Piperaceae

Peperomia Ruiz & Pavon

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 April 2022
  1. Peperomia agusanensis C.DC., LPB 6 (1914) 2294; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 18; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 210; Type: Elmer 13635 (PNH, holo, lost?; BISH, BM, CAS, DS, E, G, G-DC, GH, L, LY, MICH, MO, NY, P, U, US, W, Z, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta (Hilong-hilong), Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, NEGROS. Notes: Mossy forests, c. 1800m. Native.
  2. Peperomia canlaonensis C.DC., Prodr. 5 (1910) Bot. 408; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 18; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 200; Type: Merrill Philip. Pl. 251 (G, holo; FR, G, M, PRC, U, US, Z, iso), Negros: Negros Occidental, Mt Kanlaon, Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: Epiphytic in the mossy forests, c. 1800m. Native.
  3. Peperomia copelandii Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 201; Type: Copeland 178 (PNH), Luzon: Benguet, Pauai, May-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: c. 2400m. Native.
  4. Peperomia elmeri C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 761; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 19; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 216; Type: Elmer 10493 (PNH, holo, lost?; BM, E, F, G, G-DC, GH, HBG, K, L, LY, MO, NY, U, US, W, Z, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, hanging from the under side of a thick inclined humus-covered forest trunk in moist forests at 4000ft, May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: Lower montane forest, c. 1200m, on tree trunks. Native.
  5. Peperomia exigua (Blume) Miq., Syst. Pip. (1843) 101; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 19; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 219; Peperomia.net (2019); ≡ Piper exiguum Blume, Verh. Bat. Genoots. 11 (1826) 232; Type: from Java. = Peperomia hymenophylla Miq., Syst. Piperac. (1843) 78; Type: Meyen s.n. (B, holo, lost; U, iso), Philippines. Distribution: India, Malesia, Neotropics. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Dense woods along Baracatan Creek, 500m, creeping and forming dense patches on wet ledges and cliffs. Native.
  6. Peperomia laevifolia (Blume) Miq., Syst. Pip. (1843) 101; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 19; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 207; ≡ Piper laevifolium Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 33; Type: from Java. = Peperomia apoana C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 411; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 18; Type: Copeland 1002 (G-DC, holo), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo. Distribution: Indian Ocean, Java, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya (photos), MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Montane forests to 2200m. Native.
  7. Peperomia lagunaensis C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 407; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 19; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 206; Type: Merrill 5130 (G-DC, syn; K, NY, US, isosyn); BS 2446, 6079 (G-DC, syn); BS 6210 (G-DC, syn; US, isosyn), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling, 17-Mar-1906. = Peperomia puberulifolia C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 407; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 19; Type: BS 6047 Foxworthy (PNH, holo, lost?), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Banahaw. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Laguna, Quezon. Notes: Montane forests to 1700m, on mossy ground, boulders and tree trunks. Native.
  8. Peperomia lanaoensis C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 410; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 19; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 226; Type: Clemens 625 (G-DC, holo; F, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Norte, Maria Cristina Falls. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU (photos), DINAGAT (photos), LUZON: Quezon (photos), Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation, lithophytic on boulders, ledges of ravines and along streams. Native.
  9. Peperomia latibracteata Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 224; Type: BS 20126 R.C. McGregor (PNH, holo, lost?; G-DC, K, US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, Campote, 15-Jan-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: Above 1900m in Ifugao. Native.
  10. Peperomia leptostachya Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1832) 96; Mathieu, Candollea 75 (2020) 48; Type: from Hawaii (lecto). = Peperomia recurvata var. philippinensis Miq., Lond. Journ. Bot. 4 (1845) 423; Type: Cuming 1920 (K, holo), Philippines. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Malay Peninsula, New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  11. Peperomia marivelesana C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 762; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 19; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 220; Type: Merrill 3721 (PNH, holo, lost?), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles; Elmer 6820 (G, K, NY, syn), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Mossy rocks and tree trunks, 450-1200m. Native.
  12. Peperomia merrillii C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 411; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 19; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 212; ≡ Peperomia bilineata var. merrillii (C.DC.) Quisumb., ined.; Type: Merrill 4180 (G-DC, syn; K, NY, US, isosyn), Luzon: Cavite, Maragondon, Jul-1905; BS 1071 (G-DC, syn; NY, P, US, isosyn); For. Bur. 3359 (G-DC, syn; BR, K, NY, P, US, isosyn); Loher 4585 (K, US, isosyn). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon. Notes: Lithophytic at medium elevation to 500m. Native.
  13. Peperomia mindoroensis C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 413; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 19; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 215; Type: Merrill 6107 & 6184 (PNH, syn, lost?), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Mossy trees, c. 1500m. Native.
  14. Peperomia negrosensis C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 760; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 20; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 213; Type: Elmer 9425 (G, holo; BISH, BM, E, L, NY, U, US, W, Z, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, tufted or climbing upon moss-covered rocks in well-shaded ravines, Mar-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: Mossy rocks in shaded ravines. Native.
  15. Peperomia pallidibacca C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 763; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 20; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 199; Type: Elmer 9344 (G, holo; BM, E, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. = Peperomia ramosii C.DC., Candollea 1 (1923) 315, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Candollea 2 (1925) 188; Type: BS 12113 Ramos (G-DC, holo; BM, G-DC, K, L, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Tanay, San Isidro, Jun-1910. = Peperomia panaiana C.DC., Candollea 1 (1923) 330; Type: McGregor 8461 (G-DC, holo; K, iso), Luzon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal. Notes: In the mossy forests, up to 2200m. Native.
  16. Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 1 (1815) 64; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 170; EPFP 2 (1923) 20; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 218; ≡ Piper pellucidum L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 30. Distribution: Africa, America, Australia, Bangladesh, Caribbean, China, India, Indian Ocean, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Taiwan. Notes: Naturally widespread pantropical species (Guido Mathieu, pers. comm. 7-Apr-20). Native.
