Meliaceae

Aglaia Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 October 2022
  1. Aglaia aherniana Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 32; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 371; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 291. = Aglaia myriantha Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 295; EPFP 2 (1923) 377. = Aglaia irosinensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 371. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, DINAGAT, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Camarines, Cavite, Quezon, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, PANAY, POLILLO, SIBUYAN, TABLAS. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Aglaia angustifolia Miq., Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 55; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 309. = Aglaia stenophylla Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 185; EPFP 2 (1923) 379. = Argophilum pinnatum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 186. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Riau Arch, Sumatra. LUZON: Camarines Norte, MINDANAO: Agusan, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Aglaia argentea Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 170; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 237. = Aglaia multifoliola Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 280; EPFP 2 (1923) 377. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Cotabato, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Found in primary, secondary, riverine forest, evergreen or semi-evergreen, on granite, basalt, sandstone, coral sand, clay or limestone; sea-level up to 1200m; scattered to locally rather common. Aril eaten by monkeys, hornbills. Native.
  4. Aglaia beccarii C.DC., Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2 (1894) 579; Mabb. & Pannell, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 6 (2007) 38; Type: from Sarawak. = Aglaia brachybotrys Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 274; EPFP 2 (1923) 372; Type: FB 15497 Bernardo, Luzon: Cagayan, San Vicente, in dense forest, c. 15m, 15-Apr-1910. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: Lowland forest. Note by L.L.Co: Definitely known only in the Philippines from the type collection of Aglaia brachybotrys Merr. Native.
  5. Aglaia costata Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 146; EPFP 2 (1923) 372; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 248; Type: Clemens 568, Mindanao: Lanao (Camp Keithley). = Aglaia umbrina Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3317, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 13770 (NY, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Lanao, Lanao del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Forests at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Aglaia crassinervia Kurz ex Hiern in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 556; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 267. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
  7. Aglaia cucullata (Roxb.) Pellegr., Fl. Indo-Chine 1 (1911) 771; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 213; ≡ Amoora cucullata Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 3(3) (1820) 54. = Amoora aherniana Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 24; EPFP 2 (1923) 370. = Amoora conduplifolia Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3324, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, SIBUYAN. Native.
  8. Aglaia cumingiana Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 31, 2 (1858) 409; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 372; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 293; ≡ Hearnia cumingiana (Turcz.) C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 1 (1878) 629. = Aglaia tarangisi Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3314, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BANCALAN, LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: In primary, secondary and gallery forests, along seashore, on sandy soil; sea level to 1330m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  9. Aglaia edulis (Roxb.) Wall., Calc. Gard. Rep. (1840) 26; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 272; ≡ Milnea edulis Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 430. = Aglaia curranii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 276; EPFP 2 (1923) 373. = Aglaia diffusa Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 277; EPFP 2 (1923) 373. = Aglaia samarensis Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 378. Distribution: Bhutan, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, BURIAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines in low and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  10. Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth., Fl. Austral. 1 (1863) 383; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 373; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 243; ≡ Nemedra elaeagnoidea A.Juss., Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 19 (1830) 223. = Aglaia pallens (Merr.) Merr., PJS 13 (1918) 297; ≡ Aglaia elaeagnoidea var. pallens Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 413. = Aglaia parvifolia Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 21; EPFP 2 (1923) 378. = Aglaia cupreolepidota Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 393, as ‘cupreo-lepidota’; EPFP 2 (1923) 373. = Aglaia formosana Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 3 (1913) 52; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 374. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, BANCALAN, BASILAN, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, JOLO, MALAMAWI, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Native.
  11. Aglaia elliptica Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 171; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 288. = Aglaia davaoensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3289, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Aglaia querciflorescens Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3303, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Aglaia robinsonii Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 291; EPFP 2 (1923) 378. = Aglaia harmsiana Perkins, Notizbl. Kgl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 32 (1903) 78; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 374. = Aglaia pauciflora Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 31. = Aglaia longipetiolata Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3295, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Aglaia trunciflora Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 303; EPFP 2 (1923) 379. = Aglaia langlassei C.DC., Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 10 (1907) 151. = Aglaia tayabensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 292. = Aglaia palawanensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 235; EPFP 2 (1923) 377. = Aglaia urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3319, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Aglaia negrosensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3306, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Aglaia sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3319, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Aglaia micrantha Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 22; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 376. = Aglaia mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3306, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Aglaia caulobotrys Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 156. = Aglaia antonii Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3278, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Aglaia apoana Merr., Govt. Lab Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 30; EPFP 2 (1923) 371. = Aglaia banahanensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 373, in obs., pro syn.; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3281, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, CATANDUANES, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: In evergreen and semi-evergreen primary and secondary forests, not infrequently along rivers and streams, along trails, on various soils ranging from sandy, clay to waterlogged, on limestone and ultramafics, scattered to locally common, from sea-level to 1400 m. Native.
  12. Aglaia eximia Miq., Fl. Ind. Suppl. 1 (1861) 197; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 236. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
  13. Aglaia exstipulata (Griff.) W.Theob., Burmah, ed. 3. 2 (1883) 583; ≡ Euphoria exstipulata Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 4 (1854) 547. Distribution: MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
    • ssp. brunneostellata Pannell, Kew Bull. 59 (2004) 89; Mabb. & Pannell, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 6 (2007) 54; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Note by L.L.Co: Known from one collection, Stone et al. 282. Native.
  14. Aglaia foveolata Pannell, Taxon. Monog. Gen. Aglaia, Kew Bull. Addit. Ser., 16 (1992) 211. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. Native.
  15. Aglaia grandis Korth. ex Miq., Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 56; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 232. = Aglaia bernardoi Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 302; EPFP 2 (1923) 372. = Aglaia stellatotomentosa Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 535, as ‘stellato-tomentosa’; EPFP 2 (1923) 379. = Aglaia perfulva Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3302, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, LAGEN, LUZON: Cagayan, Cavite, Rizal, MINDANAO: Cotabato, PALAWAN. Notes: Low to medium elevation primary forest, sometimes on ultrabasic rock and limestone. Native.
  16. Aglaia korthalsii Miq., Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 42; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 251. Distribution: Bhutan, Borneo, India, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  17. Aglaia lancilimba Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 294; EPFP 2 (1923) 375; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 242; Type: BS 26509 de Mesa & Magistrado (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Paracale, on low hills, 20m. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Camarines Norte. Notes: Primary forests at low elevation. Native.
  18. Aglaia lawii (Wight) C.J.Saldanha in Saldanha & Nicolson, Fl. Hassan Distr. (1976) 392; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 228; ≡ Nimmoia lawii Wight, Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 7 (1847) 13. = Aglaia alternifoliola Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 532; EPFP 2 (1923) 371. = Aglaia grandifoliola Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 293; EPFP 2 (1923) 374. = Aglaia cagayanensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 372. = Aglaia sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3308, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bhutan, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. ALABAT, BABUYAN ISLS, BASILAN, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, ROMBLON, SIBUTU, SIBUYAN, TICAO. Notes: Common in primary lowland and medium elevation forests, riverine forests as well as forests near the seashore in both everwet and seasonal regions, on a wide range of soil types including limestone. Native.
    • var. lawii. Distribution: Bhutan, Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
    • ssp. oligocarpa (Miq.) Pannell, Kew Bull. 59 (2004) 90; Mabb. & Pannell, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 6 (2007) 67; ≡ Aglaia oligocarpa Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1868) 45. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Native.
