
  1. Lolium temulentum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 83. Distribution: Africa, Eurasia, Europe. Notes: Naturalized as a weed in rice (Moody 1989). Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Lolium multiflorum Lam., Fl. Franç. 3 (1779) 621. Distribution: Africa, Eurasia, Europe. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Lophatherum Brongn.

  1. Lophatherum gracile Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1831) 50; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 91; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 92. = Lophatherum gracile var. pilosum A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 25 (1919) 495; Merr., EPFP 1(1922) 91. Distribution: Australia, India to Japan, Malesia, Philippines. BASILAN, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Camarines, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, POLILLO. Notes: In forests, along trails, and in old clearings, chiefly at medium elevation. Native.

Megathyrsus (Pilg.) B.K.Simon & S.W.L.Jacobs (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 December 2021
  1. Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) B.K.Simon & S.W.L.Jacobs, Austrobaileya 6 (2003) 572; ≡ Panicum maximum Jacq., Icon. Pl. Rar. 1 (1781) t. 13; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 93; EPFP 1 (1923) 65; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 53; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 197; ≡ Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R.D.Webster, Australian Paniceae (Poac.) (1987) 24. Distribution: Africa, Indian Ocean, Middle East. CEBU, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Extensively cultivated for forage purposes. Waste areas, roadsides. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Guinea grass. Naturalized.

Melinis P.Beauv. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020
  1. Melinis minutiflora P.Beauv., Ess. Agrost. (1812) 54; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 94. Distribution: Africa, S America. LUZON, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: Naturalized in open fields. Forage grass. Naturalized.
  2. Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka, Biblioth. Bot. 55 (1988) 138; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 118; ≡ Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E.Hubb., Kew Bull. (1934) 110; ≡ Saccharum repens Willd., Sp. Pl. 1 (1797) 322. Distribution: Africa, Middle East. APO, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS. Naturalized.
    • ssp. repens. = Rhynchelythrum roseum (Nees) Stapf & C.E.Hubb. ex Bews, World's Grasses (1929) 223; ≡ Tricholaena rosea Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. (1841) 17. Distribution: Africa, Middle East. APO, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, NEGROS. Notes: Naturalized as weed in rice (Moody 1989). Naturalized.

Microchloa R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter Pelser, 14 September 2017
  1. Microchloa indica (L.f.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr., Atlas (1812) 13; Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3 (1893) 356; Hack., Fedde Repert. 7 (1909) 373; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 74; EPFP 1 (1923) 83; ≡ Nardus indica L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 105. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Rizal. Notes: Open dry grasslands at low and medium elevation. Native.

Microstegium Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 September 2019
  1. Microstegium biaristatum (Steud.) Keng, Sinensia 3 (1932) 92; ≡ Andropogon biaristatus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 379. = Pollinia glabrata var. elmeri (Hack.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 34; ≡ Pollinia monantha var. elmeri Hack., PJS 3 (1908) 167. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDORO. Native.
  2. Microstegium eucnemis (Nees ex Steud.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n. s., 68 (1922) 200; ≡ Pollinia eucnemis Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 409. Distribution: India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. LUZON. Native.
  3. Microstegium fasciculatum (L.) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 453; ≡ Andropogon fasciculatus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1047. = Microstegium ciliatum (Trin.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon 68 (1921) 201; ≡ Pollinia ciliata Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 42 (1832) 306. = Microstegium monanthum (Nees ex Steud.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 257; ≡ Pollinia monantha Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 410. = Microstegium vagans (Nees ex Steud.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n. s., 68 (1922) 200; ≡ Pollinia vagans Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 410. = Microstegium gratum (Hack.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 258, nom. illeg., nom. superfl.; ≡ Pollinia grata Hack. in A.DC. & C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 6 (1889) 175. = Microstegium montanum (Nees ex Steud.) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 455; ≡ Pollinia montana Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 409; Type: from Java. Distribution: Africa, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Thickets in damp ravines, 1200-1500m. Native.
  4. Microstegium glabratum (Brongn.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n. s., 68 (1922) 201; ≡ Pollinia glabrata (Brongn.) Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 4, 4 (1836) 90; Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 179; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 34; ≡ Eulalia glabrata Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1831) 93. Distribution: Borneo, China, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BALUT, CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Open ravines, thickets, and old clearings at low and medium elevation. Native.
  5. Microstegium spectabile (Trin.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon 68 (1921) 200; ≡ Pollinia spectabilis Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 42 (1832) 305. Distribution: Borneo, Hong Kong, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Usually in rather wet grasslands, particularly in gullies and at forest margins. Native.
  6. Microstegium tenue (Trin.) Hosok., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 28 (1938) 150; ≡ Pollinia tenuis Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 6, 2 (1833) 307; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 35. Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Rizal. Notes: Annual. Dry open slopes, on and about cliffs, etc., 0-1200m. Native.
  7. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 260; ≡ Pollinia viminea (Trin.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 35; ≡ Andropogon vimineus Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 268. Distribution: Africa, Bhutan, India, Indochina, Japan, Java, Korea, Middle East, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal. Notes: Annuals. Open wet slopes and in the mossy forest, 1200-2200m. Native.

Miscanthus Andersson

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 September 2017
  1. Miscanthus depauperatus Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 170; EPFP 1 (1923) 32. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: Synonym of Miscanthus sinensis Andersson? Native.
  2. Miscanthus floridulus (Labill.) Warb. ex K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Sudsee (1900) 166; ≡ Saccharum floridulum Labill., Sert. Austro-Caledon. (1824) 13. = Miscanthus japonicus auct. non (Thunb.) Andersson; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 32. = Miscanthus sinensis auct. non Andersson; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 32. Distribution: China to Pacific Ocean, New Guinea, Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: In thickets, exposed ridges, road cuts and ravines, along streams, volcanic craters, fumaroles, etc. from 300-2700m, often gregarious. Native.
  3. Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Oefvers. Vet. Akad. Stockh. (1855) 166. Distribution: Borneo, China, Japan, Korea, Philippines. MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Occurs along volcanic crater vegetation on Mt Kanlaon. Cultivated forms with striped leaves are possibly also present. Native.

Mnesithea Kunth

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 July 2022
  1. Mnesithea glandulosa (Trin.) de Koning & Sosef, Blumea 31 (1986) 290; ≡ Coelorachis glandulosa (Trin.) Ridl., Fl. Mal. Penins. 5 (1925) 204; ≡ Rottboellia glandulosa Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 6, 2 (1833) 250; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 40; Santos, Guide to Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 67; Type: from Java. Distribution: Myanmar to New Guinea, Philippines. BALABAC, BOHOL, BUSUANGA, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, CULION, GUIMARAS, JOLO, LUZON: Benguet, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIARGAO, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: In thickets, old clearings, along roads and railroads, etc., up to 1525m. Native.
  2. Mnesithea laevis (Retz.) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 154; ≡ Rottboellia laevis Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 11. Distribution: LUZON: Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Lanao, Zamboanga, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. cochinchinensis (Lour.) de Koning & Sosef, Blumea 31 (1986) 286; Santos, Guide to Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 94; ≡ Heteropholis cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Kew Bull., 35 (1981) 816; ≡ Thaumastochloa cochinchinensis (Lour.) C.E.Hubb., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 34 (1936) t. 3313-3314, p. 2; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 296; ≡ Phleum cochinchinense Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 1 (1790) 48; Type: Loureiro s.n. (BM, holo). = Ophiuros monostachyus J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 330; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 79; EPFP 1 (1923) 41. Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Lanao, Zamboanga. Notes: In open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Native.
  3. Mnesithea mollicoma (Hance) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 25 (1919) 57; ≡ Rottboellia mollicoma Hance, J. Bot. 9 (1871) 134; Type: Hance 7558 (G, lecto; K, fragm. L, W, isolecto). = Rottboellia triflora F.T.Hubb., PJS 9 (1914) Bot. 257; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 40; Type: Ledesma s.n. (BH, holo; A, US, W, iso). Distribution: Java, Philippines, Sumatra, Vietnam and Thailand to China. PALAWAN. Notes: Borders of thickets at low elevation. Native.
  4. Mnesithea rottboellioides (R.Br.) de Koning & Sosef, Blumea 31 (1986) 291; ≡ Coelorhachis rottboellioides (R.Br.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon 68 (1921) 197; ≡ Rottboellia rottboellioides (R.Br.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Soc. Exch. Club Brit. Isles 1916 (1917) 644; ≡ Ischaemum rottboellioides R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 206; ≡ Rottboellia ophiuroides Benth., Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 514, nom. illeg., nom. superfl.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 40; Type: R. Brown 6156 (BM, holo; ?CANB, MEL, NSW). = Rottboellia ophiuroides var. intermedia Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 265; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 40; Type: Elmer 6393 (BO, K, PNH lost, W, lecto). Distribution: Australia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. BOHOL, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Tarlac, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO, PANAY, SIARGAO. Notes: In open grasslands at low and medium elevation, pine forest, disturbed sites, ascending to 2320m, often common. Native.