  17. Peperomia pellucidopunctulata C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 760; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 20; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 209; Type: Elmer 8436 (G-DC, syn), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio; Elmer 9970 (G-DC, syn). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Camarines Sur. Notes: On rocks and tree trunks at medium and high elevation. Native.
  18. Peperomia recurvata (Blume) Miq., Syst. Pip. (1843) 141. Distribution: Java, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. longispica (C.DC.) C.DC., Candollea 1 (1923) 321; ≡ Peperomia recurvata forma longispica C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 409; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 20; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 205; Type: Merrill 4425 (G-DC, syn; K, US, isosyn), Luzon: Benguet, Kabayan, Oct/Nov-1905; For. Bur. 4847 Curran (G-DC, syn), Williams 1084 (?syn). = Peperomia vanoverberghii C.DC., Candollea 1 (1923) 321, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Candollea 2 (1925) 188; Type: Vanoverbergh 603 bis (G-DC), Luzon: Mountain Province. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Lithophyte on wet rocky banks or epiphytic on trees at high elevation. Native.
    • var. pilosior (C.DC.) C.DC., Candollea 1 (1923) 406; ≡ Peperomia recurvata forma pilosior C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 408; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 20; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 203; Type: Elmer 6622 (PNH, syn, lost?), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, on mossy cliff, Jun-1904; Bur. Sci. 3501 (US, isosyn). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy slopes, boulders, etc., above 1400m. Native.
  19. Peperomia rubrivenosa C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 409; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 21; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 225; Type: R.S. Williams 1083 (PNH, holo, lost?; G-DC, drawing; NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio. = Peperomia macgregorii C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 412; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 19; Type: BS 8380 (G-DC). = Peperomia rivulorum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 762; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 21; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 228; Type: Elmer 11147 (PNH, holo?, lost?; BISH, BM, E, G, GH, K, L, LY, MO, NY, US, W, Z, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, creeping and forming patches in thin earth of large, more or less moss-covered boulders lying in streamlets of dense woods near the Sibulan River, 1750ft, Jul-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: On trees and mossy boulders. Mossy forest, 2100m. Native.
  20. Peperomia tetraphylla Hook. & Arn., The Botany of Captain Beechey’s Voyage 2 (1832) 97; ≡ Piper tetraphyllum G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. (1786) 5, nom. inval. = Peperomia reflexa (L.f.) A.Dietr., Sp. Pl. ed. 6 1 (1831) 180, nom. illeg., non Kunth. = Peperomia reflexa (L.f.) A.Dietr. var. capensis (Miq.) C.DC., Prodr. 16, 1 (1869) 451; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 196; ≡ Peperomia reflexa (L.f.) A.Dietr. forma capensis Miq., Syst. Pip. (1843) 169; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 20. = Peperomia reflexa (L.f.) A.Dietr. forma subsessilifolia C.DC., Prod. 16 (1869) 452; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 20; Type: Elmer 8576 (BISH, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. = Peperomia reflexa (L.f.) A.Dietr. var. calcicola C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 410; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 20; Type: Elmer 6077 (PNH, holo?, lost?; US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Apr-1904. = Peperomia reflexa (L.f.) A.Dietr. forma parvilimba C.DC., PJS 5 (1910) 410; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 198; Type: Merrill 3918 (PNH, syn?, lost?), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Arayat, on rocks near the summit, c. 1000m. Distribution: Pantropic. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Pampanga, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Native.
  21. Peperomia ventenatii Miq., Syst. Piperac. (1843) 125; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Java, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. pubescens (Miq.) Miq., Flor. Ind. Batav. 1 (1858) 434; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 21; ≡ Peperomia ventenatii forma pubescens Miq., Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur 19. Suppl. 1 (1843) 486, as 'puberula'; Type: Meyen s.n. (B, holo missing). Distribution: LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Peperomia argyreia (Hook.f.) É.Morren, Ann. Hort. Belge Étrangère 17 (1867) 2; ≡ Peperomia arifolia var. argyreia Hook.f., Bot. Mag. 93 (1867) t. 5634. Notes: An exotic species of American origin, cultivated for its variegated leaves. Not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Peperomia tomentosa (Vahl) A.Dietr., Sp. Pl. 1 (1831) 172; ≡ Piper tomentosum Vahl, Enum. Pl. 1 (1804) 351. = Peperomia tomentosa var. carnosa C.DC., Prodr. 161 (1869) 455; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 21; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 222. Distribution: Indian Ocean, Java, New Guinea, ?Philippines.

Piper L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 27 July 2022
  1. Piper abbreviatum Opiz in C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 157; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 2; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 58; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 579; Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, holo), Luzon. = Chavica populifolia Miq., Syst. Pip. (1843) 248; Type: Cuming 834 (K, holo), Luzon: Sorsogon Prov. = Piper mearnsii C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 447; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 12; Type: BS 2987 Mearns (PNH, holo), Luzon: Aurora, Casiguran. = Piper miquelianum Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. (1880) 176; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 17. = Piper parvispicum C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 156; Type: Warburg 14750 (B, holo), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Dagatpan. = Piper rhombophyllum C.DC., Prod. 16 (1869) 352; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 14. = Piper rubripunctulatum C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 158; Type: Warburg 14746 (B, holo), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Sta Cruz. Distribution: Philippines to Solomon Isls and Australia. LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, POLILLO. Native.
  2. Piper aduncum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 29. Distribution: C & S America. MINDANAO: Cotabato, Zamboanga del Sur, PANAY. Notes: Widely naturalized, invasive. Naturalized.
