Pandanaceae

Benstonea Callm. & Buerki

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 September 2014
  1. Benstonea affinis (Kurz) Callm. & Buerki, Candollea 67 (2012) 330; ≡ Pandanus affinis Kurz, J. Bot. 5 (1867) 101; Type: from Indonesia. = Pandanus merrillii Warb., Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 50; Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 71; Webbia 4 (1913) 23; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 19; Type: Merrill 840 (B, holo; FI, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, San Antonio Bay, on dry slopes, 1500ft, Feb-1903. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Notes: Primary forests, sea level to 500m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Benstonea copelandii (Merr.) Callm. & Buerki, Candollea 67 (2012) 332; ≡ Pandanus copelandii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 7; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 11; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 16; St John, Pacific Sc. 23 (1969) 355; Type: Copeland 140 (PNH, holo, lost; FI, iso, lost?), Negros: Gimagon River, in forests, c. 100m, 5-Jan-1904; Elmer 15267 (G, neo; FI, K, L, MO, P, U, UC, US, isoneo), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Irosin, Apr-1916. = Pandanus copelandii Merr. var. panchoi B.C.Stone, Fed. Mus. J. 23 (1978) 25; Type: Pancho & Bardenas 4820 (CAHUP, holo), Luzon: Sorsogon, Gubat, 25-Oct-1960. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN, BUCAS GRANDE, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Davao Oriental, Lanao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Native.

Freycinetia Gaudich.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 June 2021
  1. Freycinetia acutifolia Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 267; EPFP 1 (1922) 9; Type: BS 30319 Ramos (US, iso), Catanduanes: back of Calolbong, in forests along small streams at low elevation, 10-Dec-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Notes: Potentially a synonym of Freycinetia philippinensis Hemsl. Native.
  2. Freycinetia angulata C.B.Rob. ex Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 16; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 9; Type: BS 6221 Robinson (US, iso?), Luzon: Batan Island (off Albay Prov), 22/23-Aug-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN. Notes: Potentially a synonym of Freycinetia philippinensis Hemsl. Native.
  3. Freycinetia angustifolia Blume, Rumphia 1 (1835) 149; Stone, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1970) 197; 214; Type: from Java. = Freycinetia baganot Martelli, ined.; Voucher: Elmer 12426 (L, E), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting. = Freycinetia insipida Martelli, LPB 3 (1911) 1114; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 11; Type: Elmer 12426, Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting, Pauala River, 500-600m. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra. SIBUYAN. Notes: Forests along streams, 500-600m. Native.
  4. Freycinetia apayaoensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 269; EPFP 1 (1922) 9; Type: BS 28034 E. Fénix (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Apayao, Ngagan, in forests, 9-May-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Ilocos Norte. Notes: Low elevation forests along streams. Native.
  5. Freycinetia apoensis Martelli, LPB 3 (1911) 1111; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 9; Type: Elmer 10781, Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Notes: Forests along streams, c. 1200m. Native.
  6. Freycinetia atocensis Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 23; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 9; Type: Loher 1570. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Probably in forests, elevation at or above 1000m. Native.
  7. Freycinetia cultella Stone, Webbia 23 (1969) 600; ≡ Freycinetia urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1934) 3808, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 13766 (MO, NY, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Native.
  8. Freycinetia cumingiana Gaudich., Voy. Bonite, Bot. 3 (1841) t. 38; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 19; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 10. = Freycinetia luzonensis C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1851) 238; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 154; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 280; Warb. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 35; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 311; C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 193; Type: Cuming 1455 (B), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mt Isarog. = Freycinetia luteocarpa Elmer, LPB 10 (1934) 3604, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 15930 (NY, syn); Elmer 16016 (MO, NY, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, May-1915; Elmer 15394 (L, NY, syn), initially distributed as Freycinetia membranifolia Elmer, ined., same locality, Dec-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Sorsogon. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  9. Freycinetia curranii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 312; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 14; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 10; Type: FB 11359 Curran, Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mt Isarog, in forest c. 1000m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Sorsogon, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  10. Freycinetia dilatata Merr. ex Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 214; PJS 3 c (1908) 313; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 310; Type: Elmer 9008 (NY, US), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Possibly a synonym of Freycinetia formosana Hemsl. Native.
