Malvaceae

Abelmoschus Medik.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 May 2021
  1. Abelmoschus crinitus Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 1 (1830) 39; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 103. Distribution: China, India, Indochina, Java, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines. MINDORO. Native.
  2. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malv. (1787) 46; ≡ Hibiscus manihot L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 696. Distribution: SE Asia. Native.
    • ssp. tetraphyllus (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Borss.Waalk., Blumea 14 (1966) 97; ≡ Hibiscus tetraphyllus Roxb. ex Hornem., Hort. Bot. Hafn. 2 (1815) 661.
    • var. tetraphyllus. = Abelmoschus mindanaensis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 111; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 40. = Abelmoschus luzoniensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 207; EPFP 3 (1923) 40.
    • var. pungens (Roxb.) Hochr., Candollea 2 (1924) 87; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 99; ≡ Hibiscus pungens Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832 3 (1832) 213; ≡ Abelmoschus pungens (Roxb.) Wall., Cat. (1829) No. 1924, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 41. = Abelmoschus multilobatus Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 208; EPFP 3 (1923) 41.
  3. Abelmoschus moschatus Medik., Malv. (1787) 46; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 40; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 91. = Abelmoschus moschatus var. haenkeanus (C.Presl) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 40; ≡ Abelmoschus haenkeanus C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 2 (1835) 134. Distribution: SE Asia. Native.
    • var. moschatus.
    • var. tuberosus (Span.) Borss.Waalk., Blumea 14 (1966) 93; ≡ Hibiscus longifolius var. tuberosus Span., Linnaea 15 (1841) 170. = Abelmoschus sharpei Copel. ex Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 29; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 41. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized:.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench., Meth. Pl. (1794) 617; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 40; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 100; ≡ Hibiscus esculentus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 696. Distribution: Palaeotropics. Notes: Not naturalized. Okra.

Abutilon Mill.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 May 2021
  1. Abutilon auritum (Wall. ex Link) Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 1 (1826) 53; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 32; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 164; ≡ Sida aurita Wall. ex Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2 (1822) 206; Type: from Java. = Abutilon stipulare C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 2 (1834) 114; Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, holo), Luzon. Distribution: Australia, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON. Native.
  2. Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 1 (1826) 53; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 32; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 168; ≡ Sida hirta Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 7; Type: from India. Distribution: Africa, China, India, Middle East, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Presumably introduced and naturalized. In thickets and waste places (Merrill 1923). Naturalized.
  3. Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 1 (1826) 54; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 32; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 170; ≡ Sida indica L., Cent. Pl. II (1756) 26. Notes: Naturalized in thickets and waste places in and around towns (Merrill 1923). Naturalized.
    • ssp. indicum. = Sida philippinensis Gand., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 71 (1924) 631; Type: Cuming 748 (A, BM, Fl, G, K, L, MEL, P, iso). Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Riau Arch, Sulawesi, Sumatra.
    • ssp. albescens (Miq.) Borss.Waalk., Blumea 14 (1966) 173; ≡ Abutilon albescens Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1854) 285; Type: from Java.
      • var. albescens. Distribution: Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON, MINDANAO.
      • var. australiense Hochr., Ann. Cons. Jard. Bot. Genève 6 (1902) 20; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 175; Type: from Timor. Distribution: Australia, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN.

Alcea L. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Alcea rosea L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 687; ≡ Althaea rosea (L.) Cav., Diss. 2 (1785) 91; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 151.

Azanza Alef.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 November 2019
  1. Azanza lampas (Cav.) Alef., Bot. Zeitung 19 (1861) 298; Areces-Berazain & Ackerman, Bot. J. Lin. Soc. 181 (2016) 187; ≡ Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalz. & Gibs., Bombay Fl. (1861) 19; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 324; EPFP 3 (1923) 41; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 116; ≡ Hibiscus lampas Cav., Diss. 3 (1787) 154; Type: Sonnerat s.n. (P-JU, holo; NY, holo fragment), Philippines: 7-Mar-1786. = Thespesia sublobata Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 382; Type: Merrill Spec. Blanc. 561 (GH, neo; BO, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, 13-Oct-1913. Distribution: India to China and Indochina, Java, Philippines. Native.