  3. Piper agusanense C.DC., LPB 6 (1914) 2291; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 2; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 50; Type: Elmer 13319 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta = Mt Hilong-hilong, Cabadbaran. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao, Surigao del Norte. Notes: In forest. Native.
  4. Piper angustipeltatum Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 244; EPFP 1 (1922) 3; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 98; Type: BS 28846 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost?; US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Binuang, damp forests along rivers, 19-May-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests along rivers. Native.
  5. Piper aristolochiphyllum Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 54; Type: BS 45695 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost?; NY, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Alzapan, on forested slopes, c. 1500m, 6-Jun-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino. Native.
  6. Piper asterostigmum Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 91; Type: C.A. Wenzel 3121 (UC, holo; NY, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Placer, in forests, c. 150m, 5-Sep-1927. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao, Surigao del Norte. Notes: Lowland forest. Native.
  7. Piper aurilimbum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 768; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 3; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 55; Type: Elmer 8866 (MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Kalinga, La Union, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, SAMAR. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Native.
  8. Piper baccatum Blume, Verh. Bat. Genoots. 11 (1826) 172; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 4; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 173; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 579; Type: from Java. = Piper sarcopodum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 207; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 4; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 175; Type: BS 16536 Ramos (K, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, forests near streams, Sep/Oct-1912. Distribution: Borneo, India, Java, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Sur. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  9. Piper baguionum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 775; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 4; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 96; Type: Elmer 8784 (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. = Piper polycladum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 438; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 14; Type: R.S. Williams 1134 (PNH, holo, lost?; NY 2 sheets, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, 15-Jun-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal. Notes: Montane forests and thickets, 1200-1500m. Native.
  10. Piper betle L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 28; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 170; EPFP 1 (1922) 3; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 85; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 579. = Piper anisodorum Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 16; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 31; ≡ Piper anisum-olens Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 23; Type: non extant; 'Illustrative specimen': Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 788 (US), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, Jan-1915. = Piper bathycarpum C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 153; EPFP 2 (1923) 4, as ‘bathicarpum’; Type: Warburg 14844, Jolo. = Piper puberulinodum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 773; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 14; Type: Elmer 11972 (BISH, MO, US), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, Oct-1909. = Piper carnistylum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 774; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 6; Type: Elmer 8904, Luzon: Quezon, Lucban. = Piper betle var. fenixii (C.DC.) Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 89; ≡ Piper fenixii C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 425; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 8; Type: BS 3652 E. Fenix (US, iso), Batanes Isls, May-Jun-1907. = Piper betle var. macgregorii (C.DC.) Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 89; ≡ Piper macgregorii C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 215; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 11; Type: BS 18491 R.C. McGregor, Biliran: Biliran, in forest, c. 300m. = Piper betle var. densum (Blume) C.DC., Prod. 16 (1869) 360; ≡ Piper densum Blume, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 11 (1826) 193. = Piper malarayatensis C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 442; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 11. = Piper philippinense C.DC., Prodr. 16, 1 (1869) 353; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 175; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 138; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 219; Type: Cuming 485, Luzon: Laguna, Calauan. Distribution: SE Asia. ALABAT, BATAN, BILIRAN, BOHOL, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Tarlac, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Cryptogenic, but of SE Asian origin. Widely cultivated in Asia and through Malesia to the Solomon Isls and Fiji. Occurring wild but also extensively cultivated throughout the Archipelago. Gardens, old clearings and secondary forests, at low and medium elevation up to c. 1400m. Betel pepper, Ikmo. Native.
  11. Piper breviamentum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 434; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 4; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 62; Type: R.S. Williams 2104 (PNH, holo, lost?; NY 3 sheets, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, 4-Feb-1905. = Piper copelandii C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 447; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 15; Type: Copeland 1298 (PNH, holo, lost?; US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, Apr-1904. = Piper sarcostylum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 216; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 15; Type: Merrill 7305 (US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Agusan River, Oct-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Surigao, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. breviamentum. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1200m. Native.
    • var. puberulinervum Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 64; Type: BS 38832 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost?; US, iso), Mindanao: Bukidnon, Mt Candoon, in forest, c. 1150m, 25-Jun-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Native.
  12. Piper brevicuspe (Miq.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 5; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 26; ≡ Rhyncholepis brevicuspis Miq., Syst. Pip. (1843) 283; Type: Cuming 1843, Bohol: Bohol. = Piper rhyncholepis C.DC., Prodr. 16, 1 (1869) 344, as ‘rhyncholepsis’; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 209; Candollea 1 (1923) 212; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 176; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 138; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 220. = Rhyncholepis cumingiana Miq., Syst. Pip. (1843) 282; Type: Cuming 1697, Samar. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental, Surigao, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation damp forests. Rhyncholepis cumingiana Miq. is a different species then Piper cumingiana Miq. Native.
  13. Piper brevistigmum C.DC., LPB 6 (1914) 2292; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 5; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 148; Type: Elmer 13684 (BISH, NY US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta = Mt Hilong-hilong, in forest, c. 1000m, Sep-1912. Mindanao: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta = Mt Hilong-hilong), in forest, c. 1000m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao. Native.
  14. Piper cacuminum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 765; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 5; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 68; Type: Elmer 6890 (PNH, holo, lost?), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, in the mossy forest near summit. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Zambales. Notes: Montane mossy forests, 1100-1500m. Native.
