Menispermaceae

Anamirta Colebr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 August 2017
  1. Anamirta cocculus (L.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. 1 (1834) 446; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 145; Forman, Kew Bull. 32 (1978) 329; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 213; ≡ Menispermum cocculus L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 340. Distribution: India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets, apparently with preference to seasonal conditions. Native.

Arcangelisia Becc.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 August 2017
  1. Arcangelisia flava (L.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 222; EPFP 2 (1923) 145; Forman, Kew Bull. 32 (1978) 334; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 209; ≡ Menispermum flavum L., Herb. Amboin. (1754) 18. Distribution: Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BATANES, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation thickets and forests. Native.

Cissampelos L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 November 2017
  1. Cissampelos pareira L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1031; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 204; EPFP 2 (1923) 150. Distribution: Africa, America, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Caribbean, China, India, Indian Ocean, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. hirsuta (Buch.-Ham. ex DC.) Forman, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 356; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1986) 236; ≡ Cissampelos hirsuta Buch.-Ham. ex DC., Syst. Nat. 1 (1817) 535. = Cissampelos discolor DC. var. cardiophylla A.Gray, Bot. Wilkes US Explor. Exped. (1854) 38; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 77l; Type: US Explor. Exped. (US, holo), small island in the Sooloo (Sulu) sea. Notes: Common throughout the Philippines in lowland and medium elevation thickets. Native.

Cocculus DC.

  1. Cocculus laurifolius DC., Syst. 1 (1818) 530; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 81; EPFP 2 (1923) 149; Forman, Kew Bull. 29 (1974) 479; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 233. Distribution: China, India, Indochina, Japan, Java, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Mountain Province, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Open forests and thickets, 700-1200m. Native.
  2. Cocculus orbiculatus (L.) DC., Syst. 1 (1817) 522; Forman, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 374; Kew Bull. 29 (1974) 479; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1986) 233; ≡ Menispermum orbiculatum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 341. = Cocculus sarmentosus (Lour.) Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 233; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 149; ≡ Nephroia sarmentosa Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 692. = Cocculus sarmentosus var. stenophyllus Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 10; EPFP 2 (1923) 149; Type: BS 7231 Ramos (NY, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Burgos, Feb/Mar-1917. = Cocculus trilobus (Thunb.) DC., Syst. 1 (1818) 232; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 149; ≡ Menispermum trilobum Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 194. = Cocculus cynanchoides C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1835) 79; Type: Haenke s.n. (MO, iso), Luzon. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan, Vietnam. BABUYAN ISLS, BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: Possibly introduced in Mauritius and Réunion. Coastal and lowland thickets. Native.

Cyclea Arn. ex Wight

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 May 2018
  1. Cyclea cauliflora Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 452; EPFP 4 (1924) 248; Forman, Kew Bull. 14 (1960) 74; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1986) 241; Type: BS 41512 Ramos (K, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Cabalian, in damp ravines and deserted clearings, c. 300m. 7-Dec-1922. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Damp ravines and deserted clearings, also recorded from a forested ridge, 300-460m. Native.
  2. Cyclea insularis (Makino) Hatus., Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 29; Forman, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1986) 240; ≡ Cissampelos insularis Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 24 (1910) 227. = Cyclea insularis var. luxurians Hatus., Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 29. Distribution: Japan, Philippines. BATAN. Notes: Thickets and forest slopes, 100-300m. Fl. & fr. May. Native.
  3. Cyclea merrillii Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 312; Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1167; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 151; Forman, Kew Bull. 14 (1960) 72; Pancho, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling (1986) 286; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 240; Type: Merrill 2527 (K, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, 11 to 14-Jun-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Ifugao, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets. Native.

Diploclisia Miers

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 August 2017
  1. Diploclisia glaucescens (Blume) Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 225; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 148; Forman, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 363, pro parte (excl. Diploclisia kunstleri); Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 230; ≡ Cocculus glaucescens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 25. Distribution: China, India, Indochina, Java, ?Moluccas, Myanmar, ?New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation open forests. Native.

Fibraurea Lour.

  1. Fibraurea tinctoria Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 626; Forman, Kew Bull. 40 (1985) 544; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1986) 207. = Fibraurea chloroleuca Miers, Ann. Nat. Hist. 3, 13 (1864) 489; Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 249; EPFP 2 (1923) 146. Distribution: Borneo, India, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. DINAGAT. Notes: Along streams in lowland forest. Native.

Haematocarpus Miers

  1. Haematocarpus subpeltatus Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 383; EPFP 2 (1923) 145; Forman, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 421; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 184; Type: BS 33750 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Paracale. Forest along stream at low elevation, 22-Dec-1918. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte. Notes: Lowland forest to 100m. Native.

