Moraceae

Allaeanthus Thwaites

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 February 2022
  1. Allaeanthus luzonicus (Blanco) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 198; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 37; ≡ Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) Bureau in DC., Prodr. 17 (1873) 224; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 235; ≡ Morus luzonica Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 703. = Broussonetia luzoniensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 488; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 107. = Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) Bureau var. glabra (Warb.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 235; ≡ Allaeanthus luzonicus var. glaber (Warb.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 37; ≡ Allaeanthus glaber Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 166. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, LUZON: Camarines Sur (photos), Isabela (photos), MINDANAO: Misamis Oriental (photos). Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao and Basilan. Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Native.

Antiaris Lesch.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2017
  1. Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch., Ann. Mus. Paris 16 (1810) 478; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 44; ≡ Ipo toxicaria Pers., Syn. Pl. 2(2) (1807) 566. Distribution: GUIMARAS, LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. macrophylla (R.Br.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 248; ≡ Antiaris macrophylla R.Br., Voy. Terra Austral. 2 (1814) 602. Distribution: Australia, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls. GUIMARAS, LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, MINDORO. Notes: Forests at low and medium elevation, very local. Native.

Artocarpus J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 December 2021
  1. Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg, J. Wash. Ac. Sci. 31 (1941) 95; Zerega et al., Syst. Bot. 30 (2005) 611; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 73 (2021) 328; ≡ Sitodium altile Parkinson, Jour. Voy. Endeavour. (1773) 45; Type: from Pacific Ocean. = Artocarpus communis J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. (1776) 101; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 176; EPFP 2 (1923) 40; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 307; Type: Forster s.n. (BM, lecto). = Radermachia incisa Thunb., Handl. Vet-Akad. Stockh. 37 (1776) 253; ≡ Artocarpus incisus (Thunb.) L.f., Suppl. (1781) 411; Type: from Java. = Artocarpus rima Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 671; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 603 (US, neo, BO, isolecto), Luzon: Manila, Mar-1914. = Artocarpus laevis Hassk., Flora 25 (2), Beibl. (1842) 18; Type: from Java. Distribution: LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Luzon to Mindanao. Cultivated in most tropical countries, but here assumed to be non-native to the Philippines (Ragone 2018). Naturalized at low elevation in secondary forest. Breadfruit. Naturalized.
  2. Artocarpus anisophyllus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. 3 (1861) 422; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 73 (2021) 350; Type: from Sumatra. = Artocarpus superbus Becc., Nelle Foreste di Borneo (1902) 625; Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 51; EPFP 2 (1923) 43; Type: from Sarawak. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Native.
  3. Artocarpus blancoi (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 40; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 301; Zerega et al., Syst. Bot. 35 (2010) 778; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3974; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 73 (2021) 331; ≡ Artocarpus communis var. blancoi Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 617; Type: Borden 488 (FB 1672) (PNH, ?Lost), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Aug-1904; BS 42018 Ramos (K, neo; L, US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, Feb-1928. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN, CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Thickets and forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  4. Artocarpus camansi Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 670; Merr., Sp. Blanco. (1918) 124; Zerega et al., Syst. Bot. 30 (2005) 611; Syst. Bot. 35 (2010) 779; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 73 (2021) 332; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 830 (US, neo; L, isoneo). = Artocarpus incisus var. muricata Becc., For. Borneo. (1902) 108; Type: from New Guinea. = Artocarpus leeuwenii Diels, Bot Jahrb. 67 (1935) 175; Type: from New Guinea. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea. Notes: Not native to the Philippines, possibly naturalized. Naturalized.
  5. Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 481; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 346; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 73 (2021) 347; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Native.
  6. Artocarpus fretessii Teijsm. & Binn. ex Hassk., Abh. Naturf. Ges. Halle 9 (1866) 189; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 103; Zerega et al., Syst. Bot. 35 (2010) 779; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 200. = Artocarpus leytensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 279; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 42; Type: Elmer 7244 (K, lecto; A, BO, E, NY, PNH lost, isolecto), Leyte: Leyte, Palo, Jan-1906. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. BILIRAN, CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Surigao, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low elevation forests up to 660m. Native.
  7. Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. ex Trécul, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 3, 8 (1847) 118; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 88; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 207; Type: from Myanmar. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. CAGAYAN DE SULU, MINDANAO: Cotabato. Notes: Low elevation. Native.
  8. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., Encycl. Meth. 3 (1789) 210; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 334; Type: from Mauritius. = Artocarpus integra auct. non (Thunb.) Merr.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 176; EPFP 2 (1923) 41. = Artocarpus philippensis Lam., Encycl. 3 (1789) 210; Type: Sonnerat s.n. (P-JU, lecto), Philippines. = Artocarpus maximus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 669, as ‘maxima’; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 415 (PNH, neo, F, L, P, US, isoneo), Luzon: Camarines, Dec-1913. Distribution: India. Notes: Of prehistoric introduction to the Philippines where it is cultivated and thoroughly naturalized throughout the archipelago at low to medium elevation. Jackfruit. Naturalized.
  9. Artocarpus lamellosus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 667, as ‘lamellosa'; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 188; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 100 (P, neo; A, BM, BO, F, GH, K, L, MO, isoneo), Luzon: Batangas, Aug-1914. = Artocarpus nitidus Trécul, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 3, 8 (1847) 119, as 'nitida'; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 123; Type: Cuming 1078 (P, lecto; BM, E, K, MO, NY, P, SING, isolecto), Luzon: Albay, 1841. = Artocarpus lanceolatus Trécul, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 3, 8 (1847) 121; Type: Callery 60 (P, lecto; P, isolecto), Luzon: Manila-Calauan, 1840. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Abra, Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Pangasinan, PANAY, TABLAS. Notes: Lowland primary and secondary forests, in regions with rather marked dry seasons, 0-150m. Native.
  10. Artocarpus limpato Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. 3 (1861) 421; Zerega et al., Syst. Bot. 35 (2010) 779; ≡ Prainea limpato (Miq.) Beumée ex K.Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind., ed. 2 1 (1927) 579. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Native.
  11. Artocarpus nigrescens Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 614; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 42; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 73 (2021) 344; Type: Elmer 9795 (BM, lecto; A, BM, BO, E, L, MO, NY, US, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental, Dumaguete, Cuernos Mts, Apr-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, NEGROS. Native.
  12. Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco, Fl. Filip (1837) 671; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 42; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 73 (2021) 359; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 1019 (BM, neo; F, L, MO, NY, P, US, isoneo), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Calapan, May-1916. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: 0-800m. Naturalized. Marang. Naturalized.
  13. Artocarpus ovatus Blanco, Fl. Filip (1837) 666; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 84; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3974; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 204; Type: Merrill SB 254 (BM, neo; A, BO, GH, K, L, NY, P, PNH, US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, Jan-1914. = Artocarpus acuminatissimus Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 49, as 'acuminatissima'; EPFP 2 (1923) 40; Type: FB 22777 De Mesa & Rosario (K, lecto; PNH lost, US, isolecto). = Artocarpus cumingianus Trécul, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 3, 8 (1847) 119; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 40; Type: Cuming 1784 (P, holo; B, BM, CGE, K, iso), Cebu, 1841. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MARINDUQUE, MASBATE, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN, TICAO. Notes: In forests to 760m, often common. Native.
  14. Artocarpus pinnatisectus Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 50; EPFP 2 (1923) 43; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 323; Zerega et al., Syst. Bot. 35 (2010) 778; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 73 (2021) 344; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2439; Type: BS 20789 Escritor (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Tayabas, Guinayangan, Mar-1913. = Artocarpus multifidus F.M.Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 324; Zerega et al., Syst. Bot. 35 (2010) 778; Type: PNH 6462 Sulit (PNH, holo; A, iso), Samar: Eastern Samar, Taft, Mt Calbiga, vicinity of Km 66, in dipterocarp forest, 250m, 25-May-1948. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT (photos), LUZON: Camarines Norte, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  15. Artocarpus rubrovenius Warb. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1905) 166; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 43; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 114; Type: Warburg 12949 (B). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, ?MINDORO. Notes: Lowland forests to 360m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  16. Artocarpus sericicarpus F.M.Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 350; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 73 (2021) 346; Type: Merrill 2024 (US, holo; K, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Guinayangan, Jan/Apr-1903. = Artocarpus elastica auct. non Reinw. ex Blume; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 41. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. BILIRAN, LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: In Luzon from Quezon to Sorsogon. Low and medium elevation forests. Artocarpus sericicarpus was formerly regarded as identical with Artocarpus elasticus but differs in e.g. the scabrid upper leaf surface and the long hairs on the syncarp. Native.
  17. Artocarpus subrotundifolius Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 281; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 43; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 108; Type: Elmer 7265 (PNH, holo, lost; K, lecto; A, BO, K, NY, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Surigao, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests to 300m. Native.
  18. Artocarpus treculianus Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 617; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 43; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 302; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 73 (2021) 348; Type: Elmer 10406 (BM, lecto; A, BO, L, isolecto), Negros; Negros Oriental, Dumaguete, Cuernos Mts, Jun-1908. = Artocarpus ovatifolius Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 268; EPFP 2 (1923) 42; ≡ Artocarpus sorsogonensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 42, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Type: BS 15040 Ramos (BM, lecto; B,, US, isolecto), Luzon: San Antonio, Jun-1912. = Artocarpus ovatifolius var. dolichostachys Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 43; Type: Ramos 1603 (BM, lecto; BO, GH, L, NY, P, SING, isolecto), Samar: Apr-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, BATANES, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Ifugao, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Davao del Sur, Surigao, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN, TICAO. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, up to 850m. Native.
  19. Artocarpus vrieseanus Miq., Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 212; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 350. Distribution: MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. refractus (Becc.) F.M.Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 98; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 205; ≡ Artocarpus refractus Becc., Nelle Forest. Borneo (1902) 630; Type: from Aru Isls. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga. Notes: Primary and secondary forests at low to medium elevation. Native.
  20. Artocarpus xanthocarpus Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 10; EPFP 2 (1923) 42; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 102; Williams et al., Annals of Botany 119 (2017) 622; Gardner & Zerega, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 194; Type: Whitford 367 (PNH, holo, lost; P, lecto; K, NY, US, isolecto). = Artocarpus lanceolatus auct. non Trécul; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 42. = Artocarpus rubrovenius auct. non Warb.; Merr., PJS 3 (1908) Bot. 401. = Artocarpus lamellosa Blanco, Fl. Filip (1837) 667; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 41, excl. syn. Artocarpus nitidus. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN, BOHOL, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY (photos), SIQUIJOR. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr., Interp. Rumph. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 190; Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 329; ≡ Radermachia integra Thunb., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 37 (1776) 254. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Broussonetia L’Her. ex Vent. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2021
  1. Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent., Tabl. Règn. Vég. 3 (1799) 547; Pancho, Fl. Mt Makiling 1 (1983) 110; ≡ Morus papyrifera L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 986. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Myanmar, Pacific Ocean, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: Invasive in the Philippines (Joshi 2006). Naturalized.

