Phyllanthaceae

Actephila Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 August 2017
  1. Actephila alanbakeri Welzen & Ent in Van der Ent et al., Botanical Studies 57 (2016) 2; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDORO, NEGROS. Native.
  2. Actephila excelsa (Dalzell) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 78; ≡ Anomospermum excelsum Dalzell, Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 3 (1851) 228; Type: from India. = Actephila javanica Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 12 (1859) 359; ≡ Actephila excelsa var. javanica (Miq.) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 81 (1822) 192; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 390; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 52; Type: from Java. = Actephila dispersa (Elmer) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 276; Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1273; ≡ Pimeleodendron dispersum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 308; Pax in Engl., Pflanzenreich 52 (1912) 56; Type: Elmer 7245 (PNH, holo, lost; K, L, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Palo, Jan-1905. = Actephila gitingensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 903; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; Type: Elmer 12141 (PNH, holo, lost; A, E, G, GH, HBG, K, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), Mt Gitinggiting, in stony gravelly soil along the Pauala riverbed at 1250ft, Apr-1910. = Actephila magnifolia Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 904; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 390; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; Type: Elmer 12303 (PNH, holo, lost; A, E, G, HBG, K, L, MO, NY, US), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting, compact fertile soil of a forested incline at 1000ft, Apr-1910. = Actephila gigantifolia Koord., Meded. Lands Plantentuin 19 (1897) 625; Merr., Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 1 (1903) 29; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. BANCALAN, DINAGAT, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SIARGAO, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.

