Oleaceae

Chionanthus D.Royen

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2021
  1. Chionanthus acuminatissimus (Merr.) Kiew ex De Juana, Bouteloua 23 (2016) 15; ≡ Linociera acuminatissima Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 312; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1651; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 303; Type: Merrill, Philip. Pl. 1245 (GH, isosyn), Palawan, May-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Along beaches and forests immediately behind mangroves. Native.
  2. Chionanthus clementis (Quisumb. & Merr.) Kiew, Blumea 43 (1998) 472; ≡ Linociera clementis Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 189; Type: Clemens 16785 (UC, holo), Luzon: Isabela, Mt Moises, above Ambabu (?Ambabok), 15/16-Apr-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Chionanthus coriaceus (S.Vidal) Yuen P.Yang & S.Y.Lu, Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 129; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3974; ≡ Linociera coriacea S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 181; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 303; Type: Vidal 1468 (MA, holo; A, iso), Philippines. = Linociera paludosa King & Gamble, J. As. Soc. Beng. 742 (1905) 268; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 304. = Linociera urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1656; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 305. = Linociera phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 48; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; Type: Loher 14222 (UC, holo), Luzon: Rizal, Bantol, Mar-1913. = Linociera leuterioi Merr., ?ined.; Voucher: FB 25926 E. Leuterio (NY), Luzon: Bulacan, Jun-1916. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Apayao, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  4. Chionanthus grandifolius (Elmer) Kiew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 37 (1984) 210; ≡ Linociera grandifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1657; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 303; Type: Elmer 13425 (K, lecto; A, BM, GH, L, NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: In the Philippines known only from the type. The Malayan collection (in flower), is deemed identical with the one from Mindanao (in fruit) on vegetative grounds. Native.
  5. Chionanthus luzonicus Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1851) 319; Type: Unknown (L), Philippines. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  6. Chionanthus macrobotrys (Merr.) Kiew, J. Arnold Arbor. 64 (1983) 620; Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak 4 (2002) 134; ≡ Linociera macrobotrys Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) 117; Type: from Borneo. = Linociera scandens Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 189; Type: BS 45740 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, ?lost; possible candidates for lecto: A, NY, US), Luzon: Quirino, Mt Alzapan, forested slopes, c. 1700m, 21-May-1925. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. Native.
  7. Chionanthus nitidus (Merr.) Kiew, Blumea 43 (1998) 472; ≡ Linociera nitida Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 339; EPFP 3 (1923) 304; Type: BS 15406 Reillo (US, holo; BM, K, iso), Basilan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN. Notes: Primary forests at low or medium elevation. Native.
  8. Chionanthus racemosus (Merr.) Kiew & Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 99; ≡ Linociera racemosa (Merr.) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 116; EPFP 3 (1923) 304; ≡ Mayepea racemosa Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 35 (1906) 58; Type: FB 3042 Borden (NY, lecto; K, PNH lost, US, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, May-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  9. Chionanthus ramiflorus Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814); Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 106; Kiew, Blumea 43 (1998) 473; ≡ Linociera ramiflora (Roxb.) Wall., Cat. (1831) no. 2824; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 304. = Linociera cumingiana S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 185; Type: Cuming 972 (W), Philippines. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  10. Chionanthus remotinervius (Merr.) Kiew, Blumea 43 (1998) 474; ≡ Linociera remotinervia Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 324; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 305; Type: BS 29933 (US, holo; A, BM, K, L, iso), Luzon: Pangasinan, Mt San Isidro Labrador, open grassy slopes near forest edge, c. 300m, Nov-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Pangasinan, Zambales. Notes: Open grassy slopes near forest edge, also along streams, near sea-level to 600m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Fraxinus L.

  1. Fraxinus griffithii C.B.Clarke in Hook., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 605; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 303. = Fraxinus philippinensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 57. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Rizal. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Native.

