Lauraceae

Actinodaphne Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 December 2021
  1. Actinodaphne apoensis (Elmer) Kosterm. ex Brambach & Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 98; ≡ Neolitsea apoensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 727; Type: Elmer 11255 (NY, lecto; BISH, BM, E, GH, HBG, K, L, MO, P, PNH lost, U, US), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya (Mt Apo), Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao. Notes: Primary forests, c. 1050m. Native.
  2. Actinodaphne bicolor (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 190; ≡ Litsea bicolor Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 259; Type: Bolster 318. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao. Notes: Forests, 200-900m. Native.
  3. Actinodaphne dolichophylla (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 190; ≡ Litsea dolichophylla Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 134; Type: BS 17540 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation primary forests. Native.
  4. Actinodaphne intermedia (Elmer) Kosterm. ex Brambach & Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 98; ≡ Neolitsea intermedia Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 382; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 191; Type: Elmer 8832 (US, lecto; A, E, K, L, NY, PNH lost, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal. Notes: Forests and on ridges at medium elevation. Native.
  5. Actinodaphne macgregorii (Merr.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 10(5)(1988) 467; ≡ Litsea macgregorii Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 136; EPFP 2 (1923) 195. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN. Notes: Primary forests, c. 200m. Native.
  6. Actinodaphne multiflora Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 230. = Neolitsea vidalii Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 56; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 191; ≡ Litsea verticillata S.Vidal, Revis. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 226, nom. illeg., non Hance; Type: Vidal 1688 (K, L, MA, isosyn), Marinduque; Vidal 1689 (K, isosyn), Luzon: Morong, Bosoboso. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  7. Actinodaphne ramosii Brambach & Pelser, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2021) 425; ≡ Actinodaphne lanceolata (Merr.) Kosterm. ex Brambach & Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 98, nom. illeg., non Dalzell & A.Gibson; ≡ Neolitsea lanceolata Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 397; EPFP 2 (1923) 191; Type: BS 30231 Ramos (P, lecto; A, K, PNH lost, US, isolecto), Catanduanes: Mt Mariguidon, forest near summit, 27-Nov-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON. Notes: Tayabas east coast in Luzon. Mossy forests, probably at or above 900m. Native.
  8. Actinodaphne tayabensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 191; ≡ Litsea tayabensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 380; LPB (1909) 716; Type: Elmer 9144. = Actinodaphne conferta (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 190; ≡ Litsea conferta Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 259; Type: BS 23348 Ramos. = Actinodaphne copelandii Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3750; Type: Elmer 15994 (L, MO, NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, in moist humus covered soil of steep wooded mountain flanks, 1500ft, May-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU (photos), LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, Surigao, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Actinodaphne robusta S.Julia, Gard. Bull. Singapore 57 (2005) 82; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, ?Philippines. Notes: P.B. Pelser (27-Aug-20): Julia (2005) listed the Philippines as part of the distribution area of this species, but did not cite Philippine specimens.

Alseodaphne Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2021
  1. Alseodaphne longipes Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 146; Type: Elmer 13962 (UC, holo; MO, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, on steep slopes, c. 1000m, Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Forests, sometimes along streams, 970-1700m. Native.
  2. Alseodaphne philippinensis (Elmer) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 344; ≡ Iteadaphne philippinensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 713; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 204; Type: Elmer 11493. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Primary forest, c. 1800m. Native.
  3. Alseodaphne ramosii Kosterm., Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 21; Type: BS 80426 (BO, holo; NY, SING, iso), Batan Is. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN. Notes: L.L.Co: Known only from the type. Related to A. philippinensis (Elmer) Kosterm., but the leaves resemble those of Dehaasia cairocan (S.Vidal) C.K.Allen. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Alseodaphne elongata (Blume) Kosterm., J. Sci. Res., Indonesia 1 (1952) 120; ≡ Dehaasia elongata Blume, Rumphia 1 (1837) 163. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Sumatra.
  2. Alseodaphne oblanceolata (Merr.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 292; ≡ Beilschmiedia oblanceolata Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 84; Type: Elmer 20894 (syn); Elmer 20931 (syn). Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula.

Beilschmiedia Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 July 2022
  1. Beilschmiedia gemmiflora (?Blume) Kosterm., J. Sc. Res., Indonesia 1 (1952) 115. = Beilschmiedia glomerata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 15; EPFP 2 (1923) 198. Distribution: Indochina, Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Sur, Laguna. Notes: Lowland primary and secondary forests. Native.
  2. Beilschmiedia gitingensis (Elmer) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 156; ≡ Endiandra gitingensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 712; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 203. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Forests, c. 550m. Native.
  3. Beilschmiedia lucidula (Miq.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 23; ≡ Cryptocarya lucidula Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1 (1858) 922; Type: from Java. = Beilschmiedia nervosa (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 271; EPFP 2 (1923) 198; ≡ Linociera nervosa Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1652; Type: Elmer 11833 (PNH, holo, ?lost; A, BM, BO, E, K, L, NY, UC, US), Mindanao: Mt Apo, Todaya. = Beilschmiedia leytensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) 357; Type: Wenzel 501 (A, BM, US, syn), Leyte: Dagami; Wenzel 183 (syn), Leyte: Dagami. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
  4. Beilschmiedia maingayi Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5(13) (1886) 123; Nishida, Blumea 53 (2008) 265; De Kok, Blumea 61 (2016) 159; Type: from Malaysia. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. Notes: Not listed for the Philippines by De Kok (2016). Native.