Castilla Cerv. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Castilla elastica Cerv., Supl. Gaz. Lit. Mexico Jul. 2 (1794) 7. Notes: Not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Fatoua Gaudich.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 October 2013
  1. Fatoua villosa (Thunb. ex Murray) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 41 (1927) 516; ≡ Urtica villosa Thunb. ex Murray, Syst. Veg., ed. 14 (1784) 851. = Fatoua pilosa Gaudich., Bot. Freycinet’s Voy. (1826) 509; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 179; EPFP 2 (1923) 36. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, China, Japan, Java, Korea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao. Low elevation, in dry thickets, on walls, cliffs, etc. Native.

Ficus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2022
  1. Ficus allutacea Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 457; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 58; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 492. = Ficus areolata Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1252; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 45; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 339; Type: Elmer 10475 (L, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo (Todaya), humid woods, 4000ft., May-1909. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Riau Arch, Sulawesi, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur. Notes: Forests, up to c. 1220m. Native.
  2. Ficus altissima Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 444; Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 262; King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 30; Merr., Bull. Bur. For. Philip. 1 (1903) 17; Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1243; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 44; Burkill, Dict. (1935) 1003; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 209; Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (em. ed.) 6 (1948) fam. 129, p. 43. Distribution: Andaman Isls, China, India, Indochina, Java, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland and mountain forest, up to 1700 m. Native.
  3. Ficus ampelas Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 226; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 44; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 288; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 459; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 67; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 210. = Ficus irisana Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 45; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 243; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 69. = Ficus validicaudata Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. (1906) 45; EPFP 2 (1923) 53; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 290; ≡ Ficus guyeri var. validicaudata (Merr.) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 290; ≡ Ficus irisana var. validicaudata (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 464. = Ficus fastigiata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 44; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 52; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 244. = Ficus todayensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1261; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 67; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 243; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 68. = Ficus guyeri Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 194; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 53, excl. syn; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 288; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 460. = Ficus guyeri Elmer var. sibuyanensis (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 460; ≡ Ficus sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1319; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 65; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 288. = Ficus tenuicuspidata Corner var. major Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 465. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. BATAN DE ALBAY, BATANES, CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Albay, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Ifugao, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao del Sur, PALAUI, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Thickets and forests at low and medium elevation, in the Cordillera Highlands of N Luzon ascending to 2400m. Native.
  4. Ficus annulata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 448; Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 261; King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 25; Burkill, Dict. (1935) 1004; Corner, Wayside Trees (1940) 674; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 12; Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (em. ed.) 6 (1948) fam. 129, p. 42; ≡ Urostigma annulata (Blume) Miq. in Zoll., Syst. Verz. 2 (1854) 90; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 352; Suppl. (1861) 440; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 625. = Ficus balabacensis Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 316; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 211; Type: BS 49863 Ramos & Edaño (NY, iso), Balabac: in forest along streams at low elevation, 1-Dec-1927. Distribution: Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BALABAC. Notes: Lowland streamside forests. Native.
  5. Ficus aurata (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 291; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 49; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 127; ≡ Covellia aurata Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 433. = Ficus aurata var. palawanensis Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 437. = Ficus chrysocarpa auct. non Reinw. ex Blume; Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 317; Voucher: BS 77382 Edaño (SING). Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Riau Arch, Sumatra. BALABAC, PALAWAN. Notes: Forests, and particularly common in secondary growth, up to 1400m. Forest near stream at low elevation in Balabac. According to C.C.Berg and Corner (2005), the entity described as var. palawanensis may lead to the recognition of a distinct (infraspecific) taxon as more materials are available for examination. Native.
  6. Ficus aurita Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 462; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 77; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 266. = Ficus celebica Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 471. = Ficus hispidulosa Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2401; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 54; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 234. = Ficus aurita var. auriculifera (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 480; ≡ Ficus auriculifera Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 46. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan, SAMAR. Notes: Forests at medium elevation. Native.
  7. Ficus bakeri Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2402; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 45; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 348; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 59; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 549. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Lowland and montane forests, up to 1100m. Native.
  8. Ficus balete Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 55; EPFP 2 (1923) 45; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 187; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 23; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 628. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  9. Ficus banahaensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 252; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 46; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 266; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 104. = Ficus glandulifera var. camiguinensis (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 433; ≡ Ficus banahaensis Elmer var. camiguinensis (Merr.) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 267; ≡ Ficus camiguinensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 276. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, BUCAS GRANDE, CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, SAMAR. Notes: Forests at medium elevation, ascending to 1200m. Native.
  10. Ficus bataanensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 46; EPFP 2 (1923) 46; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 190; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 30; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 164. = Ficus bataanensis forma minima Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 190. = Ficus bataanensis forma sorsogensis Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 190. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Camarines, Camarines Norte, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Ecija (photos), Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Forests at medium elevation, but more often on exposed forested ridges up to 1500m. Native.
  11. Ficus benguetensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 10; EPFP 2 (1923) 46; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 268; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 89; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 400; ≡ Ficus fistulosa forma benguetensis (Merr.) T.S.Liu & J.C.Liao, Bull. Exp. Forest, National Taiwan Univ. 114 (1974) 68. = Ficus benguetensis forma leytensis (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 269; ≡ Ficus benguetensis var. leytensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 194; Type: Elmer 7456. = Ficus benguetensis forma negrosensis (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 269; ≡ Ficus benguetensis var. negrosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 542; Type: Elmer 9730, Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, Apr-1908. = Ficus benguetensis forma urdanetensis (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 269; ≡ Ficus urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2413. = Ficus maquilingensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3094. = Ficus cuernosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 545; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 50; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 313. = Ficus peabodyi Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1267; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 61; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 312. = Ficus wenzelii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 367; EPFP 2 (1923) 68; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 270. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BILIRAN, CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Camarines, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: Lowland forests and thickets from near sea-level to montane forests up to 1800m. Common. Native.
  12. Ficus benjamina L., Mant. 1 (1767) 129; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 175; EPFP 2 (1923) 46; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 195; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 21; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 631. = Ficus benjamina var. bracteata Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 396; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 21. = Ficus benjamina var. nuda (Miq.) M.F.Barrett, Am. Midl. Nat. 45 (1951) 127, 128; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 21; ≡ Ficus nuda (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 288; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 59; ≡ Urostigma nudum Miq., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 584. = Ficus xavieri Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 369; EPFP 2 (1923) 69; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 197. = Ficus umbrina Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 49. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO. Notes: Forests, up to 1300m. Often in secondary growth or planted. Native.
  13. Ficus botryocarpa Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 235; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 86; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 404. Distribution: LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Native.
    • ssp. botryocarpa. = Ficus barnesii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 12; EPFP 2 (1923) 46. = Ficus sordidissima Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1268; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 65; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 310. = Ficus sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3439; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 310. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Native.
    • ssp. subalbidoramea (Elmer) C.C.Berg, Blumea 49 (2004) 172; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 406; ≡ Ficus botryocarpa var. subalbidoramea (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 44; ≡ Ficus subalbidoramea Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2389; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 309. = Ficus mindorensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 12; EPFP 2 (1923) 58; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 308. = Ficus trichantha Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 3 (1905) 201. = Ficus conora auct. non King; Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1376; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 50. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Native.
