Lamiaceae

Labiatae

Achyrospermum Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 September 2019
  1. Achyrospermum densiflorum Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 840; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 412; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 23; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 328; Type: from Java. = Achyrospermum philippinense Benth., Prodr. 12 (1848) 458; Type: Cuming 1884 (K), Philippines. Distribution: China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Native.

Ajuga L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 September 2019
  1. Ajuga integrifolia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 108; Type: from Nepal. = Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 1 (1830) 59, nom. superfl; Wall., Cat. 1829, no. 2032, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 408; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 31; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 31; Type: from Nepal. Distribution: Afghanistan, China, India, Indochina, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand. BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO. Native.
  2. Ajuga taiwanensis Nakai ex Murata, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 23 (1968) 23. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. Notes: P.B. Pelser (14-Sep-19): not recorded for the Philippines by Bramley (2019). Native.

Anisomeles R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 September 2019
  1. Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 512; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 411; EPFP 3 (1923) 412; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 34; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 329; ≡ Nepeta indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 571; Type: from India. = Anisomeles indica forma albiflora (Hassk.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 512; ≡ Anisomeles malabarica var. albiflora Hassk., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1848) 485. = Anisomeles indica forma rubicunda Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 512. = Phlomis alba Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 474, nom. illeg., non Forssk; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 612 (K, neo; US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Rizal. Native.

Basilicum Moench

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 September 2019
  1. Basilicum polystachyon (L.) Moench, Suppl. Meth. Pl. (1802) 143; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 39; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 366; ≡ Moschosma polystachyum (L.) Benth. in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 2 (1830-31) 13; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 421; ≡ Ocimum polystachyon L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 567; Type: India. = Moschosma tenuiflorum auct. non (L.) Heynh.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 421. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.