  19. Aglaia leptantha Miq., Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 51; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 261. = Aglaia multiflora Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 73; EPFP 2 (1923) 377. = Aglaia laevigata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 31; EPFP 2 (1923) 375. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  20. Aglaia leucophylla King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 64, 2 (1895) 66; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 271. = ?Aglaia pallida Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 147; EPFP 2 (1923) 377. = Aglaia mirandae Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 295; EPFP 2 (1923) 376. = Aglaia agusanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3275, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, MALAMAWI, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Lanao. Notes: Primary riverine and mossy forests but usually in secondary forests from sea-level to 1300m. Native.
  21. Aglaia luzoniensis (S.Vidal) Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 105; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 376; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 277; ≡ Beddomea luzoniensis S.Vidal, Revis. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 84; Type: Vidal 169 (MA), Luzon, Tayabas, Malacamote. = Aglaia brevipetiolata Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 14; EPFP 2 (1923) 372. = Aglaia rizalensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 289. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; common in primary forests from near sea-level to 800m, on various soil types including limestone. Native.
  22. Aglaia macrocarpa (Miq.) Pannell, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 16 (1992) 65; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 215; ≡ Epicharis macrocarpa Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 505. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Native.
  23. Aglaia malaccensis (Ridl.) Pannell, Mal. For. 45 (1982) 455; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 216; ≡ Amoora malaccensis Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 75 (1917) 16. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Bataan. Notes: Low to medium elevation primary and secondary forests. Native.
  24. Aglaia odoratissima Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 171; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 276. = Aglaia affinis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 235; EPFP 2 (1923) 371. = Aglaia luzoniensis (S.Vidal) Merr. & Rolfe var. trifoliata Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 105; EPFP 2 (1923) 376; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 385. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
  25. Aglaia oligophylla Miq., Fl. Ind. Suppl. 1 (1861) 507; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 297. = Aglaia oligantha C.DC., Monog. Phan. 1 (1878) 603; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 377. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. ALABAT, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO: Agusan, Cotabato, Lanao. Notes: Primary forests on various soil types including limestone-derived, 0-850m. Native.
  26. Aglaia pachyphylla Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 57; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 234. = ?Aglaia clarkii Merr., Govt Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 21; EPFP 2 (1923) 372. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. CEBU, LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Quezon, Zambales. Notes: Primary and secondary forests on clay, sandstone, limestone at low to medium elevation. Native.
  27. Aglaia palembanica Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 1 (1861) 197; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 304. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LAGEN, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland primary and secondary forests, on flood plains, clay, limestone, etc., 0-450m. Native.
  28. Aglaia pyriformis Merr., PJS 13 (1918) 290; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 294; Type: BS 26604 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; A, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Dingalan, in forest, c. 300m, 9-Sep-1916. = Aglaia puncticulata Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 290; Type: BS 26306 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Laguna, Nueva Ecija. Notes: Primary forests, 300-400m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  29. Aglaia rimosa (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 212; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 246; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2439; ≡ Portesia rimosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 297. = Aglaia denticulata Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 31, 1 (1858) 410; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 373. = Aglaia reticulata Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3306, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Aglaia macrobotrys Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 31, 1 (1858) 409; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 376. = Aglaia elliptifolia Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 413; EPFP 2 (1923) 374. = Aglaia subviridis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3312, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Aglaia diffusiflora Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 410; EPFP 2 (1923) 373. = Aglaia lanceolata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 184; EPFP 2 (1923) 375. = Aglaia loheri Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 533; EPFP 2 (1923) 376. = Aglaia llanosiana C.DC., Monog. Phan. 1 (1878) 623; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 375. = Aglaia bulusanensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 373. = Aglaia subviridis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3312, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Aglaia reticulata Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3312, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. ALABAT, BABUYAN ISLS, BATAN, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, ROMBLON, SIBUTU, SIBUYAN, TICAO, Y’AMI. Notes: Common in primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1350m. Also in thickets and secondary forests along rivers, sometimes along the seashore on limestone. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  30. Aglaia rugulosa Pannell, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 16 (1992) 73; Mabb. & Pannell, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 6 (2007) 88; Type: from Peninsular Malaysia. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. Native.
  31. Aglaia sexipetala Griff., Notul. 4 (1854) 505; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 268. = Aglaia aspera Teijsm. & Binn., Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. 27 (1864) 42. = Aglaia calelanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3283, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 11804 (PNH, holo, lost; L, MO, SING, U, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Calelan, Jul-1909. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Forested ridge, c. 914m. Note by L.L.Co: Only known in the Philippines from the type collection of Aglaia calelanensis Elmer. Native.
  32. Aglaia silvestris (M.Roem.) Merr., Interp. Rumph. Amb. (1917) 210; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 259; ≡ Lansium silvestre M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 1 (1846) 99. = Aglaia acuminata Merr., PJS 9 c (1915) 531; EPFP 2 (1923) 371; Type: Merrill 9306 (F, GH, US, iso), Palawan: Taytay, 31-May-1913. = Aglaia copelandii Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3286, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 14070 (L, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, humid forested slopes, c. 4750ft. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LAGEN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Primary forests, low elevation to 1450m. Native.
  33. Aglaia smithii Koord., Minah. (1898) 383, 635; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 245. = Aglaia ramosii Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 326; Type: Clemens 7406a (UC). = Aglaia bicolor Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 270; EPFP 2 (1923) 372. = Aglaia badia Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 270; EPFP 2 (1923) 372. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: In primary and coastal forests on clay, from sea level to low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  34. Aglaia spectabilis (Miq.) S.S.Jain & Bennet, Ind. J. For. 9 (1987) 271; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 221; ≡ Amoora spectabilis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1868) 37. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  35. Aglaia squamulosa King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 64, 2 (1895) 68; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 239. = Aglaia cuprea Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3287, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 16058 (PNH, holo, lost; NA, NY, U, US, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, 2000ft., May-1916. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: Forest, 600m. Native.
  36. Aglaia tenuicaulis Hiern in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 556; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 301. Distribution: MINDORO, SAMAR. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
    • ssp. tenuicaulis. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. SAMAR. Native.
  37. Aglaia teysmanniana (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 48; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 231; ≡ Amoora teysmanniana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 503. Distribution: Borneo, China, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: In Malesia recorded to occur in primary and secondary forests, 0-1670m. Native.
  38. Aglaia tomentosa Teijsm. & Binn., Nat. Tijdr. Ned.-Indië 27 (1864) 43; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 57; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 306. = Aglaia glomerata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 30; EPFP 2 (1923) 374. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. ALABAT, BASILAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Isabela, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: In Luzon from Isabela to Albay. Common in primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
    • ssp. tomentosa. Native.
    • ssp. cordata (Hiern) Pannell, Kew Bull. 59 (2004) 91; ≡ Aglaia cordata Hiern, Fl. Brit. India 1 (1875) 557. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Riau Arch, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Aglaia everettii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 271; EPFP 2 (1923) 374; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 384; Type: FB 7319 Everett (PNH, holo, lost; apparently no extant iso), Negros: Negros Occidental, Painguion River. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, CEBU, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Surigao, NEGROS. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Aglaia villamilii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 536; EPFP 2 (1923) 379; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 385; Type: FB 21866 Villamil (PNH, holo, lost; apparently no extant iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Margosatubig. Slopes in forest, 60m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur, POLILLO. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Note by L.L.Co: A post-war specimen, PNH 6527 Castro from Polillo was determined to this species by Merrill. Native.