  15. Piper caninum Blume, Verh. Bat. Genoots. 11 (1826) 214; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 5; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 120; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 580; Suwanphakdee et al., Kew Bull. 73 (2018); Type: from Java. = Piper caninum var. basilanum (C.DC.) Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 124; ≡ Piper basilanum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 457; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 4; Type: Hallier s.n. (PNH, holo, lost?), Basilan, Jan-1904. = Piper caninum var. glabribracteum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 459; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 5; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 121; Type: Clemens 176 (PNH, holo, lost?), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lanao Lake, Camp Keithley. = Piper caninum var. hallieri (C.DC.) Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 123; ≡ Piper hallieri C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 458; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 9; Type: Hallier s.n. (PNH, holo, lost?), Basilan, Jan-1904. = Piper caninum var. lanaoense C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 459; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 5; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 122; Type: Clemens s.n. (PNH, holo, lost?), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Sep-1906. = Piper caninum var. latibracteum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 787; Merr., EPFP 2 (1922) 6; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 126; Type: Elmer 7627 (BISH, MO, syn); Elmer 7990 (NY, syn), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907; Elmer 8844 (MO, NY, syn), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. = Piper caninum var. oblongifolium Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 122; Type: BS 35070 Ramos & Pascasio (PNH, holo, lost?), Bucas Grande, in open forests at low elevation, 8-Jun-1919. = Piper acutibaccum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 459; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 2; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 146; Type: BS 10031 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio. = Piper apoanum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 785; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 3; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 131; Type: Elmer 11174 (MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, in bamboo thickets near Sibulan River, c. 800m, Jul-1909. = Piper arborisedens C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 223; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 3; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 145; Type: BS 24934 Ramos (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, in forest, 20-Aug-1910. = Piper cabadbaranum C.DC., LPB 6 (1914) 2292; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 5; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 143; Type: Elmer 14136 (NY, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta = Mt Hilong-hilong, wind-swept steep forested slopes of Cawilanan Peak, 4000ft, Oct-1912. = Piper dagatpanum C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 154; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 7; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 132; Type: Warburg 14739 (B, holo), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Dagatpan, Forests, c. 1300m. = Piper haenkeanum Opiz in C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 159; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 9; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 138; Chew, Blumea 20 (1972) 147; Type: Haenke s.n. = Piper malalaganum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 461; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 11; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 137; Type: Copeland 696 (PNH, holo, lost?), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Malalag. = Piper marivelesanum C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 155; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 11; Type: Warburg 13640, Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles. = Piper merrittii C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 460; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 12; Type: FB 6138 Merritt (PNH, holo, lost?), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Balete. = Piper negrosense C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 786; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 17; Type: Elmer 9482 (MO, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, climber upon low trees and over large boulders in the hemp region at 3000ft, Mar-1908. = Piper obovatibracteum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 784; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 13; Type: Elmer 7927 (BISH, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, in woods at 800m, May-1907. = Piper parcipilum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 445; Type: M.S. Clemens s.n., Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley. = Piper perpunctatum C.DC., PJS 11c (1916) Bot. 219; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 13; Type: Merrill 7246 (US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Malampaya, Sep-1910. = Piper sablanum (C.DC.) Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 135; ≡ Piper caninum Blume var. sablanum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 459; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 6; Type: Elmer 6150 (PNH, holo, lost?; NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Sablan, Apr-1904. = Piper tenuipedunculum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 460; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 16; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 136; Type: R.S. Williams 2343 (PNH, holo, lost?; NY 2 sheets, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, San Ramon, in forests, c. 400ft, 3-Feb-1905. = Piper tenuirameum C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 159; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 16; Type: Warburg 13317, Luzon: Rizal, Binangonan. = Piper villilimbum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 788; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 17; Type: Elmer 7382 (L, MO, US, syn), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907; Elmer 7624 (L, MO, NY, syn), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, in woods at 2500ft, May-1907. = Piper viminale Opiz in C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 150; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 17; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 126. = Piper densibaccum C.DC., PJS 5c (1910) Bot. 454; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 5; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 131; Type: M.S. Clemens s.n. (G-DC, holo), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Mar-1906. Distribution: India, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Thailand. BASILAN, BOHOL, BUCAS GRANDE, BUSUANGA, CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Bukidnon, Davao, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR, SIARGAO, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests and thickets, also along streambanks, ascending to 1300m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  16. Piper celtidiforme Opiz in C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 152; Merr., EPFP 2 (1922) 6; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 177; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 580; Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, holo), Luzon. = Piper celtidiforme forma luzonense (C.DC.) Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 180; ≡ Piper luzonense C.DC., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 350; Type: Jagor 722 (B, holo), Luzon. = Piper celtidiforme forma tubuanense Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 182; Type: BS 36704 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost?), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Mt Tabuan. = Piper celtidiforme forma usterii (C.DC.) Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 181; ≡ Piper usterii C.DC., Beitr. Kenntn. Philipp. (1905) 125; Type: Usteri s.n. (PNH, holo; lost?), Guimaras. = Piper celtidiforme var. vaginans Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 182; Type: BS 19822 R.C. McGregor (PNH, holo, lost?), Luzon: Ifugao, Mt Polis. = Piper catubigense Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 244; EPFP 2 (1922) 6; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 183; Type: BS 24278 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost?; NY, US, iso), Samar: Catubig River, on trees in damp forests at low elevation, 13-Mar-1916. = Piper corylistachyon (Miq.) C.DC., Prodr. 16, 1 (1869) 346; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 438; PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 218; LPB 3 (1910) 776; Candollea 1 (1923) 188; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 175; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 138; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 219; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 118; ≡ Chavica corylistachya Miq., Syst. Pip. (1843) 281; Type: Cuming 1044 (K, holo; L, iso), Philippines. = Piper corylistachyon forma d C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 439; Type: Jagor 722 (B), Luzon. = Piper corylistachyon forma d2 C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 439; Type: Gregory 110, Luzon: Quezon, Atimonan. = Piper longilimbum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 221; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 11; Type: BS 17602 Ramos (US, iso), Samar: Mt Canislagan, Mar/Apr-1914. = Piper penninerve C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 157; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 13; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 185; Type: Warburg 14744 (B, holo), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Dagatpan. = Piper villirache C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 214; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 17; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 187; Type: BS 15773 E. Fenix (US, iso), Mindanao: Bukidnon, Sumilao, Aug-1912. = Piper warburgii C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 159; Candollea 1 (1923) 285; Type: Warburg 13116 (B, holo), Luzon: Quezon, Sampaloc. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls. BASILAN, BILIRAN, BOHOL, CATANDUANES, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Bataan, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Kalinga, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: Lowland to medium elevation forests and thickets generally, ascending to 1500m. Native.