Callicarpa L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 September 2019
  1. Callicarpa albidotomentella Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 300; EPFP 3 (1923) 382; Type: BS 26976 Ramos (K, lecto; A, isolecto), Luzon: Abra, Mt Posuey, along small streams in forests, c. 120m, 5-Feb-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra. Notes: Lowland forests along streams. Only known from type (Bramley 2013). Conservation status: Data Deficient (Bramley 2013). Native.
  2. Callicarpa angusta Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 643; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 382; Type: Cuming 1425 (K, lecto; BM, NY, P, isolecto), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, 1841. = Callicarpa erioclona Schauer forma rivularis (Merr.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 19; ≡ Callicarpa rivularis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 340; EPFP 3 (1923) 387; Type: BS 660 Foxworthy (US, lecto), Palawan: Palawan, Mt Victoria, on rocky riverbanks, c. 1150m, 23-Mar-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Conservation status: Least Concern (Bramley 2013). Native.
  3. Callicarpa apoensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 861; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 382; Type: Elmer 11491 (GH, lecto; BM, BO, GH, NY, Z, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Forests, c. 1750m. Conservation status: Endangered B1 (a,biii), B2 (a,biii) (Bramley 2013). Native.
  4. Callicarpa arborea Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. Carey & Wall., I (1820) 405; Hort. Bengal. 10 (1814), nom. nud.; Fl. Ind., ed. Carey, 1 (1832) 390. = Callicarpa arborea Roxb. var. psilocalyx (H.J.Lam) Moldenke, Phytologia 4 (1952) 125. = Callicarpa tomentosa var. magna (Schauer) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg ser. 3, 3 (1921) 22; ≡ Callicarpa magna Schauer, Prodr. 11 (1847) 641; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 386; Type: Cuming 1266 (K, lecto; BM, E, K, MICH, MO, isolecto), Luzon: Albay (Cagayan). Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Chiefly in lowland and medium elevation secondary forests. Conservation status: Least Concern (Bramley 2013). Native.
  5. Callicarpa basilanensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 263; EPFP 3 (1923) 382; Type: FB 6124 Hutchinson (NY, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Jul-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga del Norte. Notes: Chiefly in lowland secondary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable B2 (a,biii) (Bramley 2013). Native.
  6. Callicarpa bicolor Juss., Ann. Mus. Paris 7 (1806) 77; Type: from New Britain. = Callicarpa bicolor Juss. var. bermejosi Moldenke, Phytologia 14 (1967) 398; Type: BS 1534 J. Bermejos (US, holo; NY, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Bulalacao. = Callicarpa bicolor Juss. var. subintegrifolia Moldenke, Phytologia 15 (1967) 399; Type: PNH 39880 J. Ramos (US, holo), Luzon: Laguna, Pangil, 27-May-1959. = Callicarpa cana auct. non L.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 401; EPFP 3 (1923) 382. = Callicarpa candicans auct. non (Burm.f.) Hochr. Distribution: New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. DINAGAT, LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Laguna, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Oriental, Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, PALAWAN, ROMBLON. Notes: Open areas, thickets or disturbed. Conservation status: Least Concern (Bramley 2013). Native.
  7. Callicarpa caudata Maxim., Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. 31 (1887) 76; Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 299; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 381; EPFP 3 (1923) 383; Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 862; Type: Cuming 1095 (LE, holo; K, NY, iso), Luzon: Albay. = Callicarpa stenophylla Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 380; EPFP 3 (1923) 388; Type: BS 5739 Ramos (K, lecto), Luzon: Benguet, Sablan River near Baguio, Dec-1908. = Callicarpa merrillii Moldenke, Bull Torrey Bot. Club (1932) 55; ≡ Callicarpa lancifolia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 70, nom. illeg.; Type: BS 11078 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost), Cebu, Mar-1912; R.S. Williams 2307 (NY, lecto; A, K, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga, 25-Feb-1905. Distribution: Australia, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. BASILAN, BOHOL, LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Misamis Occidental, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Forest, disturbed area, grasslands, up to 2000m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Bramley 2013). Native.
  8. Callicarpa denticulata Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 430; EPFP 3 (1923) 383; Type: BS 3622 E. Fenix (K, lecto), Batan: Basco, 30-May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES. Notes: Low elevation thickets, open slopes. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Bramley 2013). Native.
  9. Callicarpa dolichophylla Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 339; EPFP 3 (1923) 384; Type: Cuming 1330 (K, lecto; A, K, NY, isolecto), Luzon: Cagayan, 1841. = Callicarpa longissima (Hemsl.) Merr., PJS 12 (1917) 108; ≡ Callicarpa longifolia var. longissima Hemsl., PJS (1890) Bot. 253; Type: from China. Distribution: China, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Bulacan, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal. Notes: Lowland or medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Conservation status: Least Concern (Bramley 2013). Native.
  10. Callicarpa erioclona Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 643; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 158; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 134; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 208; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 121; EPFP 3 (1923) 384; Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 866; Type: Cuming 911 (G, lecto; BM, E, G, NY, P, TCD, isolecto), Luzon: Albay. = Callicarpa subcandida Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3798; Type: Elmer 15124 (NY, lecto; BM, isolecto), Luzon: Irosin, Mt Bulusan. Distribution: Borneo, Java, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Vietnam. BOHOL, CEBU, DINAGAT, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Davao, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Sorsogon. Lowland primary and secondary forests, often rather common. Conservation status: Least Concern (Bramley 2013). Native.
  11. Callicarpa fasciculiflora Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 384; Type: BS 35123 Ramos & Pascasio (A, lecto; K, P, isolecto), Bucas Grande: Jun-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE. Notes: Low elevation open forests. Only known from type (Bramley 2013). Conservation status: Data Deficient (Bramley 2013). Native.
  12. Callicarpa flavida Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 863; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 384; ≡ Geunsia flavida (Elmer) H.J.Lam, Verb. Malay. Archipel. (1919) 38; Type: Elmer 11851 (K, lecto; BM, E, NY, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya, Mt Apo. = Callicarpa epiphytica Elmer, LPB 10 (1915) 2871; ≡ Geunsia epiphytica (Elmer) H.J.Lam, Verb. Malay. Archipel. (1919) 38; Type: Elmer 13822 (K, lecto; C, E, NY, CAS, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. = Geunsia epiphytica Elmer var. apiculata H.J.Lam, Verb. Malay. Archipel. (1919) 39; Type: Elmer 13861 (K, lecto; BM, E, NY, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan, Cabadbaran, Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao. Notes: Lowland forests on Dinagat, in Mindanao on mountains 1200-1500m. Conservation status: Not Threatened (Bramley 2013). Native.
  13. Callicarpa longifolia Lam., Encycl. 1 (1785) 563; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 385; Type: from Malaysia. = Callicarpa attenuatifolia Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2870; Type: Elmer 13536 (BISH, GH, K, NA, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, in rich humid soil of an open grassy place on Mt Giwantawan at 3000ft elevation, Aug-1912. = Callicarpa nigrescens Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 425; Type: BS 44297 Ramos & Edaño (K, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Tawi-tawi, in secondary forests at low elevations, Jul/Aug-1924. Distribution: Australia, India, Indochina, Malesia, Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Apayao, La Union, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Lanao, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, POLILLO, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Low elevation secondary forest, 0-1200m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Bramley 2013). Native.
  14. Callicarpa longipetiolata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 47; EPFP 3 (1923) 386; ≡ Callicarpa tomentosa (L.) L. var. longipetiolata (Merr.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg sér. III, 3 (1921) 22; Type: Elmer 6266 (K, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Sto Tomas, May-1904. = Callicarpa longipetiolata Merr. var. glabrescens Moldenke, Phytologia 4 (1952) 43; Type: Vanoverbergh 1376 (U, holo; NY, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, 20-Jun-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Thickets bordering pine forests, 1600-2000m. Conservation status: Endangered B2ab(iii) (Bramley 2013). Native.
  15. Callicarpa magnifolia Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 437; EPFP 3 (1923) 386; Type: BS 37563 Ramos & Edaño (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Kalinga, Lubuagan, Mt Masingit, Feb-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Kalinga. Notes: Forests, c. 1200m. Only known from type (Bramley 2013). Conservation status: Data Deficient (Bramley 2013). Native.