Excluded

  1. Aglaia iloilo (Blanco) Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 533; EPFP 2 (1923) 375, excl. all specimens cited which are Aglaia argentea Blume; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 388; ≡ Melia iloilo Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 241. Notes: Note by L.L.Co: Merrill’s referral of Blanco’s binomial to Aglaia is untenable because the plant being described by Blanco has opposite winged leaves, a character alien to the genus. Pannell suggests that this is possibly a member of Rutaceae.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Aglaia odorata Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 173; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 377; Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 383. Distribution: Cambodia, China, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Commonly cultivated as an ornamental plant, male trees more often than females. Strongly perfumed flowers used for scenting tea or clothes. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Anthocarapa Pierre

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 May 2018
  1. Anthocarapa nitidula (Benth.) T.D.Penn. ex Mabb., Blumea 31(1) (1985) 133; ≡ Amoora nitidula Benth., Fl. Austral. 1 (1863) 383. Distribution: Australia, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, ?Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. Notes: Note by L.L.Co: The Philippine record, based on Loher 255 (K, LE, M, P, US) from Luzon (Mt Arayat), was tentatively assigned by Mabberley (1995) to this species. The vegetative parts and overall floral morphology including pollen features fit Anthocarapa, though the (male) flowers are 4-petalled. It may well represent a second species, resembling certain species of Dysoxylum. Native.

