Plantaginaceae

Adenosma R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 August 2019
  1. Adenosma bilabiata (Roxb.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 434; ≡ Erinus bilabiatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 92; Hort. Beng. (1814) 47, nom. inval., nom. nud. Distribution: India to Malay Peninsula. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets. Native.
  2. Adenosma javanica (Blume) Koord., Exkursfl. Java 3 (1912) 175; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 434; ≡ Herpestis javanica Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 748. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bulacan, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests along small streams. Native.

Bacopa Aubl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017
  1. Bacopa floribunda (R.Br.) Wettst. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 43 b (1891) 76; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 422; EPFP 3 (1923) 435; ≡ Herpestis floribunda R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. (1810) 442. Distribution: Africa, Australia, India, Java. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: A characteristic rice paddy weed. Native.
  2. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 43 b (1891) 77; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 422; EPFP 3 (1923) 435, as ‘monnieria’; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 585; ≡ Lysimachia monnieri L., Cent. Pl. II (1756) 9. Distribution: Pantropic. CEBU, LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Rizal. Notes: Lowland open wet places, chiefly within the influence of salt or brackish water. Native.

Bythophyton Hook.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017
  1. Bythophyton indicum (Hook.f. & Thomson) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4 (1884) 286; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 436; ≡ Micranthemum indicum Hook.f. & Thomson, Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 9 (1857) 245. Distribution: India, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: In shallow water, and along the marshy margin of a small pond, c. 2200m. Native.

Digitalis L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 July 2021
  1. Digitalis purpurea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 622; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 589. Distribution: Europe. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: In the Philippines commonly cultivated as an ornamental at high elevation, e.g. Cordillera Highlands of N Luzon. Naturalized at Mt Data in Mountain Province (L. Molina-Magtoto, pers. comm. 21-Jul-21). Naturalized.

Dopatrium Buch.-Ham.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017
  1. Dopatrium junceum (Roxb.) Buch.-Ham. ex Benth., Scroph. Ind. (1835) 31; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 426; EPFP 3 (1923) 435; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 589; ≡ Gratiola juncea Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 2 (1799) 16. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Malay Peninsula, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, W Asia. LUZON: Rizal, PANAY. Notes: Lowland old rice paddies. Very local in the Philippines. Native.

Ellisiophyllum Maxim.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017
  1. Ellisiophyllum pinnatum (Wall. ex Benth.) Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 20 (1906) 91; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 441; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 591; ≡ Ourisia pinnata Wall. ex Benth., Scroph. Ind. (1835) 47. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Mossy forests on the highest mountains, 2000-2400m. Native.

Hemiphragma Wall.

  1. Hemiphragma heterophyllum Wall., Tent. Fl. Nepal. (1824) 16; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 441; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 597. = Nertera dentata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 15; Type: Elmer 6239 (BISH, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Sto Tomas, forming dense mats in clay-like soil at c. 2000m, May-1904. Distribution: China, Himalayas, Myanmar, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: High montane regions, 2000-2600m, in open grasslands, marshy borders of sluggish streams, etc. Native.

Limnophila R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 November 2021
  1. Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 466; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 432; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 599; ≡ Ambulia aromatica Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 128. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Korea, Laos, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam. BUSUANGA, LUZON: Benguet, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Davao, PALAWAN, POLILLO. Notes: Lowlands to medium elevation, ascending to 1600m, in marshes and open wet places. Native.
  2. Limnophila chinensis (Osbeck) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 581; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 433; ≡ Columnea chinensis Osbeck, Dagb. Ostind. Resa (1757) 230. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Sur. Notes: Low and medium elevation open swampy places. Native.
  3. Limnophila fragrans (G.Forst.) Seem., Fl. Vit. (1865) 180; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 423; EPFP 3 (1923) 433; ≡ Ruellia fragrans G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. (1786) 44. Distribution: Australia, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Taiwan. LUZON: Laguna (photos), POLILLO. Notes: Lowland rice paddies. Native.
  4. Limnophila indica (L.) Druce, Bot. Exch. Club (1914) 420; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 433; ≡ Hottonia indica L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 208. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Korea, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao del Sur. Notes: Lowlands and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m, in shallow sluggish streams. Native.
  5. Limnophila manilensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 246; Fl. Manila (1912) 423; EPFP 3 (1923) 433; Type: Merrill 7432 (US, iso), Luzon: Manila and vicinity, Jan/Feb-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, NCR, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Lowlands, in wet fallow rice paddies. Native.
  6. Limnophila obovata Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 439; EPFP 3 (1923) 433; Type: Merrill 7227 (L, US, iso), Palawan, Sep-1910. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland, along small streams, often in shallow water, in shaded places. Native.
  7. Limnophila repens (Benth.) Benth., Prodr. 10 (1846) 387; ≡ Stemodia repens Benth., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 17 (1832) t.1470. = Limnophila stolonifera (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 345; EPFP 3 (1923) 434; ≡ Diceros stoloniferus Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 349; Type: Not extant, possible neotype: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 201. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Lowland fallow rice paddies. Native.
  8. Limnophila rugosa (Roth) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 466; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 434; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 601. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bulacan, Camarines, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO (photos), NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Lowlands, open wet places. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Limnophila heterophylla (Roxb.) Benth., Scroph. Ind. (1835) 25; ≡ Columnea heterophylla Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 3 (1832) 97. Distribution: Bangladesh, India, ?Philippines.
  2. Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 750; ≡ Hottonia sessiliflora Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2 (1791) 36. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Java, Korea, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.

Microcarpaea R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017
  1. Microcarpaea minima (K.D.Koenig ex Retz.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 100; EPFP 3 (1923) 436; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 612; ≡ Paederota minima K.D.Koenig ex Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1789) 10. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Korea, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Rice paddies, c. 1200m. Native.

Picria Lour.

  1. Picria fel-terrae Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 393; ≡ Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 467; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 439. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, Kalinga, Laguna. Notes: Forested slopes at low elevation, ascending to 400m; rare and local. Native.

Plantago L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2020
  1. Plantago lanceolata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 113; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 491. Distribution: Europe. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Naturalized weed in gardens (Merrill 1923). Naturalized.
  2. Plantago major L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 112; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 444; EPFP 3 (1923) 491. Distribution: Africa, Eurasia. CEBU, LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province. Notes: Not native, naturalized in waste places in and around towns (Merrill 1923) and in secondary forest. Naturalized.

Russelia Jacq. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Russelia equisetiformis Schltdl. & Cham., Linnaea 6 (1831) 377. = Russelia juncea Zucc., Flora 15 (Beibl.) (1832) 99; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 421; EPFP 3 (1923) 431. Distribution: C America. Notes: Cultivated for ornamental purposes, occasionally spontaneous on damp stone walls in towns. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Scoparia L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2020
  1. Scoparia dulcis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 116; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 420; EPFP 3 (1923) 441; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 621. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON: Aurora, Isabela, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Now pantropic in distribution. Low and medium elevation, a very common weed in the settled areas. Naturalized.

Veronica L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 April 2021
  1. Veronica javanica Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 746; Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 345; Steenis, Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Pl. 51-4; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 632. Distribution: Africa, China, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Near trails, 2000m. Native.
  2. Veronica monantha Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 385; EPFP 3 (1923) 441; Type: Merrill 6593 (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulag, May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Mossy forest, c. 2600m. Native.

References