  16. Callicarpa micrantha S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 187; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 386; Type: Vidal 1641 (K, lecto; MA, isolecto), Abra. = Callicarpa elegans Hayek, Just’s Bot. Jahresber. 33 (1906) 88; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 384; Type: Cuming 1460 (W, holo; K, NY, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur. = Callicarpa phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 301; EPFP 3 (1923) 387; Type: BS 26233 Ramos & Edaño (NY, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan (Mingan), in open places along streams, c. 50m, 8-Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Apayao, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, PANAY, ROMBLON, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland open places along streams, 200-1200m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Bramley 2013). Native.
  17. Callicarpa pachyclada Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 195; Type: BS 45640 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; K, lecto; A, B, BM, BO, NY, UC, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quirino, Mt Alzapan, on forested slopes, c. 1600m, 24-May-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino, ?SAMAR. Notes: Montane forests, c. 1600m. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Bramley 2013). Native.
  18. Callicarpa paloensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 336; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 387; ≡ Callicarpa pentandra var. paloensis (Elmer) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 14; ≡ Geunsia paloensis (Elmer) H.J.Lam ex Moldenke, Phytologia 50 (1950) 361; Type: Elmer 7370 (K, lecto; BO, GH, NY, isolecto), Leyte: Palo, Jan-1906. = Callicarpa sorsogonensis Elmer ex Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 22; Type: Elmer 16939 (NA, K, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Sorsogon. Notes: Forests, c. 300m. Conservation status: Not Threatened (Bramley 2013). Native.
  19. Callicarpa pedunculata R.Br., Prodromus florae Novae Hollandiae (1810) 513; Type: from Australia. = Callicarpa formosana Rolfe, J. Bot. 20 (1882) 358; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 385; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 406; Type: from Taiwan. = Callicarpa blancoi Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 315; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 401. = Callicarpa ovata C.B.Rob., PJS c 3(1908) 215; Type: R.S. Williams 2577 (NY, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao, Davao, Darong, 9-Apr-1905. = Callicarpa obtusifolia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 451; EPFP 3 (1923) 387; Type: BS 32921 Ramos (K, lecto; A, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Burgos, Jul-1918. Distribution: Australia, China, Laos, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the archipelago. Secondary and primary forest, grasslands. Conservation status: Least Concern (Bramley 2013). Native.
  20. Callicarpa pentandra Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 1 (1832) 395; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 387; ≡ Geunsia pentandra (Roxb.) Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 309; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 305; Type: from Moluccas. = Geunsia farinosa Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 12; ≡ Callicarpa pentandra Roxb. forma farinosa (Blume) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 13; Type: from Indonesia. = Callicarpa cumingiana Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 644; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 158; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 383; ≡ Geunsia cumingiana (Schauer) Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 315; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 133; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 207; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 343; ≡ Callicarpa pentandra Roxb. var. cumingiana (Schauer) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 16; Type: Cuming 1707 (K, lecto; P, isolecto), Philippines. = Callicarpa affinis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 864; Type: Elmer 11102 (K, lecto; GH, L, NY, US; isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, shrubberies near the sea coast, Jun-1909. = Geunsia hookeri Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 342; Type: Cuming 1773 (K, lecto; GH, K, L, isolecto), Cebu. = Callicarpa weberi Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 298; EPFP 3 (1923) 388; Type: Weber 68 (A, lecto), Bancalan Island (between Palawan and Balabac), 6m, 26-Sep-1916. = Callicarpa longivillosa Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 386; Type: BS 34538 Ramos & Pascasio (K, lecto; BM, BO, L, isolecto), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Apr-1919. = Geunsia cumingiana (Schauer) Rolfe var. pentamera H.J.Lam, Verb. Malay. Archipel. (1919) 36; Type: Com. d.l. Fl. for. no 844 (syn), Philippines, Daraga, and from New Guinea. = Callicarpa longivillosa Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 386; Type: BS 34538 Ramos & Pascasio (L, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Apr-1919. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, ?Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BILIRAN, BOHOL, BUCAS GRANDE, CAMIGUIN, CEBU, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga del Sur, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation secondary forests, ascending to 1700m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Bramley 2013). Native.
  21. Callicarpa platyphylla Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 57; EPFP 3 (1923) 387; Type: FB 26967 Velasco (A, US, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Cagayan, Jul-Aug 1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, POLILLO. Notes: Lowland forests. Conservation status: Not Threatened (Bramley 2013). Native.
  22. Callicarpa plumosa Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 196; Type: BS 46928 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; K, lecto; A, B, BM, BO, NY, UC, US, isolecto), Luzon: Isabela, San Mariano, along forested streams, c. 400m, 15-Mar-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Notes: Forested streams, c. 400m. Only known from type collection (Bramley 2013). Conservation status: Data Deficient (Bramley 2013). Native.
  23. Callicarpa ramiflora Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 262; EPFP 3 (1923) 387; Type: M.S. Clemens 1167 (US, lecto), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Sep-1907. = Callicarpa cauliflora Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 338; EPFP 3 (1923) 383; Type: FB 9321 Whitford & Hutchinson (US, lecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Port Banga, canyons in forest, c. 20m, 13-Jan-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga del Sur, ?NEGROS (photos), SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, to 700m. Conservation status: Not Threatened (Bramley 2013). Native.
  24. Callicarpa subalbida Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 337; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 388; ≡ Callicarpa erioclona Schauer var. subalbida (Elmer) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3(1921) 19; Type: Elmer 9184 (K, lecto; A, NY, US, Z, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, MINDORO, POLILLO. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests along streams. Conservation status: Vulnerable B1a,biii; B2,a,biii (Bramley 2013). Native.
  25. Callicarpa subglandulosa Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 513; Type: Elmer 9739 (K, lecto; BO, GH, US, Z, isolecto), Negros, Cuernos Mts, Dumaguete, Apr-1908. = Callicarpa megalantha Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 71; EPFP 3 (1923) 386; Type: BS 49387 McGregor (US, iso, lost), Luzon: Ifugao, Mt Polis, Feb-1913; M. Ramos & G. Edaño Bur. Sci. 37718 (K, neo; A, isoneo), Luzon, Ifugao, Mt Polis, Feb-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, NEGROS. Conservation status: Not Threatened (Bramley 2013). Native.
  26. Callicarpa subintegra Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 299; EPFP 3 (1923) 388; Type: BS 26619 Ramos & Edaño (K, lecto; A, BO, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Dingalan, on dry slopes, c. 200m, 25-Aug-1916. = Callicarpa ramosii (Moldenke) Govaerts, World Checkl. Seed Pl. 3 (1999) 12; ≡ Geunsia ramosii Moldenke, Phytologia 5 (1954) 10; Type: BS 33838 Ramos & Edaño (NY, holo), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mt Bagacay, Nov/Dec-1918. = Callicarpa subintegra Merr. var. parva Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) 300; EPFP 3 (1923) 388; Type: BS 26465 Ramos & Edaño (K, lecto; A, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan, on forested slopes, c. 350m, 13-Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Camarines Sur, Nueva Ecija. Notes: Forests, 300-600m. Conservation status: Vulnerable B1a,biii; B2a,biii (Bramley 2013). Native.
  27. Callicarpa surigaensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 262; EPFP 3 (1923) 388; ≡ Callicarpa pentandra Roxb. var. cumingiana (Schauer) Bakh. forma surigaensis (Merr.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 16; Type: Ahern 318 (BO, lecto; BO, US, isolecto), May-1901. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Cotabato, Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland primary forests, also along streams. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Bramley 2013). Native.