Antidesma L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 September 2017
  1. Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng., Syst. 1 (1825) 826; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 287; EPFP 2 (1923) 412; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 74; ≡ Stilago bunius L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 122; ≡ Antidesma stilago Poir., Encycl. suppl. 1 (1811) 403, pro parte, nom. illeg. = Antidesma ciliatum C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 234; Type: Cuming 1446 (PRC, holo; CGE, E, FHO, G, K, L, P, iso), Luzon: Batangas. = Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. cordifolium (C.Presl) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 262; ≡ Antidesma cordifolium C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 235; Type: Cuming 474 (PRC, holo; CGE, E, G, FHO, K, L 2 sheets, MEL, P, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Calauang. = Antidesma crassifolium (Elmer) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 383; ≡ Sapium crassifolium Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 485; Type: Elmer 10312 (US, lecto; A, BM, E, G, K, L, MO, NY, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, open, dry grassy ridges at 1000ft, Jun-1908. Native.
    • var. bunius. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: As Antidesma bunius is widely cultivated as a fruit tree, it is impossible to distinguish truly wild occurrences and to establish the natural geographic distribution of the species. In wet evergreen forest, dipterocarp forest and teak forest; on river banks, at forest edges, along roadsides; in bamboo thickets; in semi-cultivated and cultivated areas; in shady or open habitats; usually in secondary but also in primary vegetation. Thrives best in open, sunny places, and is said to be common in the early stages of secondary forest succession, invading marginal grassland (Gruèzo in PROSEA 2 (1991) 79). On sand, loam or clay over (coral) limestone or granite bedrock. Up to 2100 m.
  2. Antidesma catanduanense Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 549; EPFP 2 (1923) 413; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 81; Type: BS 30515 Ramos (A, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Catanduanes: Mt Mariguidon. Nov/Dec-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Notes: Along streams in forests. Native.
  3. Antidesma curranii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 466; EPFP 2 (1923) 413; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 97; Type: FB 5087 Curran (US, lecto), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, LEYTE, MINDANAO, SAMAR. Notes: In (dry) dipterocarp forest; in primary or secondary vegetation; in shady or half-shady habitats. On clay soil, also reported from ultrabasic soil. 50-700m. Native.
  4. Antidesma digitaliforme Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. 3, 15 (1851) 191; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 413; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 103; Type: Callery 42 (P, lecto; A, G, isolecto), Luzon: apud Igolotas, in sylvis montium, prope Manillam. = Antidesma lucidum Merr., PJS 1 suppl. (1906) 78; Type: Whitford 1135 (US, lecto; G, K, NY, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao Forest Reserve. = Antidesma luzonicum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 464; EPFP 2 (1923) 415; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; Type: Ramos (Phil. Pl.) 1555 (L, lecto; A, BO, G, NY, SING, isolecto), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mt Isarog. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Quezon, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Understorey of dipterocarp and elfin/montane forest; in primary or secondary vegetation; sometimes on exposed ridges. On clay-loam or loose rocky soil. 10-1600m. Native.
  5. Antidesma edule Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 26; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 418; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 106; Type: FB 167 Barnes (US, lecto; BM, K, NY, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. edule. Distribution: LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: In mixed lowland to hill forest; sometimes in damp forests by streams. On rocky volcanic/ultrabasic soil, 70-400m.
    • var. apoense Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 54 (1999) 350; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 107; Type: Co 3142 (A, holo), Mindanao: North Cotabato, Kidapawan, Mt Apo Geothermal Project Site B, montane forest with average canopy height of 20 m, 1400m. Distribution: MINDANAO: North Cotabato. Notes: Known only from the type locality.
  6. Antidesma excavatum Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavum 1 (1864) 218; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 112; Type: from Sulawesi. = Antidesma sarcocarpum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 288; Euph. New Guinea (1980) 218; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; Type: from Papua New Guinea (lecto). ?BS 39026 Ramos & Edaño. Native.
    • var. excavatum. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, ?Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, ?Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. Notes: Its occurrence in Borneo and the Philippines is somewhat doubtful. There are three collections from the Philippines: BS 39026 Ramos & Edaño from Mindanao is the only typical specimen; BS 24836 Barbos and BS 33057 Ramos from Luzon are doubtful. In (rain) forest, associated with Anisoptera, Araucaria, Calophyllum, Castanopsis, Cunoniaceae, Eucalyptopsis, Eugenia, Hopea, Melaleuca, Quercus, Semecarpus and Vatica; Agathis forest; low shrubby forest; coastal plain forest; gallery forest; sometimes on alluvial, swampy or seasonally flooded ground; on grassland; in mangrove forest with Bruguiera, Rhizophora, Sonneratia, Xylocarpus; at back of beaches, associated with Pandanus and Cocos; on coral shores; on an extinct volcano; on semi-cultivated and cultivated land; in lowland to mid-montane, primary or secondary vegetation. On white sand, sandy loam soil, alluvial soil derived from granite, volcanic and ultrabasic soil, limestone rock. Up to 3600 m.
  7. Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn., Fruct. 1 (1788) 189; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 287; EPFP 2 (1923) 414; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5. = Antidesma ghaesembilla var. vestitum (C.Presl) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 251; ≡ Antidesma vestitum C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 232; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 414; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; Type: Cuming 986 (PRC, holo; CGE, E, G, K, L, MEL, NY, TCD, iso), Luzon: Pangasinan prov. = Antidesma spicatum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 794, as 'spicata'; Type: Blanco?, Llanos?, Philippines. = ?Cansjera grossularioides Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 73, as 'Cansiera'; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 53; Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 463; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 218; Type: Blanco? Llanos?, Philippines. = ?Cansjera rheedii Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 73, as 'Cansiera rheedi'; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 52, as 'Cansiera rhedi'; Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 462, nom. illeg., non Gmel.; Type: Blanco? Llanos?, Philippines. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation, a common characteristic tree of open cogonales (grasslands) at low and medium elevation. In pyrogenous grassland, scrubby ‘parang’ vegetation, vine thickets, early stage re-growths associated with Macaranga and other fast-growing weed-tree pioneers, along roadsides, on various soil types including limestone and ultramafics-derived, 0-1250m. Native.
  8. Antidesma japonicum Siebold & Zucc., Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4(3) (1846) 212; Fl. Jap. Fam. Nat. 2 (1846) 88; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 134; Type: Siebold & Zuccarini s.n. (L, herb. No. 903154-234, lecto; L, ?LE, isolecto), Japan. = Antidesma acuminatissimum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 159; Type: BS 45189 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; B, K, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora, Casiguran. Native.
    • var. japonicum. Distribution: China, Japan, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: In (evergreen) forest; in virgin forest, dipterocarp forest and dry thickets; on limestone cliffs; along roadsides; in primary or secondary vegetation; on wet or dry ground. On sandy soil, clay, limestone, over granite bedrock. Up to 1700 m.
  9. Antidesma leucopodum Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat., Suppl. (1861) 465; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 212; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 145; Type: from Sumatra (lecto). = Antidesma clementis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 465; EPFP 2 (1923) 413; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; Type: M.S. Clemens 884 (G, lecto), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Camp Keithley. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: In lowland to lower montane (mixed) dipterocarp forest up to 50m tall; in mossy forest; in riverine forest; usually in damp understorey, associated with Castanopsis, Dipterocarpus, Durio, Shorea; also along roadsides; in primary or secondary vegetation. On loam and clay over sandstone and shale, alluvial soil and limestone rocks. Up to 2200 m. Native.
  10. Antidesma macgregorii C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 207; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 415; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 145; Type: BS 10280 McGregor (US, lecto; K, iso), Polillo. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Tayabas, NEGROS, POLILLO, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: The specimen Curran 3477(A) from Masamba, southern Sulawesi, is the only collection of Antidesma macgregorii from outside the Philippines. It matches the Philippine specimens but bears only very young fruits and is therefore here regarded as doubtful. In dipterocarp forest, along forest edges, primary or disturbed vegetation. On brown clay and ultrabasic soil. 50–900 m. Native.
  11. Antidesma microcarpum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 487; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 415; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 150; Type: Elmer 9668 (E, lecto; G, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, Dumaguete. = Antidesma santosii Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 550; EPFP 2 (1923) 417; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; Type: FB 26300 Santos (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna, Mount Banahaw. = Antidesma maesoides Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.xv (1922) 164; Type: Ramos 15251 (A, lecto), Leyte: Leyte, Dagami. = Antidesma fru[c]tiferum Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3731; nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; Voucher: Elmer 14508 (BM, BO, G, GH, K, L, NY, U, US), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Mainly in secondary forest; 60-1050 m. Native.
  12. Antidesma montanum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 1124; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 213; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 154; Type: from Java (lecto). Native.
    • var. montanum. = Antidesma leptocladum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sér. 3, 15 (1851) 199; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 288; EPFP 2 (1923) 414; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 6; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6. = Antidesma leptocladum Tul. var. genuinum Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 253, nom. inval.; Type: Cuming 1513 (CGE, lecto; A, CGE, E, G, G-DC microfiche, L, K, NY, P, PRC, iso), Luzon: Batangas. = Antidesma leptocladum Tul. var. nitidum (Tul.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 253; ≡ Antidesma nitidum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sér. 3 (1851) 193; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 416; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; Type: Cuming 1511 (P, lecto; A, CGE, E, G, G-DC microfiche, K, L, NY, P, PRC, iso), Luzon: near Manila. = Antidesma rostratum Tul. var. genuinum Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 257, nom. inval.; Type: Perrottet s.n. (P, lecto; G, L, iso), Luzon: circa Manillam. = Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr. var. lobbianum (Tul.) Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 463; EPFP 2 (1923) 416; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; ≡ Antidesma rostratum Tul. var. lobbianum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sér. 3 (1851) 219, as 'lobbiana'; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; ≡ Antidesma lobbianum (Tul.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 254; Type: Lobb 460 (CGE Hb. Lindl., lecto; BM, G, G-DC microfiche, K, L, OXF, iso), Java or Luzon. = Antidesma leptocladum Tul. var. glabrum Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 254; Type: Cuming 1820 (G-DC microfiche, lecto; CGE, FHO G, K, P, PRC, TCD, iso), Philippines. = Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 462; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 219; EPFP 2 (1923) 416; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; ≡ Cansjera pentandra Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 73, as 'Cansiera'; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 53, as 'Cansiera'; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 31 (A, neo; GH, K, L, NY, P, US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, Pasay (but “Bulacan, Angat” in Merrill, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 219). = Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr. var. barbatum (C.Presl) Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 463; EPFP 2 (1923) 417; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7. = Antidesma rostratum Tul. var. barbatum (C.Presl) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 257; ≡ Antidesma barbatum C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 233; Type: Cuming 1246 (PRC, lecto; CGE, E, G, K, L, MEL, P, PRC, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov. = Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr. var. angustifolium Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 464; ≡ Antidesma angustifolium (Merr.) Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.xv (1922) 165; Type: Elmer 6327 (US, lecto; G, K, NY, P, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Twin Peaks. = Antidesma ramosii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 468; EPFP 2 (1923) 417; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; ≡ Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr. var. ramosii (Merr.) Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.xv (1922) 126; Type: BS 1002 Ramos (US, lecto; NY, P, iso), Luzon, Rizal, Bosoboso. = Antidesma salicifolium C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 233; Type: Cuming 1316 (PRC, holo; CGE, E, G, FHO, K, L, MEL, P, iso), Luzon: Cagayan prov. = Antidesma mindanaense Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 383; EPFP 2 (1923) 415; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; Type: Williams 2117 (NY, lecto; K, NY, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax R., San Ramon. = Antidesma obliquinervium Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 466; EPFP 2 (1923) 416; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; Type: Merrill 9294 (A, lecto; BM, GH, L, NY, P, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Taytay-Lake Manguao trail, May-1913. = Antidesma palawanense Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 467; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.xv (1922) 131; Merr., Enum. Philip. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 416; Airy Shaw, Euphorb. Philippines (1983) 6; Type: Elmer 12808 (K, neo; A, E, G, L, NY, U, WRSL, isoneo), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak). = Antidesma agusanense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2632; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 412; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 29; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; Type: Elmer 13549 (GH, lecto; BISH, E, G, K, L, MO, NY, P, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, in good humus-covered soil of a deeply wooded flat at 750ft, Aug-1912. = Antidesma angustifolium (Merr.) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 81 (1922) 165; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 412; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; ≡ Antidesma pentandrum Merr. var. angustifolium Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot 464; Type: Elmer 6320. = Antidesma phanerophlebium Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 59; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BABUYAN ISLS, BALABAC, BASILAN, BATANES, BOHOL, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Lanao, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation.
  13. Antidesma pleuricum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Sér. 3, 15 (1851) 213; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 417; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 196; Type: Callery 38 (P “38bis”, lecto), Calawanio. = Antidesma obliquicarpum Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2633; Type: Elmer 13277 (NY, lecto; A, E, G, GH, K, L, P, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. = ?Antidesma tenuifolium Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.xv (1922) 137; Type: Curran 10736 (K, lecto; NY, US, iso), Luzon: Camarines. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. ALABAT, BURIAS, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, SAMAR, SIARGAO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO, TICAO. Notes: In forests, often in damp, dense habitats or near streams, on deep, fertile red soil, brown loam, limestone, 10–600 m. Native.
  14. Antidesma puncticulatum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 468; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 198; Type: from Sumatra. = Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. thwaitesianum (Müll.Arg.) Trimen, Syst. Cat. Pl. Ceylon (1885) 81; ≡ Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. b Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1861) 289, nom. inval.; ≡ Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 263; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 217; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 8; Type: from Sri Lanka (lecto). Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Cambodia, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, BANCALAN, PALAWAN. Notes: In evergreen primary, sometimes disturbed forest, in swamp forest, along river banks, at the inner edge of the mangrove, in secondary vegetation with Dillenia and Melastoma. On brown to black soil, sandy loam or peat, over sandstone. Up to 500 m. Native.
  15. Antidesma riparium Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 282; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 207. Native.
    • ssp. riparium. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, ?Sumatra. PALAWAN. Notes: In primary or secondary vegetation; in riverine and swamp forest; in mixed (dipterocarp) forest. On sandy or clay soil, over shales. 60–1000 m.
  16. Antidesma stipulare Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1827) 1125; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 216; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 215; Type: from Nusa Kambangan (lecto). = Antidesma cordatostipulaceum Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 413; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; Type: McGregor 311 (K, lecto), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Baco River. = Antidesma cordatostipulaceum var. lancifolium Merr., Enum. Philip. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 413, as 'cordato- stipulaceum'; Type: BS 40732 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; K, P, US, iso), Mindoro. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, ?SIBUYAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: In primary and secondary vegetation, in lowland to hill dipterocarp forest up to 40 m tall, in mossy upper montane forest, in riverine and swamp forest, in Agathis forest, usually in shady understorey. On clay, loam, peat and sandy soil, often acidic, sometimes on ultrabasic soil, over limestone, basalt, sandstone and shale. Up to 1800 m. Native.
  17. Antidesma subcordatum Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 418; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 218; Type: BS 1114 Ramos (NY, lecto; BO, GH, K, P, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso. = Antidesma fusicarpum Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3081; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 414; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; Type: Elmer 18083 (GH, lecto; BM, BO, G, K, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños (Mt Maquiling). = Antidesma subcordatum var. glabrescens Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.xv (1922) 157; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 418; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; Type: Merrill 2860 (NY, lecto; K, US, iso), Luzon: Pangasinan. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. CORON, CORRIGIDOR, LUZON: Laguna, MASBATE, PALAWAN. Notes: The disjunction might indicate an adaptation to drier habitats than its presumed sister taxon Antidesma ghaesembilla, or it might simply be a collecting artifact. Forested ravines. 20–300m. Native.
  18. Antidesma tomentosum Blume, Bijdr. (1827) 1126; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 8; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 218; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 224. = Antidesma cumingii Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 249; Type: Cuming 1300 (G-BOISS, holo; BM, G, G-DC microfiche, CGE, FHO, K, iso), Luzon: Albay prov. = Antidesma membranifolium Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 313, as 'membranaefolium'; Type: Elmer 9088 (L, lecto; A, E, G, K, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban. = Antidesma subolivaceum Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1272; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 418; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 8; Type: Elmer 12883 (NY, lecto; A, BM, BO, E, G, K, L, P, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak). = Antidesma samarense Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 469; EPFP 2 (1923) 417; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; Type: Ramos (Phil. Pl.) 1665 (US, lecto; BM, BO, G, GH, L, NY, P, SING, iso), Samar. = Antidesma urdanetense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2635; Type: Elmer 13971 (A, lecto; BM, BO, E, G, K, L, NY, P, U, US, iso), Mindanao, Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. = Antidesma ilocanum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 549; EPFP 2 (1923) 414; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; Type: BS 32998 Ramos (A, lecto; BM, K, US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, between Bangui and Claveria. = Antidesma impressinerve Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 548; EPFP 2 (1923) 414; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; Type: BS 31409 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; K, US, iso), Panay: Capiz, Jamindan. Notes: Antidesma tomentosum is a very variable species. Native.
    • var. tomentosum. = ?Antidesma megalophyllum Merr., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 207; EPFP 2 (1923) 415; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; Type: FB 26642 Velasco, Babuyan Isls: Calayan. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Riau Arch, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BABUYAN ISLS, BASILAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Surigao, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: In primary and secondary evergreen vegetation; in mixed lowland to hill dipterocarp forest, on clay, sand and ultrabasic soil, over limestone, or sandstone, from sea level up to 800 m.