Gossypium L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020
  1. Gossypium arboreum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 693; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 43; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 121. Distribution: India, Philippines, Sri Lanka. Notes: Wild and cultivated forms in the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia. Native.
    • var. arboreum.
    • var. obtusifolium (Roxb.) Roberty, Candollea 13 (1950) 38; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 122; ≡ Gossypium obtusifolium Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 183; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44. = Gossypium nangking Meyen, Reise 2 (1836) 326; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44.
  2. Gossypium barbadense L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 693; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 128. = Gossypium microcarpum Tod., Hort. Bot. Pan. 1 (1876) 63; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44, as ‘macrocarpum’. Distribution: S America. Notes: Naturalized in secondary forest. Naturalized.
    • var. barbadense.
    • var. acuminatum (Roxb. ex G.Don) Mast., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 347; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 129; ≡ Gossypium acuminatum Roxb. ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 1 (1831) 487. = Gossypium brasiliense Macfadyen, Fl. Jam. 1 (1837) 72; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 325; EPFP 3 (1923) 43.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Gossypium hirsutum L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 975; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 324; EPFP 3 (1923) 43; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 124. = Gossypium punctatum Schumach. & Thonn., Beskr. Guin. Pl. (1827) 309; Schumach., Kongl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. 4 (1829) 83; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44. = Gossypium paniculatum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 539; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44. = Gossypium taitense auct. non Parl.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44. Notes: Native of Central America and S North America, W Indies. Cultivated in Philippines. Not naturalized.
    • var. hirsutum.