  11. Freycinetia discoidea Martelli, LPB 3 (1911) 1113; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 10; Stone, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1970) 226; Type: Elmer 12197 (US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Apr-1910. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Possibly a synonym of Freycinetia gitingiana Martelli. Native.
  12. Freycinetia ensifolia Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 5; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 32; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 10; Type: Merrill 3242 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Oct-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Mountain Province, Pampanga, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Mossy forests, 1200-1600m. Native.
  13. Freycinetia ferox Warb. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 33; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 13; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 10; Type: Warburg s.n. (B, holo), Luzon: probably Tayabas (Quezon), fide Merrill, 1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests to 500m. Native.
  14. Freycinetia formosana Hemsl., Kew Bull. (1896) 166; Kuo & Hsu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan, 2nd ed. (2000) 698. = Freycinetia banahaensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 215; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 29; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 9. = Freycinetia williamsii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 315; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 32; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 14; Type: R.S. Williams 1013, Batan: Sto Domingo de Basco (Basco), Jun-1907. = Freycinetia batanensis Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 29; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 9; Type: BS 3806 E. Fénix. = Freycinetia subflagellata Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3098; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 14; Type: Elmer 17967 (MO, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños, Mt Makiling, vicinity of coffee plantation, Jun/Jul-1917. = Freycinetia irosinensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3602, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 16430 (MO, NA, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, in light woods at 750ft elevation, Jun-1916. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATANES, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Primary forests as well as ridge thickets and forest, low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 2000m. Native.
  15. Freycinetia fusiformis B.C.Stone, Webbia 23 (1969) 601. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  16. Freycinetia gitingiana Martelli, LPB 3 (1911) 1112; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 11; Stone, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1970) 230; Type: Elmer 12358 (NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, dry forest at 1750ft along trail towards España, Apr-1910. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: In forests, 300-500m. Native.
  17. Freycinetia jagorii Warb. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 39; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 25; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 11; Type: Jagor 954 (B), Samar. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  18. Freycinetia lagenicarpa Warb. in K.Schum. & Laut., Nachtr. Fl. Deutsch. Sudsee (1905) 52. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. Native.
    • var. bulusanensis (Merr.) ined.; ≡ Freycinetia bulusanensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 268; EPFP 1 (1922) 10; Type: BS 23686 Ramos (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Sep-1915. Distribution: LUZON: Sorsogon, PANAY. Notes: Apparently in the mossy forests, at or above 900m.
  19. Freycinetia leptophylla Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 20; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 11; Type: Loher 5450. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Rizal. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Native.
  20. Freycinetia lucbanensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 212; Type: Elmer 8230 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Primary forests, c. 500m. Native.
  21. Freycinetia marginata Blume, Rumphia 1 (1837) 158; Keim, Reinwardtia 13 (2012) 274; Type: from New Guinea. = Freycinetia maxima Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 310; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 13; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 11; Type: FB 10754 Curran (US, syn), Luzon: Quezon, Malicboy, 22-Jul-1908; FB Curran 12381 (PNH, syn, lost): Luzon: Albay-Sorsogon, Adumoy Hills, Jun-1908. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. LUZON: Albay, Quezon, Sorsogon, NEGROS (photos). Native.
  22. Freycinetia megacarpa Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 314; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 31; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 11; Type: Clemens s.n. Distribution: MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Sur. Notes: Forests, c. 650m. Native.
  23. Freycinetia merrillii Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 216; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 31; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 11; Type: Elmer 9010 (MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, scandent on shrubbery along creeks at 600m, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Quezon. Notes: Forests along streams, c. 600m. Native.
  24. Freycinetia monocephala Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 78; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 31; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 11; Type: Elmer 7380 (MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, very damp and deeply shaded ravines of the forest, 900m, May-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Forests, c. 700m. Native.
  25. Freycinetia montalbanica Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 18; C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 193; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 12; Type: Loher s.n., Luzon: Rizal, Montalban. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Probably in forests at medium elevation. Robinson (1911) also cites seemingly identical materials from Nueva Ecija, Camarines and Polillo. Potentially a synonym of Freycinetia imbricata Blume. Native.