Aporosa Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 February 2018
  1. Aporosa banahaensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 410; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 214; ≡ Baccaurea banahaensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1475; Type: Elmer 9106 (BM, BO, L, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban. = Aporosa similis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 472; Type: FB 7279 Everett (P, iso), Negros. = Aporosa agusanensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2636; Type: Elmer 13415 (A, BM, BO, L, P, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. Distribution: ?Borneo, Philippines. Notes: Primary or secondary forest or old logging areas, in lower storey. On (brown) clay, 35–380m. Fl. Feb-Apr; fr. Apr-Sep, Nov. The fruit is recorded odorless and edible. Native.
  2. Aporosa basilanensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) 471; EPFP 2 (1923) 410; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 8; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 324; Type: BS 16168 Reillo (K, holo; BM, P, iso; photo A), Basilan. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN. Notes: Primary mixed dipterocarp forest and in logging areas; on hill sides, hill tops, flat land, and along river banks. On basalt or clayish yellow soil, 30–1450m. Fl. Mar-May; fr. Feb-Dec. Native.
  3. Aporosa benthamiana Hook.f, Icon. Pl. 16 (1887) t. 1583; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 8; Corner, Wayside Trees Malaya 1 (1940) 237; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 59; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 4 (1975) 33; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 276; Type: from Peninsular Malaysia (lecto). = Aporosa lunata (Miq.) Kurz var. stipulosa (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 410, nom. illeg.; ≡ Aporosa stipulosa Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 547. = Aporosa lunata (Miq.) Kurz var. philippinensis Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.xv (1922) 82; Type: M.S. Clemens 968, Mindanao. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra. BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Sur. Notes: Lowland primary and seconadry forests, ascending to 800m. Fl. May-Nov; fr. Mar-Dec. Native.
  4. Aporosa frutescens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 514; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.xv (1922) 91; Corner, Wayside Trees Malaya 1 (1940) 237; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 457; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 216 (excl. A. banahaensis); Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 9; Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 4 (1975) 216; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 255; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 7; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 59; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 220; Schot & Welzen in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 88; Type: from Java (lecto). = Aporosa fruticosa (Blume) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 475; ≡ Leiocarpus fruticosus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 582; Type: from Java (lecto). Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
  5. Aporosa leytensis Merr., PJS 9c (1914) 368; EPFP 2 (1923) 410; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 9; Schot, Blumea 40 (1995) 452; Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 301; Type: Wenzel 614 (A, holo; BM, L, iso). = Aporosa alvarezii Merr., PJS 9c (1914) Bot. 470; EPFP 2 (1923) 301; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 8; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 324; Type: FB 21245 Alvarez (K, iso). Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. BILIRAN, LEYTE. Notes: Forests, 500-600m. Native.
  6. Aporosa octandra (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Vickery, Enum. Fl. Pl. Nepal 3 (1982) 193; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 259; ≡ Myrica octandra Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 56. Native.
    • var. malesiana Schot, Blumea 40 (1995) 452; Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 263. = Aporosa dioica (Roxb.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 472; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 8; ≡ Alnus dioica Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 580. = Aporosa aurita (Tul.) Baill., Etud. Gen. Euph. (1858) 645; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 409; ≡ Scepa aurita Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3, 15 (1851) 254; Type: Cuming 860 (P, holo; A, BM, K, L, iso). Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Himalayas to China, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON: Isabela, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests.
  7. Aporosa sphaeridiophora Merr., PJS suppl. 1 (1906) 76, as 'sphaeridophora'; EPFP 2 (1923) 410; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 9; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 348; Type: FB 146 Barnes (BO, K, isolecto). = Aporosa acuminatissima Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 546; EPFP 2 (1923) 409; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philip. (1983) 9; Type: FB 26185 Amarillas (A, holo; K, P, iso). Distribution: Java, Moluccas, Philippines, Sumatra. Notes: Bornean materials so-named by Merrill (1929) represent Aporosa falcifera Hook.f. and Aporosa subcaudata Merr. var. sphaeridiophora. Native.
    • var. sphaeridiophora. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: In primary forests at medium elevation ascending to 1600m. Native.
  8. Aporosa symplocifolia Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 77, as 'symplocosifolia'; EPFP 2 (1923) 410; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 9; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 268. = Aporosa elliptifolia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 472; EPFP 2 (1923) 410; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 9; Type: Merrill 9609 (A, GH, L, NY, SING, US, iso), Palawan: Silanga, May-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Pangasinan, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests, common. Native.

Baccaurea Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Baccaurea bakeri Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 412. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  2. Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 457; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 411; Fernando, Kalikasan, Philip. J. Biol. 8 (1979) 302; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philip. (1983) 9; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12 (2000) 119; ≡ Hedycarpus lanceolatus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1, 2 (1859) 359; Type: from Java. = Baccaurea glabriflora Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV. 147.xv (1922) 59; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 411; Type: Merrill 853 (US, holo; K, iso), Palawan: San Antonio Bay, Feb-1903. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. JOLO, PALAWAN. Notes: According to Merrill (1923) probably cultivated on account of edible fruits. Lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Baccaurea odoratissima Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1276; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 411; Fernando, Kalikasan, Philip. J. Biol. 8 (1979) 307; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12 (2000) 141; Type: Elmer 13160 (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; GH, K, MO, NY US, isolecto); Elmer 12864 (L, MO, NY, syn), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), forests, c. 225m. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Knkown from Mt Pulgar. Lowland forests. Native.
  4. Baccaurea philippinensis (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 411; Fernando, Kalikasan, Philip. J. Biol. 8 (1979) 303; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 9; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12 (2000) 157; ≡ Everettiodendron philippinense Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 279; Type: Everett 7282 (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Negros: Himugaan River, 1907. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. BILIRAN, CALAMIANES, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Pangasinan, Quezon, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Surigao del Sur, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Primary and secondary lowland forests, 80-450m. Fl. Apr-Aug; fr. Jan-Jun; Aug, Oct, Dec. Native.
  5. Baccaurea tetrandra (Baill.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 465; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 411; Fernando, Kalikasan, Philip. J. Biol. 8 (1979) 307; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philip. (1983) 10; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12 (2000) 185; Type: Cuming 982 (L, lecto; NY, P, US, isolecto), Philippines. = Baccaurea terminalifolia Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1277; Type: Elmer 13089 (DS, lecto; GH, K, L, MO, NA, NY 2 sheets, US, isolecto), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak). Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao, Surigao, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Primary and secondary lowland and medium elevation forests, also swamp forests. Native.