Aphanamixis Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Aphanamixis borneensis (Miq.) Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 4 (1896) 296; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 138; ≡ Amoora borneensis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1868) 36. = Aphanamixis pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3336, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 13104a (MO, NY, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), wooded flats, 250ft, Apr-1911. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  2. Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) R.Parker, Ind. For. 57 (1931) 486; ≡ Aglaia polystachya Wall., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 429. = Aphanamixis davaoensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3331, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 11087 (MO, NY, iso), Mindanao: Mt Apo (Todaya). Forest, 1500ft, Jul-1909. = Aphanamixis velutina Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3338, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 13379 (MO, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, dense woods along Catangan Creek, 1000ft, Aug-1912. = Aphanamixis polillensis (C.B.Rob.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 370; ≡ Amoora polillensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 206; Type: BS 3639 Robinson. = Aphanamixis cumingiana (C.DC.) Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 34 (1896) 296; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 369; ≡ Amoora cumingiana C.DC., Monog. Phan. 1 (1878) 580. = Aphanamixis coriacea Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 14; EPFP 2 (1923) 369; Type: BS 23576 Ramos, Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Pocdal, damp forest, 10-Sep-1915. = Aphanamixis perrottetiana A.Juss., Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 19 (1830) 244; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 369. = Aphanamixis pinatubensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3328, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 22179 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Pinatubo, very damp woods among other shrubs and low trees, c. 4000ft, May-1927. = Aphanamixis tripetala (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 211; EPFP 2 (1923) 370; ≡ Trichilia tripetala Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 354. = Aphanamixis agusanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3328, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 13447, Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, wooded banks of Catangan stream, 750ft, Aug-1912. = Aphanamixis apoensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3326, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 11732, Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, humid forest S of the Baruring River, 3500ft., Jul-1909. = Aphanamixis obliquifolia Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3333, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 8924, Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, wooded ravines W of the Sablan falls, Mar-1907. Distribution: Bhutan, China, India, Indochina, Malesia, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Pampanga, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Surigao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: In primary forests, usually at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1220m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Azadirachta A.Juss.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020
  1. Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) M.Jacobs, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1961) 75; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 233; ≡ Melia excelsa Jack, Malayan Misc. 1(1) (1820) 12. = Azadirachta integrifoliola Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 272; EPFP 2 (1923) 361. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam. BASILAN, MASBATE, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Azadirachta indica A.Juss., Mém. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 19 (1832) 221; Mabb., et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 341; ≡ Melia indica (A.Juss.) Brandis, For. Fl. NW & C India (1874) 67, nom. illeg. = Melia azadirachta L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 385. Distribution: ?Myanmar. CEBU, MINDORO. Notes: Cultivated and naturalized in secondary forest. Neem tree. Naturalized.

Cedrela P.Browne (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Cedrela odorata L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10 2 (1759) 940. Notes: From tropical America. Source of valuable timber, wood fragrant (cedar); source of antimalarial gedunin; planted throughout the tropics. Invasive in tropical Africa and Galapagos. Not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Chisocheton Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 May 2018
  1. Chisocheton cauliflorus Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 188; EPFP 2 (1923) 366. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao, Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  2. Chisocheton ceramicus Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1868) 27. = Amoora mindorensis Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 459; EPFP 4 (1925) 248. = Amoora caesifolia Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3321, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 13487, Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, densely wooded ravine near a stream, 750ft., Aug-1912. = Amoora cupulifera Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 145; EPFP 2 (1923) 367. = Amoora conduplifolia Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3324, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 12195, Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang, N slopes of Mt Giting-giting), along Sinubang creek, 750ft, Apr-1910. = Chisocheton clementis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 145; EPFP 2 (1923) 367. = Dysoxylum grandifolium auct. non Merr.; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3368. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Isabela, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, SAMAR. Notes: Primary and secondary forests, usually from 0-700m. Native.
  3. Chisocheton cumingianus (C.DC.) Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 4 (1896) 296; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 164; ≡ Dasycoleum cumingianum C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 1 (1878) 541. Distribution: CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. cumingianus. = Chisocheton benguetensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3343, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Dysoxylum sorsogonense Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3378, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Common in primary forests at low and medium elevation to 1300m. Native.
  4. Chisocheton curranii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 234; EPFP 2 (1923) 367; Type: FB 4865 Curran. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Thickets in limestone region, c. 1500m. Native.
  5. Chisocheton erythrocarpus Hiern in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 550; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 183. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. Native.
  6. Chisocheton macranthus (Merr.) Airy Shaw, Hook. Icon. Pl. 34 (1937) t. 3333; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 141; ≡ Clemensia macrantha Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 144. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. Native.
  7. Chisocheton maxilla-pisticis Mabb., Gard. Bull. Sing. 55 (2003) 189; Mabb. & Pannell, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 6 (2007) 128; Type: from Sabah. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  8. Chisocheton mendozae F.H.Hildebr. ex Steenis, PJS 91 (1963) 509, as ‘mendozai’; ≡ Amoora fulva Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 187; Type: BS 24497 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Native.
  9. Chisocheton patens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 169; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 167. = Chisocheton fulvus Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 146; EPFP 2 (1923) 367. = Chisocheton tetrapetalus (Turcz.) Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 31(1) (1858) 411; C.DC., Monog. Phan. 1 (1878) 530; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 368. = Chisocheton apoensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 368. = Chisocheton urdanetensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 368, in obs., pro syn.; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3341, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Sorsogon. Common in lowland primary rainforest to 500m. Native.
  10. Chisocheton pentandrus (Blanco) Merr., Bur. Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 210; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 180; ≡ Trichilia pentandra Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 355. = Chisocheton parvifoliolus Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 297; EPFP 2 (1923) 367; Type: FB 25467 Paraiso. = Chisocheton sorsogonensis Elmer ex Merr., PJS 13 (1918) 297. = Chisocheton curranii auct. non Merr.; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3346. Distribution: BABUYAN ISLS, LEYTE, LUZON, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Native.
    • ssp. pentandrus. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. BABUYAN ISLS, LEYTE, LUZON, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Widespread in Luzon; common in everwet and seasonal forests, thickets, from low elevation to c. 1500m. Sometimes on limestone. Native.
    • ssp. medius Mabb., Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. 6 (1979) 365; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 182. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
    • ssp. paucijugus (Miq.) Mabb., Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. 6 (1979) 366; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 183; ≡ Chisocheton paucijugus Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1868) 27. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: Wetter forests. Native.