  14. Ficus callophylla Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 445; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 22; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 637. = Ficus clusioides (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 49; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 200; ≡ Urostigma clusioides Miq., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 579. = Ficus pachyphylla Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 365; EPFP 2 (1923) 60; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 201; ≡ Ficus callophylla var. leytensis Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 396; Type: Wenzel 209, Leyte. = Ficus everettii auct. non Elmer; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3459. Distribution: Borneo, Hong Kong, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. NEGROS (photos). Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  15. Ficus callosa Willd., Mem. Acad. Berl. (1798) 102; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 29; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 166. = Ficus malunuensis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 196; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 56; Curran, PJS 53 (1934) t. 3; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 189. = Ficus cordatifolia Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1250. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Native.
  16. Ficus carpenteriana Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 197; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 47; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 269; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 89; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 408. = Ficus wenzelii Merr. var. weberi (Merr.) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 270; ≡ Ficus weberi Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 274. = Ficus castanea Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3441; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 270; Type: Elmer 14821 (B), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt Bulusan), Nov-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur, South Cotabato, Surigao, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, SAMAR, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Forests, up to c. 1700m. Figs are eaten by civet cats. Native.
  17. Ficus cassidyana Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 200; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 48; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 318; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 86; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 409; Type: Elmer 7169, Leyte: Palo, Jan-1906. = Ficus cassidyana var. casiguranensis (Quisumb. & Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 86; ≡ Ficus casiguranensis Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 141; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 306; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 86; Type: BS 45343 Ramos & Edaño (B, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Tayabas (Aurora Prov), Casiguran, along streams in forest, low elevation, May/Jun-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Ifugao, MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Thickets and forests at low and medium elevation, up to 1000m. Native.
  18. Ficus cataupi Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1251; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 48; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 10 (1939) 127; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 338; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 62; Blumea 20 (1972) 429; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 496; Type: Elmer 11822 (B), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya (Mt Apo), Sep-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Davao del Sur, South Cotabato. Notes: Exposed forested ridges and mossy forest, c. 1350m. Native.
  19. Ficus caulocarpa (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 268; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 199; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 46; Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 244; Corner, Gard. Bull. S.S.10 (1939) 283; Wayside Trees (1940) 675; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 604; ≡ Urostigma caulocarpum Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 568; ≡ Ficus infectoria var. caulocarpa (Miq.) King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 63; Merr., Bull. Bur. For. Philip. 1 (1903) 18; Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1246; LPB 7 (1914) 2409; Type: Cuming 1930 (U, holo; BM, L, K, iso), Philippines. = Ficus stipulosa (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 287; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 199; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. (1885) 146; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 254; Merr., PJS 3 (1908) Bot. 402; Fl. Manila (1912) 175; EPFP 2 (1923) 65; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3454; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 214; ≡ Urostigma stipulosum Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 568; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 334; Type: Cuming 1978 (K, holo; BM, K, iso). Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand. LUZON: Cagayan, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, PALAWAN, ROMBLON. Notes: Coastal and lowland forest; up to 1300m. Native.
    • var. caulocarpa. Distribution: Borneo, India, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Cagayan, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte, PALAWAN, ROMBLON. Native.
    • var. dasycarpa Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 378; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 129; PJS 20 (1922) 368; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 216; Type: PNH 4788 (PNH, holo, lost; US?, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Mt Pinatubo. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland and montane forest. Native.
  20. Ficus chrysolepis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 215; King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 24; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 11; ≡ Ficus longipedunculata (Merr.) Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 50, 244; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3450; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 181; ≡ Ficus chrysolepis var. longipedunculata Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 29 (1905) 11. = Ficus hallieri Merr. ex Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 536; LPB 4 (1911) 1243; Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 54; EPFP 2 (1923) 53; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 181. = Ficus magallanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1315. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. Notes: Lowland and mountain forest, up to 1700m. Native.
  21. Ficus concinna (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286; Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1879) f. 382; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 199; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. (1885) 146; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 251; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 176; EPFP 2 (1923) 49; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 188; ≡ Urostigma concinnum Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 570; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 343; Type: Cuming 1940 (U, holo; BM, E, L, K, iso), Philippines. = Ficus parvifolia (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286, nom. illeg., non Oken; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 199; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 146; Rev. Pl.Vasc. Filip. (1886) 251; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3974; ≡ Urostigma parvifolium Miq., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 568; Type: Cuming 1935 (U, holo; BM, E, L, K, iso), Philippines. = Ficus arayatensis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 3 (1905) 196; Type: Warburg 14035 (B, ?K, syn); Warburg 14036 (B, ?K, syn); Warburg 14037 (B, ?K, syn), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Arayat. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bhutan, Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, MARINDUQUE, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland and montane forest, up to 1900 m. Sometimes planted in the Philippines. Native.
  22. Ficus congesta Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 560; Hort. Beng. (1814) 66, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 51; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 88; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 411. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, SAMAR. Notes: Forest, often near streams, mostly at low elevation. Native.
  23. Ficus cordatula Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 131; EPFP 2 (1923) 50; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 210; Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 210; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 14; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 642. = Ficus strangularis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1382; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 206. = Ficus camarinensis Merr., PJS 9 (1914) Bot. 269; EPFP 2 (1923) 47; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 212; Type: Ramos 1547 (B), Luzon: Camarines, Dec-1913. = Ficus silvestrei Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3462; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 212. = Ficus cordatula Merr. var. sericea (C.B.Rob.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 381; ≡ Ficus sericea C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 319; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 65; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 210. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Lowland and submontane forest. Native.
  24. Ficus crassiramea (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 384; ≡ Urostigma crassirameum Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1851) 48; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1 (1857) 339. = Ficus procera auct. non Reinw. ex Blume; King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 35; Corner, Wayside Trees (1940) 678; Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (em. ed.) 6 (1948) fam. 129, p. 49. = Ficus crassicalyx Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3457; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 203. Distribution: LUZON, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, MINDORO. Native.
    • ssp. crassiramea. = Ficus crassiramea var. clementis (Merr.) Corner, Gard.Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 385; ≡ Ficus clementis Merr., PJS 3 (1908) Bot. 130; Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1244; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 49; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 204; Type: M.S. Clemens 703 (syn), M.S. Clemens 421 (syn): both Sep, Mar-1906; M.S. Clemens s.n. (syn), Feb-1907; M.S. Clemens s.n. (B, syn), Sep, Oct-1907; all from Mindanao. Camp Keithley, Lake Lanao. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Talaud Isls, Thailand. LUZON, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: Lowland and submontane forest, up to 1000 m, often coastal and riverside. Native.
  25. Ficus cucurbitina King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 22; Merr., En. Born. (1921) 222. = Ficus elliptifolia Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 55; EPFP 2 (1923) 51; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 209. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. MINDANAO, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland swampy forest, rare. Native.
    • var. eubracteata Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 381. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forest. Native.
  26. Ficus cumingii Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 232; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 174; EPFP 2 (1923) 50; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 29; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 66; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 221. = Ficus cumingii var. angustissima (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 458; ≡ Ficus angustissima Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 11; EPFP 2 (1923) 45. = Ficus multiramea Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1259. = Ficus cumingii var. terminalifolia (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 239; ≡ Ficus terminalifolia Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1318. = Ficus celtoides Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1388; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 49; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 28. = ?Ficus euphlebia Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 364; EPFP 2 (1923) 51. = Ficus producta Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 270; EPFP 2 (1923) 62; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 287. = Ficus cumingii var. worcesteri (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 458; ≡ Ficus worcesteri Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 274; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 68; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 267. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. Notes: Forest and secondary growth, 0-1400m. Native.
  27. Ficus cuneiformis C.C.Berg, Blumea 56 (2011) 164; ≡ Ficus cuneata (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 297, nom. illeg., non Blume; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 415; ≡ Ficus ribes Reinw. ex Blume var. cuneata (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 44; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 85; ≡ Ficus ribes var. cuneata forma stenophylla Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 44; ≡ Covellia cuneata Miq., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 466; Type: Cuming 1938 (L, holo), Philippines. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Cavite, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Kalinga, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Native.
  28. Ficus deltoidea Jack, Mal. Misc. 2 (1822) 71; Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 37; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 420; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 90. Distribution: MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
    • var. deltoidea. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: From Tigaplan River, forested slopes, 450-1700m. Known in the Philippines from two collections: BS 77482 Edaño and BS 77650 Edaño. Native.