Caryodaphnopsis Airy Shaw

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 May 2018
  1. Caryodaphnopsis tonkinensis (Lecomte) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. (1940) 74; ≡ Persea tonkinensis (Lecomte) Kosterm., J. Sci. Res. Indonesia 1 (1952) 151; ≡ Nothaphoebe tonkinensis Lecomte, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., sér. 5, 5 (1913) 106. = Nothaphoebe pyriformis (Elmer) Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 77; ≡ Persea pyriformis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2727; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 188; Type: Elmer 13311 (BISH, NA, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, among dense woods in gravelly soil along Catangan Creek, 1000ft, Jul-1912. Distribution: China, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests to 300m. Native.

Cassytha L.

  1. Cassytha filiformis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 35; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 211; EPFP 2 (1923) 204. Distribution: Pantropic. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. In thickets especially near the sea, parasitic on various coarse grasses, shrubs, etc., also in peat swamps (Agusan Marsh). Sometime found inland up to 500m in dry regions. Native.

Cinnamomum Schaeff.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 December 2019
  1. Cinnamomum anacardium Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 37; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3974; Type: FB 26682 Peñas (L, US, iso), Luzon: Cagayan, May-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte. Native.
  2. Cinnamomum burmannii (Nees & T.Nees) Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 569; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 187; Kosterm., Bibl. Laur. (1964) 258; Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 33; ≡ Laurus burmannii Nees & T.Nees, Cinnam. Disp. (1823) 57; Type: from W Java. = Cinnamomum mindanaense Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 705; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 187; Kosterm., Bibl. Laur. (1964) 291; Type: Elmer 11105 (BO, L, LE, NA, NY, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. Distribution: Borneo, China, Hong Kong, Indian Ocean, Indochina, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. JOLO, MINDANAO: Davao, Surigao, Zamboanga. Notes: Although the 'typical' form was mentioned by Merrill (1923) as an introduced but rarely cultivated species, wild forms formerly known as Cinnamomum mindanaense are known to occur in Jolo (Mt Dajo), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Davao (Mt Apo), and Surigao. In low and medium elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  3. Cinnamomum cebuense Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 56; Type: Univ. of San Carlos 45 (L, holo), Cebu: Cantipla. Mountain forest, 800m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU. Notes: Mountain forest, 800m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Cinnamomum celebicum Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 264; Kosterm., Bibl. Laur. (1964) 281; Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 36; Type: from ?Sulawesi. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao, PALAWAN. Native.
  5. Cinnamomum ebaloi Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 50; Type: Ebalo 1198 (PNH, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Norte, Maria Cristina Falls, 25-Feb to 30-Mar-1941. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Norte. Native.
  6. Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 570; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 187; De Kok, Gard. Bull. Singapore 71 (2019) 104; Type: from Java. = Cinnamomum subcuneatum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1 (1858) 895; Type: from Sumatra. = Cinnamomum griffithii Meissn. in DC., Prodr. 15 (1864) 19; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); Type: from Malaysia. Distribution: Borneo, India, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Lanao, PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Forests, up to 700m. L.L.Co: I don’t know how this differs from Cinnamomum utile Kosterm., some Philippine exsiccates cited by Merrill (1923) as Cinnamomum iners could be Cinnamomum utile. Native.
  7. Cinnamomum lanaoense Kosterm., Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 49; Type: L.E. Ebalo 1041 (BO, holo; A, L, MICH, iso), Mindanao: Lanao, Mt Parain. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao. Notes: L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection. Native.
  8. Cinnamomum loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 23; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; Type: Loher 14469, Luzon: Rizal, Mabiluang. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Native.
  9. Cinnamomum mendozae Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 58; Type: PNH 42428 Mendoza (US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Butuan, Barrio San Mateo, Sitio Tungao, 30-May to 26-Jun-1961. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  10. Cinnamomum mercadoi S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 224; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 187. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Babuyan Isls to Luzon to Mindanao; common in lowland and medium elevation forests, with some forms ascending to 2000m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  11. Cinnamomum myrianthum Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 125; EPFP 2 (1923) 188; Type: BS 27485 Ramos (A, L, US), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Bangui, Feb/Mar-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  12. Cinnamomum nanophyllum Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 45; ≡ Cinnamomum microphyllum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 148, nom. illeg., non Ridl.; Type: BS 45692 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Alzapan, mossy forest, c. 1900m, 7-Jun-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Native.
  13. Cinnamomum oblongum Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 59; Type: BS 24455 Ramos (L, holo; L, MO, NY, US, iso), Samar: Catubig River, Feb/Mar-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Native.
  14. Cinnamomum oroi Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 40; Type: FB 30880 Oro (NY, iso), Luzon: Tayabas, Kagascas, forested slopes, c. 300m, 1-Apr-1929. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Tayabas. Notes: Forest, c. 300m. L.L.Co: Known only from the type. Vegetatively similar to the montane Cinnamomum sandkuhlii Merr., but with smaller leaves, shorter inflorescence and more slender peduncles, smaller flowers, and obovoid ovaries. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  15. Cinnamomum panayense Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 46; Type: Martelino & Edaño Bur. Sc. 35653 (L, NSW), Panay: Capiz, Mt Bulilao. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Native.
  16. Cinnamomum perglabrum Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 45; Type: PNH 80419 Conklin & Buwaya (L, holo), Luzon: Ifugao, Banawe, Bayninan, in forest, 6000ft, 16-Apr-1963. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao. Notes: In forest, c. 1820m. Native.
  17. Cinnamomum rupestre Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 35; Type: PNH 12391 Sulit (L, holo), Palawan: Mt Victoria, SE slopes, depauperate forest on rocky ridge, c. 1000m, 18-May-1950. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: L.L.Co: Known from 5 collections. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  18. Cinnamomum sancticaroli Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 38; Type: Univ. San Carlos 680 (L, holo), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Mainit, Kulan, montane forest, 1200-1600m, 27-May-1974. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Montane forest, 1200-1600m. Native.
  19. Cinnamomum sandkuhlii Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 126; EPFP 2 (1923) 188; Type: FB 21289 Sandkuhl (L, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, a single tree in Forbes Park, c. 1400m, Apr-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao. Notes: Forest, 1400-2000m. Native.
  20. Cinnamomum trichophyllum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 148; Type: BS 49530 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Limot, Mt Mayo, on slopes in primary forest, c. 700m, 26-May-1927. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Notes: Forest, c. 700m. Native.
  21. Cinnamomum utile Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 55; Type: Elmer 10473 (L, holo; MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Notes: L.L.Co: I don’t know how this differs from Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Blume. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl, Prir. Rostlin 2 (1825) 36; Nees & Eberm., Handb. Med. Pharm. Bot. 2 (1831) 430; ≡ Laurus camphora L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 369. Notes: Introduced in some parts of the Philippines but not persisting.
  2. Cinnamomum verum J.Presl, Prir. Rostlin 2 (1825) 36; ≡ Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 568; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 188; Type: from Java. Distribution: Sri Lanka. Notes: Occasionally planted in the Philippines. Not naturalized?.