Bischofia Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 December 2016
  1. Bischofia javanica Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1168; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 288; EPFP 2 (1923) 418; Type: from Java. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Pioneer species up to 1500(-2350)m. Native.

Breynia J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 September 2017
  1. Breynia androgyna (L.) Chakrab. & N.P.Balakr., Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 19 (2012) 120; ≡ Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr., Bull. Bur. For. Philip. Is. 1 (1903) 30; EPFP 2 (1923) 405; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph., Philip. Is. (1883) 44; Welzen, Blumea 48 (2003) 340; ≡ Clutia androgyna L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 128. = Sauropus scandens C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 72; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 405; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph., Philip. Is. (1983) 44. Distribution: ?Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija, MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland thickets, forests and forested ravines. Native.
  2. Breynia cernua (Poir.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 439; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 286; EPFP 2 (1923) 404; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 10; ≡ Phyllanthus cernuus Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 5 (1804) 298. Distribution: Australia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Batan and Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Common in thickets at low and medium elevation ascending to 1500m. Native.
  3. Breynia lanceolata (Hook.f.) Welzen & Pruesapan, Blumea 59 (2014) 92; ≡ Sauropus lanceolatus Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5 (1887) 333; Type: from India. = Sauropus rhamnoides Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 596; Welzen, Blumea 48 (2003) 367; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  4. Breynia macrantha (Hassk.) Chakrab. & N.P.Balakr., Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 19 (2012) 121; ≡ Sauropus macranthus Hassk., Retzia 1(1855) 166; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph., Philip. Is. (1983) 44; Welzen, Blumea 48 (2003) 358. = Sauropus robinsonii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 407; EPFP 2 (1923) 405; Type: Elmer 6441 (PNH, holo, lost; BM, K 2 sheets, L, P, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Kias (Baguio). Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. CALAMIANES, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
  5. Breynia racemosa (Blume) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 441; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 62; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 10; ≡ Melanthesa racemosa Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 592. = Breynia acuminata (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 442; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 404; ≡ Melanthesa acuminata Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 74. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Laguna. In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1200m. Native.
  6. Breynia villosa (Blanco) Welzen & Pruesapan, Blumea 59 (2014) 93; ≡ Sauropus villosus (Blanco) Merr., Contrib. Arn. Arb. 8 (1934) 86; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph., Philip. Is. (1883) 44; Welzen, Blumea 48 (2003) 380; ≡ Kirganelia villosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 712; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 493; Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1879) 116; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 217; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 931 (L, neo; A, BM, K, NSW, NY, P, US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal prov. = Glochidion llanosii Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 68; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 400. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BOHOL, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Davao Oriental, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Open forests at low elevation. Fl. & fr. Sep-Jun. Native.
  7. Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C.Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew (1932) 65; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1971) 227; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 11; ≡ Rhamnus vitis-idaea Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 61; ≡ Breynia rhamnoides Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 440; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 286; EPFP 2 (1923) 404, nom. superfl. Distribution: Australia, India to China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Batan and Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Common in thickets at low and medium elevation ascending to 1500m. Native.

Bridelia Willd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 February 2018
  1. Bridelia glauca Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 597; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 74; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 423; Salvosa, Lex. Philip. Trees (1963) 89; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 475; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 64; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 43; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 273; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 10; Enum. Euphorb. Philip. Isl. (1983) 11; S.Dressler, Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 606; Blumea 41 (1996) 311; Type: from Java (lecto). = Cleistanthus myrianthoides C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 325; Type: FB 10679 Curran (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Caramoan, San Roque. = Bridelia laurifolia Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2637; ≡ Bridelia glauca forma laurifolia (Elmer) Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 75; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 423; Salvosa, Lex. Philip. Trees (1963) 89; Type: Wenzel 411 (BM, lecto; GH, isolecto), Leyte: Dagami, 8-Sep-1913; P.B.Pelser (2-Sep-2017): the lectotypification of Bridelia glauca forma laurifolia by Dressler (1996; FB 18195 Curran, Merritt & Zschokke) is superfluous. = Bridelia glauca var. acuminatissima (Merr.) S.Dressler, Blumea 41 (1996) 314; ≡ Bridelia acuminatissima Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 473; EPFP 2 (1923) 422; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 11; Type: Philip. Pl. 1551 Ramos (A, BM, L, NY, SING, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mt Isarog, along streams in forests, 25-Nov-1913. Distribution: Bhutan, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: Not reported from Palawan; in (sometimes disturbed) primary and secondary forests, often near rivers, reported on well-drained volcanic as well as from sandy, loamy, or clayey soil; over sandstone, limestone, grey schists, or granite; scattered to common, up to 1500m. Native.
  2. Bridelia insulana Hance, J. Bot. 15 (1877) 337; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 63; S.Dressler, Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 605, 606; Blumea 41 (1996) 315; Type: from Vietnam. = Bridelia penangiana Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1887) 272; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 75; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 229; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 44; Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 602; Muelleria 4 (1980) 223; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 273; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 11; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 75; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 11; Type: from Malaysia. = Bridelia minutiflora Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1887) 273; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 76; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 423; Holthuis & H.J.Lam, Blumea 5 (1942) 200; Salvosa, Lex. Philip. Trees (1963) 89; Backer & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 475; Type: from Myanmar. = Bridelia ovata Merr., Philip. Bur. For. Bull. 1 (1903) 30, nom. illeg., non Decne. = Bridelia platyphylla Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 384; Type: FB 11167 Aguilar (US, type fragment), Luzon: Bulacan, Angat. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sumatra, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, Camarines, Laguna, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Misamis, Zamboanga, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO, TABLAS. Notes: Primary and secondary rainforests, often along rivers, but also on dry land, sandy to loamy or clayey soil, or on limestone, 0-1500m. Native.
  3. Bridelia pustulata Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1887) 271; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 74; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 67; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 64; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 274; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 74; S.Dressler, Blumea 41 (1996) 320; Type: from Malacca. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, MINDANAO: Davao, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests, 0-350m. Native.
  4. Bridelia stipularis (L.) Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 597; Fern.-Vill. in Blanco, Fl. Filipp., ed. 3, Nov. App. 4 (1880) 186; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 38; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 141; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 233; Merr., PJS 1, Suppl. (1906) 78; Fl. Manila (1912) 284; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 220; EPFP 2 (1923) 424; Gates, PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 426; Corner, Wayside Trees Malaya, ed. 3, 1 (1988) 279; Backer & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 475; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 230; Kew Bull., Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 65; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 274; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 11; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 11; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 74; S.Dressler, Blumea 41 (1996) 2; ≡ Clutia stipularis L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 127; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 818; Fl. Filip. ed. 2. (1845) 564; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 229, as 'Clutya'. = Bridelia stipularis ssp. philippinensis Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (19i5) 57; Type: FB 1884 Ahern's collector (US, lecto; BO, K, NY, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso. Distribution: Borneo, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra. BOHOL, CEBU, LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, Quezon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, TICAO. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Laguna and Quezon; apparently unknown from Mindanao. Primary and secondary forests, often near wet places (rivers, swamps, seashore, mangrove); mostly reported from sandy soil, but also from limestone or loamy soil above igneous rocks. 0-400(–1100)m. Native.
  5. Bridelia tomentosa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 597; Fern.-Vill. in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3, Nov. App. 4 (1880) 186; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 58; Corner, Wayside Trees Malaya ed. 1 (1940) 243; Wayside Trees Malaya ed. 2, 1 (1951) 243; Wayside Trees Malaya ed. 3, 1 (1988) 280; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 231; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 65; Kew Bull. 31 (1976) 382; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 45; Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 602; Muelleria 4 (1980) 223; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 274; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 11; Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philip. Isl. (1983) 11; Hsieh, Fl. Taiwan 3 (1977) 452; Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 3 (1993) 430; S.Dressler, Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 607; Blumea 41 (1996) 297; Type: from Java (lecto). = Bridelia monoica Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 142, vix Clutia monoica Lour. (sec. Corner, 1939: 291 f.); EPFP 2 (1923) 423; Salvosa, Lex. Philip. Trees (1963) 89; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 475; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 228; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 74. Native.
    • var. tomentosa. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: Common throughout its range, but rare in Borneo and not known from Mindanao; deciduous to evergreen forests, primary to secondary vegetation; reported from sandy or loamy soil, limestone, and over granite bedrocks. 0-1000m.
    • var. glabrescens Benth. in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 6 (1854) 8; S.Dressler, Blumea 41 (1996) 302; Type: from Hong Kong. = Bridelia tomentosa Blume var. glabrifolia (Merr.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 31 (1976) 383; Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 603; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 11; ≡ Bridelia glabrifolia Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 422; Salvosa, Lex. Philip. Trees (1963) 88. = Bridelia tomentosa Blume var. lancifolia (Roxb.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 502; ≡ Bridelia lancifolia Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 737; Type: Gaudichaud s.n. (G-DC, lecto; IDC microfiche Candolle Prodromi Herbarium 2510.20), Manila. L.L.Co: The first description of a glabrous form of Bridelia tomentosa has unfortunately been overlooked, so that the commonly known name (var. glabrifolia) has to be changed to var. glabrescens; the type could not be traced in Kew. Notes: Distribution and habitat as with the preceding.