  29. Ficus depressa Blume, Cat. (1823) 35; Bijdr. (1825) 450; Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing 17 (1960) 380; ≡ Urostigma depressum (Blume) Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 576; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 351. = Ficus prunniformis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 451; Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 266; King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 24; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 62; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3453; Corner, Wayside Trees (1940) 678; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 182; Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (em. ed.) 6 (1948) fam. 129, p. 42; ≡ Urostigma pruniforme (Blume) Miq. in Zoll., Syst. Verz. 2 (1854) 91; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 352; Suppl. (1861) 440. = Ficus johnsoni Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 190. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. Notes: Lowland forest, up to 1000 m. Native.
  30. Ficus disticha Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 458; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 51; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 337; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 58; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 499. Distribution: MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO. Native.
    • ssp. disticha. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Bukidnon (photos). Notes: Montane (often mossy) and lowland forest (in Borneo often in peat forest), up to c. 2200m. Native.
  31. Ficus drupacea Thunb., Diss. Fic. (1786) 6; Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 380; ≡ Urostigma drupaceum (Thunb.) Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 581. = Ficus pilosa Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 446; Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 260; Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1880) 200; King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 21; Burkill, Dict. (1935) 1012; Corner, Wayside Trees (1940) 678; Backer, Blumea 6 (1948) 305; Bekn. Fl. Java (em. ed.) 6 (1948) fam. 129, p. 43. = Ficus payapa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 683; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 475; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 86; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 79; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 125; EPFP 2 (1923) 60; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 207. = Ficus vidaliana Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 3 (1905) 197. Distribution: LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. drupacea. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, ?India, Indochina, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Lowland forest, often infesting village trees; sometimes planted. Native.
    • var. auranticarpa (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 380; ≡ Ficus auranticarpa Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 345; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 207. Distribution: Java, Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Native.
  32. Ficus edanoi Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 62; EPFP 2 (1923) 51; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 352; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 43; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 94. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Tayabas. Notes: Coastal forests and on rocks near sea. Native.
  33. Ficus elmeri Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 9; EPFP 2 (1923) 51; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 278; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 465; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 69; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 223. = Ficus subintegra (Merr.) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 56; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 277; ≡ Ficus elmeri var. subintegra Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 10. = Ficus kamelii Merr. ex Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 276; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3487. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. BOHOL, CEBU, LUZON, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, elevation up to 1500m. Reportedly cultivated because of the good taste of the figs. Native.
  34. Ficus fiskei Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 195; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 52; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 280; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 67; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 227; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2439. = Ficus fiskei var. cebuensis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 68; EPFP 2 (1923) 52; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 281. = Ficus fiskei var. laevifolia Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 69; EPFP 2 (1923) 52; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 281. = Ficus fiskei var. multinervia Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 459. = Ficus hemicardia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 54; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 279. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, BOHOL, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao Oriental, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR, TICAO. Notes: Luzon to Mindanao. Forest (in rocky places), up to c. 1300m. Native.
  35. Ficus fistulosa Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 470; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 93; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 418. Native.
    • var. fistulosa. = Ficus grandidens Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 271; EPFP 2 (1923) 53; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 316. = Ficus repandifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 58; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 63; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 315. = Ficus rubrovenia Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. (1906) 44. = ?Ficus fistulosa var. lucbanensis (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 62; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 93; ≡ Ficus lucbanensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 254; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 56; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 272. = Ficus curranii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 343; EPFP 2 (1923) 51. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. Notes: Forests, up to 2000m. Native.
  36. Ficus forstenii Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 214; King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 29. = Ficus palawanensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 11; Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1244; LPB 4 (1912) 1380; LPB 7 (1914) 2393; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 60; PJS 29 (1926) 364; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 205. Distribution: MINDANAO, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. forstenii. Distribution: ?Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. Notes: Lowland and submontane forest, up to 1200 m. For two collections, Kjellberg gives the latex as yellowish. Native.
    • var. pacifica (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 38; ≡ Ficus pacifica Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3460; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 207. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Philippines. Native.
    • var. umbobracteata (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 385; ≡ Ficus umbobracteata Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1247; LPB 7 (1914) 2394; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 67; Sata Monogr. (1944) 205. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Philippines. MINDANAO. Native.
  37. Ficus gigantifolia Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 9; EPFP 2 (1923) 52; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 211; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 31; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 147. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, BURIAS, LUZON: Benguet, Isabela, Quezon, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental, Zamboanga, POLILLO, SAMAR, TABLAS. Notes: Forests, up to 1200m. Native.
  38. Ficus glandulifera (Wall. ex Miq.) King, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 2 (1888) 143; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 433; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 109; ≡ Pogonotrophe glandulifera Miq., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 77. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Riau Arch, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON, PALAWAN. Notes: Forests, to 1500m. Native.
  39. Ficus glareosa Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1393; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 53; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 356; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 44; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 95. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CULION, LUZON: Zambales, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland and submontane forests, up to 900m. Native.
  40. Ficus gul K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Schutzgeb. Sudsee (1900) 278; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 452; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 63; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 229. = Ficus manilensis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 199; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 56; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 265. = Ficus rudis auct. non Pers.; Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat.32 (1867) 222; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 64; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 264; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 63. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. Notes: Not reported from Palawan; forest and secondary growth, 0-1500(-2000)m. Native.
  41. Ficus heteropleura Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 466; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 480; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 77; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 274. = Ficus caudatifolia Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 194; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 48; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 231; Type: Warburg 14038 (B), Polillo. = Ficus caudatifolia var. eucaudata (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 231; ≡ Ficus eucaudata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 40. = Ficus heteropleura var. mindanaensis (Warb.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 480; ≡ Ficus mindanaensis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 195; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 58; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 233. Distribution: Bhutan, Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. POLILLO. Notes: Forest or secondary growth, up to 1500m. Native.
  42. Ficus heteropoda Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 232; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 54; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 275; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21(1965) 65; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 232. = Ficus decussata Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 3 (1905) 198. = Ficus anomala Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. (1906) 183. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low elevation forests and secondary growth. Native.
  43. Ficus inaequifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 242; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 229; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 477; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 276; ≡ Ficus subulata forma inaequifolia (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 231. = Ficus caudatolongifolia Sata, J. Jap. Bot. (1934) 550; Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 49. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests and secondary growth. Native.
  44. Ficus involucrata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 447; Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286; King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 34; Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (em. ed.) 6 (1948) fam. 129, p. 49; ≡ Urostigma involucratum (Blume) Miq., Fl. lnd. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 334. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Mountain forest, 800-1700 m, not uncommon in Java but rare elsewhere. Native.
  45. Ficus kerkhovenii Koord. & Valeton, Meded. Dept. Landb. Ned.-Indië 2 (1906) 83; Corner, Wayside Trees (1940) 680; Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (em. ed.) 6 (1948) fam. 129, p. 43. = Ficus lanaoensis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 56; EPFP 2 (1923) 55; Sata, Monogr. (194) 203. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON. Notes: Lowland forest, often left in forest clearings. Native.
  46. Ficus laevicarpa Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1395; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 271; Berg, Blumea 56 (2011) 162; Type: Elmer 12776 (L, iso), Palawan, Puerto Princesa, (Mt Pulgar). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  47. Ficus lawesii King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 55, ii (1887) 403; Sp. Ficus App. (1888) 4; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 663. = Ficus adamii Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1258, as ‘adamsii’; LPB 7 (1914) 2410; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 44; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 184. = Ficus villamilii Merr. ex Sata, Monogr. (1944) 183. Distribution: Borneo, India, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. Notes: Lowland and mountain forest, to 1000 m. Native.