Cryptocarya R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2021
  1. Cryptocarya acuminata Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 192; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 199; Kosterm., Bibl. 383 (1964) no. 16; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 297; Type: FB 4342 Merritt (US), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Pampanga, MINDORO. Notes: In primary forests at low elevation, ascending to 500m. Native.
  2. Cryptocarya ampla Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 258; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 199; Kosterm., Bibl. 384 (1964) no. 8; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 299; Type: Ahern’s Collector 463 (NY, US, syn); Ahern’s Collector 397 (NY, US, syn); Ahern’s Collector 2438 (NY, US, syn), all from Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo. = Cryptocarya calelanensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 707; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; Type: Elmer 11610 (L 2 sheets, LE, MO, NY, U 2 sheets, US, iso), Mindanao: Mt Apo, Todaya. = Cryptocarya elliptifolia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 396; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; Type: BS 30330 Ramos (K, L, US, iso), Catanduanes. = Cryptocarya pacifica Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3753; Type: Elmer 16758 (L, MO, NA, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt Bulusan). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur, PANAY. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1000m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Cryptocarya beilschmiediifolia Kosterm., Reinwardtia 10 (1988) 455; Type: SMHI 586 Podzorski (A, iso), Palawan: Mt Beaufort. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: L.L.Co: Known only from the type locality, 2 collections. Native.
  4. Cryptocarya cagayanensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 385; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; Kosterm., Bibl. 390 (1964) no. 47; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 303; Type: FB 28440 Ponce (A, K, L, US, iso). Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela. Notes: Primary lowland forests. Native.
  5. Cryptocarya densiflora Blume, Bijdr. 11 (1826) 556; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; De Kok, Gard. Bull. Singapore 67 (2015) 320; Type: from Indonesia. = Cryptocarya laevigata Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2720, nom. illeg., non Blume; Type: Elmer 13604 (BM, BM, BISH, CAS, E, HBG, GH, K, L, NY, MO, P, US), Mindanao: Agusan Province, Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta), Aug-1912. = Cryptocarya affinis Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 9; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 199; Type: BS 23338 Ramos (PNH, holo, ?lost; BO, K, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Pocdal, in damp forest, 10-Sep-1915. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. DINAGAT, LUZON, MINDANAO: Agusan, Lanao, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 1050m. Conservation status: Least Concern (De Kok 2016). Native.
  6. Cryptocarya diversifolia Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1851) 335; De Kok, Kew Bulletin 71 (2016) 7:11; Type: from Sumatra. = Cryptocarya crassinervia Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1 (1858) 924; Kosterm., Bibl. 394 (1964) no. 66a; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 305; Type: from Sumatra. = Cryptocarya edanoi Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 384; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; Type: BS 36706 Ramos & Edaño (A, K, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Mt Tubuan. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, China, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Primary lowland forests. Native.
  7. Cryptocarya euphlebia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 396; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; Kosterm., Bibl. 398 (1964) no. 88a; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 307; Type: BS 30576 Ramos (US, iso), Catanduanes. = Cryptocarya foxworthyi Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3752; Type: Elmer 17330 (L, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan (Irosin). = Cryptocarya loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 28; Type: Loher 12349 (A, K, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Laguna, Rizal, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  8. Cryptocarya ferrea Blume, Bijdr. 11 (1826) 557; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 134; De Kok, Gard. Bull. Singapore 67 (2015) 326; Kew Bull. 71 (2016) 7:11; Type: from Indonesia. = Cryptocarya erectinervia Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 307; Type: from Borneo. = Cryptocarya glauca Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 258; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201; Type: FB 2981 Ahern’s Collector (MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, Apr-1905. = Cryptocarya glauciphylla Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 710; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201; Type: Elmer 12287 (L, MO, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, on reddish soil with a gravelly subsoil of wooded bank along the Pauala river, 750ft, Apr-1910. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Tarlac, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Least Concern (De Kok 2016). Native.
  9. Cryptocarya griffithiana Wight, Icon. (1852) t. 1830; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 134. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand. MINDANAO: Lanao. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  10. Cryptocarya ilocana S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 223; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201; Kostermans, Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 469; Type: Vidal 1684 (AAU, K, L, syn), Luzon: Ilocos Norte Prov. = Cryptocarya oligophlebia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 128; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; Type: BS 16155 Reillo (A, US, iso), Basilan, in forest, 20-200m, 19-Aug-1912. Distribution: Australia, Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Sorsogon, MALAMAWI, NEGROS. Notes: Low elevation primary forests. Native.
  11. Cryptocarya infectoria (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 11 (1855) 924; Kosterm., Bibl. 408 (1964) no. 136a; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 317; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 135; ≡ Cylicodaphne infectoria Blume, Mus. Bot. 2 (1856) 11. = Cryptocarya villarii S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 222; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 203, except Elmer 8531 [Cryptocarya tomentosa Blume]; Type: Vidal 520 (A, K, L), Luzon: Pampanga prov. (Mt Arayat). Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. LUZON: La Union, Pampanga, Rizal. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Native.
  12. Cryptocarya intermedia Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2719; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201; Kosterm., Bibl. 408 (1964) no. 138; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 312; Type: Elmer 13948 (L, LE, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta. = Cryptocarya lanceolata Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 127; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201; Kosterm., Bibl. 411 (1964) no. 149b; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 312; Type: FB 25098 Paraiso (US), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Ilocos Norte, La Union, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao, Zamboanga, NEGROS. Notes: Low elevation primary forests, ascending to c. 1200m. Native.
  13. Cryptocarya kurzii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1886) 119; De Kok, Gard. Bull. Singapore 67 (2015) 335; Kew Bull. 71 (2016) 7:16; Type: from Indonesia. = Cryptocarya bicolor Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 255; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 199; Type: FB 6548 Hutchinson (MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Mar-1907. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, TAWI-TAWI. Conservation status: Least Concern (De Kok 2016). Native.