Cathetus Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 March 2022
  1. Cathetus dumosus (C.B.Rob.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 15; ≡ Phyllanthus dumosus C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 79; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392; Verwijs et al., Blumea 64 (2019) 238; Type: FB 13974 Merritt & Darling (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte. Philippines, Luzon, province of Ilocos Norte. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Exposed ridges, c. 1100m. Only known from the type specimen. Native.
  2. Cathetus everettii (C.B.Rob.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 15; ≡ Phyllanthus everettii C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 80; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392; Verwijs et al., Blumea 64 (2019) 238; Type: FB 4301 Everett (K, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Negros: Gimagaan River. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, NEGROS. Notes: Forested stream banks, low and medium elevation. Native.
  3. Cathetus lanceifolius (Merr.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 15; ≡ Phyllanthus lanceifolius Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) 489; EPFP 2 (1923) 393, as 'lancifolius'; Verwijs et al., Blumea 64 (2019) 241; Type: BS 17465 Ramos (US, lecto), Samar, Mar/Apr-1914. = Phyllanthus panayensis Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 539; EPFP 2 (1923) 394; Type: BS 35655 Martelino & Edaño (US, lecto; A, K, L, P, isolecto), Panay: Capiz, Mt Bulilao, in forests near the summit, c. 650m, 20-Jun-1919. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines. BOHOL, BUCAS GRANDE (photos), ?CEBU, LUZON, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (photos), PANAY, SAMAR, ?SIQUIJOR. Native.
  4. Cathetus ridsdalei (R.W.Bouman & Verwijs) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 16; ≡ Phyllanthus ridsdalei R.W.Bouman & Verwijs, Blumea 64 (2019) 245; Type: Ridsdale 1479 (L, holo; A, IBC, K, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Santa Cruz, Acoje mine concession area. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Native.
  5. Cathetus samarensis (Müll.Arg.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 16; ≡ Phyllanthus samarensis Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 73; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 395; Verwijs et al., Blumea 64 (2019) 245; Type: Hb. Berol. (Herb. Berlin) s.n. (B, holo, lost), Samar; BS 24460 Ramos (L, neo; MO, P, isoneo), Samar: Catubig River. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, LEYTE, SAMAR. Native.
  6. Cathetus tenuipes (C.B.Rob.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 16; ≡ Phyllanthus tenuipes C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 78; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 396; Verwijs et al., Blumea 64 (2019) 246; Type: Merrill 4419 (K, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: On cliffs, ravines, and on banks, 1200-1500m. Native.
  7. Cathetus virgatus (G.Forst.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 16; ≡ Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. (1786) 65; Verwijs et al., Blumea 64 (2019) 247; Type: from Tahiti. = Phyllanthus simplex Retz., Obs. 5 (1789) 29; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 285; EPFP 2 (1923) 395; Type: from India. Native.
    • var. virgatus. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Lowland and medium elevation grasslands, fallow rice paddies, etc. Common.

Cicca L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 March 2022
  1. Cicca acida (L.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 314; EPFP 2 (1923) 396; Bouman et al., Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 51; ≡ Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels, US Dept. Agr. Bur. Pl. Ind. Bull. 148 (1909) 17; ≡ Averrhoa acida L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 428. = Cicca disticha L., Mant. 1 (1767) 124; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 396. Distribution: S America. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur, PANAY. Notes: Cultivated for its edible fruits. Naturalized in rocky open fields and forest. Otaheite gooseberry. Naturalized.

Cleistanthus Hook.f. ex Planch.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 September 2017
  1. Cleistanthus angustifolius Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 386; EPFP 2 (1923) 419; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 114. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: On forested ridges and slopes at low elevation. Native.
  2. Cleistanthus brideliifolius C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 191; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 419; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 115. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Native.
    • var. brideliifolius. Distribution: ALABAT, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Tayabas, Zambales, NEGROS. Notes: In forests at low elevation.
  3. Cleistanthus decurrens Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 278; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 117. = Cleistanthus decipiens C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 195; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14. = Cleistanthus ovatus C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 194; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 421; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, TICAO. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  4. Cleistanthus erycibifolius Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1967) 389; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 120. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. NEGROS. Native.
  5. Cleistanthus everettii C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 194; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 121; Type: FB 7274 Everett. = Cleistanthus samarensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 475; EPFP 2 (1923) 422; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16; Type: Merrill Philip. Pl. 1685. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BILIRAN, LUZON: Apayao, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  6. Cleistanthus glaber Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 21 (1968) 366; Euph. Born. (1975) 80; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 70; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 124. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. MINDANAO. Native.
  7. Cleistanthus isabellinus Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 911; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 125; Type: Elmer 12268. Distribution: Borneo, New Guinea, Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  8. Cleistanthus megacarpus C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 323; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 126. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  9. Cleistanthus oblongifolius (Roxb.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2.2) (1866) 506; ≡ Clutia oblongifolia Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 730. = Cleistanthus myrianthus (Hassk.) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu, App. A (1875); For. Fl. Brit. Myanmar (1877) 370; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 421; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 82; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 129; ≡ Nanopetalum myrianthum Hassk., Verslagen Meded. Afd. Natuurk. Kon. Akad. Wetensch. 4 (1855) 141. = Cleistanthus mindanaensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1908) Bot. 324; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15; Type: FB 9474 Whitford & Hutchinson. = Cleistanthus misamisensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 325; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15; Type: FB 15463 Pray. = Cleistanthus apiculatus C.B.Rob., PJS 3 (1908) 189; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 419; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; Type: RS Williams 2356. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Borneo, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON: Isabela, MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests, sometimes in thickets. Native.
  10. Cleistanthus pedicellatus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 281; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 80; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 132. = Cleistanthus integer C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 196; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14. = Cleistanthus quadrifidus C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 197; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15. Distribution: Borneo, China, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines. BASILAN, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Camarines, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Surigao, Zamboanga, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  11. Cleistanthus pilosus C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 326; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 421; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 135. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  12. Cleistanthus robinsonii Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 909; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 422; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 136; Type: Elmer 12540. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Native.
  13. Cleistanthus rufescens Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 30; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 137. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. Native.
  14. Cleistanthus sumatranus (Miq.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 504; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 82; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 139; ≡ Leiopyxis sumatrana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 446. = Cleistanthus vidalii C.B.Rob., PJS 3 (1908) 193; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 422; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16. = Cleistanthus orgyalis (Blanco) Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 27 (1905) 75; ≡ Gluta orgyalis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 45, nom. rej.; ≡ Cleistanthus blancoi Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 21 (1884) 315, nom. illeg. = Cleistanthus blancoi S.Vidal, Revis. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 234, nom. illeg. = Cleistanthus oligophlebius Merr., PJS c 13 (1918) 80. = Cleistanthus saichikii Merr., PJS 23 (1923) 248. Distribution: Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Bataan, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  15. Cleistanthus venosus C.B.Rob., PJS 3 (1908) 192; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 422; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 141. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Lowland forests up to 300m. Native.
  16. Cleistanthus vestitus Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 32; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 83; S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 143. = Cleistanthus barrosii Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 400; EPFP 2 (1923) 419; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Isabela. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.