  26. Freycinetia multiflora Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 259; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 17; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 12. = Freycinetia robinsonii var. latifolia Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 18; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 13. Distribution: LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Pampanga, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests up to 900m. Native.
  27. Freycinetia negrosensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 313; EPFP 1 (1922) 12; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 28; Type: Whitford 1541 (US, iso), Negros: Negros Occidental, Mt Silay, in forests on exposed ridges, c. 1200m, May-1906. = Freycinetia superba Martelli, LPB 3 (1911) 1115; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 14; Type: Elmer 12257 (B, BISH, L, US, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting, in good soil of forests on ridges or along streams at 300-600m, Apr-1910. = Freycinetia pandanicarpa Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3607, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 13683 (MO, NA, NY 2 sheets, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, wooded areas and upon steep ravines, 2500ft, Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, NEGROS, SIBUYAN. Notes: Forests, 300-1200m. Native.
  28. Freycinetia nonatoae A.P.Keim & C.C.Tan, Blumea 65 (2020) 102, as 'nonatoi'; Type: C.C. Tan 002 (BO, holo; USTH, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Llavac, 14-May-2013. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Keim & Tan 2020). Native.
  29. Freycinetia oblongifolia Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 310; EPFP 1 (1922) 12; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 16; Type: Bolster 342 (MO, syn); Bolster 249 (syn), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Surigao, May & Feb-1906, respectively, in forests, 100-130m. = Freycinetia platyphylla Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 267; EPFP 1 (1922) 12; Type: BS 24349 Ramos, Samar: Catubig River at Pinpisakan, forest near the river, 21-Mar-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  30. Freycinetia palawanensis Merr. ex Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 216; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 23; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 12; Type: BS 706 Foxworthy (NY, iso), Palawan: Victoria Peak, 900m, Mar-1906. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Native.
    • var. palawanensis. Distribution: LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Sur, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Primary forests, 600-1000m.
    • var. andersoniana B.C.Stone, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1970) 222; Type: from Sarawak. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Known in the Philippines from PNH 10082 Sulit.
  31. Freycinetia peripiezocarpa Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 314; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 12; Type: FB 10858 Curran (US, syn), Luzon: Benguet, Dec-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Possibly a synonym of Freycinetia formosana Hemsl. Native.
  32. Freycinetia philippinensis Hemsl., Kew Bull. (1896) 165; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 25; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 313; EPFP 1 (1922) 12; Type: Cuming 1898 (K, syn); Gregory 117 (syn), Luzon: Quezon, Aug-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  33. Freycinetia polystachya Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 14; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 13. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Native.
  34. Freycinetia quezonensis A.P.Keim, M.G.Nonato, C.C.Tan & W.Sujarwo, Taiwania 66 (2021) 61; Type: C.C. Tan s.n. (BO, holo; USTH, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Llavac, 14-May-2013. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (Keim et al. 2021). Native.
  35. Freycinetia rigida Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 362; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 26; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 13; Type: Elmer 7847. = Freycinetia botuliformis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 268; EPFP 1 (1922) 10; Type: BS 23363 Ramos (A, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Lalao, in damp forests, Sep-1915. = Freycinetia robusta Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3097; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 13; Type: Elmer 18026 (MO, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños, Mt Makiling, creek bottom of the so-called crater, Jun/Jul-1917. = Freycinetia cuernosensis Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 26; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 10; Type: Elmer 9677 (US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Mar-1906. = Freycinetia hemsleyi Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 214, nom. illeg., non Warb.; Type: Elmer 7847 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, foothill woods at 800m, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, NEGROS. Notes: Medium elevation primary forests to c. 800m. Native.
  36. Freycinetia robinsonii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 311; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 17; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 13; Stone, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1970) 228; Type: FB 3037 Borden. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. Native.
    • var. robinsonii. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Possibly a synonym of Freycinetia multiflora Merr. Native.
  37. Freycinetia rostrata Merr., PJS 1 suppl. (1906) 3; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 34; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 13; Type: Clemens 475, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Camp Keithley, Apr-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, NEGROS, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Potentially a synonym of Freycinetia devriesei Solm. Native.
  38. Freycinetia scabripes Warb. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 41; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 27; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 13; Type: Warburg s.n. (B). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Possibly a synonym of Freycinetia formosana Hemsl. Native.