Cantinoa Harley & J.F.B.Pastore (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020
  1. Cantinoa americana (Aubl.) Harley & J.F.B.Pastore, Phytotaxa 58 (2012) 9; ≡ Nepeta americana Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 2 (1775) 623; Type: from Mexico. = Hyptis spicigera Lam., Encycl. 3 (1789) 185; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 409; EPFP 3 (1923) 417; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 95; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 371. = Pycnanthemum elongatum Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 333; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 108 (K, neo; L, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Weed in open waste places, open fields, plantation forest and along rivers. Naturalized.

Clerodendrum L.

Last edited by David Ples & Pieter B. Pelser, 26 February 2022
  1. Clerodendrum apayaoense Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 343; Type: Vanoverbergh 17592 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, iso), Luzon: Apayao, Allokapan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao. Notes: In forest, 50-200m. Native.
  2. Clerodendrum brachyanthum Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 668; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 400; Type: Cuming 816 (B, KIEL syn, lost; OXF, lecto; BM, DBN, K, L, isolecto), Luzon: Tayabas. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Kalinga, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, MINDORO, POLILLO. Notes: Chiefly in lowland to medium elevation secondary forests. Often common. Mangha. Conservation status: Least Concern (IUCN 2021). Native.
  3. Clerodendrum infortunatum L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 637; Type: from Sri Lanka. = Clerodendrum cordatum D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 103; Type: from Nepal. = ?Clerodendrum vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 98; EPFP 3 (1923) 405; Type: BS 838 Vanoverbergh (PNH, holo, lost; A, G, L, LD, U, US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Nov/Dec-1910. = Clerodendrum philippinense Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3223; Type: Elmer 22379 (PNH, holo, lost; A, B, BM, C, GH, HUH, K, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg. May-1927. Distribution: China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand. LUZON: Mountain Province, Pampanga. Native.
  4. Clerodendrum intermedium Cham., Linnaea 7 (1832) 105; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 402; EPFP 3 (1923) 402; Type: Chamisso s.n. (LE, holo), Luzon. = Volkameria casopanguil Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 356; Type: Quisumbing 651 (=Merrill Species Blancoanae 43) (US, neo; L, isoneo), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños. = Clerodendrum puberulum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 72; EPFP 3 (1923) 404; Type: E.B. Copeland 414 (K, NY, PNH lost, US, isosyn), Mindanao: Davao, Mar-1904; De Vore & Hoover 177 (PNH, lost, syn), Philippines. Distribution: Borneo, India, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Lowland and medium elevation thickets, secondary forests, and open damp places. Often common. Kasupangil. Conservation status: Least Concern (IUCN 2021). Native.
  5. Clerodendrum japonicum (Thunb.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. (1826) 822; ≡ Volkameria japonica Thunb. in J.A.Murray, Syst. Nat. ed. 14 (1784) 578; Type: from Japan. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, Himalayas, India, Japan, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Tibet. Native.
    • var. japonicum. = Clerodendrum squamatum Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2 (1791) 74; Type: Sonnerat s.n. (C, holo; MPU, P-JU, P-LA), Philippines. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Laos, Nepal, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam.
    • var. bethuneanum (H.Low) Wearn & Mabb., Syst. Bot. 36 (2011) 1054; ≡ Clerodendrum bethuneanum Low, Sarawak (1848) 378; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 400; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BALABAC, BASILAN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, MASBATE, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO. Notes: Lowland thickets, clearings and secondary forests.
  6. Clerodendrum klemmei Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 514; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 402; Type: Elmer 8679 (PNH, holo, lost; A, K, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. = Clerodendrum luzoniense Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 436; EPFP 3 (1923) 403; Type: BS 33784 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Paracale, Nov/Dec-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon (photos). Notes: Luag. Conservation status: Least Concern (IUCN 2021). Native.
  7. Clerodendrum lanuginosum Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 810; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 402; Type: from Moluccas. = Clerodendrum cumingianum Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 666; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 401; Type: Cuming 1760 (B, KIEL, syn, lost; OXF, lecto; BM, K, TCD, isolecto), Cebu. = Clerodendrum wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 385; EPFP 3 (1923) 405; Type: Wenzel 627 (PNH, holo, lost; A, US, iso), Leyte, Jaro, Mar-1914. = Clerodendrum macrocalyx H.J.Lam, Verb. Malay. Archipel. (1919) 293; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 403; Type: Elmer 11338 (PNH, holo, lost; A, K, L, NY, U US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Aug-1909. = Clerodendrum lanuginosum var. adpressipilum Moldenke, Phytologia 4 (1952) 49; Type: Elmer 13559 (PNH, holo, lost; BO, NY, US, W, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines. BASILAN, CAMIGUIN, CEBU, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Lowland thickets and secondary forests. Tanogo. Conservation status: Least Concern (IUCN 2021). Native.
  8. Clerodendrum macrostegium Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 666; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 403; Type: Cuming 1541 (B, KIEL, syn, lost; K, lecto, BM, K, L, NY, OXF, isolecto), Luzon: Batangas. = Volkameria grandiflora Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 512; Unknown (PNH, holo, lost), Philippines. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland secondary forests and thickets. Native.
  9. Clerodendrum minahassae Teijsm. & Binn., Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 25 (1863) 409; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 402; EPFP 3 (1923) 403; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973; Type: from Sulawesi. = Clerodendrum mabesae Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 302; EPFP 3 (1923) 403; Type: FB 26796 Mabesa (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, forests back of Paete, on moist shaded slopes, c. 370m, 27-Mar-1917. = Clerodendrum minahassae var. grandicalyx Moldenke, Phytologia 23 (1972) 315; Type: Wenzel 261 (US, holo), Leyte. = Clerodendrum fortunatum auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 508. = Clerodendrum blancoi Náves ex Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. (1880) 161; Type: Unknown (PNH, holo, lost), Philippines. Distribution: ?Java, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Laguna. Notes: Widespread throughout the archipelago, in most islands and provinces. Bagawak na puti. Conservation status: Least Concern (IUCN 2021). Native.
  10. Clerodendrum mindorense Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 342; EPFP 3 (1923) 404; ≡ Clerodendrum simile Merr., Govt. Lab Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 64, nom. illeg., non H.Pearson; Type: Merrill 1192 (PNH, holo, lost; L, NY, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Baco, Jan-1903. = ?Clerodendrum elliptifolium Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 341; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 401; Type: BS 14463 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost), Camiguin: Panatayum, in thickets, 20-Mar-1912. = Clerodendrum pubifolium Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 197; Type: BS 49416 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, ?lost; BM, NY, UC, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Mt Mayo, along streams in secondary forests, c. 700m, 21-Apr-1927. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. CAMIGUIN, CEBU (photos), LUZON: Isabela, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental, Misamis, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY (photos), SEMIRARA. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  11. Clerodendrum multibracteatum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 98; EPFP 3 (1923) 404; Type: BS 777 Vanoverbergh (PNH, holo, lost; A, K, L, US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Jul/Aug-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, MINDORO. Notes: Mossy forests, 15500-2000m. Kayiw. Conservation status: Endangered (IUCN 2021). Native.
  12. Clerodendrum myrmecophilum Ridl., J. Bot. 33 (1895) 42; Type: from Singapore. = Clerodendrum flavum Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 424; Type: BS 43899 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; UC, iso), Jolo: Mt Daho (Bud Dajo), in forests along small streams near the summit, c. 700m, Sep-1924. Distribution: Borneo, ?Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra. JOLO, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Native.
  13. Clerodendrum preslii Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 515; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 404; Type: Elmer 10223 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BISH, BM, K, L, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, Mar-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ?CEBU (photos), NEGROS, ?PANAY (photos). Notes: Mossy forests, c. 1400m. Sunkol. Conservation status: Vulnerable (IUCN 2021). Native.
  14. Clerodendrum pygmaeum Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 265; Paguntalan et al., Project Tawsi: Sulu Hornbill Project (2020) 41; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. TAWI-TAWI. Native.
  15. Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 63; EPFP 3 (1923) 404; ≡ Ligustrum quadriloculare Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 10; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 434 (US, neo; K, L, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, Jan-1914. = Clerodendrum navesianum S.Vidal, Cat. Prov. Manila (1880) 398; Type: Vidal y Soler 490 (PNH, holo, lost; K, MA, iso), Luzon: Manila, San Mateo. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SIARGAO, TICAO. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  16. Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb., Nov. Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsal. 3 (1780) 201; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 405; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 419; Type: from Japan. = Clerodendrum trichotomum var. esculentum Makino, J. Jap. Bot. 1 (1917) 29; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 47. = Clerodendrum trichotomum auct. non Thunb. ex J.A.Murray; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 405. Distribution: China, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN, LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela. Native.
  17. Clerodendrum villosum Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 811; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 405; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 304; Type: from Java. = Clerodendrum curranii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1846; Type: Elmer 12860 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BM, GH, L, NY, U, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), in good well-drained soil at 500ft, among light woods of the cogon formation, Mar-1911. Distribution: Borneo, China, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. BALABAC, BANCALAN, CULION, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets and old clearings. Native.
  18. Clerodendrum williamsii Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 684; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 406; Type: Elmer 11149 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BM, GH, K, L, NY, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Jun-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, JOLO, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao, Zamboanga. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (IUCN 2021). Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Clerodendrum calamitosum L., Mant. 1 (1767) 90; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 403; EPFP 3 (1923) 400; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Java, Sumatra. BASILAN, LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, La Union, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Chiefly in cultivation for ornamental purposes, occasional in waste places about towns (Merrill 1923). D.J.R. Ples (pers. comm., 24-Feb-22): observations of this species in the wild seem exceptions/escapees rather than suggesting that this species is truly naturalized.
  2. Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb., Pl. Book reimpr. (1989) 707; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 416; ≡ Cryptanthus chinensis Osbeck, Dagb. Ostind. Resa (1757) 215; Type: from China. = Clerodendrum philippinum Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 667; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 401; Type: Cuming 1096 (B, KIEL, syn, lost; GH, neo; K, OXF, isoneo), Philippines. = Clerodendrum fragrans (Vent.) R.Br. in W.T.Aiton, Hort. Kew, ed. 2, 4 (1812) 63, nom. illeg., non Willd.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 402; EPFP 3 (1923) 401. Distribution: Borneo, China, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Pampanga. Notes: Native distribution unknown, widely cultivated and naturalized in Malesia. In and near towns (Merrill 1923). D.J.R. Ples (pers. comm., 24-Feb-22): observations of this species in the wild seem exceptions/escapees rather than suggesting that this species is truly naturalized.
  3. Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. (1891) 586; ≡ Siphonanthus indicus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 109. Distribution: India and China to Malesia.
  4. Clerodendrum paniculatum L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 90. Distribution: Tropical & Subtropical Asia.
  5. Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf., Edinburgh New Philos. J. 2, 15 (1862) 233; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 402; EPFP 3 (1923) 405. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Widely cultivated in the Philippines for ornamental purposes but apparently not escaping.