  14. Cryptocarya laevigata Blume, Bijdr. 11 (1826) 556; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 136; Type: from Indonesia. = Cryptocarya cinnamomifolia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 128, nom. illeg., non Benth.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; ≡ Cryptocarya merrillii C.T.White, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933 (1933) 46; Type: BS 26317 Ramos & Edaño (US, holo; K, P, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija Province, Mt Umingan, 6-Aug-1916. = Cryptocarya trinervia Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3754, nom. illeg., no Latin descr. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Java, ?Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Lanao, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 1050m. Conservation status: Least Concern (De Kok 2016). Native.
  15. Cryptocarya lancilimba Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 314; Type: PNH 39947 Lagrimas (L, holo), Luzon: Cagayan, Claveria, Sta Monica, forest, 70m, 19-Nov-1959. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection. Native.
  16. Cryptocarya lauriflora (Blanco) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 254; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201; ≡ Salgada lauriflora Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 221. = Cryptocarya luzoniensis S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 222; Type: Vidal 1680 (AAU, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Cardona. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
  17. Cryptocarya loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 24; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; Type: Loher 12349, Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, Oct-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: L.L.Co: Allied to Cryptocarya oblongata Merr., differing especially in its fewer nerves. Native.
  18. Cryptocarya lucida Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 335; Kosterm., Bibl. 413 (1964) no. 168a; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 316; Type: from Borneo. = Cryptocarya ramosii Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 395; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; Type: BS 33071 (A, K, US), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Bangui to Claveria. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Laguna, MINDORO. Native.
  19. Cryptocarya mackinnoniana F.Muell., Fragm. 5 (1865) 169. Distribution: Australia, Philippines. BASILAN. Native.
  20. Cryptocarya mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2721; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; Kosterm., Bibl. 418 (1964) no. 195; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 318; Type: Elmer 13269 (A, G, L, LE, MO, NY, U, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte. Native.
  21. Cryptocarya oblongata Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 129; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; Type: Merrill 1033 (leg. Garcia), Aurora: Baler, Aug-1902. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Laguna. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  22. Cryptocarya oligocarpa Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 257; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; Kosterm., Bibl. 425 (1964) no. 229; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 321; Type: BS 34716 (A, US, iso), Mindanao: Surigao prov. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, MINDANAO: Surigao, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forest. Native.
  23. Cryptocarya palawanensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 256; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); Type: FB 4141 Curran (US, iso). Palawan: near Iwahig Penal Settlement, lowland forest behind mangrove, Apr-1906. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests. Known from seven collections. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  24. Cryptocarya parvifolia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 271; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; Type: Wenzel 998 (A, NY, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Buenavista near Jaro, in forest, Jul-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Notes: Primary forest, c. 900m. Native.
  25. Cryptocarya samarensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 130; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; Kosterm., Bibl. 433 (1964) no. 275; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 330; Type: BS 17531 Ramos (K, US), Samar: Cauayan Valley, in forests along small streams, 27-Mar-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Zamboanga, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  26. Cryptocarya subvelutina Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 707; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; Kosterm., Bibl. 435 (1964) no. 290; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 335; Type: Elmer 11737 (L, LE, MO, NY 2 sheets, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Mt Apo, Todaya. = Cryptocarya oligophlebia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 128; EPFP 2 (1923) 202; Kosterm., Bibl. 425 (1964) no. 230; Type: BS Reillo 16155 (K), Basilan, replicates of this number of the same locality and date in A and US represents Cryptocaria ilocana S.Vidal (= Cryptocaria triplinervis R.Br.). = ?Cryptocarya pallida Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 256; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; Kosterm., Bibl. 426 (1964) no. 238a; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 335; Type: Ahern 594, ‘294’ in Merrill (1923), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Tetuan, Feb/Jun-1901. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Davao, Surigao, Zamboanga del Norte. Notes: Primary forests, from lowland to 1050m. Native.
  27. Cryptocarya teysmanniana Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1860) 360; Kosterm., Bibl. 436 (1964) no. 298; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 318; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 137; Type: from Sumatra (Palembang). = Cryptocarya everettii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 257; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; Type: FB 4236 Everett (MO, US, syn); FB 4311 Everett (US, syn), Negros: Negros Occidental prov. = Cryptocarya everettii Merr. var. navesii Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 706; Type: Elmer 12505 (PNH, holo, lost; L, MO, NY, iso). Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. BUCAS GRANDE, MINDANAO: Surigao, NEGROS, PANAY, POLILLO, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Least Concern (De Kok 2016). Native.
  28. Cryptocarya todayensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 709; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; Type: Elmer 10713 (L, NY, US, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909; Elmer 11919 (L, NY, US, syn), same locality, Oct-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Primary forests, c. 1000m. Native.
  29. Cryptocarya tomentosa Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 335; Kosterm., Bibl. 436 (1964) no. 301a; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 338; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 137; Type: from Borneo. = Cryptocarya fuliginosa Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3807, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Kosterm., Bibl. 402 (1964) no. 102; Type: Elmer 8531 (L, LE, iso), Luzon: Baguio. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Benguet, OLUTANGA. Notes: Lowland forests generally. Native.
  30. Cryptocarya vidalii (Elmer) Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 130; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 203; ≡ Endiandra vidalii Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 711; Type: Elmer 12131 (GH, L, MO, NY 2 sheets, US, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), moist clay soil on a wooded Pauala river bank at 750ft, Mar-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Primary forests, c. 225m. Native.
  31. Cryptocarya zamboangensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 130; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 203; Type: FB 13395 Foxworthy, de Mesa & Villamil, Mindanao: Zamboanga, Siay River, 29-May-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.