  39. Freycinetia sphaerocephala Gaudich., Bot. Voy. Bonite (1843) t. 52; Warb. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 35; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 314; EPFP 1 (1922) 13; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 33; Type: ?Cuming 839 (Merrill 1908), Luzon: Albay. = Freycinetia globosa Merr., PJS 2c (1907) Bot. 260; Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 217; Type: Merrill 5791 (NY, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, in forest, 1150m, Nov-1906. = Freycinetia surigaoensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3774, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 13725 (MO, NY 2 sheets), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, MINDORO. Notes: In forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1150 m. Native.
  40. Freycinetia stricta B.C.Stone, Webbia 23 (1969) 600. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  41. Freycinetia sumatrana Hemsl., Kew Bull. (1896) 167; Stone, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1970) 201; Keim et al., Gard. Bull. Singapore 63 (2011) 34; Type: from Sumatra. = Freycinetia auriculata Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 312; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 15; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 9; Type: BS 876 Foxworthy (PNH, holo, lost; NY, US, iso), Palawan: near Puerto Princesa, May-1906. = Freycinetia loheri Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 15; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 11; Type: Loher 1577 (K, syn; PBH, isosyn, lost): Luzon: Benguet, 1918-1915; Loher 1578 (syn); Loher 5469 (L, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, Jun-1905. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland to medium elevation forests. Native.
  42. Freycinetia vidalii Hemsl., Kew Bull. (1896) 166; Warb. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 36; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 311; Martelli, LPB 3 (1910) 21; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 14; Type: Vidal 3964 (K), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, Bayombon (Bayombong). = Freycinetia confusa Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 213; Type: Elmer 9007 (MO, NY, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, in woods at 650m, May-1907. Distribution: LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to c.1200m. Native.
  43. Freycinetia warburgii Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 218; Martelli, Webbia 3 (1910) 34; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 14; Type: Elmer 8229 (L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, swampy wooded area, 500m, May-1909. = Freycinetia sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3608, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 15833 (MO, NY), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, humid forest at 1000ft, Apr-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Native.

Pandanus Parkins.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 July 2021
  1. Pandanus apoensis Martelli, LPB 3 (1911) 1129; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 15; Type: Elmer 11313 (A, BISH 2 sheets, L, MO NY, US), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, damp fertile humus-covered soil of dense woods at 4000ft S of the Sibulan River, Aug-1909. = Pandanus apiculatus Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 240; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 15; Type: BS 34572 Ramos & Pascasio (US, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, on ridges, c. 690m at the iron deposit on the NE coast, 25-Apr-1919. = Pandanus dinagatensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 240; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 17; Type: BS 35183 Ramos & Pascasio (A, US, iso), Dinagat: forests along streams at low elevation, 12-May-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Davao, Surigao del Norte. Notes: Lowland forests along streams; ridges on iron deposits (presumably also on ultramafics which abound in Surigao del Norte), to lower montane forest on Mt Apo, 650-1200m. Native.
  2. Pandanus barai Martelli, LPB 3 (1911) 1126; Webbia 4 (1913) 7; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 15; Type: Elmer 10924 (BISH 2 sheets, L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, very moist humus-covered soil at 3500ft on the N flank of the Baruring River, Jun-1909. = Pandanus calceiformis Martelli, LPB 3 (1911) 1127; Webbia 4 (1913) 9; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 16; Type: Elmer 11654 (L, MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, dry soil of a wooded ridge near the Mainit Creek at 1350m, Sep-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur. Notes: Low to medium elevation forests, ascending to 1350m. Native.
  3. Pandanus basilocularis Martelli, Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital. (1904) 299. = Pandanus decipiens Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 12; Webbia 4 (1914) 402; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 16; Type: Elmer 12593 (B, GH, L, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Palawan: Brookes Point, Addison Peak (Mt Maruyog), swampy black soil of woods at 25ft, Mar-1911. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation forests and thickets, often behind mangroves. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Pandanus biliranensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 266; EPFP 1 (1922) 15; Type: BS 18895 McGregor (A, BISH, US, iso), Biliran: in forest, c. 300m, 20-Jun-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, SAMAR (photos). Notes: Forests, c. 300m. Native.