Clinopodium L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 September 2019
  1. Clinopodium umbrosum (M.Bieb.) K.Koch, Linnaea 21 (1849) 673; ≡ Satureja umbrosa (M.Bieb.) Greuter & Burdet, Willdenowia 14 (1985) 306; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 361; ≡ Calamintha umbrosa (M.Bieb.) Rchb., Fl. Germ. Exc. 1 (1830) 329; Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 123; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 410; ≡ Melissa umbrosa M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 2 (1808) 63; Type: from Turkey. = Clinopodium javanicum (Blume) I.M.Turner, Phytotaxa 174 (2014) 242; ≡ Ziziphora javanica Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 14 (1826) 822; Type: from Java. = Stachys rubisepala Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 338; Type: Elmer 8408 (PNH, holo, lost; GH, K, L, NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio. Distribution: Afghanistan, China, Continental Asia, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet. Native.

Coleus Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 October 2019
  1. Coleus apoensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2694; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 418; ≡ Plectranthus apoensis (Elmer) H.Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 147; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 387; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 291; Type: Elmer 11601 (PNH, holo, ?lost; G, GH, K, L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Sep-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Open ridge thickets on fertile soil, in association with grasses, 1000m. Known only from the type collection. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11, as Plectranthus apoensis). Native.
  2. Coleus galeatus (Vahl) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec. (1832) 56; ≡ Plectranthus galeatus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 1 (1790) 43; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 292; Type: from Java. = Coleus sparsiflorus Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2699; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 420; ≡ Plectranthus sparsiflorus (Elmer) H.Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 391; Type: Elmer 11646 (PNH, holo, lost; BM, G, K, L, MO, Z, iso), Mindanao: Mt Apo, Sep-1912. = Coleus scutellarioides auct. non (L.) Benth.; Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2697. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao, Misamis. Notes: Damp mossy forests, 1000-1900m. Fl. Mar-Sep. Native.
  3. Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2 (1830) 16; ≡ Plectranthus scutellarioides (L.) R.Br., Prod. (1810) 506; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 389; ≡ Ocimum scutellarioides L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 833. = Coleus atropurpureus Benth. in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 2 (1830-31) 16; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 418; Type: from Singapore. = Calchas acuminatus (Benth.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5 (1996) 160; ≡ Coleus acuminatus Benth., Linnaea 6 (1831) 81; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 418; Type: Cuming 1683 (K, neo; BM, K, P, TCD, isoneo), Samar, 1841. = Coleus multiflorus Benth., Lab. Gen. Sp. (1832) 55; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 419; Type: Perrottet s.n. (P, holo), Manila. = Coleus blumei Benth., Lab. Gen. Sp. (1832) 56; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 410; EPFP 3 (1923) 419; Type: from Indonesia (lecto). = Coleus pumilus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 482; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 410; EPFP 3 (1923) 420; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 190 (K, neo), Luzon: Rizal, Pasig, Barrio of Pineda, Oct-1914. = Coleus grandifolius Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 482, nom. illeg., non Benth.; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 786 (US, neo), Luzon: Manila. = Plectranthus monadelphus Llanos ex Fern.Vill. & Náves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 (1880) 104, nom. illeg., non Roxb. = Coleus igolotorum Briq., Ann. Cons. Jard. Bot. Genéve 2 (1898) 236; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 419; Type: Callery 48 (G-DEL, holo; P, iso), Luzon: dans le pays de Igolotes. = Coleus gaudichaudii Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève (1898) 237; Type: Gaudichaud s.n. (G-DEL, holo), Luzon: Manila, Dec-1836. = Coleus macranthus Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 234; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 382; EPFP 3 (1923) 419; ≡ Plectranthus merrillii H.Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 391; Type: Merrill 4502 (NY, US, isosyn); Merrill 4505 (US, isosyn); Merrill 4483 (US, isosyn), all from Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data. = Coleus macranthus Merr. var. crispipilus Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 234; ≡ Coleus crispipilus (Merr.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 382; EPFP 3 (1923) 419; Type: Merrill 4780 (PNH, holo, lost; BM, K, NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Suyoc to Panai, Nov-1905, 2200m. = Coleus pubescens Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 432; EPFP 3 (1923) 420; Type: E. Zenix BS 3892 (PNH, holo, lost; M, iso), Babuyan: 17-Jun-1907. = Coleus zschokkei Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 382; EPFP 3 (1923) 320; Type: Merrill 6529 (PNH, holo, lost; K, NY, P, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulag, May-1909. = Coleus integrifolius Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2696; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 419; Type: Elmer 13627 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BM, K, L, NY, P, iso), Mindanao: Agusan, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. = Coleus atropurpureus var. densiflorus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec. (1832) 54; Type: Chamisso s.n. (K, syn), Manila, 1830. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BABUYAN, LUZON: Mountain Province. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Coleus amboinicus Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 372; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 344; Fl. Manila (1912) 410; EPFP 3 (1923) 418; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 50; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 387; ≡ Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng., Syst. 2 (1825) 690; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 290. = Coleus suganda Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 483; Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1837) 337; Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 2 (1878) 259; Type: Merrill: Species Blancoanae No. 129 (K, neo), Luzon: Cavite Proc, Maragondong, Jul-1914. Notes: Possibly native in India. Cultivated for its aromatic leaves (Merrill 1923). Not naturalized.
  2. Coleus rotundifolius (Poir.) A.Chev. & Perrot, Vég. Utiles Afrique Trop. Franç. 1 (1905) 119; ≡ Plectranthus rotundifolius (Poir.) Spreng., Syst. 2 (1825) 690; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 388; ≡ Germanea rotundifolia Poir., Encycl. 2 (1788) 763; Type: from Mauritius. Distribution: Continental Asia. Notes: Only cultivated in Malesia (Bramley 2019).