Cipadessa Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 August 2017
  1. Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 6; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 358; ≡ Melia baccifera Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 215. = Cipadessa warburgii Perkins, Notibl. Kgl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 3 (1903) 79; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 359. Distribution: China, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Davao, Zamboanga, PANAY. Notes: In forest edges and thickets at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2200 m. A common treelet with apparently continuous flowering and fruiting typical of early successional forest-edge plants. Native.

Didymocheton Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 March 2021
  1. Didymocheton gaudichaudianus A.Juss., Bull. Sci. Nat. Géol. 23 (1830) 239; Holzmeyer et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 1259; ≡ Dysoxylum gaudichaudianum (A.Juss.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 125; Type: from New Guinea. = Dysoxylum blancoi S.Vidal, Cat. Met. Pl. Leños (1880) 22; Type: Vidal 165 (MA), Luzon: Montes de San Mateo. = Dysoxylum decandrum (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 30; Fl. Manila (1912) 276; EPFP 2 (1923) 363; ≡ Turraea decandra Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 347; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 218, Luzon: Manila, May-1914. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. BASILAN, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, ?Camarines Sur (photos), Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon (photos), MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Primary and secondary lowland forests, thickets. A common tree, the seeds taken by pigeons. Native.
  2. Didymocheton mollissimus (Spreng.) Mabb., Taxon (2021); ≡ Dysoxylum mollissimum (Spreng.) Blume ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 1 (1831) 683; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 90; ≡ Trichilia mollissima Spreng., Syst. Nat. 4 (1827) 252; Type: from Java. = Dysoxylum octandrum (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 209; EPFP (1923) 364; ≡ Turraea octandra Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 349; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 856, Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling, Mar-1915. = Dysoxylum floribundum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 450; EPFP 2 (1923) 363; Type: Vanoverbergh 1470 (B), Luzon: Bontoc subprovince, Bauco, 30-Sep-1914 (12-Sep-1912 in protologue). Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Benguet. Native.
  3. Didymocheton pauciflorus (Merr.) Mabb., Taxon (2021); ≡ Dysoxylum pauciflorum Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 32; EPFP 2 (1923) 365; Type: Ahern’s Collector FB2430 (PNH, holo, lost; BO, K, NY, P, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Montalban. = Dysoxylum biflorum Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 185; EPFP 2 (1923) 362. = Dysoxylum laxum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 279; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, CEBU (photos), DINAGAT (photos), LUZON: Isabela, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO. Notes: Lowland primary forests, usually on ridges and riverbanks, 30-1000m. Native.