  48. Ficus lepicarpa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 459; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 90; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 430; ≡ ?Ficus lepicarpa Blume var. suluensis Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 54. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Riau Arch, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Forest and secondary growth, often along streams, up to 1500m. Native.
  49. Ficus linearifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 257; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 306; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 432; ≡ Ficus botryocarpa var. linearifolia (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 44. = Ficus cervina Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 543; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 49; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 306. = Ficus merrillii Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 282; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 57; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 311. = Ficus olivacea Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3437, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 312. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Batangas, Benguet, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Forest, up to 900m. Native.
  50. Ficus magnoliifolia Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 448; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 31; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 153. = Ficus nervosa auct. non Roth; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 58; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3475; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 184. = Ficus nervosa var. apoensis (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 186; ≡ Ficus apoensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1249; LPB 7 (1914) 2414. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Forests, up to 1800m. Native.
  51. Ficus melinocarpa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 460; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 68; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 236. = Ficus haggeri Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 62; EPFP 2 (1923) 53; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 360. = Ficus melinocarpa var. hololampra (Diels) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1905) 462; ≡ Ficus hololampra Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 67 (1937) 201. = Ficus collinsii Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3468; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 361. = Ficus irosinensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3473; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 360. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Notes: Forests and secondary growth, up to 800m. Native.
  52. Ficus microcarpa L.f., Suppl. (1782) 442; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 397; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 666. = Ficus retusa auct. non L.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 63; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 198. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, China, India, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Forests, along rivers, on cliffs, and in coastal vegetation, up to c. 1200m. Native.
  53. Ficus microsphaera Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 199; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 57, as ‘microsphaeria’; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 286; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 78; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 280. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Davao del Sur, South Cotabato, Surigao, Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Forests, up to 1900m. Native.
  54. Ficus minahassae (Teijsm. & de Vriese) Miq., Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 231; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 57; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 302; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 73; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 373; ≡ Bosscheria minahassae Teijsm. & de Vriese, Natuurk. Tijdrschr. Ned.-Indië 23 (1861) 212. = Ficus glomerata auct. non Roxb.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 683. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Luzon to Mindanao and Basilan. Forest at low elevation. Native.
  55. Ficus multistipularis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 66; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 58; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 325; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 89; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 435. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, DINAGAT, LUZON: Camarines Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Forest, often along streams, at low elevation. Native.
  56. Ficus nervosa B.Heyne ex Roth in Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Veg. 1 (1817) 513; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 31; C.C.Berg, Blumea 48 (2003) 298. Native.
    • ssp. pubinervis (Blume) C.C.Berg, Blumea 48 (2003) 298; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 154; ≡ Ficus pubinervis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 452; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 62; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 186; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 31. = Ficus pubinervis var. sibulanensis (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 411; ≡ Ficus pubinervis forma sibulanensis (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 187; ≡ Ficus sibulanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1266; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 65; Type: Elmer 11154, Mindanao, Mt Apo. = Ficus similis Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. (1906) 47. = Ficus pubinervis var. crassitora (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 187; ≡ Ficus crassitora Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 548. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan. Notes: Forest, up to 1650m. Native.
  57. Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 10; Fl. Manila (1912) 174; EPFP 2 (1923) 52; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 304; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 88; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 435; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3974; ≡ Ficus aspera var. nota Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 677. = Ficus merrittii auct. non Merr.; Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1376. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Lowland and montane forest, often along stream, up to 1300m. Native.
  58. Ficus obscura Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 474; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 78; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 281. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sumatra. MINDANAO. Notes: Forests, up to 1500m. Native.
  59. Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 15; Fl. Manila (1912) 174; EPFP 2 (1923) 59; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 278; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 69; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 240; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2439; ≡ Ficus hispida var. odorata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 683. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATANES, BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Laguna, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, NEGROS, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests, often in secondary growths, near streams, and on rocks. Leaves aromatic on drying. Native.
  60. Ficus oleifolia King, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calc. 2 (1888) 160; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 38; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 97. Distribution: BASILAN, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
    • ssp. oleifolia. = Ficus oleifolia King var. epiphytica (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 425; ≡ Ficus williamsii var. epiphytica Elmer, 7 (1914) 2396. = Ficus williamsii C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 177; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 68. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BASILAN, MINDANAO. Notes: Mostly (sub)montane forest, often on rocky places, 1000-2300m, also at lower elevation and then often epilithic. Native.
    • ssp. monantha Merr. & Quisumb. ex C.C.Berg, Blumea 48 (2003) 541; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 100; Type: PNH 4 Edaño (holo, L), Palawan: Mt Mantalingahan, 1400m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Montane (mossy) forest, 1100-1400m, terrestrial or epiphytic. Known only from a single locality. Native.
  61. Ficus parietalis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 462; Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 317; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 77; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 283. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, PALAWAN. Notes: On tree trunk in lowland forest near stream; forests or secondary growth, up to 1300(-2000)m. Native.
  62. Ficus pedunculosa Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 442; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 61; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 352; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 39; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 101. = Ficus luzonensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 8; EPFP 2 (1923) 56; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 351. = Ficus pedunculosa var. confertifolia (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 426; ≡ Ficus confertifolia Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 59; EPFP 2 (1923) 50; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 353. = Ficus pedunculosa var. imberbis (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 426; ≡ Ficus imberbis (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 351; ≡ Ficus luzonensis Merr. var. imberbis Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1323; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 56. = Ficus pedunculosa var. macropoda (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 426; ≡ Ficus macropoda Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 442; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 56; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 350. = Ficus pedunculosa var. mearnsii (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 427; ≡ Ficus mearnsii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 402; EPFP 2 (1923) 57; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 353. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. Notes: Forests, thickets, coastal vegetation, and secondary growth, 0-2000m. Native.
  63. Ficus pellucidopunctata Griff., Notul. 4 (1854) 394; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 394; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 230. = Ficus indica L. var. gelderi (Miq.) King, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 1 (1887) 39; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 54; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 199; ≡ Ficus gelderi Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 216, 287. = Ficus everettii Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 538; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 202. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: Forests, up to 1500m. Native.
  64. Ficus peninsula Elmer ex C.C.Berg, Blumea 56 (2011) 164; ≡ Ficus peninsula Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3433, nom. inval.; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 250; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 60; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 505; Type: Elmer 16116 (PNH, holo; L, iso), Luzon, Sorsogon, Irosin, May-1916. = Ficus apiocarpa auct. non Miq.; Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 249; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 45. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Camarines, Quezon, Sorsogon, NEGROS (photos). Notes: Forests at medium elevation. Native.
  65. Ficus perfulva Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 61; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 349; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 59; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 554. = Ficus fulva auct. non Reinw. ex Blume; Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2407. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Pampanga, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Forests, up to c. 1100m. Native.
  66. Ficus pisifera Wall. ex Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calc. (1845) 285; Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 427; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 61; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 235; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 284. = Ficus obscura var. scaberrima (Blume) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 273; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 482; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 79; ≡ Ficus scaberrima Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 474. = Ficus flavocortica Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1241; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 52; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 236. = Ficus viridifolia Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 366; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 68. = Ficus obscura var. borneensis (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 481; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 78; ≡ Ficus microtus var. borneensis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 273. = Ficus obscura var. kunstleri (King) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 481; ≡ Ficus celebica Blume var. kunstleri King, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 1 (1887) 12. = Ficus celebica auct. non Blume; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 187; LPB 1 (1907) 239; LPB 2 (1908) 534; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 48. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malaysia, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. CEBU, LUZON, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Forests and secondary growth, up to 2000m. Native.