Dendrophyllanthus S.Moore

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 March 2022
  1. Dendrophyllanthus apiculatus (Merr.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 53; ≡ Phyllanthus apiculatus Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 540; EPFP 2 (1923) 391; Type: BS 33813 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Paracale, damp forests at low elevation, 29-Nov-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  2. Dendrophyllanthus caudatifolius (Merr.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 57; ≡ Phyllanthus caudatifolius Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 403; Type: BS 43867 R.C. McGregor (NY, iso), Samar: Loquilocon, Jun-1924. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Native.
  3. Dendrophyllanthus cordatulus (C.B.Rob.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 54; ≡ Phyllanthus cordatulus C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 76; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392; Type: BS 5106 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Zambales, 14-Dec-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Native.
  4. Dendrophyllanthus glochidioides (Elmer) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 54; ≡ Phyllanthus glochidioides Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1302; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392; Type: Elmer 13104 (US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, Apr-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Along streams in shaded ravines at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11, as Phyllanthus glochidioides). Native.
  5. Dendrophyllanthus ramosii (Quisumb. & Merr.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 57; ≡ Phyllanthus ramosii Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 160; Type: Ramos BS 47336 (US, iso), Luzon: Isabela, Mt Moises, Mar-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Notes: Along forested streams, near sea level to c. 1400m. Native.
  6. Dendrophyllanthus securinegoides (Merr.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 55; ≡ Phyllanthus securinegoides Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) 490; EPFP 2 (1923) 395; Romeroso et al., Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 501. = Phyllanthus urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2650; Type: Elmer 14163 (US, isosyn), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912; Elmer 13936 (US, isosyn), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests in Quezon, ascending to 1500m in Mindanao. Native.

Emblica Gaertn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 March 2022
  1. Emblica benguetensis (C.B.Rob.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 59; ≡ Phyllanthus benguetensis C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 78; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 391; Type: Williams 966. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Dry open banks, 1200-1600m. Native.
  2. Emblica chamaepeuce (Ridl.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 59; ≡ Phyllanthus chamaepeuce Ridl., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 3 (1893) 345. Distribution: Indochina to Philippines. Native.
  3. Emblica coi (M.J.Wu, Ferreras & Y.J.Chen) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 59; ≡ Phyllanthus coi M.J.Wu, Ferreras & Y.J.Chen, Taiwania 62 (2017) 375; Type: Co 5993 (PNH, holo; PUH, CAHUP, TAI, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Tuba, Kennon road towards Baguio City, 992m, 3-Aug-2007. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Benguet. Notes: 800-1000m. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Wu et al. 2017, as Phyllanthus coi). Native.
  4. Emblica erythrotrichus (C.B.Rob.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 59; ≡ Phyllanthus erythrotrichus C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 80; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, PANAY. Notes: Open slopes at low elevation, ascending to 1300m. Native.
  5. Emblica rupicola (Elmer) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 60; ≡ Phyllanthus rupicola Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 927; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 395; Type: Elmer 12240. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Shaded cliffs and on boulders along streams, 100-225m. Native.
  6. Emblica urinaria (L.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 59; ≡ Phyllanthus urinaria L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 982; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 285; EPFP 2 (1923) 396. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. A weed in open waste places at low and medium elevation. Native.
    • ssp. nudicarpus (Rossignol & Haicour) ined.; ≡ Phyllanthus urinaria ssp. nudicarpus Rossignol & Haicour, Amer. J. Bot. 74 (1988) 1861. Distribution: China, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Vietnam.
    • ssp. urinaria. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam.

Possibly present

  1. Emblica rufuschaneyi (Welzen, R.W.Bouman & Ent) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 60; ≡ Phyllanthus rufuschaneyi Welzen, R.W.Bouman & Ent, Bot. Stud. (Taipei) 59-9 (2018) 4. Distribution: Borneo, ?Philippines. Notes: P.B. Pelser (27-Mar-2022): Bouman et al. (2022) mention that this species is present in the Philippines. Bouman (pers. comm., 26-Mar-2022) mentioned that this is based on one specimen and that further study is needed to confirm the identification of that specimen.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2 (1790) 122; Bouman et al., Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 60; ≡ Phyllanthus emblica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 982. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand.

Flueggea Benth. & Hook.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 July 2018
  1. Flueggea flexuosa Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 76; ≡ Securinega flexuosa (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 450; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 390; Type: Cuming 1855 (G-DC, holo; K, iso), Bohol. = Phyllanthus acuminatissimus C.B.Rob., PJS C 3 (1908) 200; ≡ Securinega acuminatissima (C.B.Rob.) C.B.Rob., PJS C 4 (1909) 73; Type: R.S. Williams 2807 (NY, holo; K, NY, iso), Mindanao: Dist. of Davao, Santa Cruz. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. BOHOL, CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao, Misamis, Surigao, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Flueggea gracilis (Merr.) Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 61 (2006) 44; ≡ Baccaurea gracilis Merr., PJS 1, Suppl. 3 (1906) 203; Type: Bermejos BS218 (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Palawan, Dec-1905; Bermejos BS258 (K, syn), Palawan, Dec-1905; Curran FB3828 (K, US, syn), Palawan, Mar-1906. Distribution: Borneo, China, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: In forests near seashore. Native.
  3. Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. (1836) 328; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 289; EPFP 2 (1923) 390; ≡ Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill., Étud. Gén. Euph. (1858) 593; Adansonia 6 (1866) 334, excl. descr.; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 196; ≡ Phyllanthus virosus Roxb. ex Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 578; Type: from India. Native.
    • ssp. virosa. = Cicca pentandra Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 701; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 242 (K, neo; L, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal Province, near Mandaloyon, 18-Apr-1914. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in dry thickets at low and medium elevation. Common.