Hypserpa Miers

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 August 2017
  1. Hypserpa nitida Miers, Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 3 (1851) 258; Forman, Kew Bull. 12 (1958) 453; Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 361; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 219. = Hypserpa cuspidata (Hook.f. & Thomson) Miers, Ann. Nat. Hist. 2, 7 (1851) 40; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 147; ≡ Limacia cuspidata Hook.f. & Thomson, Fl. Ind. 1 (1855) 189. = Hypserpa jagorii Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 211; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 148. = Phytocrene loheri Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 293; EPFP 2 (1923) 492, pro parte, leaves only. Distribution: Borneo, India, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and forests. Native.

Legnephora Miers

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 May 2018
  1. Legnephora philippinensis Forman, Kew Bull. 27 (1972) 278; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 226; Type: PNH 10020 Sulit (L 2 sheets), Mindanao: Bukidnon, Mt Kitanglad, S slope of S peak, Barrio Kibangay, Sitio Katiwayan, semi-open forest, 1800m, 10-Mar-1949. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Known only from the type collection. Native.

Limacia Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 November 2017
  1. Limacia blumei (Boerl.) Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 215; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 266; EPFP 2 (1923) 148; Forman, Kew Bull. 12 (1958) 448; Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 362; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 223; ≡ Cocculus blumei Boerl., Cat. Hort. Bog. 1 (1899) 40. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. BANCALAN, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Lowland thickets and forests. Native.
  2. Limacia scandens Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 620; Forman, Kew Bull. 12 (1958) 449; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 223. = Limacia velutina Miers, Ann. Nat. Hist. 2, 7 (1851) 43; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 148; ≡ Cocculus velutinus Wall., Numer. List (1831) 4970, nom. inval. Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, ?Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga. Notes: Low elevation second-growth forests and open habitats. Native.

Parabaena Miers

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 May 2018
  1. Parabaena denudata Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 147; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 147; Forman, Kew Bull. 39 (1984) 108; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 203; Type: R.S. Williams 2137 (US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, 13-Feb-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, BILIRAN, BOHOL, LUZON, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and forests. In Negros along rivers and in thickets in damp ravines at 700-750m. Fl. Feb-May; fr. Aug. Native.
  2. Parabaena echinocarpa Diels, PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 157; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 147; Forman, Kew Bull. 39 (1984) 110; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 204; Type: BS 14722 Ramos (US, iso), Camiguin de Mindanao, male flowers & fruits, Mar/Apr-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and forests, up to c. 500m. Fl. Apr-Jun, Nov; fr. Apr, Nov-Dec. Native.
  3. Parabaena elmeri Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 147; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 147; Forman, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 389; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 202; Type: Elmer 5633, Luzon: La Union prov. = Parabaena philippinensis Merr. ex Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 148; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 147; Type: BS 1024 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, La Union, Laguna, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Low to medium elevation thickets and forests. Fl. Feb, May-Jul; fr. Feb, Jul-Oct. Native.

Pericampylus Miers

  1. Pericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 219; EPFP 2 (1923) 148; Forman, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 366; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 229; ≡ Menispermum glaucum Lam., Encycl. 4 (1797) 100. Distribution: Tropical & Subtropical Asia. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation open thickets and secondary forests. Native.

Pycnarrhena Miers

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 May 2018
  1. Pycnarrhena insignis (Hatus.) Forman, Kew Bull. 33 (1979) 568; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 174; ≡ Batania insignis Hatus., Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 29. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN. Notes: Known from Mahatao. In thickets, 100m. Native.
  2. Pycnarrhena manillensis S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 45; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 144; Forman, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 411; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 175; Type: Vidal 1778 (MA), Luzon: Alrededores de Manila, San Juan del Monte. = Pycnarrhena elliptica Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 54; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 144. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, BASILAN, CAMOTES, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Batangas, La Union, NCR, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Thickets and forests, up to 1600m. Fl. May-Nov; fr. Jul-Mar. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Pycnarrhena tumefacta Miers, Contr. Bot. 3 (1871) 353; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, 20 (1867) 12, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Forman, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 414; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 175. = Pycnarrhena membranifolia Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 382; EPFP 2 (1923) 144; Type: BS 37356 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Malangas. Low elevation forest, 26-Oct-1919. = Pycnarrhena celebica (Boerl.) Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 53; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 144; ≡ Cocculus celebicus Boerl., Cat. Pl. Phan. (1899) 40. = Pycnarrhena merrillii Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 52; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 144; Type: Merrill 1201, Mindoro. = Pycnarrhena balabacensis Yamam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 34 (1944) 224. = Pycnarrhena batanensis Yamam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 34 (1944) 226. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Java Sea, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. BALABAC, LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, POLILLO. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests up to 400m. Native.