  17. Piper cordatilimbum Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 141; Type: BS 42699 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost?), Bohol: Bohol, Bilar, Aug/Oct-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, South Cotabato, Surigao, Zamboanga del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1200m. Native.
  18. Piper costulatum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 764; Merr., EPFP 2 (1922) 7; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 66; Type: Elmer 6805 (NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Nov-1904. = Piper podandrum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 436; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 13; Type: FB 8141 Curran & Merritt, Luzon: Zambales. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1500m. Native.
  19. Piper curtifolium C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 421; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 7; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 76; Type: BS 7107 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost?), Luzon: Abra, Mt Paraga. = Piper mindorense C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 423; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 12; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 79; Type: FB 4474 Merritt (PNH, holo, lost?), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Albay, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Montane forests to 2250m. Native.
  20. Piper davaoense C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 154; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 7; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 160; Type: Warburg 14740 (B, holo), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Dagatpan. = Piper laxirameum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 779; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 10; Type: Elmer 10503 (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, in dense humid woods of fertile steep ravines at 4000ft, May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur. Notes: Forests, 600-1300m. Native.
  21. Piper decumanum L. in Stickman, Herb. Amboin. (1754) 19; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 8; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 42; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 581; Blumea 57 (2013) 283; Type: from Moluccas. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Native.
  22. Piper delicatum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 778; Merr., EPFP 2 (1922) 8; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 74; Type: Elmer 8583 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, in woods at 7000ft of (Mt) Santo Tomas, Mar-1907. = Piper delicatum var. glabrum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 444; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 8; Type: R.S. Williams 1216 (PNH, holo, lost?), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Sto Tomas. = Piper polisanum C.DC., PJS 11c (1916) Bot. 209; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 14; Type: BS 19617 & 19816 R.C. McGregor (syn), Luzon: Ifugao, Mt Polis. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Mossy forests to about 2400m. Native.
  23. Piper dipterocarpinum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 455; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 8; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 133; Type: FB 9146 Whitford & Hutchinson (PNH, holo, lost?; NY, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, near Port Banga, in dipterocarp forest, c. 20m, Jan-1908. = Piper malindangense C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 436; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 11; Type: FB 4758 Mearns & Hutchinson (PNH, holo, lost?), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental, Mt Malindang. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  24. Piper elmeri Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 245; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 151; Type: BS 24256 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost?; US, iso), Samar: Catubig River, 10-Feb-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, SAMAR. Notes: Damp forests, ascending to 450m on Mt Makiling. Native.
  25. Piper ensifolium Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 119; Type: BS 45433 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost?; NY, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Casiguran, in damp forests along stream, low elevation, 29-May-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Ilocos Norte. Native.
  26. Piper eupodum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 219; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 8; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 47; Type: C.A. Wenzel 1005 (syn), Leyte: Leyte, Jaro, Buenavista; BS 15227 Ramos (US, syn), Leyte: Dagami, Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, PANAY. Notes: Forests, c. 500m. Native.
  27. Piper firmolimbum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 435; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 9; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 93; Type: Clemens s.n. (PNH, holo, lost?), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley. = Piper firmolimbum var. parvilimbum Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 95; Type: Elmer 14517 (PNH, holo, lost?; NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Sep-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  28. Piper fragile Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 234; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 99; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 581; Type: from New Guinea. = Piper fragile var. multinerve C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 421; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 9; Type: Merrill 3366 (NY, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Pasacao, near seashore. Nov-1903. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls. BUCAS GRANDE, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Notes: On rocks near the sea, lowland and medium elevation forests and thickets. Native.
  29. Piper fuscinervium Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 83; Type: BS 35380 Martelino & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost?), Panay: Aklan, Libacao. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  30. Piper halconense C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 422; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 9; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 69; Type: FB 4393 Merritt (PNH, holo, lost?), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon. = Piper cagayanense C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 435; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 5; Type: BS 7484 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost?), Luzon: Cagayan, Pamplona. = Piper atrospicum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 208; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 3; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 71; Type: BS 15359 Ramos (US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Dagami, in mossy forest, Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, MINDORO. Notes: Medium elevation forests upwards, ascending to 1500m. Native.