  5. Pandanus botryoides Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 66; Webbia 4 (1913) 8; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 15; Type: Merrill 5442 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Cateel (formerly under Surigao, locality in the orginal label indicated as Catel), along tidal streams, Oct-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental, Lanao del Sur, POLILLO. Notes: Forests along tidal streams, also along lake shore at 650m at Lanao del Sur. Merrill (1922) has reservations on the distinction of this species with Pandanus radicans Blanco. Native.
  6. Pandanus brevispathus Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 69; Webbia 4 (1913) 8; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 15; Type: Copeland 442 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, thickets in coastal Barringtonia formation, Mar-1904. = Pandanus polycephalus auct. non Lam.; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 8. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Coastal thickets. Possibly a synonym of Pandanus polycephalus Lam. Native.
  7. Pandanus calamianensis Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 448; EPFP 4 (1925) 247; Type: BS 41178 Ramos (A, B, BISH, US, iso), Busuanga: in forests along small streams at low elevation, 23-Sep-1922. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA. Notes: Lowland forests along small streams. Native.
  8. Pandanus cheilostigma B.C.Stone, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 94 (1974) 535; Type: PNH 12081 Edaño (A, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Ormoc, Mt Janagdan, summit, 1190m, 7-Apr-1950. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Native.
  9. Pandanus cubicus H.St.John, Pacific Sc. 23 (1969) 360; Type: BS 44786 Ramos & Edaño (K, holo; A, UC, US, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Mt Marayep, Dec-1924. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Notes: Known only from the type collection. Native.
  10. Pandanus cumingianus Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 70; Webbia 4 (1913) 11; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 16; Type: Cuming s.n. (BM, photo of type with syncarp only), Negros. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Native.
  11. Pandanus dubius Spreng., Syst. 3 (1826) 897; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 12; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 17. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Davao, NEGROS (photos). Notes: Coastal thickets or forests. Native.
    • var. compressus (Martelli) B.C.Stone, Kew Bull. 31(1) (1976) 50.
    • var. dubius.
  12. Pandanus esculentus Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 13; Webbia 4 (1914) 403; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 17; Type: FB 17813 Curran (US, iso), Luzon: Cagayan, Jan-1912. = Pandanus paracalensis Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 450; EPFP 4 (1925) 247; Type: BS 33687 Ramos & Edaño (A, BISH, US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Paracale, in forests along small streams at low elevation, 30-Nov-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Ilocos Norte. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1000m. Native.
  13. Pandanus exaltatus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 778; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 536; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 183; Warb. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 84; Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 64; Webbia 4 (1913) 13; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 54; EPFP 1 (1922) 17; Type: Not extant. = Pandanus ahernianus forma ahernianus Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 64; Webbia 4 (1913) 13; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 17; Bolster 89 (syn), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Arayat, base of the mountain along streams, May-1905; Type: Dec Philip. Forest Fl. 296 leg. Ahern’s Collector (A, US, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, upper hill forests, Feb-1905. = Pandanus arayatensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 7; PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 25; Martelli, Webbia 41 (1913) 6; Type: Merrill 3832 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Arayat, in forest only at and near the summit at 878m, May-1904. = Pandanus banahaensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 79; Martelli, Webbia 41 (1913) 7, as ‘banahaoensis’; Type: Elmer 7378 (L, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Banahaw, Mar-1906. = Pandanus vidalii Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 65; Webbia 41 (1913) 36; Type: Whitford 1325, Luzon: Bataan, Limay Peak, above 850m, at the head of Lamao River. = Pandanus caudatus Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 6; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 9; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 16; Type: Elmer 6143 (B, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Sablan, Apr-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Medium elevation forests or thickets, ascending to 1000m. Native.
  14. Pandanus gracilis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 778; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 536; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 182; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 16; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 18; Type: Not extant, Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 896 (US) may perhaps be designated as neotype: Luzon: Bataan, Mar-1915. Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 890 (US), labeled as an ‘illustrative specimen’ for Pandanus gracilis represents another taxon. B.C. Stone annotated it as Pandanus clementis Merr. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 1000m. Native.