Muhlenbergia Schreb.

  1. Muhlenbergia huegelii Trin., Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. 6, 62 (1845) 293. = Muhlenbergia arisanensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Taiwan 7 (1918) 87; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 80. Distribution: India to China and Taiwan, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON. Notes: In the Cordillera Highlands. Along small streams, in old clearings, and in the mossy forest, 1300-3000m. Native.

Neololeba Widjaja

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020
  1. Neololeba atra (Lindl.) Widjaja, Reinwardtia 11 (1997) 114; ≡ Bambusa atra Lindl., Penny Cyclop. 3 (1835) 357; Widjaja in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 53. Distribution: Australia, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Planted in gardens and bambuseta. Native.

Ophiuros Gaertn.

Last edited by Pieter Pelser, 14 September 2017
  1. Ophiuros exaltatus (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 780; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 329; EPFP 1 (1923) 41; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 96; ≡ Aegilops exaltata L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 575. = Ophiuros tongcalingii (Elmer) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 520; ≡ Rottboellia tongcalingii Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2680. Distribution: Australia, India to China, Malesia, Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: In open rather damp places, borders of thickets, etc. at low and medium elevation. Common. Native.

Oplismenus P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 September 2017
  1. Oplismenus burmanni (Retz.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 54; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 94; EPFP 1 (1923) 71; ≡ Panicum burmanni Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 10. Distribution: Pantropic. GUIMARAS, LUZON: Bataan, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PANAY. Notes: In thickets at low elevation. Native.
  2. Oplismenus compositus (L.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 54; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 94; EPFP 1 (1923) 71; Santos, Guide to Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 98; ≡ Panicum compositum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 57. = Oplismenus compositus var. lasiorhachis Hack., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 81; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 71. = Oplismenus compositus var. rariflorus (J.Presl) U.Scholz, Phanerogam. Monogr. 13 (1981) 96; ≡ Oplismenus rariflorus J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 320. Distribution: Africa, America, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, Caribbean, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. BATAN, BOHOL, BUSUANGA, CAMIGUIN, CEBU, CULION, GUIMARAS, JOLO, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Throughout the Philippines (Santos 1986). In thickets, old clearings, etc., at low and medium elevation; often common. Native.
  3. Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrost. 54 (1812) 168; ≡ Panicum hirtellum L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 870. = Oplismenus undulatifolius var. imbecillis (R.Br.) Hack., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 81; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 72; ≡ Orthopogon imbecillis R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 194. = Oplismenus aemulus (R.Br.) Kunth, Enum. Plant. 1 (1833) 142; ≡ Orthopogon aemulus R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1 (1810) 194. Distribution: Pantropic. CATANDUANES, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation. Along streams in shaded places and on ridges in the mossy forest, at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2400m. A variable species. Native.
  4. Oplismenus undulatifolius (Ard.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 54; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 72; ≡ Panicum undulatifolium Ard., Animadv. Bot. Spec. Alt. (1764) 14. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Eurasia, Malesia, Middle East, Philippines. Notes: Synonym of Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P.Beauv.? Native.

Oryza L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020
  1. Oryza meyeriana (Zoll. & Moritzi) Baill., Hist. Pl. 12 (1894) 166; Benth. ex Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 145; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 77; ≡ Padia meyeriana Zoll. & Moritzi in Moritzi, Syst. Verz. Java (1846) 103. = Oryza meyeriana var. granulata (Nees & Arn. ex Watt) Duist., Blumea, 32 (1987) 185; ≡ Oryza granulata Nees & Arn. ex Watt, Dict. Econ. Prod. India 5 (1891) 500. Distribution: Philippines, Sri Lanka to China. LUZON, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Native.
  2. Oryza minuta J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 208; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 77. = Oryza manilensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 219; Fl. Manila (1912) 98. Distribution: Philippines to New Guinea. BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, SAMAR. Notes: In open wet places at low and medium elevation. Native.
  3. Oryza officinalis Wall. ex Watt, Dict. Econ. Prod. India 5 (1891) 501; Steud., Syn. Pl. Gram. (1854) 3. = Oryza minuta var. silvatica (A.Camus) Veldkamp, Blumea 37 (1992) 232; ≡ Oryza latifolia var. silvatica A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27 (1921) 456. Distribution: Australia, Philippines, Sri Lanka to China. BOHOL, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS. Native.
  4. Oryza rufipogon Griff., Not. Pl. As. 3 (1851) 5. = Oryza nivara S.D.Sharma & Shastry, Indian J. Genet. Pl. Breed. 25 (1965) 161; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 290. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO. Native.
  5. Oryza sativa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 333; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 97; EPFP 1 (1923) 77; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 98. Notes: Extensively cultivated throughout the Philippines but not a native of the Archipelago, although of prehistoric introduction. The rice plant is enormously variable and probably several hundred distinct cultural forms occur in the Archipelago. No attempt has been made to compile the very numerous local names currently applied to special varieties. Rice. Naturalized.

Ottochloa Dandy

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 February 2018
  1. Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy, J. Bot. 69 (1931) 55; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1923) 65; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 49; ≡ Panicum nodosum Kunth, Enum. Pl. 1 (1833) 97. = Ottochloa arnottiana (Steud.) Dandy, J. Bot. 69 (1931) 55; ≡ Panicum arnottianum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1853) 59. = Ottochloa fusca (Ridl.) Dandy, J. Bot. 69 (1931) 55; ≡ Hemigymnia fusca Ridl., Fl. Malay Pen. 5 (1928) 228. Distribution: Africa, Australia, India to China, Malesia, Philippines. ALABAT, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: In most islands and provinces (Santos 1986). Shaded places, thickets, old clearings, etc., low and medium elevation; common. Native.