  67. Ficus pisocarpa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 454; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 394; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 20; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 674. = Urostigma tjiela Miq., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 580; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 395; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 20; Type: Cuming 1931 (L, lecto), Philippines; Griffith 31 (syn), Myanmar. = Ficus episima Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 394; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 20; Type: PNH 10269, Mindanao: Surigao. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: ?Rizal (photos), MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Surigao. Notes: Forests, up to 1200(-1700)m. Native.
  68. Ficus polyantha Warb. in K.Schum. & Lauterb., Nachtr. Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee (1905) 250; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 30; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 156. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Forests, up to c. 1000m. Often common and gregarious. Native.
  69. Ficus prasinicarpa Elmer ex C.C.Berg, Blumea 56 (2011) 164; ≡ Ficus prasinicarpa Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3451, nom. inval.; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 214; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 8; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 606; Type: Elmer 16129 (PNH, holo; L, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, May-1916. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. LUZON: Bulacan, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Often in littoral vegetation on coral limestone, sometimes as hemi-epiphyte in secondary growth. Native.
  70. Ficus pseudocaulocarpa Chantaras., PLOS ONE 10 (2015) e0128289: 16; Type: Ridsdale SMHI 323 (L, holo), Palawan: Taytay, Lake Manguao (Danao), 5-Apr-1984. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  71. Ficus pseudopalma Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 680; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 379. = Ficus palmifolia Usteri, Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 9; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 173; EPFP 2 (1923) 62; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 321; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 36. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, BATAN, CAMOTES, DINAGAT, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, MINDORO, NEGROS, OLANGO, PANAY, SAMAR, SEMIRARA, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets, forest and secondary growth, up to 1300m. Native.
  72. Ficus pumila L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1060; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 45; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 52; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 518. Distribution: China, Indochina, Japan, Korea, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. Notes: Cultivated in Malesia, often as creeper on walls. Naturalized on rocky slopes in secondary forest. Naturalized.
  73. Ficus punctata Thunb., Diss. Ficus (1786) 9; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 10 (1939) 137; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 61; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 507. = Ficus aurantiacea Griff. var. parvifolia (Corner) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 23; ≡ Ficus callicarpa Miq. var. parvifolia Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 10 (1939) 116. = Ficus megacarpa Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 14; EPFP 2 (1923) 57; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 248. = Ficus falcata Thunb., Ficus (1786) 8; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 51; Type: Not accredited to the Philippines by Corner (1965). Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: Forests, up to 1500m. Native.
  74. Ficus pungens Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 478; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 450; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 375. = Ficus kalingaensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 370; EPFP 2 (1923) 55; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 305. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. Notes: Forests and secondary growth, up to 1700m. Native.
  75. Ficus pustulata Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1389; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 63; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 316; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 43; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 102. = Ficus cardinalicarpa Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1391; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 47; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 355; Type: Elmer 12875 (B), Palawan: Puerto Princesa (Mt Pulgar), Mar-1911. = Ficus pustulata var. lanceifolia (Sata) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 429; ≡ Ficus cardinalicarpa var. lanceifolia Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 356. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DUMARAN, LUZON: Zambales, PALAWAN. Notes: Often along streams (sometimes rheophytic), cliffs or secondary growth, at low elevation. Native.
  76. Ficus recurva Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 457; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 63; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 348; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 56; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 537. Distribution: BASILAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. recurva. = Ficus samarensis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 60; EPFP 2 (1923) 64; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 345. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, up to 1200m. Native.
    • var. pedicellata Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 15; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 539. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Forests, up to 1000m. Native.
    • var. ribesioides (Wall. ex Miq.) King, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 2 (1888) 132; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 56; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 540; ≡ Pogonotrophe ribesioides Wall. ex Miq., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 78. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON, PALAWAN. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Native.
    • var. urnigera (Miq.) King, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 2 (1888) 132; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 541; ≡ Ficus urnigera Miq. in Zoll., Syst. Verz. 2 (1854) 92; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 55. = Ficus puncticulata auct. non Merr.; Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 547. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, NEGROS. Notes: Forests, up to 1600(-2600)m. Native.
  77. Ficus rivularis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 272; EPFP 2 (1923) 64; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 339; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 35; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 381. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Along streams at low elevation. Native.
  78. Ficus ruficaulis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 13; EPFP 2 (1923) 64; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 316, 357, 368; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 47; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 121. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Forests, up to 1200m. Native.
  79. Ficus sagittata J.Koenig ex Vahl, Symb. Bot. 1 (1790) 83; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 11; Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 390; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 55; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 543. = Ficus ramentacea Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 547; Hort. Beng. (1814) 103, nom. inval., nom. nud. = Ficus bordenii Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 11; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 250; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 97; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 544; Type: FB 1211 Borden (K, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River, Jun-1904. Type specimen is a mixture of leaves of Ficus sagittata Vahl and figs of Ficus punctata. The former element in K is designated by C.C.Berg (2005) as lecto of Ficus sagittata. = Ficus ramosii Merr. ex Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 342. = Ficus rubrocarpa Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3476; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 343. = Ficus sagittata var. minor Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 12. = Ficus tayabensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 255; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 340. = Ficus sagittata var. oligosperma (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 12; ≡ Ficus oligosperma Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1851) 55. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Forests, up to 1500m. Native.
  80. Ficus samarana C.C.Berg, Blumea 57 (2012) 151; Type: Reynosa & Majaducon PPI 21974 (L, holo; K, iso), Samar: Paranas, Campo Uno, 400 m, 1-May-1996. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Native.
  81. Ficus satterthwaitei Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 199; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 64; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 311; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 51; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 448. = Ficus appendiculata Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 57; EPFP 2 (1923) 45; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 314. = Ficus binuangensis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 67; EPFP 2 (1923) 47; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 314. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, up to 1300m. Native.
  82. Ficus saxophila Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 437; Miq., Ann. Mus.Bot.Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 260; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 47; Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 537; Koord., Atlas 4 (1916) t. 702; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 65; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3478; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 537; Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (em. ed.) 6 (1948) fam. 129, p. 44; Blumea 6 (1948) 303; ≡ Urostigma saxophilum (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 333; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Sorsogon, MINDORO, NEGROS. Native.
    • ssp. saxophila. Distribution: Australia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Sorsogon, NEGROS. Notes: Mostly coastal, often on rocky headlands, also in lowland forests. Native.
  83. Ficus septica Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 226; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 27; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 92; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 452; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3974. = Ficus hauili Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 684; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 175; EPFP 2 (1923) 53; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 271. = Ficus philippinensis auct. non Miq.; Bonard ex Hérincq, Hort. France (1869) 244. = Ficus didymophylla Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 3 (1905) 200. = Ficus septica var. salicifolia Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 62. = Ficus brunnea Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 56; EPFP 2 (1923) 47; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 252. = Ficus laxiramea Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1257; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 273. = Ficus linearis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 65; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 263. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Lowland and montane forests or secondary growth, often near rivers, up to 1800m. Native.
  84. Ficus sohotonensis C.C.Berg, Blumea 48 (2003) 561; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 512; Type: Gutierrez et al. 622 (L, holo), Samar: Mt Sohoton. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Forest at low elevation. L.L.Co: Thus far known only from the type collection. Native.
  85. Ficus stricta (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 266; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 21; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 679; ≡ Urostigma strictum Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1851) 50. Distribution: Andaman Isls, China, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Quezon, NEGROS. Notes: Forests, up to 2000m. P.B. Pelser (4-Feb-20): Berg (2005) notes that this species might only be present in cultivation in the Philippines (Luzon), but the locality information on some herbarium specimens suggests that it might be native to the Philippines (Shuai Liao, pers. comm., 21-Jan-20). Native.
  86. Ficus subcordata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 440; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 395; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 21; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 680. = Ficus calophylloides Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1246; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 47; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 201. Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Forests, up to 1000m. Native.