Dysoxylum Blume ex Raspail

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 March 2022
  1. Dysoxylum acutangulum Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat., Suppl. (1861) 196; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 129; Holzmeyer et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 1263. Distribution: MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
    • ssp. acutangulum. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, ?Thailand. PALAWAN. Native.
  2. Dysoxylum brachybotrys Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 461; EPFP 4 (1925) 248; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 128; Holzmeyer et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 1263; Type: BS 37012 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; A, K, L, P, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Malangas. = Dysoxylum revolutum Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3373, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Dysoxylum alternifolium Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3352, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur, PALAWAN. Native.
  3. Dysoxylum cyrtobotryum Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat., Suppl. 1 (1861) 196; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 123; Holzmeyer et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 1263; Type: from Sumatra. = Amoora macrocarpa Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 24; EPFP 2 (1923) 370. = Dysoxylum grandifolium Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 24; EPFP 2 (1923) 363. = Dysoxylum hexandrum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 297; EPFP 2 (1923) 363. = Dysoxylum panayense Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 299; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. = Dysoxylum oblongifolium Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 157. = Dysoxylum bakeri Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3358, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Dysoxylum aurantiacum Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3357, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Dysoxylum benguetense Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3360, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Dysoxylum irigense Merr., ined.; Voucher: BS 42138 Ramos (A), Luzon: Rizal, Mt Irig (Mt Irid), Apr-1923. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Isabela, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Primary and secondary forest, including that on limestone, usually at low elevation to 900m. Common to very common. Native.
  4. Dysoxylum macrocarpum (Spreng.) Blume ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 1 (1831) 683; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 116; Holzmeyer et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 1263; ≡ Trichilia macrocarpa Spreng., Syst. Veg. 4 (1827) 252; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
  5. Dysoxylum oppositifolium F.Muell., Fragm. 5 (1866) 177; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 122; Holzmeyer et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 1263; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2439; Type: from Australia. = Dysoxylum palawanense Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 538; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. = ?Dysoxylum ramosii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 539; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. = Dysoxylum ilocanum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 298; EPFP 2 (1923) 363; Type: FB 25091 Paraiso. = Dysoxylum capizense Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 268; EPFP 2 (1923) 362. = Dysoxylum wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 367; EPFP 2 (1923) 366; Type: Wenzel 642 (A, L, US, iso), Leyte. = Dysoxylum turczaninowii C.DC., Monog. Phan. 1 (1878) 501; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 365. = ?Dysoxylum venosum Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 185; EPFP 2 (1923) 366. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, ?Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO. Notes: Lowland forests, to 650m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Dysoxylum ramosii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 539; EPFP 2 (1923) 365; Holzmeyer et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 1264; Type: Ramos 20512 (A, holo, lost; US), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Notes: Also known from Sierra Madre Mtns (PNH 78064, L; PNH 78289, L). Native.
  7. Dysoxylum verruculosum Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 377; EPFP 2 (1923) 366; Type: Wenzel 28, Leyte: Dagami, 5-May-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Notes: Note by L.L.Co: Possibly conspecific with Dysoxylum grande Hiern. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Dysoxylum grande Hiern, Fl. Brit. India 1 (1875) 547; Holzmeyer et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 1263; Type: from India. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, ?Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam.

Epicharis Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 March 2022
  1. Epicharis cumingiana (C.DC.) Harms, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 19b(1) (1940) 168; Holzmeyer et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 1265; ≡ Dysoxylum cumingianum C.DC., Monog. Phan. 1 (1878) 498; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 362; ≡ Hartighsea cauliflora Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 31 (1858) 412; Type: Cuming 1411 (CW, holo; BM, CGE, E, FI, G, G-DC, K, L, OXF, P, iso), Luzon: Albay. = Epicharis pyriformis (Merr.) Harms, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 19b(1) (1940) 168; ≡ Dysoxylum pyriforme Merr., PJS 3 c (1909) Bot. 149; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. = Epicharis siargaoensis (Merr.) Harms, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 19b(1) (1940) 168; ≡ Dysoxylum siargaoense Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 269; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. = Dysoxylum testaceum Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3093. = Dysoxylum sulphureum Elmer ex Merr., LPB 9 (1937) 3380; EPFP 2 (1923) 362. = Dysoxylum agusanense Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3350. = Epicharis triangularis (Merr.) Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 19b(1) (1940) 168; ≡ Dysoxylum triangulare Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 148; Type: Clemens 981, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Camp Keithley. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. LUZON: Albay, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela (photos), MINDANAO: Cotabato, Lanao del Sur, MINDORO, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR, SIARGAO, TABLAS. Notes: Lowland to medium elevation forests to c. 800m. Rather common. Native.
  2. Epicharis cuneata (Hiern) Harms, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 19bI (1940) 168; Holzmeyer et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 1265; ≡ Dysoxylum cuneatum Hiern, Fl. Brit. India 1 (1875) 549; Type: from Malaysia. = Dysoxylum cauliflorum Hiern, Fl. Brit. India 1 (1875) 549; Mabb., Fl Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 86. = Dysoxylum angustifoliolum Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 460; EPFP 4 (1925) 248; Type: FB 28910 Cenabre, Baldemor, Aduviso, Palawan. Forests, apparently at low elevation. = Dysoxylum foxworthyi Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3363, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 12823 (PNH, holo, ?lost; F, NA, NY, U, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), forested ridge on dry, well-drained soil, 1000ft. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Malay Peninsula, ?Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Notes: Forests, near sea-level to c. 300m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11, as Dysoxylum cauliflorum Hiern). Native.
  3. Epicharis densiflora Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 4 (1825) 167; Holzmeyer et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 1265; ≡ Dysoxylum densiflorum (Blume) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1868) 9; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 81; Mabb. & Pannell, Tree Flora Sabah & Sarawak 6 (2007) 162; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Native.
  4. Epicharis parasitica (Osbeck) Mabb., Taxon (2021); ≡ Dysoxylum parasiticum (Osbeck) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1966) 247; ≡ Lansium parasiticum (Osbeck) Sahni & Bennet, Indian Forester 100 (1974) 202; ≡ Melia parasitica Osbeck, Dagb. Ostind. Resa (1757) 278; Type: from Java. = Dysoxylum fragrans Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3365. = Epicharis longiflora (Merr.) Harms, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 19b(1) (1940) 168; ≡ Dysoxylum longiflorum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 538; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. = Epicharis leytensis (Merr.) Harms, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 19b(1) (1940) 168; ≡ Dysoxylum leytense Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 376; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. = Epicharis loheri (Merr.) Harms, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 19b(1) (1940) 168; ≡ Dysoxylum loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 30; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; Type: Loher 14181, Luzon: Rizal, Angilo, Mar-1914. = Epicharis robinsonii (Merr.) Harms, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 19b(1) (1940) 168; ≡ Dysoxylum robinsonii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 540; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Isabela (photos), Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Surigao, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: Usually in lowland primary forests, ascending to 1000m. Pollinated by butterflies. Native.