Panicum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020
  1. Panicum bisulcatum Thunb., Nov. Acta Soc. Sc. Upsal. 7 (1815) 141; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 188. = Panicum acroanthum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 87; Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 315. Distribution: China, India to Japan, Indochina, Philippines, Sulawesi. BALABAC, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Known from Balabac from Mt Caunayan, BS 49704 Ramos & Edaño; secondary forest near stream at low elevation. Native.
  2. Panicum brevifolium L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 59; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 61; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 189. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Laos, Madagascar, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, ?Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: In thickets, along trails in shaded places, etc., at low elevation. Not native? Native.
  3. Panicum caudiglume Hack., Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 51 (1901) 428; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1923) 62; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 101; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 190. Distribution: Java, Java Sea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. CULION, LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Sur, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: In open waste places at low elevation, in regions with distinct seasonal climate. Native.
  4. Panicum curviflorum Hornem., Hort. Bot. Hafn. Suppl. (1819) 116; Veldk., Eijs & Zoetemeyer, Blumea 34 (1989) 77. = Panicum curviflorum var. suishaense (Hayata) Veldkamp in Veldkamp, Eijs & Zoetemeyer, Blumea 34 (1989) 81; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 191; ≡ Panicum suishaense Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 7 (1918) 62. = Panicum trypheron auct. non Schult.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 69; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 107. Distribution: China, India, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand. BUSUANGA, CULION, LUZON: Cagayan, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SEMIRARA. Notes: Across Malesia to New Guinea; in open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Native.
  5. Panicum flexuosum Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 9. = Panicum sumatrense Roth ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 2 (1817) 434; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 108; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 205. = Panicum psilopodium Trin., Gram. Pan. (1826) 17; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 93; EPFP 1 (1923) 66. Distribution: Africa, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal. Notes: In Malesia along the ‘drought track’ through Wallacea; in open wet places, forest edge, edge of rice fields, grassy roadside, low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Annual. Native.
  6. Panicum humile Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 84; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 64; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 100; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 194. = Panicum walense Mez, Bot. Jahrb. 34 (1904) 146, as ‘watense’. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Borneo, China, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan. BUSUANGA, CULION, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Rizal, Tarlac, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: In dry areas, open waste places, grasslands, etc., at low and medium elevation. Annual. Native.
  7. Panicum luzonense J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1828) 308; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 64; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 102; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 195. = Panicum cambogiense Balansa, J. Bot. 4 (1890) 142; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 290. = Panicum tuberculatum auct. non J.Presl; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 69. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Cavite, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, PANAY, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Annual. In open waste places, old clearings, rice fields, etc., at low and medium elevation. Native.
  8. Panicum miliaceum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 58; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 39; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 28; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 52; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 358; EPFP 1 (1923) 65; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 198. Notes: Originally from C Asia, now cultivated as a cereal or fodder in warm and temperate regions, sporadically so in former times in Malesia. Naturalized.
  9. Panicum mindanaense Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 360; EPFP 1 (1923) 65; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 199. Distribution: Philippines to New Guinea. BUSUANGA, CULION, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Batangas, Ilocos Sur, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Lanao, PALAWAN. Notes: In open places, abandoned gardens, grasslands, etc., 0-75m. Native.
  10. Panicum notatum Retz., Obs. 4 (1786) 18; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 199. = Panicum cordatum Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1854) 376; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 63; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 104. Distribution: Borneo, India to China and Taiwan, Java, Java Sea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Riau Arch, Sulawesi, Sumatra. CULION, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, La Union, Mountain Province, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Perennial. in thickets, roadsides, old clearings, steep slopes, etc., at low and medium elevation. Native.
  11. Panicum paludosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 310; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 93; EPFP 1 (1923) 66; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 104; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 200. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. GUIMARAS, LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao, PANAY. Notes: In shallow water along margins of streams and lakes, rice fields, often floating, locally dominant. Low and medium elevation. Native.
  12. Panicum repens L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 87; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 93; EPFP 1 (1923) 67; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 106; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 202. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Europe, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Probably not native to the Philippines (Veldkamp 1996). In open lowlands, sunny to slightly shaded, especially near the sea, but also inland locally and ascending to 1500m. Naturalized.
  13. Panicum sarmentosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 311; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 68; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 106; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 203. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, CULION, LUZON: Bataan, Cavite, Quezon, Zambales, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: In thickets and secondary forests, old clearings, steep river banks, at low and medium elevation, often locally common. Native.
  14. Panicum trichoides Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 24; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 68; Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 207. Distribution: Neotropics. CULION, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan. Notes: Annual. In thickets at low and medium elevation. Naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Panicum elegantissimum Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 7 (1896) 52. Distribution: China to Indochina and ?Philippines.
  2. Panicum incomtum Trin., Gram. Panic. (1826) 200. Distribution: ?Philippines, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia.

Paspalum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020
  1. Paspalum conjugatum P.J.Bergius, Act. Helvet. 7 (1772) 129; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 87; EPFP 1 (1923) 56; Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 290; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 62. Distribution: Neotropics. BASILAN, BATAN, BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Common throughout and widespread throughout the Philippines. In the settled areas, about towns, along trails, streams, etc., often very abundant. Naturalized.
  2. Paspalum dilatatum Poir., Tabl. Encycl. 5 (1804) 35; Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 293; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 291. Distribution: America. LUZON. Notes: Pantropical weed. Naturalized in rice fields. Naturalized.
  3. Paspalum distichum L., Syst. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 855; Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 295. Distribution: America. LUZON. Notes: Pantropical weed, probably introduced in Malesia. Wet marshlands, swamps, in polluted, shallow`water, along irrigation ditches, etc., up to 1725m. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  4. Paspalum notatum Flüggé, Gram. Monog. (1810) 106; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 291. Distribution: S America. LUZON. Notes: Widely cultivated and naturalized in rice fields. Naturalized.
  5. Paspalum paniculatum L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10 (1759) 855. Distribution: Africa, Neotropics. LUZON. Naturalized.
  6. Paspalum scrobiculatum L., Mant. 1 (1767) 29; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 344; Fl. Manila (1912) 86; EPFP 1 (1923) 56; Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 302. = Paspalum scrobiculatum var. auriculatum (J.Presl) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 345; Fl. Manila (1912) 86; EPFP 1 (1923) 57; ≡ Paspalum auriculatum J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 217. = Paspalum scrobiculatum var. bispicatulum Hack. ex Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 86; EPFP 1 (1923) 57. = Paspalum scrobiculatum var. horneri (Henrard) de Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 307; ≡ Paspalum horneri Henrard, Blumea 1 (1935) 306. = Paspalum orbiculare G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. (1786) 7; Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 299. = Paspalum longifolium var. pseudo-orbiculare Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 321; Type: Santos 5 (MICH, holo). Notes: World distribution uncertain due to doubtful identifications in the literature: India, Sri Lanka to the Pacific (Vanuatu), Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Philippines. Throughout the Philippines, in open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m; common and somewhat variable. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  7. Paspalum sumatrense Roth in J.J.Roemer & J.A.Schultes, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 316. = Paspalum scrobiculatum var. philippinense Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 345; EPFP 1 (1923) 57. = Paspalum longifolium Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 283; Hort. Beng. (1814) 7, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 86; EPFP 1 (1923) 56; Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 297; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 111. = Paspalum longifolium var. trichocoleum Hack., PJS 3 (1908) Bot. 167; EPFP 1 (1923) 56. Distribution: Philippines, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Pacific Ocean. BALABAC, BOHOL, CEBU, GUIMARAS, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDANAO: Surigao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, POLILLO, SAMAR, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: In open, usually rather wet lands, open level grasslands at low and medium elevation. Native.
  8. Paspalum urvillei Steud., Syn. Pl. Gram. (1854) 24. Distribution: S America. LUZON. Notes: Not native to the Philippines, cultivated and escaping. Naturalized.
  9. Paspalum vaginatum Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 21; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 57. = Paspalum distichum auct. non L.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1882) 310; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 87. Distribution: America. CEBU, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Pampanga, Rizal, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Naturalized in open wet lands, usually in places subject to the influence of salt or brackish water. Naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Paspalum plicatulum Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1 (1803) 45. Distribution: S America. Notes: Veldkamp pers. comm.: Said by 't Mannetje & Jones (Prosea 4, 1992) to be widely cultivated in Malesia, but only two New Guinea collections have been seen.