  87. Ficus subulata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 461; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 229; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 76; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 290. = Ficus confusa Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 47. = Ficus subulata forma driveri (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 231; ≡ Ficus driveri Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2397. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. Notes: Lowland and montane forests, up to 2000m. Native.
  88. Ficus sulcata Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1377; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 317; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 457. = Ficus mirabilis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 58; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 58; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 305. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Laguna, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Forests and secondary growth, at low elevation. Native.
  89. Ficus sumatrana (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 263; King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 40; ≡ Urostigma sumatranum Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1851) 49; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1 2 (1859) 341; Suppl. (1861) 437. = Ficus indica auct. non L.; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 49, 243; Merr., EPFP (1923) 54; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 199. Native.
    • var. sumatrana. Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Lowland and submontane forest, frequent. Native.
    • var. microsyce Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 390. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Native.
  90. Ficus sundaica Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 450; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 389; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 18; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 684. Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, ?Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: Forest (islands) or scrubs, often on white sand or in swamps, up to 1100m. Native.
  91. Ficus tinctoria G.Forst., Prodr. Fl. Austr. (1786) 76; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 226; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 475; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 74; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 292. = Ficus tinctoria ssp. swinhoei (King) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 476; ≡ Ficus swinhoei King, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 2 (1888) 81. = Ficus antoniana Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1374; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 45; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 339. = Ficus fenicis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 66; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 52; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 337. Distribution: MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
    • ssp. tinctoria. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan. Notes: “It is with some doubt that Ficus swinhoei is Ficus tinctoria ssp. swinhoei from the Philippines is included in ssp. tinctoria, as it may be more distinct than just a scabrous form of subspecies” C.C.Berg & Corner (2005). Native.
    • ssp. gibbosa (Blume) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 476; ≡ Ficus gibbosa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 466; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 74. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Native.
  92. Ficus trichocarpa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 458; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 59; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 59; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 556. = Ficus trichocarpa var. obtusa (Hassk.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 19; ≡ Ficus obtusa Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bogor. (1844) 75; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 59. = Ficus trichocarpa var. piperifolia (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 10; ≡ Pogonotrophe piperifolia Miq. in Zoll., Syst. Verz. 2 (1854) 93. = Ficus ahernii Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 61; EPFP 2 (1923) 44; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 350. Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Forests, up to 1300m. Native.
  93. Ficus ulmifolia Lam., Encycl. 2 (1788) 499; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 174; EPFP 2 (1923) 67; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 239; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 66; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 258; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2439. = Ficus ulmifolia forma sinuosa (Miq.) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 283; ≡ Ficus sinuosa Miq., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 232. = Ficus blepharostoma Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 197; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 47; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 241. = Ficus sparsifolia Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 64; EPFP 2 (1923) 65; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 83. = Ficus velascoi Merr. ex Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 242. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN, BILIRAN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, DINAGAT, LUZON: Abra, Apayao, Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, NCR, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Tayabas, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Surigao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, POLILLO, SIBUYAN. Notes: Widespread, but not in Palawan and Mindanao?; lowland second-growth forest, open grassy places, on rocky sites, extreme ultramafic sites. Native.
  94. Ficus uniglandulosa Wall. ex Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 431; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 79; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 296. = Ficus uniglandulosa var. parvifolia Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 277. = Ficus copelandii C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 176; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 50; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 227. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Forest (margins) and on rocks and cliffs, up to 1700(-2300)m; if (pseudo- or hemi-?)epiphytic, then up to 20m from the forest floor. Native.
  95. Ficus variegata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 459; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 68; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 366; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 83; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 348; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3974. = Ficus variegata var. garciae (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 33; ≡ Ficus garciae Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 550; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 52; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 371. = Ficus variegata var. ilangoides (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 33; ≡ Ficus ilangoides Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3443; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 372. = Ficus variegata var. sycomoroides (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 33; ≡ Ficus sycomoroides Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 230. = Ficus integrifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 61; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 54; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 365. = Ficus laevigata auct. non Vahl; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 682; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 125. = Ficus latsonii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 204. = Ficus compressitora Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3443; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 314. = Ficus variegata var. paucinervia (Merr.) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 367; ≡ Ficus paucinervia Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. (1906) 44; EPFP 2 (1923) 54. = Ficus agusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3762. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, China, India, Indochina, Myanmar, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: In Malesia throughout the region; forest and secondary growth, up to 1200m; often in villages and gardens. Native.
  96. Ficus villosa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 441; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 68; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 346; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 390; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 56; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 547; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2439. = Ficus grossivenis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 227; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 55. = Ficus jaroensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 268; EPFP 2 (1923) 55; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 343. = Ficus lagunensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 273; EPFP 2 (1923) 55; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 344. = Ficus propinqua Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 8; EPFP 2 (1923) 62; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 345. = Ficus crininervia auct. non Miq.; Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 69; EPFP 2 (1923) 50. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, PALAWAN. Notes: Forests up to c. 1700m. Native.
  97. Ficus virens Aiton, Hort. Kew. 3 (1789) 451; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 376; Burkill, Dict. (1935) 1011; Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (em. ed.) 6 (1948) fam. 129, p. 51. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, China, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Abra, Quezon, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Coastal forest, also in monsoon forest, savannah forest, and on cliffs, apparently not in inland lowland rain-forest (except in eastern Malesia, up to 1300m in New Guinea, and Australia). Native.
    • var. glabella (Blume) Corner, Gard. Bull. Singapore 17 (1960) 377; ≡ Ficus glabella Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 452; ≡ Urostigma glabellum (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 340; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Australia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Abra, Quezon, PALAWAN. Native.
  98. Ficus virgata Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 454; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 477; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 75; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 297. = Ficus virgata var. philippinensis (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 477; ≡ Ficus philippinensis Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 435; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 61; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 228; Type: Cuming 1937 (K). = Ficus philippinensis var. magnifica (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 229; ≡ Ficus magnifica Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 51; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 61; Type: Elmer 8010, Luzon: Benguet, Sablan, along river. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. Notes: Not reported for Palawan; forest and second growth, up to 1700m. Native.
  99. Ficus warburgii Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 247; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 68; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 340; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 60; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 515. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Montane forests. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Ficus benghalensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1059; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 381; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 630. Distribution: India, Pakistan. Notes: Widely cultivated in Malesia and elsewhere. Not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Ficus carica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1059; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 47; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21(1965) 36; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 88. Distribution: Afghanistan, Europe, Middle East, Pakistan, W Asia. Notes: Widely cultivated under subtropical conditions. Not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  3. Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Hornem., Hort. Bot. Hafn., Suppl. (1819) 7; Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 541; Hort. Beng. (1814) 65, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 175; EPFP 2 (1923) 51; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 24; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 691. Distribution: India, ?Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, ?Sumatra. Notes: Frequently cultivated in the range indicated, as well as elsewhere in the tropics and subtropics. Not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  4. Ficus natalensis Hochst., Flora 28 (1845) 88. Cultivated, not naturalized.
    • ssp. leprieurii (Miq.) C.C.Berg, Kew Bull. 43 (1988) 88; ≡ Ficus leprieurii Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 3 (1867) 219. = Ficus triangularis Warb., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 20 (1894) 170. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Cultivated in the Philippines as an ornamental. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  5. Ficus religiosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1059; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 63; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 6; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 608. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan. Notes: Cultivated in Malesia. Not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Incertae sedis