Needs name

  1. Cryptocarya crebrinervia ined.; Voucher: Merrill Philip. Pl. 1416 (NY), Luzon: Laguna, Feb-1913. Distribution: LUZON: Laguna. Native.
  2. Cryptocarya hypsineura ined.; Voucher: PNH 6353 Sulit & Conese (PNH), Samar: Concord, Bagacay, Km 59.5, dipterocarp forest, 250m, 25-May-1948. Distribution: SAMAR. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Cryptocarya nitens (Blume) Koord. & Valeton, Meded. Lands Plantentuin 68 (1904) 220; De Kok, Kew Bull. 71 (2016) 7:7; ≡ Tetranthera nitens Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1851) 375. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, ?Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. ?LUZON: ?Batangas, ?Nueva Ecija. Notes: P.B. Pelser (20-Jun-20): Not listed for the Philippines by De Kok (2016), but L contains two Philippine specimens that were identified as this species (Herbarium Insularum Philippinarum 1139 & 1140).

Dehaasia Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2020
  1. Dehaasia cairocan (S.Vidal) C.K.Allen, J. Arn. Arb. 23 (1942) 445; ≡ Beilschmiedia cairocan S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 223; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 198; Type: Vidal 519 (L, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov. = Beilschmiedia nigrifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1797; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 198; Type: Elmer 12834 (L, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, gravelly wooded river bank, 1000ft. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, TICAO. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  2. Dehaasia incrassata (Jack) Kosterm., J. Sc. Res. Indonesia 1 (1952) 91; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 139; Fijridiyanto et al., Blumea 65 (2020) 171; ≡ Dehaasia incrassata (Jack) Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 33 (1952) 230, nom. superfl; ≡ Laurus incrassata Jack, Malayan Misc. 2 (1822) 33; Type: from Sumatra. = Dehaasia triandra Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 193; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 199. = Beilschmiedia purpurea Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 703; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 199; Type: Elmer 11288 (A, BM, E, G, HBG, K, L, LE, MO, NY, PNH lost?, US), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, wooded bench bordering open grassy glens, 2750ft, Aug-1909. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, NEGROS, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.

Endiandra R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 May 2018
  1. Endiandra coriacea Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 14; EPFP 2 (1923) 203. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Taiwan. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, La Union, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Endiandra laxiflora Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 182; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 204; Type: FB 25416 Labitag (US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Sampaloc, in semi-open forest, 300-400m, April-1916. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Apayao, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.

Eusideroxylon Teijsm. & Binn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. & Binn., Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 25 (1863) 292; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 190. Distribution: Borneo, Java Sea, Sumatra. TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Lindera Thunb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 July 2020
  1. Lindera apoensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 714; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 204; Kosterm., Bibl. Laur. (1964) 740; Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 83; Type: Elmer 11640 (BO, L, LE, MO, NA, NY, U, US), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Lanao. Notes: Lowland to medium elevation primary forests. Native.