Jasminum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 November 2020
  1. Jasminum apoense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2791; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 306; Type: Elmer 11953 (L, lecto; BM, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao. Notes: Medium elevation damp primary forests, ascending to 1350m. Native.
  2. Jasminum batanensis Kiew, Sandakania 4 (1994) 75; Type: Bartlett 15387 (PNH, holo; A, MICH, iso), Batanes Isl Group: Ibuhos Isl, 19-Jul-1935. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ITBAYAT, IVUHOS. Native.
  3. Jasminum crassifolium Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 679; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 307; Type: Blume 222 (L, lecto; A, iso). = Jasminum rotundifolium Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2792; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 308; Type: Elmer 10571 (A, BM, BISH, CAL, E, GH, K, L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, dense woods at 4000ft (3937m), S of Kalelan, May-1909. = Jasminum triplinervium Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 223; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 308; Type: FB 13557 Meyer & Foxworthy, Negros: Negros Occidental, Faraon, in forest, 10-Sep-1909. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines. BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests, ascending to c. 1200m. Native.
  4. Jasminum cumingii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 223; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 307; Type: Cuming 1565 (K, lecto; A, BM, iso), Philippines. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, MINDORO, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  5. Jasminum didymum G.Forst., Prodr. (1786) 3; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 307; Type: not from the Philippines. Native.
    • ssp. didymum. = Jasminum triphyllum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 223; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); Type: BS 261 Bermejos (K, lecto; CAL, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Dec-1905. Distribution: Java to Australia, New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean. GUIMARAS, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets.
  6. Jasminum dolichopetalum Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 120; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 307; Kiew & Tan, Edinburgh J. Bot. 77 (2020) 366; Type: BS 995 Ramos (GH, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, Jun-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Rizal, SAMAR. Notes: Medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  7. Jasminum elongatum (P.J.Bergius) Willd., Sp. Pl. 1 (1797) 37; Kiew & Tan, Edinburgh J. Bot. 77 (2020) 356; ≡ Nyctanthes elongata P.J.Bergius, Philos. Trans. 61 (1772) 289. = Jasminum aemulum R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 521; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995). = Jasminum bifarium Wall. ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 60; DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 305; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 306. Distribution: Australia, Bhutan, China, India, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Malesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand. Native.
  8. Jasminum ixoroides Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 511; Type: Elmer 8731 (E, lecto; CAL, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  9. Jasminum macrocarpum Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 258; C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 219; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 307; Type: Merrill 2326 (K, lecto; US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Tanay, May-1903; BS 1073 Ramos (GH, NY, US, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, Jul-1906; BS 3091 Ahern’s collector (NY, US, syn), Luzon: Rizal, May/Jun-1905; Whitford 394 (NY, US, syn), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Jun-1904. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Rizal, POLILLO. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests, in Benguet ascending to 2000m. Native.
  10. Jasminum oliganthum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 187; Type: BS 45541 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; K, lecto; BM, NY, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Casiguran, in damp forests, along streams at low elevation, 11-Jun-1925; BS 46957 Ramos & Edaño (NY, syn); BS 47118 Ramos & Edaño (A, NY, syn), Luzon: Isabela, San Mariano, forests at low elevation, 18-Feb-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Isabela. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  11. Jasminum populifolium Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 276; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 222; EPFP 3 (1923) 308; Type: Herb. Delersert s.n. (L, holo), Manila. = Jasminum luzoniense S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 185; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 180; Type: Cuming 1029 (L, lecto; A, BM, K, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, CATANDUANES, CEBU, CUYO ARCHIPELAGO, DUMARAN, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Lowland and montane thickets and forests, ascending to 2000m in Benguet. Frequently in coastal and tidal stream thickets. Native.
  12. Jasminum pseudopinnatum Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 119; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 308; Type: BS 1111 Ramos (PNH, lecto; CAL, GH, NY, US, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, Jul-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Medium elevation forests and thickets. Native.
  13. Jasminum simplicifolium G.Forst., Prodr. (1786) 3; Type: from Tonga. Native.
    • ssp. australiense P.S.Green, Allertonia 3 (1984) 419; Type: from Australia. = Jasminum aculeatum (Blanco) Walp. ex Hassk., Flora 47 (1864) 50; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 306; ≡ Mogorium aculeatum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 9. = Jasminum truncatum Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 259; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 309; Type: Merrill 5286 (NY, US, iso), Sibutu Isl, 13-Oct-1906. Distribution: Philippines to Australia. BILIRAN, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, Tarlac, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SIBUTU, SIQUIJOR. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets. Often common.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Jasminum grandiflorum L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 9; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 128; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 365; EPFP 3 (1923) 307; Kiew & Tan, Edinburgh J. Bot. 77 (2020) 338. Distribution: India. Notes: Widely cultivated ornamental in the Philippines but not naturalized.
  2. Jasminum multiflorum (Burm.f.) Andrews, Bot. Repos. 8 (1807) t. 496; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 366; EPFP 3 (1923) 307; Kiew & Tan, Edinburgh J. Bot. 77 (2020) 338; ≡ Nyctanthes multiflora Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 5. Distribution: India, Nepal. Notes: Occasionally cultivated in the Philippines for ornamental purposes but not naturalized.
  3. Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton, Hort. Kew 1 (1789) 8; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 127; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 32; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 365; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 305; EPFP 3 (1923) 308; Kiew & Tan, Edinburgh J. Bot. 77 (2020) 339; ≡ Nyctanthes sambac L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 6; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 9; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 6; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 12. = Jasminum blancoi Hassk., Flora 47 (1864) 49. Distribution: Middle East. Notes: Now pantropical in distribution. Commonly cultivated throughout the Philippines for ornamental purposes but not naturalized.