  1. Ficus merrittii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 252; EPFP 2 (1923) 57; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 303; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 701; Type: FB 11466 (US, iso), Mindoro: Apr/May-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines, Quezon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Possibly merely a form of Ficus nota with long ferruginous hairs. Native.
  2. Ficus sargentii Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 63; EPFP 2 (1923) 64; Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 274; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 701; Type: Sablaya 10. Notes: It seems near to, if not identical with, Ficus heteropoda Miq. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Ficus vasculosa Wall. ex Miq., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 454; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 30; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 167. Distribution: Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, ?Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. BATAN. Notes: Forest, up to 1300m. According to Hatusima (1965), Batan plants attributed to Ficus tinctoria are Ficus vasculosa Wall. ex King.

Excluded

  1. Ficus binnendijkii (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 288; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 20; C.C.Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 633; ≡ Urostigma binnendijkii Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 341. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Vietnam. Notes: Reported from Luzon, but not present in the Philippines according to Berg & Corner (2005).
  2. Ficus iwahigensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1381; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; Sata, Monogr. (1944) 252; Type: Elmer 13008 (A, BISH, BM, E, F, G, K, L, MO, NSW, NY, P, U, US), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, Apr-1911. Notes: The type specimen is a mixture of leaves of Ficus depressa and figs of Ficus forstenii.

Maclura Nutt.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 August 2019
  1. Maclura cochinchinensis (Lour.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 239; ≡ Cudrania cochinchinensis (Lour.) Kudô & Masam., Annual Report of the Taihoku Botanic Garden faculty of Science & Agriculture Taihoku Imperial University, Formosa, Japan (1932) 2; ≡ Vanieria cochinchinensis Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 565; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 179; EPFP 2 (1923) 39. = Maclura amboinensis Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2 (1856) 84. = Vanieria grandifolia (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 39; ≡ Cudrania grandifolia Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 52; Type: Wenzel 1883, Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Placer, in forest, c. 150m, 11-Jul-1916. = Maclura amboinensis Blume var. paucinervia Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 239; Type: Elmer 15530 (K, in Herb. Trécul), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Indochina, Malesia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Sri Lanka. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao. Dry thickets and secondary forests from lowlands to c. 1400m. Native.

Malaisia Blanco

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 July 2015
  1. Malaisia scandens (Lour.) Planch., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. IV, 3 (1855) 293; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 178; EPFP 2 (1923) 37; ≡ Caturus scandens Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 613; ≡ Trophis scandens (Lour.) Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1841) 214. = Malaisia tortuosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 789. = Malaisia blancoi Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1812. Distribution: Australia, China, Indochina, Malesia, Pacific Ocean, Taiwan. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: N Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Lowland and medium elevation thickets and forests. Native.

Morus L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 December 2021
  1. Morus alba L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 986; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 178; EPFP 2 (1923) 36. = Morus australis Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Meth. 4 (1783) 380; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 26. Distribution: China. LUZON. Notes: Introduced and cultivated in SE Asia. Naturalized.

Parartocarpus Baill.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 August 2017
  1. Parartocarpus venenosa (Zoll. & Moritzi) Becc., Nelle Foreste di Borneo (1902) 632; ≡ Artocarpus venenosus Zoll. & Moritzi, Natuur-Geneesk. Arch. Ned.-Indië 2 (1845) 213. Distribution: BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Surigao, MINDORO, RAPU-RAPU, SAMAR. Native.
    • ssp. papuana (Becc.) F.M.Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 330; ≡ Parartocarpus papuana Becc., Nelle Foreste di Borneo (1902) 633; Type: from New Guinea (Vogelkop). = Parartocarpus woodii (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 39; ≡ Gymnartocarpus woodii (Merr.) Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 52; W.H.Br., Minor Prod. Philip. For. 2 (1921) 270; ≡ Artocarpus woodii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 221; Type: Merrill 5259 (PNH, holo, lost; L, NY, P, iso; US; P, isolecto), Bucas Grande, 4-Oct-1906. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Surigao, RAPU-RAPU, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, up to 600m. Native.

Paratrophis Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 October 2022
  1. Paratrophis glabra (Merr.) Steenis, J. Bot. 72 (1934) 8; Gardner et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 975; ≡ Streblus glaber (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 221; ≡ Gironniera glabra Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 42; EPFP 2 (1923) 35. = Aphananthe negrosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 575. = Excoecaria baccifera ined.; Voucher: Elmer 22014 (NY), Mt Pinatubo. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Camarines Norte, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Montane forests up to 1200m. Native.
  2. Paratrophis philippinensis (Bureau) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 98; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 36; Gardner et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 977; ≡ Trophis philippinensis (Bureau) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 231; ≡ Uromorus philippinensis Bureau in A.DC., Prodr. 17 (1873) 237. = Paratrophis grandifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1814; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 36. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Albay, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation damp forests. Native.

Sloetia Teijsm. & Binn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 January 2020
  1. Sloetia elongata (Miq.) Koord., Exkursionsfl. Java 2 (1912) 90; Tandang et al., Telopea 20 (2017) 70; ≡ Streblus elongatus (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Singapore 19 (1962) 227; ≡ Artocarpus elongatus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 419. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. DINAGAT. Native.

Streblus Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 March 2022
  1. Streblus asper Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 615; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 177; EPFP 2 (1923) 38; Gardner et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 982. = Streblus lactescens (Blanco) Blume, Mus. Bot. 2 (1856) 80; ≡ Calius lactescens Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 698. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in low elevation thickets, especially common in regions with pronounced dry season. Native.

Taxotrophis Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 March 2022
  1. Taxotrophis ilicifolia (Kurz) S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 249; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 38; Gardner et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 978; ≡ Streblus ilicifolius (Kurz) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 227; ≡ Balanostreblus ilicifolia Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 42 (1874) 248. = Taxotrophis obtusa Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1813; Type: Elmer 12966, Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, Apr-1911. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, Indochina, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. BASILAN, CEBU, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Dry thickets and thin forests at low elevation. Also on limestone. Native.
  2. Taxotrophis macrophylla (Blume) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 3 (1900) 359; Gardner et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 979; ≡ Streblus macrophyllus Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2 (1856) 80. = Taxotrophis mindanaensis (Warb.) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1815; ≡ Pseudotrophis mindanaensis Warb., Perkins Frag. Fl. Philip. (1905) 165; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 36. Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. BASILAN, BOHOL, CEBU, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Notes: Lowland thickets and forests. Native.
  3. Taxotrophis taxoides (B.Heyne ex Roth) Chew ex E.M.Gardner, Taxon 70 (2021) 979; ≡ Streblus taxoides (B.Heyne ex Roth) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 225; ≡ Phyllochlamys taxoides (B.Heyne ex Roth) Koord., Exkur. Fl. Java 2 (1912) 89; EPFP 2 (1923) 38; ≡ Trophis taxoides B.Heyne ex Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 368. = Phyllochlamys taxoides var. parvifolia Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 38. Distribution: India and Sri Lanka to Indochina, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland dry forests. Native.

References