Litsea Lam.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2021
  1. Litsea albayana S.Vidal, Rev. Fl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 227; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 192. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Camarines, Laguna, MINDANAO, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 900m. Native.
  2. Litsea anomala Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 12; EPFP 2 (1923) 193; Type: BS 23652 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: Primary forests at medium elevation. Native.
  3. Litsea baruringensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 719; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 193; Type: Elmer 11736. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Forested slopes, c. 1050m. Native.
  4. Litsea baticulin (Blanco) Kosterm., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 10 (1969) 286; ≡ Olax baticulin Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 589; Type: FB 31212 (NY, neo), Luzon: Pangasinan, Mangatarem, Apr-1930. = Litsea leytensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 272; EPFP 2 (1923) 195; Type: Wenzel 911 (A), Leyte. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Pangasinan, Quezon, Sorsogon, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11, as Litsea leytensis). Native.
  5. Litsea catubigensis Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 500; Type: BS 24555 Ramos (US, holo; L, NY, iso), Samar: Catubig River, Feb/Mar-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Native.
  6. Litsea collina S.Moore, J. Bot. 61 (1923) Suppl. 43; Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 500; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); Type: from New Guinea. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Known from Palawan from FB 27884 Cenabre. Native.
  7. Litsea cordata (Jack) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1886) 177; Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 500; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 154; Ng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 57 (2005) 226; ≡ Tetranthera cordata Jack, Malayan Misc. 2(7) (1822) 34. = Litsea mappacea (Blume) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 3 (1900) 143; ≡ Tetranthera mappacea Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1851) 381. = Litsea perrottetii (Blume) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 180; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 210; EPFP 2 (1923) 196; ≡ Tetranthera perrottetii Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1851) 384. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: In most or all islands and provinces; chiefly in secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  8. Litsea diospyrifolia Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 41; Type: BS 76459 Edaño (A, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Her-it River, c. 800m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur. Notes: Forests, 800-1300m. Native.
  9. Litsea elliptica Blume, Bijdr. 11 (1826) 563; Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 502; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 155; Ng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 57 (2005) 230; Type: from Java. = Litsea odorifera Valeton, Icon. Bogor. 3 (1909) t. 276; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 196. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: On forested ridges, 150m. Native.
  10. Litsea firma (Blume) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1886) 162; Kosterm., Bibl. Laur. (1964) 817; Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 99; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 156; Ng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 57 (2005) 230; ≡ Tetranthera firma Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1851) 381; Type: from W Java, Sulawesi, Borneo etc. (syn). = Litsea sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 724; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 197; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); Type: Elmer 12536 (MO, NY, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), moist rocky densely wooded bank of the Sinuban creek, 750ft, May-1910. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra. PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Native.
  11. Litsea fulva (Blume) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 181; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 193; Ng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 57 (2005) 230; ≡ Tetranthera fulva Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 377; Type: Cuming 1620. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 900m. Native.
  12. Litsea garciae S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 228; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 194; Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 502; Ng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 57 (2005) 231; Type: Vidal 861 (L, iso), Philippines. = Litsea griseola Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 382; Type: Elmer 9242, Luzon: Tayabas, Lucban, May-1907. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Davao, MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: Primary and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  13. Litsea globifera Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 504; Type: BS 19515 Ramos (US, holo), Luzon: Tayabas, Mt Banajao. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Quezon. Native.
  14. Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 321; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 210; EPFP 2 (1923) 194; Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 505; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 157; ≡ Sebifera glutinosa Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 638. = Litsea baracatanensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 720; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 193; Type: Elmer 10993 (K, L, LE). Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines, in secondary and primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  15. Litsea grandis (Wall. ex Nees) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1886) 162; Kosterm., Bibl. Laur. (1964) 828; Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 100; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 158; Ng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 57 (2005) 233; ≡ Polyadenia grandis Wall. ex Nees, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2 (1831) 62; Type: from W Java. = Litsea ampla Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 133; EPFP 2 (1923) 193; Type: Merrill 1654 (BO, GH, L, MO, US, iso), Samar: Apr-1914. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Aurora, Camarines, Isabela, Quezon, MINDANAO: Lanao, Misamis, Zamboanga, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forest at low and medium elevation. Native.