  15. Pandanus hermesii B.C.Stone, Kalikasan 5 (1976) 25; Type: PNH 108953 Gutierrez, Yen & Reynoso (BISH, iso), Mindanao: South Cotabato, Tasaday, primary forest on ridge, 3000ft, Aug-1972. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: South Cotabato. Native.
  16. Pandanus julifer Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 18; Webbia 4 (1914) 428; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 18, as ‘juliferus’; Type: BS 14670 Ramos (US, iso), Camiguin: Camiguin, Mar/Apr-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN. Notes: Probably in forest, c. 1000m. Apparently very near Pandanus polyglossus Martelli. Native.
  17. Pandanus kaida Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 38 (1869) 148; Type: from Thailand. = Pandanus busuangaensis Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 449; EPFP 4 (1925) 247; Type: BS 41224 Ramos (A, B, BISH, US, iso), Busuanga: near the seashore, 20-Sep-1922. Distribution: BUSUANGA. Notes: Along the seashore. Native.
  18. Pandanus lateralis Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 68; Webbia 4 (1913) 20; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 18; Type: Copeland 386, erroneously cited as ‘336’ by Merrill (1922) (US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mar-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Native.
  19. Pandanus leonardocoi P.Zamora & W.Gruezo, Asia Life Sciences 25 (2016) 640; Type: Zamora s.n. (PUH14580, holo), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Nonoc Island, 18-Jul-1998. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Notes: Only known from type. Conservation status: Vulnerable (Zamora & Gruezo 2016). Native.
  20. Pandanus luzonensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 6; EPFP 1 (1922) 18; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 22; Type: Merrill 3317 (US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River, Oct-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Lowland secondary forests. Native.
  21. Pandanus martellii Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 272; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 23; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 19; Type: Elmer 9082 (L, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, in forest, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Native.
  22. Pandanus mindanaensis Martelli, LPB 3 (1911) 1121; Webbia 4 (1913) 24, as 'mindanaoensis’; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 19; Type: Elmer 10823 (BISH 2 sheets, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, dense humid forests at 4000ft S of Baruring River, Jun-1909. = Pandanus acladus Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 265; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 15; Type: BS 30462 Ramos (US, iso), Catanduanes: Catanduanes, in damp forests, 10-Dec-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Notes: Lowland forests along streams, lower montane forest, 150-1200m. Native.
  23. Pandanus multibracteatus Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 241; EPFP 1 (1922) 19; Type: BS 34571 (A, US, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, iron deposit on the NE coast on the Hegapit River, c. 680m, 25-Apr-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Native.
  24. Pandanus nobilis Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 134; Type: BS 45568 Ramos & Edaño (NY, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Casiguran, along streams in damp forest at low elevation, 5-May-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Isabela. Notes: Lowland forests along stream, ascending to 400m. Allied to Pandanus exaltatus Blanco, differing in its larger drupes and much larger syncarps. Native.
  25. Pandanus occultus Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 265; EPFP 1 (1922) 19; Type: Merrill 9361 (BISH, L, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Taytay, periodically swampy during the rainy season, slightly above sea level, 7-May-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Primary lowland swamp forests. Native.
  26. Pandanus odorifer (Forssk.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 737. = Pandanus odoratissimus L.f., Suppl. (1781) 424; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 42. = Pandanus spiralis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 777; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 535; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 181; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 89, nom. illeg., non R.Br.; Type: FB 92 Barnes, Luzon: Bataan, Lamao, on sandy beach, Nov-1903. = Pandanus blancoi Kunth, Enum. 3 (1841) 583. = Pandanus linnaei forma philippinensis Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 21; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 18; Type: Merrill 4140, Semerara (Semirara), Open grasslands along borders of thickets but near the sea, Jul-1905. Distribution: BUSUANGA, SEMIRARA. Notes: Low elevation thickets. Widespread, coastal and marshlands near coastal areas. Native.
  27. Pandanus pallidus Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 5; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 19; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 26; Type: Elmer 5840 (B, BISH, NY US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Ecija. Notes: Forested stream depressions up to 1500m. Native.
  28. Pandanus paloensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 75; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 26; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 19. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDANAO. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  29. Pandanus panayensis Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 366; EPFP 1 (1922) 20; Type: BS 30796 Ramos & Edaño (A, BISH, US), Panay: Aklan, Mt Magosolon (indicated in the label as Mt Macosolon; Aklan is formerly a part of the province of Capiz), on forested slopes, 22-Apr-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Notes: Low or medium elevation forest. Native.