  31. Piper interruptum Opiz in C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 157; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 9; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 154; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 581; Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, holo), Luzon. = Piper interruptum var. cumingianum (Miq.) Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 158; ≡ Piper cumingianum Miq., Syst. Pip. (1843) 329; Type: Cuming 1190 (K, holo), Luzon: Albay. = Piper interruptum Opiz var. herbaceum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 448; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 9; Type: Merrill 3182 (PNH, holo, lost?), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River. = Piper interruptum var. laevirameum (C.DC.) Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 158; ≡ Piper laevirameum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 450; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 10; Type: Clemens 1255 (PNH, holo, lost?), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley. = Piper interruptum var. loheri (C.DC.) Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 157; ≡ Piper loheri C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 450; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 2; Type: Loher 4552 (US, syn), Luzon: Rizal, San Mateo, 12-Jul-90. = Piper interruptum var. multiplinerve C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 785; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 9; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 159; Type: Elmer 6855, Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles. = Piper interruptum Opiz var. subarborescens C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 448; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 10; Type: BS 4585 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, in forest, Aug-1904. = Piper abraense C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 451; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 11; Type: BS 7195 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost?; NY, US, iso), Luzon: Abra, Baret, Jan-1909. = Piper clemensiae C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 449; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 6; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 166; Type: Clemens 1200 (PNH, holo, lost?), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley. = Piper elliptibaccum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 449; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 8; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 165; Type: BS 6344 C. Robinson (PNH, holo, lost?), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Maagnas. = Piper loheri C.DC. forma multiplinerve C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 450; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 11; Type: BS 6015 C. Robinson (syn), Luzon: Laguna, Liliw, Mar-1904; BS 1870 Foxworthy (syn), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao, Dec-1904. = Piper pilispicum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 452; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 13; Type: BS 5720 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost?; US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Dec-1908. = Piper pulogense C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 453; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 14; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 162; Type: FB 16240 Curran, Merritt & Zschokke (PNH, holo, lost?; US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulag, 2250m, Jan-1909. = Piper samaranum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 223; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 15; Type: BS 17546 Ramos, Samar: Cauayan Valley. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, ?Taiwan. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Manila, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests and thickets generally, ascending to 2250m in Benguet. Native.
  32. Piper langlassei C.DC., Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 2 (1898) 273; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 433; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 10; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 91; Type: Langlassé s.n. (P, iso), Luzon: Laguna, base of Mt Banahaw, on calcareous soil, 30-Oct-1894. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon. Native.
  33. Piper lessertianum (Miq.) C.DC., J. Bot. 4 (1866) 164; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 10; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 36; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 581; ≡ Chavica lessertiana Miq., Syst. Pip. (1843) 270; Type: Cuming 1343 (‘1342’) (BM, holo), Luzon: Cagayan. = Piper lessertianum var. oblongibaccum (C.DC.) Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 39; ≡ Piper oblongibaccum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 777; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 12; Type: Elmer 9456 (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, in woods of densely forested trail, 4000ft, Mar-1908. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. ALABAT, BUCAS GRANDE, LUZON: Apayao, Aurora, Cagayan, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Damp forests, mostly from 400-2200m. Native.
  34. Piper longipedicellatum Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 144; Type: BS 38066 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost?; US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Caua, on slopes in the mossy forest, c. 1800m, 3-Mar-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forests, c. 1800m. Native.
  35. Piper longistigmum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 770; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 11; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 95; Type: Elmer 7578 (MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  36. Piper longivaginans C.DC., PJS 5c (1910) Bot. 444; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 3; Quisumb., PJS (1930) 72; Type: BS 6069 C.B. Robinson (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Banahaw, Mar-1909. = Piper crassinodum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 780; Merr., EPFP 2 (1922) 7; Type: Elmer 8042 (BISH, MO, NY, US, syn); Elmer 7626a (MO, US, syn), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907. = Piper magallanesanum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 212; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 11; Type: Elmer 12313, Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, SIBUYAN. Notes: Medium to high montane forests, ascending to 2500m. Native.
  37. Piper macropiper Pennant, Outlines of the Globe 4 (1800) 242; Merr., J. Arnold Arb. 29 (1948) 191; Chew, J. Arnold Arb. 53 (1972) 10; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 582; Gajurel & Lua, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 137; Type: Rumphius, Herb. Amboin. 5 (1747) 46. = Piper arborescens Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 80; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 3; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 20. = Piper arborescens var. angustilimbum Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 22; Type: Elmer 7384 (PNH, holo, lost?; NY, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907. = Piper arborescens var. hirtellum (Miq.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 3; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 23; ≡ Piper miniatum Blume var. hirtellum (Miq.) C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 776; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 422; Candollea 1 (1923) 261; ≡ Chavica miniata Miq. var. hirtella Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1860-61) 473. = Piper glandulosum Opiz in C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 158; Type: Haenke s.n. (PRC, lecto; HAL, MO, PRC, isolecto), Luzon. = Piper pilipes C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 423; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 16; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 25; Type: Clemens s.n., Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley. = Piper trichophlebium Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 24; Type: Merrill 9404 (PNH, holo, lost?; NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Binaloan, in forests at low elevation, 19-May-1913. Distribution: Borneo, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Common in lowland and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1000m. Native.
  38. Piper majusculum Blume, Verh. Bat. Genoots. 11 (1826) 210; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 45; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 582; Type: from Java. = Piper rotundistigmum C.DC., PJS 5c (1910) Bot. 425; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 15; Type: Clemens s.n. (G-DC, holo), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley. = Piper rotundistigmum var. pilosius C.DC., Candollea 1 (1923) 201; Type: BS 17434 Ramos, Samar. = Piper leyteanum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 220; Candollea 1 (1923) 206; Type: C.A. Wenzel 214, Leyte: Leyte, Dagami. Distribution: Borneo, India, Java, Malaysia, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sumatra, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Lanao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests. Native.
  39. Piper medinillifolium Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 29; Type: BS 15364 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost?; US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Burauen, 12-Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: In forests, c. 500m. Native.
  40. Piper melanocaulon Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 49; Type: BS 35725 Martelino & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost?; US, iso), Panay: Iloilo, Mt Bolilao, on the summit, c. 1000m, 29-Jun-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Notes: L.L.Co: Resembles Piper eupodum C.DC., but may be readily distinguished from it by its black branches and leaves, shorter peduncles and spikes, laxly arranged fruits, its glabrous rachis, and its bracts. Native.
  41. Piper merrillii C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 426; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 12; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 52; Type: Merrill 1809 (PNH, holo, lost?; US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Baco River, Apr-1903. = Piper dagamiense C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 211; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 7; Type: BS 15181 Ramos (US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Dagami. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, BOHOL, CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1250m. Native.