  16. Litsea hutchinsonii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 259; EPFP 2 (1923) 195; Type: FB 9148 Hutchinson. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, BASILAN, LUZON: Bataan, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  17. Litsea ilocana Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 132; EPFP 2 (1923) 195; Type: FB 25485 Paraiso, Luzon: Ilocos Sur, Talinaaden, on slopes, c. 450m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur. Notes: Forests, c. 450m. Native.
  18. Litsea lancifolia (Roxb. ex Nees) Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. (1880) 181; Ng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 57 (2005) 234; Ngearnsaengsaruay et al., Thai For. Bull. 39 (2011) 68; ≡ Tetranthera lancifolia Roxb. ex Nees, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2 (1831) 65; Type: from India. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. lancifolia; Ng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 57 (2005) 236. = Litsea varians (Blume) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 3 (1900) 143; Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 510; ≡ Tetranthera varians Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1851) 376; Type: from Borneo. = Litsea cinerea (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 193; ≡ Actinodaphne cinerea Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1795; Type: Elmer 12947 (A, BISH, BM, E, HBG, L, MO, K, NA, NY, U, US, iso), Palawan. = Litsea wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 358; EPFP 2 (1923) 197; Type: Wenzel 626 (MO, US, iso), Leyte. = ?Litsea micrantha Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 136; EPFP 2 (1923) 195; Type: Ramos 17505 (US), Samar. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Tayabas, ?MINDANAO: ?Davao Oriental, ?Lanao, ?Misamis, PALAWAN. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11, as Litsea varians). P.B. Pelser (20-Jun-20): Fern.-Vill. (1880) listed this species for Bataan and Tayabas and L contains specimens under that name from Sorsogon (Sinclair & Edaño 9609) and Palawan (Soejarto & Madulid 6108). F. Brambach (27-Aug-20): Kostermans annotated an isotype of Litsea cinerea Elmer from Palawan in A as Litsea lancifolia and another one in L as L. varians (Blume) Boerl. (reduced to a synonym of the former by Ng (2005)).
  19. Litsea luzonica (Blume) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 181; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 195; ≡ Tetranthera luzonica Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 377. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces. “This interpretation is largely based on Cuming 1585 and 1486, referred here by Meisner. Blume’s actual type was a specimen collected by Perrottet; Foxworthy, who examined it, notes that Elmer 7699 and 9133 agree with it; they do not very closely match Cuming’s specimens, so that perhaps more than one species is represented” (Merrill 1923). Fernandez-Villar’s combination is antedated by Litsea luzonica Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 284. Native.
  20. Litsea microphylla (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 196; ≡ Actinodaphne microphylla Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 375. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: Exposed ridges, c. 1000m. Native.
  21. Litsea oblongifolia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 137; EPFP 2 (1923) 196. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Native.
  22. Litsea perfulva Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 723; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 196. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Primary forests, c. 1100m. Native.
  23. Litsea philippinensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 260; EPFP 2 (1923) 196. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  24. Litsea plateaefolia Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 377; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 196. = Litsea abraensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 132; EPFP 2 (1923) 192; Type: BS 27048 Ramos, Luzon: Abra, Mt Posuey, on damp forested slope, 4-Feb-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, NEGROS. Notes: Medium elevation forested slopes and along streams, c. 750m in Negros. Native.
  25. Litsea quadrangularis Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 507; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); Type: BS 7877 Ramos (US, holo), Luzon: Cagayan Prov. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, PALAWAN. Native.
  26. Litsea quercoides Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 378; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 197; Type: Elmer 16329. = Litsea euphlebia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 135; EPFP 2 (1923) 193; Type: BS 13523 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Lanao, NEGROS. Notes: Primary forests, low elevation to 1200m. Native.
  27. Litsea rubicunda Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 351; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 164. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. Native.
  28. Litsea segregata Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 721; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 197. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Primary forests, c. 1000m. Native.
  29. Litsea tomentosa Blume, Bijdr. 11 (1826) 566; Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 509; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 165. = Litsea membranacea Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 380; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 195; Type: Elmer 8961 (K, LE), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. = Actinodaphne samarensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 190; ≡ Litsea samarensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 138; Type: BS 17541 Ramos. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, ?Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Lanao, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  30. Litsea urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2724; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 197. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao. Native.
  31. Litsea vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 139; EPFP 2 (1923) 197. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Notes: Forests, up to 1700m. Native.
  32. Litsea velutina Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2726; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 197. Distribution: Java, Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Forests, c. 1500m. Native.
  33. Litsea whitfordii Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 197; ≡ Actinodaphne philippinensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 192; Type: Whitford 1416 (K, syn), Mindoro: Bongabong River, Feb-1906; Whitford 1476 (K, US, syn), Mindoro: Bongabong River, Mar-1906; Merritt 3667 (syn). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDORO. Notes: Forests at low elevation. F. Brambach (27-Aug-20): Kostermans annotated both Whitford syntypes in K as Litsea elliptica Blume. Native.