  30. Pandanus patelliformis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 476; Type: BS 43151 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost?; UC 2 sheets, possible lecto; A, iso), Bohol: Kalingohan, on rocky forested slopes, c. 600m, Aug-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Notes: Medium elevation forest, possibly on limestone. Native.
  31. Pandanus philippinensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 264; EPFP 1 (1922) 20; Type: BS 11289 R.C. McGregor (BISH, US), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, Campote, on forested hillsides, Mar-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Kalinga, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: Medium elevation on forested slopes. Native.
  32. Pandanus piricus H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 101(3) (1980) 389; Type: ?PNH 12082 Edaño (L), Leyte: Leyte, Ormoc, Mt Janagdan, summit, 1190m, 7-Apr-1950. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Native.
  33. Pandanus polycephalus Lam., Encyc. 1 (1783) 372. = Pandanus mapola Martelli, LPB 3 (1911) 1124; Webbia 4 (1913) 22; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 19; Type: Elmer 12139a (BISH, L, MO, NY, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), compact fertile soil near Nipa swamp at 100ft. Distribution: SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland thickets and forests. Native.
  34. Pandanus polyglossus Martelli, LPB 3 (1911) 1130; Webbia 4 (1913) 28; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 20; Type: Elmer 11335 (BISH 2 sheets, L, MO, NY, US), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, Todaya, moist humus-covered soil upon a steep forested ravine at 4500ft of Mt Calelan, Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Notes: Primary forest, c. 1350m. Native.
  35. Pandanus pricei P.Zamora & W.Gruezo, Asia Life Sciences 25 (2016) 643; Type: Zamora s.n. (PUH14581, holo), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Nonoc Island, 18-Jul-1998. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Notes: Only known from type. Conservation status: Vulnerable (Zamora & Gruezo 2016). Native.
  36. Pandanus radicans Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 780; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 537; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 184; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 29; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 20. = Pandanus urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3775, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 13816 (L, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdeneta, Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Native.
  37. Pandanus ramosii Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 242; EPFP 1 (1922) 20; Type: BS 35136 Ramos (US, iso), Bucas Grande, low elevation dry forest, 10-Jun-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT. Native.
  38. Pandanus reclinatus Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 29; Webbia 4 (1914) 432; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 20; Type: Elmer 12731 (FI, holo; BISH, L, MO, U, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), Mar-1911. = Pandanus depauperatus Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 448; EPFP 4 (1925) 247; Type: BS 41230 Ramos (A, B, US, iso), Busuanga: Concepcion, along small streams in bamboo thickets at low elevation, Sep-1922. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests and bamboo thickets. Native.
  39. Pandanus sibuyanensis Martelli, LPB 3 (1911) 1120; Webbia 4 (1913) 31, as ‘sibujanensis’; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 20; Type: Elmer 12146 (MO, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), fertile swampy flat of woods near the Pauala River at 1000ft, forming groves. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Forests, c. 350m. Native.
  40. Pandanus simplex Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 6; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 31; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 20; Type: Whitford 782, Luzon: Quezon, Infanta, Tinuan (Tignoan) River, on hilltops, 150m, Sep-1904. = Pandanus utilissimus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 80; Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 67; Webbia 41 (1913) 36; C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 193; Type: Elmer 7379 (A, L, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Banahaw de Lucban, May-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Ifugao, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, also planted. A species remarkable for its enormous syncarps. Native.