  42. Piper multistigmum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 222; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 12; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 163; Type: BS 19819 R.C. McGregor (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Ifugao, Mt Polis, Feb-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Forest, elevation cited as 1000m (possibly nearer 2000m). L.L.Co: Resembling Piper interruptum Opiz, but stigma 5 or 6. Native.
  43. Piper muricatum Blume, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunst. Wet. 11 (1826) 219; Suwanphakdee et al., Kew Bull. 73 (2018); Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Borneo, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (8-Apr-2022): present in the Philippines according to Suwanphakdee et al. (2018), but no specimens cited. Native.
  44. Piper myrmecophilum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 211; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 12; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 56; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 583; Type: BS 17599 Ramos (L, US, iso), Samar: Mt Cauayan, Mar/Apr-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT (photos), LEYTE, SAMAR. Notes: Damp forests, 50-400m. Native.
  45. Piper nigrum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 28. Native.
    • var. trioicum (Roxb.) C.DC., Prodr. 161 (1869) 363; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 12; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 167; ≡ Piper trioicum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 153. = Piper glabrispicum C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 155; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 9; Type: Warburg 14748 (B, holo), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Taumo. Notes: Extensively cultivated in the tropics for the well-known spice which is probably the world’s most consumed (peppercorn). Paminta. Native.
  46. Piper obtusissimum Miq., Syst. Piperac. (1844) 337; Gajurel & Lua, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 138; Type: from Singapore. = Piper manillanum Miq., Syst. Piperac. (1844) 339; Type: from Singapore. Distribution: India, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore. Native.
  47. Piper ovatibaccum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 782; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 13; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 80; Type: Elmer 7888 (BISH, MO, NY, US, syn), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, 700m, May-1907; Elmer 8106 (syn), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban. = Piper robinsonii C.DC., PJS 5c (1910) Bot. 445; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 13; Type: BS 6065 C.B. Robinson (PNH, holo, lost?), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Banahaw. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Medium elevation forests, ascending to 1075m. Native.
  48. Piper parcirameum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 781; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 13; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 65; Type: Elmer 10899 (BISH, MO, NY, syn), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, dense forest at 4000ft of Mt Calelan, Jun-1909; Elmer 11274 (BISH, MO, NY, syn), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, dense forest, 3000ft, Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Notes: In forests, 900-1200m. Native.
  49. Piper parong Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 105; Type: BS 24465 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost?; NY, US, iso), Samar: Northern Samar, Palapag, Catubig, 11-Mar-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Lowland thickets and streamside forests. Native.
  50. Piper paucinerve C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 156; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 13; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 147; Type: Warburg 11929 (B, holo), Luzon: Isabela, Malunu. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Native.
  51. Piper philippinum Miq., Syst. Pip. (1843) 322; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 13; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 110; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 583; Type: Cuming 912 (de Lessert herbarium, holo), Luzon: Albay (Gardner otherwise cites Cuming 1642 (G or P?)). = Piper albidirameum C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 153; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 8; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 115; Type: Warburg 14751 (B, holo), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Taumo. = Piper crassilimbum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 210; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 7; Type: Merrill 7649 (US, syn), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, thickets in limestone region, 1550m, May-1911. = Piper fuscescentirameum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 217; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 8; Type: C.A. Wenzel 1184, Leyte: in forest, c. 500m. = Piper lividum C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 155; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 8; Type: Warburg 11930 (B, holo), Luzon: Isabela, Malunu. = Piper lucbanense C.DC., LPB 6 (1914) 2293; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 11; Type: Elmer 7383, Luzon: Quezon, Lucban. = Piper maagnasanum C.DC., PJS 5c (1910) Bot. 429; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 8; Quisumb., PJS (1930) 117; Type: BS 6355 C.B. Robinson, Luzon: Camarines Sur, Maagnas. = Piper pendulifolium C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 772; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 8; Type: Elmer 10942 (BISH, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, Jul-1909. = Piper petraeum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 430; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 13; Type: Elmer 6430 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Twin Peaks, on rocks in shady places, May-1904. = Piper psilocarpum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) 215; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 8; Type: C.A. Wenzel 896, Leyte: Leyte, Jaro, Buenavista. Forests, c. 500m. Distribution: China, Philippines, Taiwan. ALABAT, BATBATAN, BILIRAN, BOHOL, BUCAS GRANDE, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Benguet, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests and thickets, ascending to 1550m. Native.
  52. Piper quinqueangulatum Miq., Syst. Pip. (1854) 85; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 583; Type: from Java. = Piper cristatum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 770; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 7; Type: Elmer 10703 (G-DC, lecto; BISH, BM, E, GH, K, MO, NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur (Mt Apo, Todaya), epiphytic in very humid forest along Baruring River, 3500ft, May-1909. = Piper korthalsii Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1863) 139; C.DC., Candollea 1 (1923) 71; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 10; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 169. = Piper korthalsii Miq. var. longibracteum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 763; Type: Clemens 463, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley. Distribution: Java, Malaysia, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Aurora, Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Damp lowland to montane forests, 400-2200m, one record from 2800m. Native.
  53. Piper ramosii C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 426; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 14; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 82; Type: BS 1755 Ramos, Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso. = Piper calvifolium C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 217; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 5; Type: Loher 6794, pro parte (K), Luzon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. L.L.Co: Nearest to Piper ovatibaccum C.DC., differing in its auriculate leaves and reniform anthers. Native.