Machilus Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 September 2018
  1. Machilus curranii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 349; EPFP 2 (1923) 189; ≡ Persea curranii (Merr.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 191; Type: FB 18080 Curran. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: High montane cloud forest, 2400-2700m. Native.
  2. Machilus philippinensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 56; EPFP 2 (1923) 189; ≡ Cinnamomum philippinense (Merr.) C.E.Chang, Fl. Taiwan 2 (1976) 417; ≡ Persea philippinensis (Merr.) Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 384. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Cagayan, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, MINDORO. Notes: Ridge forests, 800-2300m. P.B. Pelser (26 May 2018): Not presently clear if this species is better placed in Cinnamomum (Ju et al. 2006, Ho & Hung 2011). Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Machilus thunbergii Siebold & Zucc., Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4(3) (1846) 202; ≡ Persea thunbergii (Sieb. & Zucc.) Kosterm., Comm. For. Res. Inst. Bogor 57 (1957) 35; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 30. Distribution: Japan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATAN. Notes: From Mt Iraya. In thickets, 300m. Native.

Neolitsea (Benth. & Hook.f.) Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 August 2020
  1. Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm., J. Sci. Res., Indonesia 1 (1952) 85; Ng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 57 (2005) 243; ≡ Laurus cassia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 369. = Neolitsea zeylanica (Nees) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 57; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 192; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 169; ≡ Litsea zeylanica Nees, Amoen. Bot. Bonn. 1 (1823) 58. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Batangas, Zambales. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Native.
  2. Neolitsea incana Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1794; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 191; Type: Elmer 13184 (BM, E, L, NY, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, summit Mt Pulgar, May-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Dense thicket at the summit, c.1300m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Neolitsea megacarpa Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 349; EPFP 2 (1923) 191; Type: Curran, Merritt & Zschokke FB 18110 (K, US, isosyn), Curran, Merritt & Zschokke, FB 18144 (isosyn). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forests, 2200-2400m. Native.
  4. Neolitsea microphylla Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 57; EPFP 2 (1923) 191; Type: Elmer 6905 (E, K, NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDORO. Notes: Mossy forests, 1200-2400m. Native.
  5. Neolitsea paucinervia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 398; EPFP 2 (1923) 191; Type: BS 23316 Ramos (A, US), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Kililibong, mossy forest, 17-Aug-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon. Notes: Mossy forests at or above 1000m. Native.
  6. Neolitsea villosa (Blume) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 261; EPFP 2 (1923) 192; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 168; Ng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 57 (2005) 245; ≡ Litsea villosa Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 349; Type: from Moluccas. = Neolitsea vulcanica Elmer, ined.; Voucher: Elmer 15752. Distribution: Malay Peninsula to Moluccas. LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Mossy forests, 900-2000m. Native.

Nothaphoebe Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 Augustus 2020
  1. Nothaphoebe leytensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 190; ≡ Persea leytensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 383. = Persea surigaoensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2728. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Surigao, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  2. Nothaphoebe umbelliflora (Blume) Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 328; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 172; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); ≡ Ocotea umbelliflora Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 11 (1825) 573. = Nothaphoebe malabonga (Blanco) Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 358; EPFP 2 (1923) 189; ≡ Alseodaphne malabonga (Blanco) Kosterm., J. Sc. Res., Indonesia 1 (1952) 125; ≡ Ajovea malabonga Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 233. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation forest. Native.

Persea Gaertner (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 May 2018

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Persea americana Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8 (1768); Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 211; EPFP 2 (1923) 188. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Widely cultivated for its edible fruits. Not naturalized? Avocado.

Phoebe Nees

Last edited by John Paul Collantes & Pieter B. Pelser, 2 June 2020
  1. Phoebe glabrifolia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 140; EPFP 2 (1923) 189; Type: BS 17552 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  2. Phoebe sterculioides (Elmer) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 262; EPFP 2 (1923) 189; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); ≡ Persea sterculioides Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 295. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Phoebe grandis (Nees) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arbor. 8 (1934) 61; ≡ Alseodaphne grandis Nees in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2 (1831) 72; Slik, Plants of Southeast Asia (2009 onwards). Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, ?Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Notes: Podzorski 728 (L) possibly represents this species in the Philippines.

Literature