Perotis Aiton

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017
  1. Perotis indica (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 787; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 51; ≡ Anthoxanthum indicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 28. Distribution: India to Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, MINDANAO: Agusan, MINDORO. Notes: In open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Perotis rara R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 172; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 51; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 113. Distribution: Thailand and Malay Peninsula through Philippines to Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Zambales, MINDORO. Notes: On dry open slopes at low and medium elevation. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Perotis hordeiformis Nees in Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1838) 248. Distribution: China, ?Philippines, SE Asia.

Phalaris L. (Not native)

Possibly present

  1. Phalaris minor Retz., Obs. 3 (1783) 8; Merr., PJS 2 (1907) Bot. 421; EPFP 1 (1923) 78; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 114. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Europe, India, Middle East, Nepal, Pakistan, W Asia. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Known in the Philippines from BS 2785 Mearns at c. 1500m. Probably a mere casual and not truly naturalized. Naturalized.

Phragmites Adans.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020
  1. Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud., Nomencl. ed. 2, 2 (1840) 324; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 381; EPFP 1 (1923) 87; ≡ Arundo karka Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 21. = Phragmites vallatorius (Pluk. ex L.) Veldkamp, Blumea 37 (1992) 233; ≡ Arundo vallatoria L., Herb. Amboin. (1754) 15, nom. inval. = Phragmites vulgaris auct. non (Lam.) Trin.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 100; EPFP 1 (1923) 87. = Phragmites australis auct. non (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 291. = Arundo madagascariensis auct. non Kunth; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 87. = Neyraudia madagascariensis auct. non (Kunth) Hook.f.; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 381; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 87. Distribution: Africa to Japan, Australia, Pacific Ocean. CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, TURTLE ISLS. Notes: Along slow streams and margins of lakes at low and medium elevation, often forming dense thickets. Native.

Phyllostachys Siebold & Zucc. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Phyllostachys aurea Carrière ex Rivière & C.Rivière, Bull. Soc. Natl. Acclim. France ser. 3, 5 (1878) 716; Chengde & Widjaja in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 129. Distribution: China, Japan. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Poa L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 January 2022
  1. Poa annua L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 68; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 181 386; EPFP 1 (1923) 92; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 115. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, China, Eurasia, India, Japan, Korea, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Very common in open waste places, 1500-2400m. Annual. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  2. Poa pratensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 67. = Poa luzoniensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 180; EPFP 1 (1923) 92. Distribution: Continental Asia, Europe, N America. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Borders of cold marshes and streams, c. 2400m. Perennials. Naturalized.

Pogonatherum P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017
  1. Pogonatherum crinitum (Thunb.) Kunth, Enum. 1 (1833) 478; ≡ Andropogon crinitus Thunb. in Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14 (1784) 903. = Cinna filiformis Llanos, Fragm. Pl. Filip. (1851) 9. = Pogonopsis tenera J.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 333. = Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack., Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 12 (1906) 178; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 76; EPFP 1 (1923) 35; ≡ Saccharum paniceum Lam., Encycl. 1 (1785) 595. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BATAN, BOHOL, CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Common on banks of ravines, along streams on cliffs and steep banks, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2000m. Native.

Polytoca R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 September 2017
  1. Polytoca digitata (L.f.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Cl. Brit. Isles, 1916 (1917) 641; ≡ Apluda digitata L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 434. = Polytoca heteroclita (Roxb.) Koord., Exksfl. Java 1 (1911) 99; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 29; ≡ Coix heteroclita Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 572. Distribution: India to New Guinea, Philippines. BOHOL, BUSUANGA, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: In open grasslands at medium elevation. Native.

Polytrias Hack. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020
  1. Polytrias indica (Houtt.) Veldkamp, Blumea 36 (1991) 180; ≡ Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 29 (1938) 320; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 285; ≡ Phleum indicum Houtt., Nat. Hist. 2(13) (1782) 198. = Polytrias amaura (Buse) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 788; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 35, as ‘amaurea’; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 116; ≡ Andropogon amaurus Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh., prepr. (1854) 20, nom. illeg., nom. superfl. Distribution: Java. CEBU, JOLO, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Commonly used as a lawn grass (Santos 1986). In open grasslands in and about towns at low elevation, weed in rice fields. Naturalized.

Pseudechinolaena Stapf

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017
  1. Pseudechinolaena polystachya (Kunth) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 495; ≡ Echinolaena polystachya Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1 (1816) 119. = Panicum uncinatum Raddi, Agrost. Bras. (1823) 41; Trin., Gram. Pan. (1826) 174; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 362; EPFP 1 (1923) 69. Distribution: Pantropic. MINDANAO: Davao, PALAWAN. Notes: Occurring as ground cover under plantation shade or thickets, also on open land, c. 650m. Native.

Pseudopogonatherum A.Camus

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 December 2019
  1. Pseudopogonatherum contortum (Brongn.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 255; ≡ Pollinia contorta (Brongn.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 33; ≡ Eulalia contorta (Brongn.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 775; ≡ Pogonatherum contortum Brongn. in Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1831) 90. = Pseudopogonatherum koretrostachys (Trin.) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 521; ≡ Eulalia koretrostachys (Trin.) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 521; ≡ Andropogon koretrostachys Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2 (1832) 273. Distribution: China, Indochina, Philippines, Thailand to Moluccas. LUZON: Abra, Cagayan, Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: . In open grasslands chiefly at medium elevation. Weak annual. Native.
  2. Pseudopogonatherum irritans (R.Br.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon ser. 2, (1922) 68; ≡ Pollinia irritans (R.Br.) Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 155; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 34; ≡ Saccharum irritans R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 203. Distribution: Philippines, Thailand to Australia. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: In open grasslands, c. 1000m. Perennial. Native.
  3. Pseudopogonatherum quadrinerve (Hack.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18 (1947) 3; ≡ Eulalia quadrinervis (Hack.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 775; ≡ Pollinia quadrinervis Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 158; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 35. Distribution: India to China, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Open slopes in pine forest, 1400-2200m. Native.
  4. Pseudopogonatherum trispicatum (Schult.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18 (1947) 3; ≡ Eulalia trispicata (Schult.) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 453; ≡ Andropogon trispicatus Schult., Mant. 2 (1824) 452. = Eulalia lagopus (Hack.) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 521; ≡ Pollinia argentea var. lagopus Hack., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 79; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 33. = Pollinia argentea (Brongn.) Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 6, 4 (1836) 90; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 77; EPFP 1 (1923) 33. Distribution: Australia, China to New Guinea, Philippines. CULION, LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SEMIRARA. Notes: Open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1600m. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Pseudopogonatherum speciosum (Debeaux) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18 (1947) 3; ≡ Erianthus speciosus Debeaux, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 32 (1878) 53. Distribution: India to Japan and Malay Peninsula, ?Philippines.

Pseudoraphis Griff.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017
  1. Pseudoraphis brunoniana (Griff.) Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10 (1928) 209; ≡ Panicum brunonianum Griff., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 5 (1836) 547. Distribution: India to Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  2. Pseudoraphis spinescens (R.Br.) Vickery, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 62 (1952) 69; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 116; ≡ Panicum spinescens R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 193. = Chamaeraphis aspera Nees in Wall., Cat. (1848) No. 8679, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 96. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: C Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. In shallow stagnant water, floating in ponds, ride fields, ditches, etc. at low elevation. Native.

