Linderniaceae

Artanema D.Don

  1. Artanema longifolium (L.) Vatke, Linnaea 43 (1882) 307; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 436; ≡ Columnea longifolia L., Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 2 (1767) 427; Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 90. Distribution: Africa, Malesia, SE Asia. LUZON: Cagayan. Native.

Bonnaya Link & Otto

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 February 2022
  1. Bonnaya antipoda (L.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Club. Brit. Isles 3 (1914) 415; Liang & Wang, Austr. Syst. Bot. 27 (2014) 188; ≡ Lindernia antipoda (L.) Alston in Trimen, Handbook Fl. Ceylon 6, suppl. (1931) 214; ≡ Vandellia antipoda (L.) T.Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 30 (1955) 177; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 604; ≡ Ilysanthes antipoda (L.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 467; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 439; ≡ Ruellia antipoda L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 635; Type: from Sri Lanka. = Bonnaya veronicifolia (Retz.) Sprengel, Syst. 1 (1825) 41; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 426; ≡ Gratiola veronicifolia Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 8; Type: from Australia. = Kyrtandra capsularis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 17. = Cyrtandra serrata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 18. = Cyrtandra glaberrima Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 12; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 453 (K, neo; BM, BO, GH, L, isoneo), Luzon: Manila. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Indochina, Japan, Malesia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Sri Lanka, Taiwan. LUZON: Bulacan (photos), NCR. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. A characteristic rice paddy weed, usually very common. Native.
  2. Bonnaya ciliata (Colsm.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 41; Liang & Wang, Austr. Syst. Bot. 27 (2014) 189; ≡ Lindernia ciliata (Colsm.) Pennell, Brittonia 2 (1936) 182; ≡ Vandellia ciliata (Colsm.) T.Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 30 (1955) 177; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 605; ≡ Ilysanthes ciliata (Colsm.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 461; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 440; ≡ Gratiola ciliata Colsm., Prodr. Desc. Gratiola (1793) 14; Type: from Java. = Lindernia serrata (Roxb.) F.Muell., Census (1882) 97; ≡ Ilysanthes serrata (Roxb.) Urban, Ber. Deutsch. Gesellsch. 2 (1884) 436; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 440; ≡ Gratiola serrata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 140. = Bonnaya brachiata Link & Otto, Icon. Pl. Sel. (1821) 25; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 148; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 426; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 348; Type: Chamisso s.n. (K, holo), Luzon: Manila. = Kyrtandra personata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 18; ≡ Cyrtandra personata (Blanco) Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 13; ≡ Bonnaya personata (Blanco) Hassk., Flora 47 (1864) 56; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 67 (BM, neo; BO, CAL, GH, K, L, isoneo). Distribution: Australia, China, India, Indochina, Malesia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. LUZON, MINDANAO, NEGROS. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. Low and medium elevation in the settled areas, in meadows, fallow rice paddies, along streams and open places in forests, etc. Photo. Native.
  3. Bonnaya ruellioides (Colsm.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 41; Fisher et al., Willdenowia 43 (2013) 221; Liang & Wang, Austr. Syst. Bot. 27 (2014) 192; ≡ Gratiola ruellioides Colsm., Prodr. Descr. Gratiol. (1793) 12; Type: from Java and India. Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Vietnam. LUZON: Laguna. Native.
  4. Bonnaya sanpabloensis Y.S.Liang & J.C.Wang, Austr. Syst. Bot. 27 (2014) 192; Type: Y.S. Liang 1534 (PNH, holo; TAIF, TNM, TNU, iso), Luzon: Laguna, San Pablo City, 23-Nov-2007. Distribution: China, Philippines, Thailand. LUZON: Laguna, Pangasinan, MINDORO. Native.

Legazpia Blanco

  1. Legazpia polygonoides (Benth.) T.Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 30 (1955) 359; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 599; ≡ Torenia polygonoides Benth., Scroph. Ind. (1835) 39; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 437. = Legazpia triptera Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 339. Distribution: Cambodia, India, Laos, Malesia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Lowland and medium elevation forests, old clearings, etc. Native.

Lindernia All.

  1. Lindernia procumbens (Krock.) Borbas, Bekesm. Fl. (1881) 80; Philcox, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 30; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 606; ≡ Anagalloides procumbens Krock., Fl. Siles. 2 (1790) 398. = Lindernia pyxidaria All., Misc. Taur. 3 (1755) 178; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 438. Distribution: Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, China, Continental Asia, E Asia, Europe, India, Java, Korea, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation, in rice paddies and open wet sites. Very local in the Philippines. Native.