  54. Piper retrofractum Vahl, Enum. 1 (1804) 314; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 14; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 106; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 583; Type: from East Indies. = Piper palawanum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 210; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 13; Type: BS 1553 E. Fenix (US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Babuyan. = Piper parvifolium Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 23; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 17; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 32; Type: not extant; 'illustrative specimen': Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 523 (US), Luzon: Bulacan, Angat, Sep-1913, leg. M Ramos. = Piper retrofractum Vahl var. latifolium C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 157; Type: Warburg 12125 (B, holo), Luzon: Cagayan, Buguey. Distribution: Indochina, Malay Peninsula to Moluccas, Philippines. CAMIGUIN, DALUPIRI, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Kalinga, La Union, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Lowland thickets, 0-850m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  55. Piper ridleyi C.DC., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 6 (1912) 19; Suwanphakdee et al., Kew Bull. 73 (2018); Type: from Malay Peninsula. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand. Notes: P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (8-Apr-2022): present in the Philippines according to Suwanphakdee et al. (2018), but no specimens cited. Native.
  56. Piper sarmentosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 162; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 15; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 101; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 584. = Piper allenii C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 441; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 3; Type: Allen 152 (PNH, holo, lost?), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Surigao. = Piper siassiense C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 443; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 15; Type: Merrill 5311 (NY, US, iso), Sulu Archipelago: Siasi Island, in coconut groves, 12-Oct-1906. = Piper zamboangae C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 424; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 17; Type: Hallier s.n. (PNH, holo, lost?), Mindanao: Zamboanga. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland thickets, coconut groves, etc. Native.
  57. Piper sibulanum C.DC. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 158; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 103; Type: Warburg 14742 (B, holo), Mindanao: Davao del Sur. = Piper oophyllum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 430; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 17; Type: Copeland 333 (US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, sea-level in coconut groves, Mar-1904. = Piper williamsii C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 441; Type: R.S. Williams 2750 (PNH, holo, lost?; NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Sta Cruz, 13-Apr-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Davao Oriental, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: Lowland forests and coconut groves. Native.
  58. Piper simile Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 34; Type: BS 33105 (PNH, holo, lost?), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Bangui to Claveria, c. 500m, 11-Aug-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Quirino. Notes: Medium elevation to high montane forests, 500-1900m. Native.
  59. Piper sorsogonum C.DC., Candollea 1 (1923) 223, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Candollea 2 (1923) 188; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 150; Type: Elmer 14921 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Irosin, Sep-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines Norte, Sorsogon. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests. Native.
  60. Piper spathelliferum Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 164; Type: BS 26383 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost?), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan, on slope near summit of Mt Umingan, c. 400m, 20-Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. Notes: L.L.Co: Similar to Piper elliptibaccum C.DC., differing in the presence of glandular brown dots on the lower surface of lamina. Native.
  61. Piper subbullatum K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee (1900) 262; Gardner, Blumea 48 (2003) 64; Blumea 51 (2007) 584; Type: from New Guinea. = Piper lageniovarium C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 797; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 10; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 44; Type: Elmer 10589 (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909. Distribution: New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur. Notes: Medium elevation thickets and forests, streamsides, etc. (0-)1300-1700m. Native.
  62. Piper subprostratum C.DC., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 425; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 15; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 40; Type: FB 6751 Merritt (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, S of Lake Naujan, Mar/Apr-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  63. Piper toppingii C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 783; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 16; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 30; Type: Elmer 8375 (MO, NY, US, syn), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907; Elmer 5850 (NY, US, syn), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1904. = Piper chlorocarpum C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 221; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 16; Type: BS 16638 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, Sep/Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Medium elevation to high-montane forests, ascending to 2100m. Native.
  64. Piper umbellatum L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 30; ≡ Lepianthes umbellata (L.) Raf. ex Ramamoorthy, Fl. Hassan Distr. (1976) 52; ≡ Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq., Comm. Phytogr. (1840) 36. = Piper subpeltatum Willd., Sp. Pl. 1(1) (1797) 166; ≡ Piper umbellatum L. var. subpeltatum (Willd.) C.DC. in Donn.Sm., Enum. Pl. Guatem. 6 (1903) 39; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 16; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 17. = Piper umbellatum L. var. glabrum C.DC., Bull. Herb. Boiss. 16 (1898) 494; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 16. Distribution: C & S America. CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, MINDANAO: South Cotabato, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Naturalized in forests. Naturalized.
  65. Piper urdanetanum C.DC., LPB 6 (1914) 2293; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 16; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 32; Type: Elmer 13713 (BISH, NA, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta = Mt Hilonghilong, Sep-1912. = Piper wenzelii C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 213; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 17; Type: C.A. Wenzel 628 (US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, 30-Mar-1914. = Piper hirtirache C.DC., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 213; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 17; Type: C.A. Wenzel 1168, Leyte: Leyte, Jaro, Buenavista. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  66. Piper varibracteum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 764; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 16; Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 78; Type: Elmer 11998 (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, scandent upon trees and overtopping dense thickets along the sea coast on moist sandy soil, Oct-1909. = Piper striatum C.DC., LPB 3 (1910) 776, nom. illeg., non Vahl; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 15; Type: Elmer 11764 (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, epiphytic in light woods, c. 3000ft, Sep-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Notes: Sea-level to medium elevation forests. Near Piper curtifolium. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Piper longum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 29; Suwanphakdee et al., Kew Bull. 73 (2018). Distribution: Bangladesh, China, Himalayas, India, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, ?Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam. Notes: See Quisumbing (1930).

Incertae sedis

  1. Piper jagori C.DC., Prodr. 161 (1859) 358, as ‘jayeri’; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 10. = Piper rufinerve Opiz in C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 159; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 15. = Piper taumanum C.DC. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1905) 159; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 15. Native.

Zippelia Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2019
  1. Zippelia begoniifolia Blume in Roem. & Schultes, Syst. Veg. 7 (1830) 1614, 1615; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 18; Gardner, Blumea 51 (2007) 584; ≡ Piper begoniifolium (Blume) Quisumb., PJS 43 (1930) 189; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. JOLO. Notes: Damp forest, c. 700m. Native.

References