Pseudosorghum A.Camus

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 September 2017
  1. Pseudosorghum fasciculare (Roxb.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 26 (1920) 662; ≡ Andropogon fascicularis Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 269. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  2. Pseudosorghum zollingeri (Steud.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 26 (1920) 663; ≡ Andropogon zollingeri Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 369. Distribution: Bangladesh, Java, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. BATAN, LUZON. Notes: Not in Taiwan!. Native.

Pseudostachyum Munro (Not native)

Possibly present

  1. Pseudostachyum polymorphum Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 142; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 22. Distribution: Himalayas to China and Malay Peninsula, ?Philippines.

Racemobambos Holttum

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020
  1. Racemobambos hirsuta Holttum, Gard. Bull. Singapore 15 (1956) 272; Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 153. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.

Rottboellia L.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 January 2022
  1. Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Kew Bull. 35 (1981) 817; ≡ Stegosia cochinchinensis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 51. = Rottboellia exaltata L.f., Suppl. (1781) 114; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 78; EPFP 1 (1923) 39. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BATAN, BOHOL, CAGAYAN DE SULU, JOLO, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, TAWI-TAWI. Native.
  2. Rottboellia paradoxa de Koning & Sosef, Blumea 31 (1986) 306. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Cavite. Notes: Once found on Mt Santo Tomas. Native.

Rytidosperma Steud.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 January 2022
  1. Rytidosperma oreoboloides (F.Muell.) H.P.Linder, Telopea 6 (1996) 614; ≡ Danthonia oreoboloides (F.Muell.) Stapf, Hook. Icon. Pl. (1901) t. 2606; ≡ Festuca oreoboloides F.Muell., Trans. Roy. Soc. Victoria, n.s., 1(2) (1889) 39. = Monostachya centrolepidioides Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 331; EPFP 1 (1923) 92; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 95. Distribution: Borneo, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: In Benguet near the summit of Mt Pulag. Cushion-forming perennial in open grasslands, 2800m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Saccharum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 December 2020
  1. Saccharum arundinaceum Retz., Obs. 4 (1786) 14; Merr., EPFP 2 (1922) 32; ≡ Tripidium arundinaceum (Retz.) Welker, Voronts. & E.A.Kellogg, Taxon 68 (2019) 255; ≡ Erianthus arundinaceus (Retz.) Jeswiet, Arch. Suikerind. Ned.-Ind., Meded. Proefst. Javasuikerind. (1925) 399. = Imperata exaltata (Roxb.) Brongn., Voy. Coq. Bot. (1829) 101; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 322; ≡ Saccharum exaltatum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 245. Distribution: India to China. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
  2. Saccharum officinarum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 54; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 78; EPFP 1 (1923) 32; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 118. Notes: Cultivated throughout the Philippines, in some islands and provinces very extensively, being one of the major crops of the Philippines. Naturalized. Sugar cane. Naturalized.
  3. Saccharum spontaneum L., Mant. 2 (1771) 183. = Saccharum spontaneum ssp. indicum Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 117; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 77; EPFP 1 (1923) 32. Distribution: LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Native.
    • ssp. spontaneum. Distribution: Africa to Australia. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Open areas at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m, often gregarious and almost exclusively occupying large areas. Naturalized.

Sacciolepis Nash

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017
  1. Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 21 (1908) 8; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 120; ≡ Panicum indicum L., Mant. 1 (1767) 184; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1923) 64. = Sacciolepis indica var. angusta (Trin.) Keng, Clav. Gen. Sp. Gram. Prim. Sin. (1957) 220; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 64; ≡ Panicum angustum Trin., Sp. Gram. 3 (1835) t. 334. Distribution: Africa to Japan, Australia, Philippines. BALABAC, BOHOL, BUSUANGA, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Common in open wet grasslands at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Sacciolepis myosuroides (R.Br.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 460; ≡ Panicum myosuroides R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 189; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 65. Distribution: Australia, India to Pacific Ocean, Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis, PANAY. Notes: Open wetlands at low and medium elevation. Native.

Schizachyrium Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017
  1. Schizachyrium brevifolium (Sw.) Nees ex Buse, Pl. Jungh. (1854) 359; ≡ Andropogon brevifolius Sw., Prodr. (1788) 26; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 335; EPFP 1 (1923) 43. = Schizachyrium brevifolium ssp. paradoxum (Buse) Henrard, Blumea 1 (1935) 308; ≡ Schizachyrium paradoxum Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh., prepr. (1854) 19. Distribution: Pantropic. BOHOL, BUSUANGA, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ifugao, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: In open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Annual. Native.
  2. Schizachyrium fragile (R.Br.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon. n.s. 70 (1924) 87; ≡ Andropogon fragilis R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 202; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 82. Distribution: Australia, Moluccas, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MANAMOC. Notes: In dry open grasslands at medium elevation. Annual. Native.
  3. Schizachyrium pseudeulalia (Hosok.) S.T.Blake, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 80 (1969) 77; ≡ Microstegium pseudeulalia Hosok., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 28 (1938) 151. = Schizachyrium fragile var. luzoniense (Hack.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 338; ≡ Andropogon fragilis var. luzoniensis Hack., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 267; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 45. = Schizachyrium fragile var. malayanum (Merr.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 338; ≡ Andropogon fragilis var. malayanus Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 45. Distribution: Philippines to Australia. BOHOL, LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao, MINDORO. Notes: Annual. Very close to the preceding. Native.
  4. Schizachyrium sanguineum (Retz.) Alston in Trimen, Handbook Fl. Ceylon 6 (1931) Suppl. 334; ≡ Andropogon sanguineus (Retz.) Merr., PJS 12 (1917) Bot. 101; EPFP 1 (1923) 47; ≡ Rottboellia sanguinea Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 25. Distribution: India to China, Madagascar, New Guinea. CULION, LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: On open slopes at low elevation. Perennial. Native.

Schizostachyum Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020
  1. Schizostachyum brachycladum Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 392 (1870) 89; Dransfield in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 132; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 23. Notes: Native of tropical Asia. Cultivated mainly as an ornamental in the Philippines and has spread out in the settled areas of the archipelago. Naturalized.
  2. Schizostachyum curranii Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 277; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 97; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 24. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga-Apayao. Notes: Mossy forest edges, c. 2000m. Native.
  3. Schizostachyum lima (Blanco) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1918) 62; EPFP 1 (1923) 98; Roxas & Dransfield in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 138; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 29; ≡ Bambusa lima Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 271. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium elevation, sometimes gregarious; a species having unusually long internodes, these being up to 120 cm in length. Native.
  4. Schizostachyum lumampao (Blanco) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 65; EPFP 1 (1923) 99; Virtucio & Sinohin in Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 140; Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 30; ≡ Bambusa lumampao Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 272. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, NCR, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: In secondary forests, but more frequently gregarious and occupying extensive areas at low and medium elevation where forests have been destroyed. Native.
  5. Schizostachyum textorium (Blanco) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 64; EPFP 1 (1923) 99; ≡ Bambusa textoria Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 270. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, La Union, Rizal. Notes: In secondary forests at low elevation. Native.

Scrotochloa Judz.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2017
  1. Scrotochloa urceolata (Roxb.) Judz., Phytologia 56 (1984) 300; ≡ Leptaspis urceolata (Roxb.) R.Br. in Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1838) 23; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 76; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 89; ≡ Pharus urceolatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 611. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation. Native.

Sehima Forssk.

  1. Sehima nervosum (Rottler) Stapf in D.Oliver et al., Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1917) 36; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 120; ≡ Andropogon nervosus Rottler, Neue Schriften Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 4 (1803) 218. = Andropogon philippinensis Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 367; EPFP 1 (1923) 47. Distribution: Africa to Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Dry open rocky slopes at low elevation. Indigenous in Ilocos Norte. An introduced grass cultivated in some improved grasslands in Luzon and Mindanao (fide Santos 1986). Native.