Hibiscus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020
  1. Hibiscus bicalyculatus Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1905) 39; EPFP 3 (1923) 37; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 69; Type: FB 2450 Ahern’s collector (BO, K, NY, P, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation, in forested ravines along streams. Liana. Native.
  2. Hibiscus campylosiphon Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. 31, 1 (1858) 193; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 55; ≡ Bombycidendron campylosiphon (Turcz.) Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 110; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 42. Native.
    • var. campylosiphon. Distribution: LUZON: Cagayan, Rizal. Notes: Note by L.L.Co: Known only from two collections. Forests at low elevation.
    • var. glabrescens (Warb. ex Perkins) Borss.Waalk., Blumea 14 (1966) 56; ≡ Hibiscus glabrescens (Warb. ex Perkins) Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling & Vicinity 2 (2006) 389; ≡ Bombycidendron glabrescens Warb. ex Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 110; Type: Warburg 2045 (B, holo, lost), Luzon: Cagayan, Alcala; Botanic Gardens, Bogor, no. IX.B. 14 (BO, neo), Note by L.L.Co: This material was from a living tree in Bogor Botanic Garden, grown from seeds collected by Warburg (sub no. 2045). = Bombycidendron vidalianum (Naves) Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 112; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 43; ≡ Hibiscus vidalianus Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1877) 333; Type: Plate in S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas, t. 16. Distribution: CORON, LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout Luzon. Common in forested ravines and secondary forests at low to medium elevation up to 1200m.
  3. Hibiscus decaspermus Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Booms. Java 2 (1895) 115; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 51. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. BABUYAN ISLS, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland secondary vegetation, along or near the coast. Native.
  4. Hibiscus diversifolius Jacq., Coll. Bot. 2 (1789) 307; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 65. = Hibiscus paludosus Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 151; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 38; Type: M.S. Clemens s.n. (BO, G, L, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Madagascar, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Native.
  5. Hibiscus mutabilis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 694; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 322; EPFP 3 (1923) 38; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 66. Distribution: China, Taiwan. MINDORO. Notes: Widely cultivated and naturalized in ruderal areas. Naturalized.
  6. Hibiscus radiatus Cav., Diss. 3 (1787) 150; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 24; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 60. = Hibiscus cannabinus auct. non L.; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 244; EPFP 3 (1923) 37. Distribution: S & SE Asia. LUZON: Manila, Mountain Province, Pangasinan. Notes: Widely grown as a vegetable or medicinal in Malesia and escaping cultivation. Naturalized.
  7. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 694; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 323; EPFP 3 (1923) 38; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 72. Naturalized.
    • var. rosa-sinensis. Notes: Origin uncertain, but believed to be E Africa where a related species, Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast.) Hook.f. was first collected as a wild plant. Cultivated worldwide, particularly in the tropics and subtropics, as an ornamental plant or living fence. Naturalized in thickets and secondary forests.
  8. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 695; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 322; EPFP 3 (1923) 38; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 64. Notes: Origin not known. Cultivated in all tropical regions, mostly as vegetable and for fiber. Naturalized.
  9. Hibiscus surattensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 696; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 38; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 57; Type: from India. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Early secondary growths and waste places near human settlements in the lowlands. Native.
  10. Hibiscus syriacus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 695; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 39; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 75. Distribution: China, Taiwan. PALAWAN. Notes: Cultivated; wasteland near agricultural land. Naturalized.
  11. Hibiscus tiliaceus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 694; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 323; EPFP 3 (1923) 39; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 29; ≡ Talipariti tiliaceum (L.) Fryxell, Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 23 (2001) 258. Native.
    • ssp. tiliaceus. Notes: World tropics and subtropics. Throughout the Philippines, particularly along seashores and tidal streams. Sometimes further inland following riverbanks, or intentionally planted as hedge or ornamental. Seeds capable of long-distance dispersal by oceanic currents.
    • ssp. crestaensis Borss.Waalk., Blumea 14 (1966) 36; ≡ Talipariti crestaense (Borss.Waalk.) Fryxell, Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 23 (2001) 239; Type: BS 76992 Ramos (K, holo; NY, SING, iso), Luzon: Isabela, Mt Cresta, forest, low elevation, 3-Apr-1929. Distribution: LUZON: Isabela. Notes: Lowland forest. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection.
  12. Hibiscus vitifolius L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 696; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 39; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 79. Distribution: Africa, Australia, India, Java, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem., Hort. Hafn. Suppl. (1819) 149; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 47. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, India, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental. Not naturalized.
  2. Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast.) Hook.f., Bot. Mag. 106 (1880) t. 6524; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 323; EPFP 3 (1923) 38; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 73. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Elsewhere cultivated as an ornamental or used for living fences. Not naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Hibiscus panduriformis Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 151; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 82. Distribution: Africa, Australia, India, Java, Madagascar, Myanmar, ?Philippines, Sri Lanka. Notes: Note by L.L.Co: Sole Philippine record is a Perrottet collection from ‘Manila’ (L). Borssum doubts if this is correctly localized.

Kosteletzkya C.Presl

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 May 2018
  1. Kosteletzkya batacensis (Blanco) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 24; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 320; EPFP 3 (1923) 41; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 87; ≡ Hibiscus batacensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 544; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 380; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1879) 334; Type: Not extant; BS 41647 Ramos (US, neo; L, WU, isoneo), Luzon: Pampanga, Apalit, Jan-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal. Notes: Waste places in the lowland, under seasonal climatic conditions, apparently of local occurrence. Note by L.L.Co: Unfortunately, the neotype designated by Borssum (Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 877, US) for Blanco’s basionym does not represent this taxon. It is Modiola caroliniana (L.) G.Don. Native.

Malachra L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020
  1. Malachra capitata (L.) L., Syst. ed. 12 (1767) 458; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 319; EPFP 3 (1923) 36; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 146; ≡ Sida capitata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 685. = Napaea latifolia Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 387; Type: Merrill, Sp. Blancoana 351 (A, BM, K, L, P, US, neoiso), Luzon: Manila. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON, PANAY. Notes: Common weed in open waste places (Merrill 1923). Naturalized.
  2. Malachra fasciata Jacq., Coll. 2 (1789) 552; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 319; EPFP 3 (1923) 36; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 147. Naturalized.
    • var. fasciata. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Common weed in open waste places (Merrill 1923).