Torenia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 June 2021
  1. Torenia anagallis (Burm.f.) Wannan, W.R.Barker & Y.S.Liang, Austral. Syst. Bot. 31 (2018) 250; ≡ Vandellia anagallis (Burm.f.) T.Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 30 (1955) 176; ≡ Lindernia anagallis (Burm.f.) Pennell, J. Arnold Arb. 24 (1943) 252; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 604; ≡ Ruellia anagallis Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 135. = Lindernia cordifolia (Colsm.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 437; ≡ Gratiola cordifolia Colsm., Prodr. Descr. Gratiol. (1793) 15. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Throughout the Philippines, but also in Palawan?; sea-level to 1600m, in damp open places, old rice paddies, seepage slopes, etc. Native.
  2. Torenia blancoi Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 346; EPFP 3 (1923) 436; ≡ Lindernia blancoi (Merr.) Philcox, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 23; ≡ Vandellia multiflora Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 505, nom. illeg., non G.Don; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 157 (NY, US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, thickets near Fort McKinley, 11-Oct-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Tarlac. Notes: Low elevation, on boulders in bamboo thickets and in recently cleared lands. Native.
  3. Torenia concolor Lindl., Bot. Reg. (1846) t. 62; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 425; EPFP 3 (1923) 436; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 296; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 629. Distribution: China, India, Indochina, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. Notes: Cultivated in the Philippines for ornamental purposes. Naturalized in rice fields. Naturalized.
  4. Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 2 (1827) 570; ≡ Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell., Census (1882) 97; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 437; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 605; ≡ Vandellia crustacea (L.) Benth., Scroph. Ind. (1835) 25; ≡ Capraria crustacea L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 87. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Indochina, Japan, Malesia, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Sri Lanka, Taiwan. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Common weed in settlements, open sites, rice paddies, and disturbed soil generally. Native.
  5. Torenia fournieri Linden ex E.Fourn., Ill. Hort. 23 (1876) 129; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 296. Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Cultivated and naturalized in rice fields. Naturalized.
  6. Torenia grandiflora (Merr.) Eb.Fisch., Schäferh. & Kai Müll., Willdenowia 43 (2013) 232; ≡ Vandellia grandiflora Merr., PJS 1 (Suppl. 3) (1906) 237; ≡ Lindernia philippinensis Philcox, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 23; ≡ Lindernia grandiflora (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 438, nom. illeg.; Type: Merrill 4359 (L, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Suyoc to Pauai, Oct/Nov-1905. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDORO. Notes: On banks and cliffs and in open places along trails, 1800-2400m. Native.
  7. Torenia subconnivens (Philcox) Eb.Fisch., Schäferh. & Kai Müll., Willdenowia 43 (2013) 232; ≡ Lindernia subconnivens Philcox, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 23; Type: Merrill 7652 (L, iso), Luzon: Benguet, May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Native.
  8. Torenia violacea (Azaola ex Blanco) Pennell, J. Arnold Arb. 24 (1943) 255; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 631; ≡ Mimulus violacea Azaola ex Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 357. = Torenia peduncularis Benth. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4 (1884) 276; Benth. in Wall., Cat. (1831) No. 3956, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 436. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Abra, Laguna, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets, stream embankments, old rice paddies, etc. Native.

Vandellia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 June 2021
  1. Vandellia multiflora (Roxb.) G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 549; ≡ Lindernia multiflora (Roxb.) Mukerjee, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 24 (1945) 131; ≡ Torenia multiflora Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 96. Distribution: India, Java, Malaysia, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (14-Jun-21): Reported for the Philippines by Fischer et al. (2013), no specimens cited. Also accepted as Lindernia multiflora (Roxb.) Mukerjee. Native.

Yamazakia W.R.Barker, Y.S.Liang & Wannan

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 August 2021
  1. Yamazakia pusilla (Willd.) W.R.Barker, Y.S.Liang & Wannan, Austral. Syst. Bot. 31 (2018) 250; ≡ Lindernia pusilla (Willd.) Boldingh, Zahl. Landoustr. Java (1916) 165; Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 312; EPFP 3 (1923) 438; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 607; ≡ Vandellia pusilla (Willd.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 246; Fl. Manila (1912) 424; ≡ Gratiola pusilla Willd., Sp. Pl. 1 (1797) 105. = Vandellia hirta (Cham. & Schltdl.) T.Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 30 (1955) 174; ≡ Torenia hirta Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 2 (1827) 571. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDORO (photos), NEGROS (photos). Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Lowlands and medium elevation, a common weed in cultivated soil, rice paddies, etc. Native.
  2. Yamazakia viscosa (Hornem.) W.R.Barker, Y.S.Liang & Wannan, Austral. Syst. Bot. 31 (2018) 249; ≡ Lindernia viscosa (Hornem.) Boldingh, Zahl. Landoustr. Java (1916) 165; Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 608; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 439; ≡ Vandellia viscosa (Hornem.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 246; ≡ Gratiola viscosa Hornem., Enum. Pl. Hort. Hafn., rev. ed. (1807) 19. Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Common weed in rice paddies, cultivated lands, etc. Native.

Literature