Setaria P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 December 2020
  1. Setaria barbata (Lam.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1 (1829) 47; ≡ Panicum barbatum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 171. Distribution: Africa. CEBU. Notes: Pantropically introduced. Annuals. Naturalized.
  2. Setaria clivalis (Ridl.) Veldkamp, Misc. Pap. Landbouwhogesch. Wageningen 19 (1980) 317; ≡ Panicum clivale Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 45 (1906) 242. = Setaria laxa Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 366; Fl. Manila (1912) 96; EPFP 1 (1923) 73. Distribution: Sumatra to Indian Ocean. LUZON: Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO. Notes: Thickets and fallow lands at low elevation. Native.
  3. Setaria flavida (Retz.) Veldkamp, Blumea 39 (1994) 376; ≡ Paspalidium flavidum (Retz.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 419; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 108; ≡ Panicum flavidum Retz., Obs. 4 (1786) 15; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 90; EPFP 1 (1923) 64. Distribution: Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean, Philippines. BOHOL, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Terrestrial perennials. A common weed in open waste places in and about towns at low elevation. Native.
  4. Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 51; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 73; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 122; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 295; ≡ Panicum italicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 56. = Setaria helvola (L.f.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 491; ≡ Panicum helvolum L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 107. Distribution: C Asia. BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Not native to the Philippines, very rarely cultivated. Naturalized in rice fields. Annuals. Italian Millet. Naturalized.
  5. Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 42 (1914) 186; EPFP 1 (1923) 73; ≡ Panicum palmifolium J.Koenig, Naturforscher (Halle) 23 (1788) 208. = Setaria palmifolia var. blepharoneuron (A.Braun) Veldkamp, Floribunda 1 (1988) 22; ≡ Panicum neurodes var. blepharoneuron A.Braun, Index Seminum (B, Berolinensis) 1855(App.) (1855) 20. Distribution: India to China, Japan to New Guinea. CEBU, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines. Introduced in tropical America. Perennials. Common in thickets, old clearings, abaca plantations, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 200m. Native.
  6. Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen, Lejeunia 120 (1987) 161; ≡ Cenchrus parviflorus Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 6 (1804) 52. = Setaria geniculata auct. non (Lam.) P.Beauv.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 72; ?Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 295. = Setaria flava (Nees) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 46; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 95; ≡ Panicum flavum Nees in Mart., Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2 (1829) 238. Distribution: America. BOHOL, CATANDUANES, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines, not native. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1800m. Naturalized.
  7. Setaria punctata (Burm.f.) Veldkamp, Blumea 39 (1994) 381; ≡ Paspalidium punctatum (Burm.f.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-chine 7 (1922) 419; ≡ Panicum punctatum Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 26; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 90; EPFP 1 (1923) 67. Distribution: Africa to Indian Ocean, China, Malesia, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Misamis, Zamboanga, SAMAR. Notes: In shallow water and in open muddy places at low elevation. Native.
  8. Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 51; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 74; ≡ Panicum verticillatum L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 82. = Setaria adhaerens (Forssk.) Chiov., Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital., n. s., 26 (1919) 77; Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 415; ≡ Panicum adhaerens Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 20. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Europe, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, W Asia. BATAN, CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Perhaps native in Malesia, now widely cultivated. Open waste places. Native.
  9. Setaria viridis (L.) P.Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 51; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 95; EPFP 1 (1923) 74; ≡ Panicum viride L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 870. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Continental Asia, Europe, Japan, Korea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, Mountain Province, Rizal, PALAWAN. Notes: Not native to the Philippines (Merrill 1912). Occurring rarely in open waste places and along road sides. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb., Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1930) 795; ≡ Panicum sphacelatum Schumach., Beskr. Guin. Pl. (1827) 78. = Setaria splendida Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1930) 799; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 123. Distribution: Africa. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Now widely cultivated. South African pigeon grass, African bristlegrass. Cultivated. P.B. Pelser (11-Dec-20): I have thus far only seen specimens from plants grown in cultivation, so I here assume that it is not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Setaria geminata (Forssk.) Veldkamp, Blumea 39 (1994) 377; ≡ Paspalidium geminatum (Forssk.) Stapf in Oliv. et al., Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1920) 583; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 291; ≡ Panicum geminatum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 18. Distribution: Africa, India, Madagascar, Middle East, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited. Naturalized.
  2. Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 891; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 295; ≡ Panicum pumilum Poir. in Lam., Encycl., Suppl. 4 (1816) 273. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, China, Continental Asia, Europe, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.

Sorghum Moench

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 November 2021
  1. Sorghum × almum Parodi, Rev. Argent. Agron. 10 (1943) 361. Notes: Hybrid of Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum halepense. Introduced in the Philippines ('t Mannetje & Jones 1992), but no specimens have been seen. Rhizomatous perennial. Johnson grass, a back-cross of this with Sorghum halepense is reported for Malesia as a noxious weed, but no records seen. Native.
  2. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, Methodus (1794) 207; ≡ Holcus bicolor L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 301. = Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot., Fl. Lusit. 1 (1804) 88; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 84; EPFP 1 (1923) 48; ≡ Holcus sorghum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1047. = Sorghum vulgare Pers., Syn. 1 (1804) 101. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Widely cultivated in the Philippines with innumerable forms. Naturalized. Annual. Naturalized.
  3. Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 1 (1805) 101; ≡ Holcus halepensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1047. Distribution: Africa to C Asia and Indochina. Notes: Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  4. Sorghum laxiflorum F.M.Bailey, Syn. Queensl. Fl. Suppl. 3 (1890) 84. = Andropogon baileyi F.Muell., Vict. Nat. 7 (1891) 16; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 43. Distribution: Philippines to Australia. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO. Notes: Annual. Open grassy slopes at medium elevation, ascending to 1200m. Naturalized.
  5. Sorghum nitidum (Vahl) Pers., Syn. 1 (1805) 101; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 174; ≡ Andropogon nitidus (Vahl) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 166; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 84; EPFP 1 (1923) 47; ≡ Holcus nitidus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2 (1791) 102. = Andropogon nitidus forma hirsuta Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 140; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 47. = Andropogon serratus Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 41; Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 520; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 337; Fl. Manila (1912) 84; EPFP 1 (1923) 48. Distribution: Australia, Japan, Malesia, Sri Lanka to China, Taiwan. BATAN, LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao, NEGROS. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines. Perennials. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Native.
  6. Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc., Lingnan Sc. Journ. 7 (1931) 249; ≡ Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot. var. propinquus (Kunth) Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 84; EPFP 1 (1923) 45; ≡ Andropogon propinquus Kunth, Enum. Pl. 1 (1833) 502. Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Sri Lanka to China. BALABAC, BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines. Rhizomatous perennials. Often common. Native.

Sphaerobambos S.Dransf.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016
  1. Sphaerobambos philippinensis (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 44 (1989) 432; ≡ Bambusa philippinensis (Gamble) McClure, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 9 (1973) 68; ≡ Guadua philippinensis Gamble, PJS 8 (1913) Bot. 203; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 96. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Notes: Probably from thickets or secondary forests. Native.

Sphaerocaryum Nees ex Hook.f. (Not native)

Possibly present

  1. Sphaerocaryum malaccense (Trin.) Pilg., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 45 (1938) 2; ≡ Panicum malaccense Trin., Gram. Panic. (1826) 204. Distribution: Sri Lanka to China and ?Philippines.

Spinifex L.