Malvastrum A.Gray (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020
  1. Malvastrum americanum (L.) Torr., Rep. U.S. Mex. Bound., Bot. (1859) 38; ≡ Malva americana L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 687. = Malvastrum spicatum (L.) A Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Sci. 2, 4 (Pl. Fendl.) (1849) 22; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 33. Distribution: America. Naturalized.
  2. Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke, Bonplandia 5 (1857) 297; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 316; EPFP 3 (1923) 33; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 152; ≡ Malva coromandeliana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 687. Distribution: ?America. Notes: Not native to the Philippines; a common weed around towns throughout the Philippines. Naturalized.

Malvaviscus Fabr. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Malvaviscus arboreus Cav., Diss. 3 (1787) 131; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 132. = Malvaviscus pilosus (Sw.) DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 445; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 320; EPFP 3 (1923) 37; ≡ Achania pilosa Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 102. Distribution: America.
    • var. arboreus. Notes: Cultivated, probably not naturalized (Borssum 1966).
    • var. penduliflorus (Moc. & Sessé ex DC.) Schery, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 29 (1942) 223; Steiner, Philip. Orn. Pl. (1960) 80; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 133; ≡ Malvaviscus penduliflorus Moc. & Sessé ex DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 445. Notes: Cultivated, probably not naturalized.

Modiola Moench (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 May 2021
  1. Modiola caroliniana (L.) G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1 (1831) 465; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 148; ≡ Malva caroliniana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 688. Distribution: S America. LUZON: Manila. Notes: Cultivated and occasionally running wild (Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 877, US). Note by L.L.Co: According to Blouchard (in annot.) the US specimen was previously misidentified and unfortunately designated neotype of Hibiscus batacensis Blanco (= Kosteletzkya batacensis). Naturalized.

Sida L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 May 2021
  1. Sida acuta Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 147; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 33; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 186; Type: from Java. Distribution: Africa, America, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Caribbean, China, India, Indian Ocean, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Likely not native to the Philippines (Merrill 1912, Van Borssum Waalkes 1966). Road sides, waste places. Naturalized.
    • ssp. acuta. Distribution: Africa, America, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Caribbean, China, India, Indian Ocean, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
    • ssp. carpinifolia (L.f.) Borss.Waalk., Blumea 14 (1966) 188; ≡ Sida carpinifolia L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 307. Distribution: Africa, America, Pacific Ocean. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Naturalized in Sumatra and Philippines.
  2. Sida ciliaris L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1145; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 179. = Sida longistipula Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 30; EPFP 3 (1923) 34. Distribution: America. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Introduced in Philippines. Open places. Naturalized.
  3. Sida cordata (Burm.f.) Borss.Waalk., Blumea 14 (1966) 182; ≡ Melochia cordata Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 143. = Sida veronicifolia Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 5; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 36, as ‘veronicaefolia’, excl. syn. Sida supina L’Herit. = Sida humulis Cav., Diss. 5 (1788) 277; Type: Nee s.n. (MA, neo), Luzon: Port Cavite. Distribution: Pantropic. LUZON. Notes: Pantropical species of unknown origin. Not native in Malesia. Open grasslands at sea level (Merrill 1923). Naturalized.
  4. Sida cordifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 684; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 33; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 199. Distribution: Pantropic. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; likely not native (Merrill 1912). Open waste places. Naturalized.
  5. Sida javensis Cav., Diss. 5 (1788) 10; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 34, as ‘javanensis’, excl. syn. Sida humilis Cav; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 184; Type: from Java. Distribution: Africa, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Vietnam. Native.
    • ssp. javensis. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY.
    • ssp. expilosa Borss.Waalk., Blumea 14 (1966) 185. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON. Notes: Only once reported from Philippines (Borssum 1966).
  6. Sida mysorensis Wight & Arn., Prodr. (1834) 59; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 35; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 180. Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDORO. Native.
  7. Sida rhombifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 684; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 35; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 195. Distribution: Tropics, subtropics. Notes: Cryptogenic in the Philippines. Native.
    • ssp. insularis (Hatus.) Hatus., Fl. Ryukyus (1971) 846; ≡ Sida insularis Hatus., J. Jap. Bot. 35 (1960) 351; Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 40. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATAN. Notes: Wayside on littoral rocky cliff; presence in Batan: Hatusima 28568, 28737 and 28853.
    • ssp. retusa (L.) Borss.Waalk., Blumea 14 (1966) 195; ≡ Sida retusa L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 961; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 35. Distribution: Malesia.
    • ssp. rhombifolia. = Sida semicrenata Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2 (1822) 202; Type: Merrill Sp. Blanc. 450 (US, neo; A, BO, K, L, P, isoneo), Manila. = Sida philippica DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 463; Type: ?Perrottet s.n. (G-DC ex Herb. Thibaud, holo), Philippines. Distribution: Malesia, Philippines.
  8. Sida spinosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 683; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 191. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Pantropic, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MINDANAO. Native.
  9. Sida subcordata Span., Linnaea 15 (1841) 172; Blumea 14 (1966) 201; Type: from Timor. = Sida puberula Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 90; EPFP 3 (1923) 35; Type: Vanoverbergh 853 (GRO, L, U, US, iso), Luzon: Bontoc. = Sida corylifolia Wall. ex Mast. in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1874) 342; Wall., Cat. (1829) No. 1805, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 34. Distribution: Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.