Stephania Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 November 2020
  1. Stephania corymbosa (Blume) Walp., Rep. 1 (1842) 96; Forman, Kew Bull. 11 (1956) 63; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 249; ≡ Clypea corymbosa Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 1 (1825) 27; Type: from Indonesia. = Stephania catosepala Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 268; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 149; Type: Elmer 5851 (P, lecto; B, K, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1904. = Stephania ramosii Diels ex Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 265; EPFP 2 (1923) 150; Type: BS 13487 Ramos (B, holo), Luzon: Benguet, near Baguio, May-1911. Distribution: Java, Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDORO. Notes: Thickets, forests, limestone ledges and boulders, 1300-2000m. Native.
  2. Stephania japonica (Thunb.) Miers, Ann. Nat. Hist. 3, 18 (1866) 14; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 406; EPFP 2 (1923) 149; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1166; Forman, Kew Bull. 11 (1956) 49; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 245; ≡ Menispermum japonicum Thunb., Syst. Veg. (ed. 14) (1784) 892; Type: from Japan. Distribution: BATANES, CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Batangas, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Pampanga, Rizal, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Native.
    • var. japonica. = Stephania forsteri (DC.) A.Gray, Bot. Wilkes US Explor. Exped. (1854) 36; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1167; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 149; ≡ Cocculus forsteri DC., Syst. Nat. 1 (1817) 517; Type: from French Polynesia. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Malaysia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka. BATANES, CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Batangas, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Pampanga, Rizal, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and forests. Native.
    • var. timoriensis (DC.) Forman, Kew Bull. 11 (1956) 55; ≡ Cocculus japonicus (Thunb.) DC. var. timoriensis DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 96; Type: from Indonesia. = Stephania exigua Miers, Contr. Bot. 3 (1871) 228; Type: Cuming 1533 (BM, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Batangas. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Malaysia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka. LUZON: Batangas. Native.
  3. Stephania merrillii Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 268; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 150; Hul et al., Phytotaxa 298 (2017) 108; Type: Merrill 5701 (B, holo; US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon. Nov-1906. Distribution: China, Philippines. MINDORO. Native.
  4. Stephania psilophylla (C.Presl) Forman, Kew Bull. 11 (1956) 63; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 251; ≡ Cissampelos psilophylla C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1835) 80; Type: Haenke s.n. (PRC, lecto; BM, HAL, isolecto), Luzon. = Stephania japonica auct. non Thunb.; Merr. (1923) 149, pro parte. = Stephania catosepala auct. non Diels; Merr. (1923) 149, pro parte. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Sorsogon. Notes: Primary forests and forest edges, 100-1300m. Native.
  5. Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 4 (1827) 316; Forman, Kew Bull. 11 (1956) 58; Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 352; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 248; ≡ Clypea venosa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 27; Type: from Java. Distribution: Cambodia, India, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Laguna (photos). Native.

Possibly present

  1. Stephania montana Diels, Bot. Jahrb. 52 (1915) 189; Forman, Kew Bull. 11 (1956) 69; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1986) 250; Type: from Papua New Guinea. Distribution: New Guinea, ?Philippines. ?LUZON. Notes: Record in the Philippines based on BS 23820, in fruit.

Tinomiscium Miers

  1. Tinomiscium petiolare Hook.f. & Thomson, Fl. Ind. (1855) 205; Forman, Kew Bull. 40 (1985) 542; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 205. = Tinomiscium molle Diels, PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 157; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 146; Type: BS 11359 McGregor (US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, vicinity of Dupax, male flowers, Mar-Apr 1912. = Tinomiscium philippinense Diels in Engl., Pflanzenreich 46 (1910) 116; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 146; Type: Elmer 9090. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Riau Arch, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BILIRAN, LUZON: Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Sur. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.

Tinospora Miers

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 July 2021
  1. Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook.f. & Thomson, Fl. Ind. 1 (1855) 183; Forman, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 394; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 194; ≡ Menispermum crispum L., Sp. Pl. (ed. 2) 2 (1763) 1468. = Tinospora rumphii Boerl., Cat. Hort. Bogor (1901) 116, nom. illeg.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 146. Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore. BASILAN, CULION, LUZON: Rizal (photos), MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Usually found in thickets near human settlements, probably in most islands and provinces on account of being commonly planted for medicinal purposes. Also reported in primary forest in Mindanao and in dry forest in Mindoro Oriental prov. (Mt Yagaw, 1000m). According to Forman (1986) female flowers and fruits are as yet unknown from Malesia. Merrill (1923) hints at the possibility of this species as being an introduced plant in the Philippines. Naturalized.
  2. Tinospora glabra (Burm.f.) Merr., J. Arn. Arb. 19 (1938) 340; Forman, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 414; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 199; ≡ Menispermum glabrum Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 316. = Tinospora reticulata Miers, Ann. Nat. Hist. 3, 13 (1864) 322; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 204; EPFP 2 (1923) 146. Distribution: Andaman Isls, China, Philippines, Solomon Isls. BATANES, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Lowland dry thickets, shrubberies and re-growth forests. Native.
  3. Tinospora merrilliana Diels in Engl., Pflanzenreich 46 (1910) 137; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 146; Forman, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 389; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 191; Type: Clemens 525. = Tinospora negrotica Diels in Engl., Pflanzenreich 46 (1910) 137; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 146; Type: Elmer 9468 (US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns. Mar-1908. = Tinospora hastata Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3760, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 16960 (NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Irosin, Aug-1916. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Medium elevation thickets and forests, ascending to 1800m; in Luzon and Palawan on limestone. Native.

References