  41. Pandanus subacaulis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 263; EPFP 1 (1922) 21; Type: BS 30489 Ramos (US, iso), Catanduanes: on forested slopes along Sto Domingo River, 5-Dec-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  42. Pandanus tectorius Soland. in Parkins., J. Voy. HMS Endeav. (1773) 46; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 33; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 66; EPFP 1 (1922) 21; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3974. = Pandanus sabotan Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 779; ed. 2 (1845) 537; ed. 3, 3 (1879) 184; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 30; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 20. = Pandanus tectorius var. spiralis Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 62; Webbia 4, 1 (1913) 34; ≡ Pandanus malatensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 777; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 535; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 181; Warb. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 84; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 89; ?Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 70; Webbia 41 (1913) 22. = Pandanus tectorius var. surigaensis Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 64; Webbia 41 (1913) 34, as ‘suringaensis’. = Pandanus tectorius var. sinensis Warb. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 48; Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 62; Webbia 41 (1913) 34. = Pandanus tectorius var. douglasii forma philippinensis Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 63; Webbia 41 (1913) 33. = Pandanus vidalii Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 65; Webbia 41 (1913) 36. = Pandanus coronatus Martelli, PJS 3 c (1908) 65; Webbia 41 (1913) 11. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Coastal, rare or in cultivation. Native.
  43. Pandanus tenuipedunculatus Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 243; EPFP 1 (1922) 22; Type: BS 34739 Ramos & Pascasio (US, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, in open forests at low elevation, 20-Jun-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, SIARGAO. Notes: Lowland open forests. Very similar to Pandanus brevispathus Martelli. Native.
  44. Pandanus umbonatus Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 134; Type: BS 46967 Ramos & Edaño (A, holo; NY, US, iso), Luzon: Isabela, San Mariano, damp forests, 600m, 22-Feb-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Notes: Medium elevation (600-800m) forests, abundant along streams. BS 46998 Ramos & Edaño (A) collected in the same area at the type locality, was annotated by KL Huynh in 1975 as holotype of Pandanus lateralistigma (apparently an unpublished name). Native.
  45. Pandanus zamboangensis Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 37; Webbia (1914) 426; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 22; Type: Merrill 8051 (US, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Norte, Camp Overton, 22-Nov-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Lanao del Norte, Zamboanga. Notes: Lowland thickets and secondary forests. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Pandanus brachyspathus Martelli, Webbia 4 (1914) 420. Distribution: Moluccas, ?Philippines, Sulawesi.

Incertae sedis

  1. Pandanus brevistipes Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 8; Webbia 4 (1914) 421; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 15; Type: FB 7719 Curran & Merritt, On ridges in forests, c. 800 m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas. Notes: Not included in Timothy Gallaher's key. Native.
  2. Pandanus camarinensis Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 367; EPFP 1 (1922) 16; Type: BS 33635 (A, US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Paracale, in damp forests at low elevation, 21-Dec-1918. The leaves mounted on the isotype sheet at US belong to Pandanus luzonensis Merr. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte. Notes: Lowland forests. Possibly not distinct from Pandanus esculentus Martelli. Not included in Timothy Gallaher's key. Native.
  3. Pandanus clementis Merr., PJS 1 suppl.(1906) 178; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 10; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 16; Type: Clemens 436, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, c. 800m, Mar-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, PANAY. Notes: Forests, 100-800m. Not included in Timothy Gallaher's key. Native.
  4. Pandanus glauciferus H.St.John, Pacific Sc. 25 (1961) 327; ≡ Pandanus glauciphyllus C.B.Rob., Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 35 (1908) 64; Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 15; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 18, nom. illeg., non Ridl.; Type: R.S. Williams 2423 (NY, holo; A, NY 2 sheets, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, 28-Feb-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, NEGROS, ROMBLON, SIARGAO. Notes: Lowland forests. Not included in Timothy Gallaher's key. Native.
  5. Pandanus hemisphaericus H.St.John, Pacific Sci. 23 (1969) 364; Type: Merrill 1312 (G, holo; FI, L, NY, MO, iso), Palawan: Taytay, May-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Not included in Timothy Gallaher's key. Native.
  6. Pandanus loherianus Martelli, Webbia 4 (1913) 22; Webbia 4 (1914) 423; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 18. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Rizal. Notes: Low or medium elevation forests along streams. Not included in Timothy Gallaher's key. Native.
  7. Pandanus retusus H.St.John, Pacific Sc. 23 (1969) 362; Type: Weber 1568 (G, holo; FI, P, iso), Luzon: Cagayan, Abulug River, Jan-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: Known only from the type collection. Not included in Timothy Gallaher's key. Native.

Sararanga Hemsl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Sararanga philippinensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 5; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 22. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, LUZON: Albay, Camarines Norte, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Surigao del Sur, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Chiefly in secondary forests, 0-750m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Literature