Thespesia Sol. ex Correa

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 October 2020
  1. Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland. ex Correa, Ann. Mus. Paris 9 (1807) 290; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 324; EPFP 3 (1932) 42; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 106; Fosb. & Sachet, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. No. 7 (1972) 8; ≡ Hibiscus populneus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 694. Distribution: Pantropic. Notes: Widespread throughout the Philippines along seashores. Occasionally found a few km inland, whether intentionally planted or not. Native.
  2. Thespesia populneoides (Roxb.) Kostel., Allg. Med. Pharm. Fl. 5 (1836) 1861; Fosb. & Sachet, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. No. 7 (1972) 10; Aragones et al., Bot. ident. Handb. Philip. Mangrove Trees (1998) 57; ≡ Hibiscus populneoides Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832 3 (1832) 191. Distribution: Australia, China, Indian Ocean, Indochina. APO, GUIMARAS (photos), LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Cavite, Manila, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Throughout Malesia; cultivated in some parts of the neotropics. Native.

Urena Dill. ex L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 May 2021
  1. Urena lobata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 692; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 319; EPFP 3 (1932) 36; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 138. Distribution: Pantropic. Notes: Waste places and thickets. Naturalized.
    • ssp. lobata.
      • var. lobata. = Pavonia rubiformis Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 31(1) (1858) 189; Type: Cuming 469 (BM, G, K, L, MEL, iso), Luzon: Calauang. = Urena lobata L. var. tomentosa (Blume) Walp., Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. German. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) 304; ≡ Urena tomentosa Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1825) 65; Type: Meyen s.n. (B, holo, lost), Luzon: Manila.
      • var. viminea (Cav.) Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1892) 375; Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 141; ≡ Urena viminea Cav., Diss. 6 (1788) 335; Type: from Brazil. = Urena lobata var. scabriuscula auct. non (DC.) Walp.; A.Gray, Bot. Wilkes US Explor. Exp. (1854) 169; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 320. Notes: Throughout most of Malesia.
    • ssp. sinuata (L.) Borss.Waalk., Blumea 14 (1966) 142; ≡ Urena lobata var. sinuata (L.) Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1854) 283; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 320; ≡ Urena sinuata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 692.

Literature