Congea Roxb. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 June 2021
  1. Congea velutina Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4 (1850) t. 1479/3. Distribution: India, Malay Peninsula to Java, Myanmar. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: An introduced ornamental in the Philippines. Naturalized in forest edges. Naturalized.

Cymaria Benth.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 September 2019
  1. Cymaria dichotoma Benth., Bot. Reg. Sub t. 1292 (1830); Wall., Cat. (1829) no. 2080, nom. nud.; in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 1 (1830) 64; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 315; Type: from Myanmar. = Cymaria acuminata Decne., Herb. Timor. (1834) 71; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 408; Type: Cuming 446 (K, iso), Luzon. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. JOLO, LUZON: Batangas, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Native.

Gmelina L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 November 2021
  1. Gmelina arborea Roxb. ex Sm. in Rees, Cyclop. 16 (1810); Hort. Bengal. (1814) 46; Fl. Ind. ed. 3 (1832) 84; De Kok, Kew Bull. 67 (2012) 297. Distribution: China, India, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Elsewhere extensively planted throughout tropical SE Asia including the Philippines. Naturalized and invasive in the Philippines (Joshi 2006). Naturalized.
  2. Gmelina elliptica Sm. in Rees, Cyclop. 16 (1810) No. 2; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 399; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 306; De Kok, Kew Bull. 67 (2012) 306; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BASILAN, BOHOL, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Quezon, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland thickets and secondary forests, common. Native.
  3. Gmelina palawensis H.J.Lam, Verbenac. Mal. Arch. (1919) 224; De Kok, Kew Bull. 67 (2012) 315; Type: from Palau. Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. DINAGAT. Native.
    • var. dinagatensis Moldenke, Phytologia 2 (1951) 418; Type: Ahern 461Q (BO, holo; BO, NY, US, iso), Dinagat, 1902. Distribution: DINAGAT. Notes: Perhaps better placed under Faradaya.
  4. Gmelina philippensis Cham., Linnaea 7 (1832) 109; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 406; EPFP 3 (1923) 399; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 306, as ‘philippinensis’; De Kok, Kew Bull. 67 (2012) 318, as 'philippinensis'; Type: Roman-Zoffiana s.n. (LE, holo), Manila. = Gmelina asiatica Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 492, nom. illeg., non L. = Gmelina inermis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 493. = Gmelina philippensis forma transitoria Moldenke, Phytologia 18 (1969) 210; Type: PNH 11741 M.D. Sulit (US, holo; L, iso), Guimaras, Feb/Mar-1950. Distribution: Cambodia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. GUIMARAS, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Laguna, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, PANAY. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Gomphostemma Wall. ex Benth.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 8 April 2022
  1. Gomphostemma javanicum (Blume) Benth., Lab. Gen. Sp. (1835) 650; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 86; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 322; Bongcheewin et al. (2022) Kew Bull. 76; ≡ Prasium javanicum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 840; Type: from Java. = Gomphostemma philippinarum Benth. in DC., Prod. 12 (1848) 551; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 409; Type: Cuming 840 (K, lecto; BM, C, DC, E, G, K, P, isolecto), Bohol. = Gomphostemma cinereum Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3086; Type: Elmer 17836 (K, lecto; BM, L, NY, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños, Mt Maquiling, Jun/Jul-1917. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, BOHOL, BUSUANGA, CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Kalinga, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, South Cotabato, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SULU. Native.

Holmskioldia Retz. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020
  1. Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 6 (1791) 31. Distribution: India, Myanmar, Nepal. CEBU, LUZON: Benguet, Camarines Sur, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: Widely cultivated, not native to the Philippines. Naturalized. In secondary forest, plantation forest, thickets and open field. Naturalized.

Hyptis Jacq. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020
  1. Hyptis brevipes Poit., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 7 (1806) 465; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 122; Fl. Manila (1912) 409; EPFP 3 (1923) 416; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 90; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 369; Type: from Colombia. = Thymus biserratus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 478; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 478 (K, neo), Luzon: Batangas, Aug-1914. = Pycnanthemum subulatum Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 333; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 478 (K, neo), Luzon: Batangas, Aug-1914. = Hyptis brevipes Poit. var. serrata Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Geneve 2 (1898) 227; Type: Cuming 1113 (G-DC, syn; K, TCD, isosyn), Luzon; Gaudichaud 175 (G-DEL, syn), Luzon: Manilla. Distribution: C America. Notes: Weed in open areas, fallow rice paddies (Merrill 1923), secondary forest and open fields. P.B. Pelser (6-May-2022): Pycnanthemum subulatum Blanco has the same neotype as Thymus biserratus in Suddee et al. 2004. Naturalized.
  2. Hyptis capitata Jacq., Collect. 1 (1786) 102; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 409; EPFP 3 (1923) 416; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 369. = Hyptis lanceolata auct. non Poir.; Briq., Ann. Cons. Jard. Bot. Geneve 2 (1898) 225; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 416, quoad Cuming 591. = Pycnanthemum decurrens Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 333; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 472 (K, neo), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, Oct-1914. = Thymus virginicus auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 478. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Weed in settled areas, open waste places, fallow rice paddies (Merrill 1923), secondary forest and open fields. Naturalized.

Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth.) Spach

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 September 2019
  1. Isodon coetsa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Kudô, Mem. Fac. Sci. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 2 (1929) 131; ≡ Plectranthus coetsa Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 117; Type: from Nepal. = Plectranthus javanicus (Blume) Benth., Lab. Gen. Sp. (1832) 45; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 142; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 386; ≡ Elsholtzia javanica Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 825; Type: from Java (lecto). = Plectranthus diffusus Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 235; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 382; EPFP 3 (1923) 418; Type: Merrill 4554 (PNH, holo, lost; K, NY, iso), Luzon: Mountain, Mt Data. = Moschosma philippinense Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3809, nom. nud. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Mountain Province. Native.

Leonurus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 September 2019
  1. Leonurus japonicus Houtt., Nat. Hist. II. Ix (1778) 366; Christm. Pflanzensyst. 7 (1781) 501; Merr., Journ. Arn. Arb. 19 (1938) 363. = Leonurus sibiricus auct. non L.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 412; EPFP 3 (1923) 412; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 98; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 336. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO. Native.

Leucas R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 September 2019
  1. Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link, En. Hort. Berol. 2 (1822) 113; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 410; Keng, Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 8 (1978) 337; ≡ Phlomis aspera Willd., Enum. Pl. (1809) 621. Distribution: India, Indian Ocean, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Native.
  2. Leucas chinensis (Retz.) Sm. in Rees, Cycl. 20 (1812) n. 8; ≡ Phlomis chinensis Retz., Observ. Bot. 2 (1781) 19. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Philippines. Native.
    • var. batanensis T.Yamaz., Fl. Japan 3a (1993) 298. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  3. Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) J. Sm. in Rees, Cycl. (1812) 20; Keng, Fl.Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 567; ≡ Phlomis decemdentata Willd., Sp. Pl. 3 (1800) 124. = Leucas flaccida R.Br., Prod. (1810) 505; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 340; Type: from Australia. = Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth. in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 1 (1830) 62; Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 5 c (1910) 381; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 411. = Leucas javanica Benth., Lab. Gen. Sp. (1834) 611; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 412; EPFP 3 (1923) 410; Type: from Java. Distribution: Australia, China, Indochina, Myanmar, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand. Native.
  4. Leucas lanata Benth. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 1 (1830) 61; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 230. Distribution: China, Indochina, Pakistan, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Native.
  5. Leucas lavandulifolia Sm. in Rees, Cycl. 20 (1812) n. 2; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 411; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 338; Type: from India. = Leucas linifolia (Roth) Spreng., Syst. Veg. ed. 15, 2 (1825) 743; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 338; Type: from India. = Phlomis zeylanica auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 475, as 'ceilanica'; Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 331; Fl. Filip., ed. 3 (1878) 248. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
  6. Leucas zeylanica (L.) R.Br. in Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 3 (1811) 409; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 411; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 101; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 337; ≡ Phlomis zeylanica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 586. Native.
    • var. zeylanica. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam.

Possibly present

  1. Leucas leucocephala Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1859) 981; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 233. Distribution: Malesia, ?Philippines, S & SE Asia.

Mentha L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 September 2019
  1. Mentha canadensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 577; Type: from Canada. = Mentha arvensis var. javanica (Blume) Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 4 (1885) 648; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 411; EPFP 3 (1923) 413; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 111; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 343; ≡ Mentha javanica Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 826; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 413; Type: from Java. = Mentha cordifolia auct. non Opiz ex Fresen; Cantoria, PJS 97 (1968) 281; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 344. Distribution: Asia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, N America, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON, MINDORO, SAMAR. Native.

Mesosphaerum P.Browne (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020
  1. Mesosphaerum pectinatum (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 525; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 241; ≡ Nepeta pectinata L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10 (1759) 1096; Type: from Jamaica (lecto). Distribution: Neotropics. Naturalized.
  2. Mesosphaerum suaveolens (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 525; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973; ≡ Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 7 (1806) 472; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 409; EPFP 3 (1923) 417; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 98; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 372; ≡ Ballota suaveolens L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10 2 (1759) 1100; Type: from Jamaica (lecto). = Marrubium indicum auct. non Burm.f.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 477; Fl. Filip., ed 2 (1845) 352; Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 2 (1878) 250. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Naturalized in open waste places, open grassland, secondary forest, beach forest, and mangrove vegetation. Naturalized.

Mosla Buch.-Ham. ex (Benth.) Maxim.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 September 2019
  1. Mosla dianthera (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, sér. 3, 10 (1866) 457; ≡ Lycopus diantherus Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 144. = Mosla formosana Maxim., Bull. Ac. Sc. St. Petersb. 20 (1875) 459; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 414; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 122; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 348. Distribution: India, Japan, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan. LUZON. Native.

Ocimum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 September 2019
  1. Ocimum × africanum Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 370. = Ocimum americanum auct. non L.; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 125; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 376. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Hybrid between Ocimum americanum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. Native.
  2. Ocimum basilicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 833; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 433; Fl. Manila (1912) 407; EPFP 3 (1923) 421; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 127; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 377. = Ocimum citrodorum Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 591; Fl. Filip., ed. 3 (1878) 256; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 251. = Ocimum americanum auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 480; Fl. Filip., ed 2 (1845) 335; Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 2 (1878) 254. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  3. Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 597; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 378. = Ocimum sanctum L., Mant. 1 (1767) 85; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 408; EPFP 3 (1923) 422; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 130. = Ocimum flexuosum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 481; Fl. Filip., ed 2 (1845) 335; Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 2 (1878) 255. = Ocimum album auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 479. = Ocimum virgatum auct. non Thunb.; Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed 2 (1845) 334; Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 2 (1878) 253. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.

Orthosiphon Benth.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 September 2019
  1. Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1858) 943; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 422; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 132; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 380; ≡ Ocimum aristatum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 14 (1826) 833; Type: from Java (lecto). = Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. var. angustifolia Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12 (1848) 53; Type: Cuming 734 (K, syn). Distribution: Philippines, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia. Native.

Paraphlomis Prain

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 September 2019
  1. Paraphlomis javanica (Blume) Prain, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 9(1) (1901) 60; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Jav. 2 (1965) 619; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 136; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 350; ≡ Leonurus javanicus Blume, Catalogus (1823) 83; Type: from Java. = Gomphostemma rugosum (Benth.) Prain., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 3(2) (1891) 262; J. As. Soc. Beng. 74, 2 (1907) 721; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 412; ≡ Phlomis rugosa Benth. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 1 (1830) 63. = Gomphostemma luzonense Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 339; Type: Elmer 7433 (K, L, Z, iso), Luzon: Tayabas, Lucban. Distribution: Borneo, China, Himalayas, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON. Native.