Glochidion J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Last edited by P.B. Pelser, 5 January 2022
  1. Glochidion album (Blanco) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Nederl. Ind. 3 (1900) 275; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 397; ≡ Phyllanthus albus (Blanco) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 387; ≡ Kirganelia alba Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 713. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Sorsogon. In primary forests at low and medium elevation ascending to 1200m. Native.
  2. Glochidion angulatum C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 91; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 397; ≡ Phyllanthus malesianus Govaerts, Skvortsovia 4 (2018) 95; Type: FB 9487 Whitford & Hutchinson. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BASILAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, PANAY. Notes: Low elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  3. Glochidion benguetense Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 304; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 398; Type: Elmer 8770. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Quezon. Notes: Forests and forested ravines, 600-1400m. Native.
  4. Glochidion brachystylum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 543; EPFP 2 (1923) 398; Type: BS 31374 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Notes: Forest along small streams at low or medium elevation. Possibly a synonym of Glochidion album (Blanco) Boerl. Native.
  5. Glochidion cagayanense C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 328; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 398; Type: BS 7390 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: In forests at low elevation. Native.
  6. Glochidion camiguinense Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 414; EPFP 2 (1923) 398; C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) 100; Type: BS 4108 Fenix (US, iso), Camiguin de Babuyanes, 21-Jun-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES. Notes: On slopes. Native.
  7. Glochidion canescens Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3082; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 398; Type: FB 25397 Mabesa (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Low wet places along the lakeshore of Laguna de Bay. Native.
  8. Glochidion cauliflorum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 545; EPFP 2 (1923) 398; Type: FB 25183 Alvarez, Mindanao: Lanao District, near Camp Vickers, in dipterocarp forests, c. 900m, 17-Mar-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga. Notes: Medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  9. Glochidion cenabrei Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 463; EPFP 4 (1925) 248; Type: FB 29174 Cenabre (US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Feb-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  10. Glochidion coronulatum C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 94; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 398; Type: FB 13937 Merritt & Darling. = Glochidion balsahanense Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1289; Type: Elmer 12856 (MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, gravelly soil of the densely wooded banks of the Balsahan River, c. 250ft (76m), Mar-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation second-growth forests. Native.
  11. Glochidion curranii C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 102; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 398; Type: FB 3502 Curran (NY, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa & vicinity, Jan-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CULION, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets. Native.
  12. Glochidion dolichostylum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) 483; EPFP 2 (1923) 399; Type: Merrill 9408. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  13. Glochidion falcatilimbum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 542; EPFP 2 (1923) 399; Type: FB 30056 Fenix (P). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan. Notes: Open slopes, c. 60m. Native.
  14. Glochidion gigantifolium (S.Vidal) J.J.Sm., Nova Guinea 8 (1910) 223; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 399; ≡ Phyllanthus gigantifolius S.Vidal, Revis. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 237; Type: FB 3374 Ahern’s Collector. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, NEGROS. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  15. Glochidion glaucescens Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 381; EPFP 2 (1923) 399; Type: Wenzel 188. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR (photos). Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  16. Glochidion humile Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 544; EPFP 2 (1923) 399; Type: BS 26112 Fenix. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Open grasslands, medium elevation. Native.
  17. Glochidion lanceilimbum Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 462; EPFP 4 (1925) 248, as 'lancilimbum'; Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 11; Type: BS 37401 Ramos & Edaño (K), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Malangas, 2-Nov-1919. Distribution: Borneo, New Guinea, Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Low elevation secondary forests. Native.
  18. Glochidion lanceolatum Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 20(3) (1904) 16; ≡ Glochidion zeylanicum var. lanceolatum (Hayata) M.J.Deng & J.C.Wang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 3 (1993) 480. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. Native.
  19. Glochidion latistylum C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 93; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 399; Type: Clemens 340. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: On slopes, c. 800m. Native.
  20. Glochidion ligulatum C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 329; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 399; Type: BS 7746 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: In forests. Native.
  21. Glochidion littorale Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 585; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 399; ≡ Phyllanthus littoralis (Blume) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 370. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO. Notes: Coastal thickets and along tidal streams. Native.
  22. Glochidion longistylum C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 96; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 400; Type: BS 5057 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Notes: Low elevation. Native.
  23. Glochidion lucidum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 584; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 29; ≡ Phyllanthus lucidus (Blume) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 370. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Native.
  24. Glochidion lutescens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 585; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 29; ≡ Phyllanthus lutescens (Blume) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 377. = Glochidion breynioides C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 95; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 398; Type: Merritt 8781, Mindoro. Distribution: Borneo, China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: In forests, ascending to 1300m. Native.
  25. Glochidion luzonense Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 301; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 400. Distribution: Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Tarlac, Zambales. Notes: In forested ravines at low and medium elevation ascending to 1400m. Native.
  26. Glochidion malindangense Merr. ex C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 101; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 400; Type: FB 4696 Mearns & Hutchinson. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental. Notes: Forests, c. 1600m. Native.
  27. Glochidion merrillii C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 100; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 400; Type: R.S. Williams 1356. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna. Notes: Montane forests, 1500-2000m. Native.
  28. Glochidion mindorense C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 98; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 401; Type: FB 12031 Merritt. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Quezon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  29. Glochidion molle Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 586; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 401; ≡ Phyllanthus mollis (Blume) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 387. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, JOLO, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, Lanao, Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  30. Glochidion palawanense Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1290; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 401; Type: Elmer 12804. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Forests along streams, c. 150m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  31. Glochidion philippicum (Cav.) C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 103; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 401; ≡ Bradleia philippica Cav., Icon. 4 (1798) 48. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan to Sumatra. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao. Common in thickets and forested ravines at low and medium elevation. Native.
  32. Glochidion phyllanthoides Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 541; EPFP 2 (1923) 402. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas. Notes: Dry slopes at low elevation. Native.
  33. Glochidion psidioides C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 92; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 402; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3974. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: In thickets on ridges and about boulders and ledges, 1200-2000m. Native.
  34. Glochidion pubicapsa Airy Shaw, Euphorb. Born. (1975) 130; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 31. = Glochidion pubicarpum Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3733, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Native.
    • var. pubicapsa. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra.
  35. Glochidion pulgarense Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1291; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 402; Type: Elmer 13215 (L, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, low rigid shrub on summit of Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), c. 1300m, May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Exposed ridges, c. 1300m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  36. Glochidion reticulatum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 302; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 402; Type: Elmer 8188, Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños, Apr-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cavite, Laguna. Notes: Low elevation thickets. Native.
  37. Glochidion robinsonii Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2643; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 402. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Benguet, Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Cotabato, Davao, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and second-growth forests. Native.
  38. Glochidion rubrum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 586; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 286; EPFP 2 (1923) 402; ≡ Phyllanthus ruber (Blume) T.Kuros., J. Jap. Bot. 91 (2016) 119. Native.
    • var. rubrum. Distribution: Philippines, Tropical & Subtropical Asia. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: N Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium elevation.
  39. Glochidion sericeum (Blume) Zoll. & Mor., Nat. Geneesk. Arch. Neerl. Ind. (1845) 2; ≡ Phyllanthus sericeus (Blume) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 390; ≡ Glochidionopsis sericea Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 588. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Native.
  40. Glochidion subfalcatum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 305; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 402; Type: Elmer 8915 (A, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, open dry hot ridge west of Sablan Falls, Mar-1907. Native.
    • var. nitidum Chakrab. & M.Gangop., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 19 (1995) 232; ≡ Glochidion nitidum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 483, nom. illeg.; EPFP 2 (1923) 401. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Forested slopes at low and medium elevation.
    • var. subfalcatum. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Pangasinan. Notes: Dry ridges at medium elevation. Native.
  41. Glochidion triandrum (Blanco) C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 92; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 217; EPFP 2 (1923) 403; ≡ Phyllanthus triandrus (Blanco) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 379; ≡ Kirganelia triandra Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 711; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 492; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 115; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 309 (US, neo), Luzon: Camarines Sur, foot of Mt Isarog, c. 80m, 18-Nov-1913. = Glochidion eleutherostylum Mu?ll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 69; Type: Cuming 509 (P, lecto; GDC, isolecto). = Glochidion quinquestylum Elmer, LPB 1(1908) 303; Type: Elmer 8916 (K, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, W of Sablan Falls, Baguio, Mar-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO, NEGROS, POLILLO, SIBUYAN. Notes: In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  42. Glochidion trichogynum Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 66; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 403; ≡ Phyllanthus trichogynus (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 380; Type: Cuming 1610, Mindanao: Misamis prov. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Sur, Misamis, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  43. Glochidion trichophorum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 484; EPFP 2 (1923) 403; Type: BS 20831 Escritor (US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Cadig, near Guinayangan, in forests, 7-Mar-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Quezon. Notes: Lowland forests along small streams. Native.
  44. Glochidion urophylloides Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 300; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 403. = Glochidion lanceifolium C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 90, as 'lancifolium'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 399. = ?Phyllanthus nigrescens (Blanco) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15 (1866) 348; Bouman et al., Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 86; ≡ Kirganelia nigrescens Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 712. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, BATAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, PANAY, POLILLO. Notes: In forests and forested ravines at low and medium elevation. P.B. Pelser (13-May-22): The basionym of P. nigrescens (Blanco) Müll.Arg. (i.e., Kirganelia nigrescens Blanco) was published before (i.e., 1845) Elmer described Glochidion urophylloides (i.e., 1908), so if these names are synonyms, it appears that it has priority. If so, then there is a need for the combination Glochidion nigrescens. Native.
  45. Glochidion weberi C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 330; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 403. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Lanao. Notes: Forests along streams, up to 500m. Native.
  46. Glochidion williamsii C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 199 (excl. descr. capsulae); PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 95 (descr. capsulae); Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 400. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province, Zambales. Notes: Forested ravines and on ridges, 1000-1500m. Native.
  47. Glochidion woodii Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 465; EPFP 4 (1925) 249. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Sur, Misamis, Zamboanga. Notes: In thickets. Native.
  48. Glochidion xerocarpum (O.Schwarz) Airy Shaw, Muelleria 4 (1980) 212; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 32; ≡ Phyllanthus xerocarpus O.Schwarz, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 24 (1927) 87. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. Native.