Goniocheton Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 March 2022
  1. Goniocheton arborescens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 177; Holzmeyer et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 1265; ≡ Dysoxylum arborescens (Blume) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 24; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 103. = Dysoxylum sibuyanense Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3376. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. CEBU (photos), LUZON: Isabela (photos), MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: A very common tree of primary and secondary forest including that on limestone, to 1500m. Native.

Heynea Roxb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 July 2022
  1. Heynea trijuga Roxb., Bot. Mag. 41 (1815) t. 1738; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 41. = Heynea sumatrana Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1861) 197; Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 273; EPFP 2 (1923) 380. = Trichilia connaroides (Wight & Arn.) Bentv. forma glabra Bentv., Act. Bot. Néerl. 11 (1962) 17. = Scutinanthe engleri Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 298. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. BAGUAN, BASILAN, LUZON: Camarines, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan. Notes: Lowland and mid-elevation forests. Native.

Lansium Correa

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 September 2019
  1. Lansium domesticum Corrêa, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10 (1807) 157; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 368. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO. Native.

Melia L.

  1. Melia azedarach L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 384. = Melia dubia Cav., Diss. 7 (1789) 364. Notes: Cultivated ones are primarily Indian cultivars with sweetly scented lilac to pink (occasionally white) flowers and are commonly known as ‘paraiso’. Note by L.L.Co: The species is a complex of wild and cultivated forms Mabberley (1984). The former is commonly known here by the vernacular name ‘bagalunga’ and its cognates ‘bagalnga’, etc. (Melia dubia), and is the white cedar of commerce. Native.

Munronia Wight

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 May 2018
  1. Munronia humilis (Blanco) Harms, Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 35 (1917) 80; ≡ Turraea humilis (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 30; Fl. Manila (1912) 274; EPFP 2 (1923) 359; ≡ Plagianthus humilis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 526. = Turraea palawanensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 307; EPFP 2 (1923) 359; Type: BS 15563 Fenix. Distribution: Java, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand. LUZON: Batangas, Laguna, Rizal, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets and ravines, near the seashore. Native.

Prasoxylon M.Roem.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 March 2022
  1. Prasoxylon alliaceum (Blume) M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. (1846) 101; Holzmeyer et al., Taxon 70 (2021) 1266; ≡ Dysoxylum alliaceum (Blume) Blume ex A.Juss., Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 19 (1832) 225; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 106; ≡ Guarea alliacea Blume, Flora 7 (1824) 290; Type: from Java. = Dysoxylum klemmei Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 273; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. = Dysoxylum platyphyllum Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 375; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. = Dysoxylum apoense Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3355. = Dysoxylum rostratum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 304; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. = Dysoxylum lanceolatum Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3368. = Dysoxylum euphlebium Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 305; EPFP 2 (1923) 363. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao, Surigao, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary rainforests, up to 1800m. Native.
  2. Prasoxylon excelsum (Spreng.) Mabb., Taxon (2021); ≡ Dysoxylum excelsum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 176; Type: from Java. = Dysoxylum pallidum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 366; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. = Dysoxylum altissimum Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 25; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 362. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. BABUYAN ISLS, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela (photos), Laguna, Quezon, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: In primary and secondary forests, including swamps and limestone forests, to 1000m. Native.

Pseudoclausena T.P.Clark

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 November 2017
  1. Pseudoclausena chrysogyne (Miq.) T.P.Clark, Blumea 38 (1994) 291; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 55; Mabb. & Pannell, Tree Flora Sabah & Sarawak 6 (2007) 183; ≡ Clausena chrysogyne Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 502. = Walsura brachybotrys Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 378; EPFP 2 (1923) 379. = Walsura multijuga King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 64 (1895) 83; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 148; EPFP 2 (1923) 379. = Walsura palawanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3393, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: LEYTE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Lanao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
    • forma velutina (Ridl.) T.P.Clark, Blumea 38 (1994) 294; ≡ Walsura velutina Ridl., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1930 (1930) 371; Type: from Sarawak. Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Lanao, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland primary forests, ascending to 800m. Native.

Reinwardtiodendron Koord.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 November 2017
  1. Reinwardtiodendron celebicum Koord., Meded. Lands Plant. 19 (1898) 389; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 369; Mabb., Blumea 31 (1985) 145; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 328. = Aglaia reinwardtiana Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1966) 230. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation primary forests, locally common. Native.
  2. Reinwardtiodendron humile (Hassk.) Mabb., Malaysian Forester 45 (1982) 452; ≡ Lansium humile Hassk., Hort. Bogor. Descr. 1 (1858) 121. = Aglaia dubia (Merr.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1966) 254; ≡ Lansium dubium Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 23; EPFP 2 (1923) 368. Distribution: Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. ALABAT, BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora (photos), Bulacan, Camarines, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO, NEGROS, SAMAR, TICAO. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation rainforests. Locally common. Native.