Last edited to Pieter B. Pelser, 20 September 2017
  1. Spinifex littoreus (Burm.f.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 229; Fl. Manila (1912) 97; EPFP 1 (1923) 76; ≡ Stipa littorea Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 29. Distribution: Australia, India to China, Malesia. APO, BATAN, CAMIGUIN, CEBU, GUIMARAS, HERMANA MAYOR, JOLO, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Common on sandy sea shores. Inflorescences unisexual, forming large spiny balls. Magsaysay Isl. Native.

Sporobolus R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 December 2020
  1. Sporobolus africanus (Poir.) Robyns & Tournay, Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 25 (1955) 242; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 295; ≡ Agrostis africana Poir. in Lam., Encycl., Suppl. 1 (1810) 254. = Sporobolus indicus var. capensis Engl., Hochgebirgsfl. Afrika (1892) 127. Distribution: Africa, Middle East, Sri Lanka. LUZON: Benguet. Naturalized.
  2. Sporobolus diandrus (Retz.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. (1812) 26; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 80; ≡ Sporobolus indicus var. diandrus (Retz.) Jovet & Guédès, Taxon 22 (1973) 163; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 125; ≡ Agrostis diandra Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1789) 19. = Spermachiton involutum Llanos, Fragm. Pl. Filip. (1851) 25. = Sporobolus indicus var. flaccidus (Roem. & Schult.) Veldkamp, Blumea 35 (1991) 433; ≡ Agrostis elongata var. flaccida Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 368. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. BATAN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, CEBU, GUIMARAS, JOLO, LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Lanao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, TURTLE ISLS. Notes: Common in open grasslands, lawns and waste places about towns, ascending to 2000m. Native.
  3. Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton, Kew Bull. 19 (1965) 291; ≡ Agrostis fertilis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 170. = Sporobolus indicus var. major (Buse) Baaijens, Blumea 35 (1991) 437; ≡ Sporobolus diandrus var. major Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh., prepr. (1854) 3. = Sporobolus indicus auct. non (L.) R.Br.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 80. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Korea, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Native.
  4. Sporobolus humilis J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 241. Distribution: Cambodia, Indian Ocean, Java, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDORO. Native.
    • ssp. humilis. Distribution: Cambodia, Java, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON. Notes: . Perennials. Native.
    • ssp. minor Veldkamp, Blumea 35 (1991) 420. Distribution: Indian Ocean, Pakistan to Taiwan. LUZON. Naturalized.
  5. Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 170; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 98; EPFP 1 (1923) 80; ≡ Agrostis indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 63. Distribution: America. Notes: Naturalized? Naturalized.
  6. Sporobolus pilifer (Trin.) Kunth, Enum. 1 (1833) 611; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 80; ≡ Vilfa pilifera Trin., Gram. Unifl. Sesquifl. (1824) 157. Distribution: Africa, C & S America, China, India, Japan, Korea, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: On banks, in open grasslands, etc., at medium elevation, ascending to 1800m. Native.
  7. Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 67; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 99; EPFP 1 (1923) 81; ≡ Agrostis virginica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 63. Distribution: Africa, America, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, Rizal. Notes: Sandy beach, along tidal streams within the influence of salt or brackish water. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Sporobolus hancei Rendle, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 36 (1904) 387. Distribution: China, ?Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan.

Stenotaphrum Trin. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 July 2022

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 794, as 'secundum'; ≡ Ischaemum secundatum Walter, Fl. Carol. (1788) 249. Distribution: Africa, America, Caribbean. LUZON. Notes: Native to tropical Atlantic sea shores. Grown as a lawn grass. P.B. Pelser (11-Dec-20): I have thus far only seen specimens from plants grown in cultivation, so I here assume that it is not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Stenotaphrum helferi Munro ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 7 (1896) 91. Distribution: China, Malay Peninsula, ?Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam.

Themeda Forssk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 November 2022
  1. Themeda arguens (L.) Hack. in A.DC. & C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 6 (1889) 657; Jansen, Act. Bot. Neerl.1 (1952) 479; ≡ Stipa arguens L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 117. Distribution: Andaman Isls to Vietnam and Australia, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Native.
  2. Themeda arundinacea (Roxb.) Ridl., Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, 2 (1893) 401; A.Camus in Lecompte, Fl. Gén. Indochine 7 (1922) 363; Jansen, Act. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1952) 481; Sajise et al., Kalikasan 3 (1974) 73; ≡ Anthistiria arundinacea Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 251. = Themeda gigantea var. vulpina (Andersson) Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 670; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 50; ≡ Anthistiria vulpina Andersson, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 3, 2 (1856) 245. Distribution: Borneo, India to China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula. LUZON. Native.
  3. Themeda gigantea (Cav.) Hack. ex Duthie, Fodder Grasses N. India (1888) 89; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 50; ≡ Anthistiria gigantea Cav., Icon. 5 (1799) 36. = Perobachne secunda J.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 348. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Solomon Isls. BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAUI, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Open grasslands on dry steep slopes, up to 2000m. Native.
  4. Themeda triandra Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 178; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 81; EPFP 1 (1923) 50; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 125. = Themeda australis (R.Br.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 420; ≡ Anthistiria australis R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 200. Distribution: Africa to Australia, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand. BATANES, BUSUANGA, GOLO, LUZON: Abra, Albay, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, SEMIRARA. Notes: Open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2300m. Frequently abundant and gregarious over large areas. Native.
  5. Themeda villosa (Lam.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 364; Dur. & Jacks., Index Kew. Suppl. 1 (1906) 424; ≡ Anthistiria villosa Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 5 (1799) t. 841. Distribution: BOHOL, CEBU, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Native.
    • var. villosa. Distribution: India and China to New Guinea. CEBU, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Naturalized.
    • var. polyantha (Brongn. ex Buse) Veldkamp, Blumea 61 (2016) 37; ≡ Androscepia gigantea var. polyantha Brongn. ex Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh., prepr (1854) 24. = Themeda intermedia (Hack.) Bor, Indian Forest Rec., Bot. 1 (1938) 96; Dur. & Jacks., Index Kew Suppl. 1(1906) 424; Jansen, Act. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1952) 481; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3975; ≡ Themeda gigantea var. intermedia Hack. in A.DC. & C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 6 (1889) 675. = Themeda gigantea ssp. intermedia var. dubia Hack. in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 675; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 50. Distribution: India to Australia, Philippines. BOHOL, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Native.

Thuarea Pers.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 September 2017
  1. Thuarea involuta (G.Forst.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. 2 (1817) 782; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 97; EPFP 1 (1923) 75; ≡ Ischaemum involutum G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. (1786) 73. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, BATAN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SIARGAO, URSULA. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines. On sandy beaches and in thickets back of the beach, often common. Native.

Thysanolaena Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 February 2018
  1. Thysanolaena latifolia (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Honda, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 3, 3 (1930) 312; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 127; ≡ Melica latifolia Roxb. ex Hornem., Hort. Bot. Hafn., Suppl. (1819) 117. = Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 794; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 53; ≡ Agrostis maxima Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 319. Distribution: China, India, Indochina, Malesia, New Guinea. BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SAN MIGUEL. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines. Banks of ravines, slopes, about cliffs, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1600m. Native.

Tripogon Roem. & Schult.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 September 2017
  1. Tripogon chinensis (Franch.) Hack., Bull. Herb. Boiss. ii, 3 (1903) 503; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 85; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 128; ≡ Nardurus filiformis var. chinensis Franch., Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., sér. 2, 7 (1884) 147. Distribution: China, E Asia, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Known from BS 33237 Ramos. On dry open rocky slopes at low elevation. Native.