Ligustrum L.

  1. Ligustrum cumingianum Decne., Nuov. Arch. Mus. Paris ii, 2 (1879) 28; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 306; Kiew, Blumea 24 (1978) 146; Type: Cuming 1213 (BM, K, L, iso), Luzon. = Ligustrum glabrinerve Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3208; Type: Elmer 22247 (BM, GH 3 sheets, K, L, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO. Notes: Primary forests, lowland to 2000m. Native.
  2. Ligustrum glomeratum Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 314; Kiew, Blumea 24 (1978) 147. = Ligustrum pubinerve Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 314; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 305; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Nueva Ecija (photos), MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Native.
  3. Ligustrum stenophyllum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 188; Type: BS 47153 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; A, K, iso), Luzon, Isabela, San Mariano, 16-Mar-1926, Clemens 16782 (syn), Luzon: Isabela, Mt Moises, forested streams, c. 400m, 16 to 23-Apr-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Notes: Known only from two collections in the type locality. Forest streams at 400m. Native.

Myxopyrum Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 January 2020
  1. Myxopyrum nervosum Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 683; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 306; Kiew, Blumea 29 (1984) 505; Type: from Java. Native.
    • ssp. nervosum. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. PALAWAN.
  2. Myxopyrum ovatum A.W.Hill, Kew Bull. (1910) 41; Kiew, Blumea 29 (1984) 507. = Myxopyrum macrolobum A.W.Hill, Kew Bull. (1910) 42; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 306; Type: from New Guinea. = Myxopyrum philippinensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1483; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 306; Type: Elmer 12333 (K, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan. Native.
    • ssp. ovatum. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Talaud Isls. BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Batangas, Camarines, Quezon, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets and forests.

Olea L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Olea borneensis Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1899) 332; Kiew, Blumea 25 (1999) 90; Type: from Indonesia. = Mayepea pallida Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 35 (1906) 58; ≡ Linociera pallida (Merr.) Merr., PJS 1, suppl. (1906) 116, nom. illeg., non K.Schum. & Lauterb.; ≡ Linociera philippinensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 304. = Olea gitingensis (Elmer) Kiew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 51 (1999) 90; ≡ Linociera gitingensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1653; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 304; Type: Elmer 12290 (US, lecto; GH, K, L, isolecto). = Linociera longifolia Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 431; EPFP 3 (1923) 304; Type: FB 20626 Miranda (US, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Norte, Balut River, 14-Jun-1913. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. GUIMARAS, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Pampanga, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan, Lanao del Norte, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Primary forests, chiefly at medium elevation. Native.
  2. Olea javanica (Blume) Knobl., Bot. Centralbl. 61 (1895) 134; ≡ Pachyderma javanicum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 13 (1826) 682; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Known from Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta; Elmer 14198). Native.
  3. Olea luzonica Kiew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 68 (2016) 97; ≡ Olea obovata (Merr.) Kiew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 51 (1999) 94, nom. illeg.; ≡ Linociera obovata Merr. ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1652, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 304; Type: BS 15014 Ramos (PNH, holo, ?lost; K, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Tayabas. Notes: Medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  4. Olea palawanensis Kiew, Blumea 38 (1993) 127; Type: SMHI 1827 Ridsdale (L, holo), Palawan: Narra, Victoria Peaks, Trident Mining Company Concession, regrowth and disturbed forest on ultrabasic soils, 100-200m, 22-May-1984. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Open, disturbed vegetation on ultramafics, low elevation. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Olea rubrovenia (Elmer) Kiew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 51 (1999) 95; ≡ Linociera rubrovenia Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 586; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 305; Type: Elmer 10224 (US, lecto; A, E, K, L, isolecto). Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Lanao, NEGROS. Notes: Damp primary forests, 1000-1400m. Native.

Literature