Sandoricum Cav.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 November 2017
  1. Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 237; Fl. Manila (1912) 274; EPFP 2 (1923) 361; ≡ Melia koetjape Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 101. = Sandoricum vidalii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 8; EPFP 2 (1923) 361; Type: Merrill 1824 (PNH, holo, lost; B, iso, lost; G, K, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Camarines, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Native and naturalized in the primary and secondary forests of Malesia to 1200m, or more. The wild form extends from Sumatra eastwards across Malesia to New Guinea. The cultivated forms in the Philippines falls mainly in the ‘kechapi’ category described by Mabberley (1995). Cultivars of this include the ‘native’ santol, corresponding to the Red Sentol of Corner (1940), ‘Manila’, a robust form now cultivated outside Malesia, and ‘Bangkok’, introduced here from Thailand in 1949. Planted and semi-cultivated throughout the settled areas of the Philippines, abundant in some second-growth forests. The wild forms known as Sandoricum vidalii is reported from Luzon. In primary forests at low and medium elevation where it occurs in low densities. Native.

Swietenia Jacq. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 May 2022
  1. Swietenia macrophylla King, Hooker's Icon. Pl. 16 (1886) t. 1550. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Source of valuable timber (mahogany). Naturalized in secondary forest. Naturalized.
  2. Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. (1760) 20; ≡ Cedrela mahagoni L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10 2 (1759) 940. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Similar to Swietenia macrophylla but leaves with 2-4 pairs of leaflets which are also much smaller. Source of mahogany lumber. Naturalized.

Toona (Endl.) M.Roem.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Toona calantas Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 105; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 357; Edmonds in Mabb., Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 12 (1995) 370. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. BATANES, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Sorsogon. Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Note by L.L.Co: Correct status of this species has yet to be determined against the widely-distributed Toona ciliata M.Roem. and Toona sureni (Blume) Merr. The distribution of Toona ciliata largely overlaps with that of Toona sureni. Toona calantas may be a good morphologically distinct species, or simply a large-fruited geographical variant. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Toona ciliata M.Roem., Synops. Monogr. 1 (1846) 139; Edmonds in Mabb., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 366. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON, MINDORO. Notes: Primary and disturbed, often riparian, rainforests, 0-1500m, occasionally higher. Native.
  3. Toona sureni (Blume) Merr., Interp. Rump. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 305; Edmonds in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 363; ≡ Swietenia sureni Blume, Catalogus (1823) 72. Distribution: Bhutan, Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BATANES, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Common to rare in primary and secondary forests, often in logged and disturbed areas, usually on riparian hillsides or slopes, from sea-level to 1700m. May be a mere geographical variant of Toona ciliata M Roem. Native.

Turraea L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 May 2018
  1. Turraea pubescens Hell., Kon. Vet. Acad. Nya Handl. 9 (1788) 308. = Turraea membranacea Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 306; EPFP 2 (1923) 359; Type: BS 977 Ramos (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, Jun-1906. Distribution: Cambodia, Java, Philippines, Thailand. LUZON: Pampanga, Rizal. Notes: Forested slopes, ascending to 700m; rare and local. Native.

Vavaea Benth.

  1. Vavaea amicorum Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 212; Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 301; EPFP 2 (1923) 359; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 35. = Vavaea ardisioides Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2676; Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 301; EPFP 2 (1923) 359. = Vavaea surigaoensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2768; Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 301; EPFP 2 (1923) 360. = Vavaea retusa Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 301; EPFP 2 (1923) 360. = Vavaea pilosa Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 302; EPFP 2 (1923) 360. = Vavaea heterophylla Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 303; EPFP 2 (1923) 360. = Vavaea pachyphylla Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 304; EPFP 2 (1923) 360. = Vavaea sorsogonensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 359. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BASILAN, BATANES, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Aurora, Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUTU. Notes: Primary and secondary lowland forests, on various soil types including limestone and ultramafics, mossy forests on exposed ridges and peaks, to 1300m. Native.

Walsura Roxb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 May 2018
  1. Walsura monophylla Elmer ex Merr., J. Arnold Arb. 35 (1954) 138; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3391, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; T.P.Clark, Blumea 38 (1994) 285; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); Type: Elmer 12903 (PNH, holo, lost; F, G, NY, iso), Palawan: Brooke’s Point, Addison Peak. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Often in stunted ultramafic forests. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Walsura pinnata Hassk., Retzia 1 (1855) 147; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 48, pro parte. = Walsura aherniana Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 34; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 379. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Locally common in forests at low and medium elevation. Native.

Xylocarpus Koen.

  1. Xylocarpus granatum J.Koenig, Naturf. 20 (1784) 2; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 358; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 378. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. In mangrove swamps bordering tidal streams, often associated with Nypa and Sonneratia. Native.
  2. Xylocarpus rumphii (Kostel.) Mabb., Malaysian Forester 45 (1982) 450; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 375; ≡ Carapa rumphii Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 5 (1836) 1988. = Xylocarpus moluccensis auct. non (Lam.) M.Roem.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 358. Distribution: Palaeotropics from Africa to Pacific Ocean. LUZON: Bataan, Quezon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Throughout Malesia but so far unrecorded from the Bornean (or New Caledonian) mainland and rare in Sumatra. Native.

References