Kirganelia A.Juss.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 March 2022
  1. Kirganelia reticulata (Poir.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 18; ≡ Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 5 (1804) 298; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 284; EPFP 2 (1923) 394. Distribution: Borneo, India to China and Taiwan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Throughout the Philippines, in lowland and medium elevation thickets, ascending to 1400m. Native.
    • var. glaber (Thwaites) ined.; ≡ Phyllanthus reticulatus var. glaber (Thwaites) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 12; ≡ Kirganelia multiflora var. glabra Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1861) 282. Distribution: Philippines, Tropical & Subtropical Asia.
    • var. reticulata. Distribution: Philippines, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia.

Possibly present

  1. Kirganelia microcarpa (Benth.) Hurus. & Yu.Tanaka in Hara, Fl. E. Himal. (1966) 179; Bouman et al., Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 18; ≡ Phyllanthus microcarpus (Benth.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 51; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 393; ≡ Cicca microcarpa Benth., Fl. Hongk. (1861) 312. Distribution: China to Malesia, ?Philippines. ?NEGROS (photos).

Leptopus Decne.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 January 2022
  1. Leptopus australis (Zoll. & Moritzi) Pojark., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20 (1960) 270; De Manuel Martin & Van Welzen, Blumea 67 (2022) 21; ≡ Andrachne australis Zoll. & Moritzi, Natuur-Geneesk. Arch. Ned.-Indië 2 (1845) 17; Type: from Lava (lecto). = Andrachne australis var. angustifolia Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15 (1866) 235; Type: Cuming 1528 (G-DC, lecto; K, L, isolecto), Luzon: Batangas. = Leptopus philippinensis Pojark., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20 (1960) 270; Type: BS 43333 Ramos (LE, holo; US, iso), Bohol. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BOHOL, CEBU (photos), LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, MINDANAO: Misamis Oriental (photos). Native.

Margaritaria L.f.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016
  1. Margaritaria indica (Dalzell) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 387; Euph. Born. (1975) 175; Webster, J. Arnold Arb. 60 (1979) 425; ≡ Phyllanthus indicus (Dalzell) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 52; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392; ≡ Prosorus indicus Dalzell in Hook., Kew J. Bot. 4 (1852) 346. Native.
    • forma indica. Distribution: Philippines, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia. LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Sur, MINDANAO: Agusan, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation primary forests.
  2. Margaritaria luzoniensis (Merr.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 387; Kew Bull. 25 (1971) 492; Webster, J. Arnold Arb. 60 (1979) 424; ≡ Phyllanthus luzoniensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 404; EPFP 2 (1923) 393. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Cavite, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan. Notes: Dry slopes at low elevation. Native.

Moeroris Raf. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 March 2022
  1. Moeroris amara (Schumach. & Thonn.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 30; ≡ Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn., Beskr. Guin. Pl. (1827) 421. = Phyllanthus niruri auct. non L.; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 75; Fl. Manila (1912) 284; EPFP 2 (1923) 394. = ?Phyllanthus pumilus (Blanco) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15 (1866) 349; Bouman et al., Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 86; ≡ Kirganelia pumila Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 712. Distribution: America. Notes: Naturalized throughout the Philippines. A common weed at low and medium elevation, along road sides, open rocky places, beach forest, secondary forest. Naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Moeroris fraterna (G.L.Webster) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 30; ≡ Phyllanthus fraternus G.L.Webster, Contr. Gray Herb. 176 (1955) 53. Distribution: India, Nepal, Pakistan. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited. Perhaps this record refers to Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn.

Nymphanthus Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 March 2022
  1. Nymphanthus anisophyllaeoides (Merr.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 24; ≡ Phyllanthus anisophyllioides Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 465; EPFP 4 (1925) 249; Type: BS 40585 Ramos & Edaño (L, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, Mar-1922. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: In forests, 1000m. Native.
  2. Nymphanthus balgooyi (Petra Hoffm. & A.J.M.Baker) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 24; ≡ Phyllanthus balgooyi Petra Hoffm. & A.J.M.Baker, Blumea 48 (2003) 195; Type: PNH 178 Edaño (K, holo; L, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Bacungan. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Restricted to ultramafics, in scrub or very stunted open forests, 150-200m. Sometimes locally common (Mt Bloomfield). In Sabah at 600-1000m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Nymphanthus blancoanus (Müll.Arg.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 21; ≡ Phyllanthus blancoanus Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 49; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 391; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3974; Type: Not extant, 'Illustrative specimen': Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 160. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, ?Ilocos Norte, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: Forested slopes and ridges, 600-1000m. Native.
  4. Nymphanthus buxifolius (Blume) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 24; ≡ Phyllanthus buxifolius (Blume) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 50; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 391; ≡ Scepasma buxifolia Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 583. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sumatra. ALABAT, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Lowland primary forests, usually along streams, in Benguet ascending to 1800m. Native.
  5. Nymphanthus celebicus (Koord.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 21; ≡ Phyllanthus celebicus Koord., Meded. Lands Plantentuin 19 (1898) 588; Bouman et al., Reinwardtia 18 (2019) 100; Type: from Indonesia. = Nymphanthus mindorensis (C.B.Rob.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 22; ≡ Phyllanthus mindorensis C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 82; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 394; Type: Merritt 5370. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Bulacan, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Primary forests up to 800m elevation. Native.
  6. Nymphanthus curranii (C.B.Rob.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 24; ≡ Phyllanthus curranii C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 77; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392; Type: FB 10889. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal. Notes: Primary forests, 700-900m. Native.
  7. Nymphanthus greenei (Elmer) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 22; ≡ Phyllanthus greenei Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 929; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392; Type: Elmer 12399. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, SIBUYAN. Notes: In ravines about boulders, sea-level to c. 500m. Very local. Native.
  8. Nymphanthus laciniatus (C.B.Rob.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 22; ≡ Phyllanthus laciniatus C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 84; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 393. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN DE ALBAY, LUZON: Albay, Quezon. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  9. Nymphanthus lamprophyllus (Müll.Arg.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 24; ≡ Phyllanthus lamprophyllus Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 324; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 393. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. ?LUZON: ?Aurora (photos), PALAWAN. Notes: Along streams at low elevation. Native.
  10. Nymphanthus leytensis (Elmer) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 22; ≡ Phyllanthus leytensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 307; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 393; Type: Elmer 7267. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ?DINAGAT (photos), LEYTE. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  11. Nymphanthus macgregorii (C.B.Rob.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 22; ≡ Phyllanthus macgregorii C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 334; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 393; Type: BS 10128 R.C. McGregor. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DALUPIRI. Native.
  12. Nymphanthus megalanthus (C.B.Rob.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 22; ≡ Phyllanthus megalanthus C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 335; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 393. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Quezon. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  13. Nymphanthus robinsonii (Merr.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 24; ≡ Phyllanthus robinsonii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 405; EPFP 2 (1923) 395; Type: BS 11058 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU. Notes: On dry slopes. Native.
  14. Nymphanthus sibuyanensis (Elmer) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 23; ≡ Phyllanthus sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 928; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 395; Type: Elmer 12113. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Forested slopes along streams, c. 225m. Native.
  15. Nymphanthus stipularis (Merr.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 23; ≡ Phyllanthus stipularis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 75; EPFP 2 (1923) 395. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Notes: Ridges and slopes in primary forest, 500-900m. Native.
  16. Nymphanthus triphlebius (C.B.Rob.) R.W.Bouman, Phytotaxa 540 (2022) 23; ≡ Phyllanthus triphlebius C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 82; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 396; Type: LeRoy Topping 510. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: On boulders and cliffs in shaded ravines along streams at low and medium elevation. Native.

Phyllanthus L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 March 2022

Incertae sedis

  1. Phyllanthus lanceilimbus Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 402, as 'lancilimbus'; Type: BS 43876 McGregor (UC, iso), Samar: Loquilocon, Jun-1924. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: P.B. Pelser (13-May-22): The name Phyllanthus lanceilimbus Merr. is not accounted for in Bouman et al (2022). Plants of the World Online suggests that it is a synonym of Glochidion lanceilimbum Merr., but this is surely a different species. Perhaps it is best placed in Dendrophyllanthus. Native.

Synostemon F.Muell.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 October 2020
  1. Synostemon bacciformis (L.) G.L.Webster, Taxon 9 (1960) 26; ≡ Sauropus bacciformis (L.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. ser. 8 (1980) 221; Welzen, Blumea 48 (2003) 345; ≡ Phyllanthus bacciformis L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 294. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. GUIMARAS (photos). Native.

Literature