Tripsacum L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 December 2020
  1. Tripsacum andersonii J.R.Gray, Phytologia 33 (1976) 204. = Tripsacum lanceolatum auct. non E.Fourn.; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 129. Distribution: C America. LUZON. Notes: Introduced in the Philipines in 1909 and is cultivated in improved pastures throughout the archipelago (Santos 1986). According to Veldkamp (pers. comm.), only seen from Luzon. Open fields. Naturalized.

Triticum L. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Triticum aestivum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 85; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 130. = Triticum vulgare Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauph. 2 (1779) 153; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 93. Distribution: India, Middle East, Pakistan. LUZON. Cultivated, not naturalized.
    • ssp. aestivum. Distribution: LUZON. Notes: Formerly cultivated in certain provinces in Luzon, now planted to a limited extent in N Luzon. Wheat. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Urochloa P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 December 2020
  1. Urochloa brizantha (A.Rich.) R.D.Webster, Australian Paniceae (Poac.) (1987) 233; Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 417; ≡ Brachiaria brizantha (A.Rich.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 531; ≡ Panicum brizanthum A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2 (1850) 363. = Urochloa decumbens (Stapf) R.D.Webster, Austral. Paniceae (1987) 234; ≡ Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in Oliv. et al., Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 528. Distribution: Africa, Indian Ocean, Middle East. Naturalized.
  2. Urochloa fusiformis (Reeder) Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 420; Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 420; ≡ Brachiaria fusiformis Reeder, J. Arnold Arb. 29 (1948) 274; Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 236. = Brachiaria fusiformis var. pilicoronata (Ohwi) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 236; ≡ Brachiaria villosa var. pilicoronata Ohwi, Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 18 (1947) 5; Type: Merrill 11606 (BO). Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines. CULION, LUZON, MINDANAO. Native.
  3. Urochloa glumaris (Trin.) Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 420; ≡ Panicum glumare Trin., Gram. Panic. (1826) 143. = Brachiaria paspaloides (J.Presl) C.E.Hubb., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 34 (1938) t. 3363; ≡ Urochloa paspaloides J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 318; Scribn., Rept. Missouri Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 54. = Panicum ambiguum Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 6, 32 (1835) 243; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 61. = Panicum distachyum auct. non L.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 63. Distribution: India, Indian Ocean, Malesia, Pacific Ocean. BOHOL, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, PALMAS. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines. Open, more or less waste places, old clearings, etc., at low and medium elevation. Native.
  4. Urochloa mutica (Forssk.) T.Q.Nguyen, Novit. Syst. Pl. Vasc., Acad. Sci. URSS (1966) 13; Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 424; ≡ Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1919) 526; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 60; ≡ Panicum muticum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 20. Distribution: S America. LUZON, PANAY. Notes: Originally from Brazil, now planted as pasture grass throughout the tropics. Widely established in the Philippines (Santos 1986). Perennials. Invasive species (CABI 2017, as Brachiaria mutica). Naturalized.
  5. Urochloa reptans (L.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1920) 601; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 67; Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 427; ≡ Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gardner & C.E.Hubb., Hook. Icon. Pl. (1938) t. 3363; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 62; ≡ Panicum reptans L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 871. Distribution: Pantropic. ALABAT, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PALMAS, PANAY, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Throughout the Philippines (Santos 1986). A weed of cultivation and overgrazed pasture. Low and medium elevation. Native.
  6. Urochloa subquadripara (Trin.) R.D.Webster, Australian Paniceae (Poac.) (1987) 252; Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 429; ≡ Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc., Lingnan Sc. J. 7 (1928) 21; Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 239; ≡ Panicum subquadriparum Trin., Gram. Panic. (1826) 145. = Brachiaria miliiformis (J.Presl) Chase, Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. 22 (1920) 35; ≡ Panicum miliiforme J.Presl in C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1830) 300. = Panicum distachyum auct. non L.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 91; EPFP 1 (1923) 63. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines. Annuals. Open waste places in and about towns at low and medium elevation; common. Withstands dry conditions and a useful lawn grass on gravelly soil. Native.
  7. Urochloa villosa (Lam.) T.Q.Nguyen, Novit. Syst. Pl. Vasc., Acad. Sci. URSS (1966) 14; Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 431; ≡ Brachiaria villosa (Lam.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gén. Indochine 7 (1922) 433; Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 236; ≡ Panicum villosum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 173. = Panicum coccospermum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 62; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 62. Distribution: Africa, China, India, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. CULION, LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao. Notes: Probably introduced in the Philippines where found before 1905. Open grassy slopes and banks chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 1500m. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Urochloa ruziziensis (R.Germ. & C.M.Evrard) Morrone & Zuloaga, J. Arn. Arb. Suppl. Ser. 1 (1991) 269; Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 429; ≡ Brachiaria ruziziensis R.Germ. & C.M.Evrard, Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux. 23 (1953) 373. Distribution: Africa. LUZON. Notes: Widely cultivated. P.B. Pelser (14-Dec-20): I have thus far only seen specimens from plants grown in cultivation, so I here assume that it is not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Urochloa distachya (L.) T.Q.Nguyen, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 3 (1966) 13; Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 420; ≡ Brachiaria distachya (L.) Stapf in Oliv. et al., Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 565; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 276; ≡ Panicum distachyon L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 183. Distribution: Middle East, Pacific Ocean, SE Asia. ?SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.
  2. Urochloa ramosa (L.) T.Q.Nguyen, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 3 (1966) 13; Veldkamp, Blumea 41 (1996) 427; ≡ Brachiaria ramosa (L.) Stapf in Oliv. et al., Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 542; ≡ Panicum ramosum L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 29. Distribution: Africa, ?Philippines, Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

Yushania Keng

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 November 2020
  1. Yushania niitakayamensis (Hayata) Keng f., Acta Phytotax. Sin. 6 (1957) 357; Dransfield & Widjaja, PROSEA 7 (1995) 154; ≡ Sinarundinaria niitakayamensis (Hayata) Keng f., Techn. Bull. Natl. Forest. Res. Bur. 8 (1948) 1; ≡ Arundinaria niitakayamensis Hayata, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 21 (1907) 49; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 94. Distribution: China, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, MINDORO. Notes: In mossy thickets, sphagnum swamps, and open grasslands, 2200-2700m. Native.

Zea L. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Zea mays L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 971; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 74; EPFP 1 (1923) 28. Distribution: America. Cultivated, not naturalized.
    • ssp. mays. Notes: Extensively cultivated in most parts of the Philippines, in some islands and provinces a staple article of food. Corn or maize. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Zea mexicana (Schrad.) Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan. (1903) 600; ≡ Euchlaena mexicana Schrad., Index Seminum (GOET, Gottingensis) 1832 (1832) 3. = Euchlaena luxurians Durieu & Asch., Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris 1 (1877) 107. Distribution: C America. Notes: Introduced to the Philippines in the late years of the Spanish occupation and again in the early years of the American occupation and was cultivated experimentally for forage purposes. It has not persisted in cultivation, but see Santos (1986). Cultivated, not naturalized.

Zoysia Willd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 September 2017
  1. Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 230; Fl. Manila (1912) 85; EPFP 1 (1923) 51; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 133; ≡ Agrostis matrella L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 185. Distribution: CEBU, HERMANA MAYOR, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, PANIQUIAN. Native.
    • var. matrella. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. CEBU, HERMANA MAYOR, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, PANIQUIAN. Notes: Originally from sandy beaches, now commonly cultivated as a lawn grass. Also occurring in open places chiefly along or near tidal streams. Native.
    • var. pacifica Goudsw., Blumea 26 (1980) 172; Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 87. Distribution: Moluccas, Pacific Ocean. LUZON. Notes: Widely cultivated for lawns, tennis courts, golf courses. Throughout the Philippines (Santos 1986). Naturalized.

References