Petraeovitex Oliver

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 September 2019
  1. Petraeovitex trifoliata Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 425; EPFP 3 (1923) 406; Type: BS 708 Foxworthy (PNH, holo, lost; US, iso), Palawan, Mar/Apr-1906. = Petraeovitex ternata Hallier f., Meded. Rijks-Herb. 37 (1918) 85; Type: Hallier 4722 (L, lecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga, San Ramon. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests, ascending to 900m. Native.

Platostoma P.Beauv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 August 2019
  1. Platostoma clausum (Merr.) A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 52 (1997) 285; ≡ Nosema clausa (Merr.) H.Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 123; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 375; ≡ Mesona clausa Merr., PJS 7 (1912) 345; EPFP 3 (1923) 420; Type: Merrill 460 (PNH, holo, lost; GH, K, NY, iso), Culion. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CULION. Notes: Open damp places at low elevation. Fl. Oct, Dec. Native.
  2. Platostoma hispidum (L.) A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 52 (1997) 273; ≡ Gomphrena hispida L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 326. = Acrocephalus indicus (Burm.f.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 511; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 101; EPFP 3 (1923) 421; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 26; ≡ Prunella indica Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 130; Type: from India. = Acrocephalus indicus forma spicatus (C.B.Rob.) H.Keng; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 365; ≡ Acrocephalus spicatus C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 356; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 421; Type: Williams 2954 (A, K, NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Santa Cruz. Distribution: China, India, Indochina, Malesia, Philippines, Thailand. Native.
  3. Platostoma palustre (Blume) A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 52 (1997) 281; ≡ Mesona palustris Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 839; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 114; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 373; Type: from Java. = Mesona philippinensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 101; EPFP 3 (1923) 420; Type: Merrill 4500 (BM, K, iso), Luzon: Mt Data, Nov-1905. Distribution: India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON. Native.

Pogostemon Desf.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020
  1. Pogostemon auricularius (L.) Hassk., Tijd. Nat. Gesch. Phys. 10 (1843) 127, as ‘Pogonostemon’; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 180; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 356; ≡ Dysophylla auricularia (L.) Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 826; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 415; ≡ Mentha auricularia L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 81. Distribution: India to China and Malesia, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Native.
  2. Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. in DC., Prod. 12 (1848) 146; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 411; EPFP 3 (1923) 414; ≡ Mentha cablin Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 473; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 112 (US, neo; BM, K, L, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo. = Pogostemon nepetoides Stapf, Kew Bull. (1908) 116; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 347; EPFP 3 (1923) 415; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 305; Type: Micholitz s.n. (K, holo), Philippines. = Pogostemon nepetoides var. glandulosus Merr., PJS c 7 (1912) 347; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 305; Type: BS 13406 Ramos (L, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, San Isidro. = Mentha auricularia Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 329, nom. illeg., non L.; Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 329; Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 2 (1878) 245. Distribution: India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON. Native.
  3. Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 2 (1830) 16; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 414; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 152; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 353; Type: from India. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra. MINDANAO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Possibly not native in Malesia. Also cultivated. In thickets, coconut groves, old clearings, along streams in forests (Merrill 1923). Naturalized.
  4. Pogostemon menthoides Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 825; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 156; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 355; Type: from Java (lecto). Distribution: Borneo, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand. LUZON. Native.
  5. Pogostemon philippinensis S.Moore, J. Bot. 43 (1905) 146; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 381; EPFP 3 (1923) 415; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 156; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 156; Type: Vidal 3421 (K, lecto; A, isolecto), Panay: Iloilo. = Pogostemon membranaceus Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 347; EPFP 3 (1923) 414; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 308; Type: BS 16419 Ramos (BM, holo; K, L, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Capuan. = Pogostemon elatispicatus Bhatti & Ingr., Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 27 (1997) 102; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 308; Type: Edaño 18046 (BM, holo; L, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Mt Darna, Feb/Mar-1953. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Laguna, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Damp ravines, alluvial forests, thickets, also in the mossy forest, ascending to c. 2400m. Fl. Aug-Mar. Native.
  6. Pogostemon reticulatus Merr., PJS 8 c (1912) Bot. 348; EPFP 3 (1923) 415; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 155; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 355; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 310; Type: FB 3395 Ahern's collector (BM, K, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  7. Pogostemon velatus Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12 (1848) 155; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 415; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 159; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 355; Type: Cuming 1097 (BM, K, L, iso), Luzon: Albay. = Pogostemon williamsii Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3197; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 311; Type: Elmer 22225 (BM, BO, GH, K, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Pampanga, Zambales. Notes: Known from Mt Pinatubo. Native.
  8. Pogostemon verticillatus (Benth.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1859) 965; ≡ Mentha verticillata (Benth.) Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. Carey. 3 (1832) 5, nom. illeg., non L.; ≡ Dysophylla verticillata Benth. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 1 (1830) 30; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 416; Type: Wallich 1543 (K, syn); Wallich 1544 (BM, K-W, syn). = ?Pogostemon quadrifolius (Benth.) F.Muell., Fragm. 5 (1866) 200; ≡ Dysophylla quadrifolia Benth. in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 1 (1830) 30; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 415. = ?Pogostemon stellatus var. roxburghianus (H.Keng) H.Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 352; ≡ Dysophylla stellata var. roxburghiana H.Keng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 24 (1969) 72. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Japan, Malesia, Philippines, SE Asia. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Davao, PANAY. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Pogostemon stellatus (Lour.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 529, as ‘stellatum’; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 352; ≡ Mentha stellata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 361; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 314. Native.

Premna L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 September 2021
  1. Premna herbacea Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 485; Hort. Beng. (1814) 46, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 390. = Pygmaeopremna humilis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 225; Type: BS 7841 Ramos (K, US, syn), Luzon: Cagayan, 2-Apr-1909; BS 8124 Ramos (BM, K, NY, US, syn), Luzon: Isabela, Ilagan, 29-Apr-1909. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Low and medium elevation open grasslands. Conservation status: Least Concern (De Kok 2013). Native.
  2. Premna oblongata Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. ii. (1859) 893; Type: from Java (neo). = Premna membranacea Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 65; EPFP 3 (1923) 391; Type: FB 1165 Ahern’s collector (NY, US, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, Jun-1904; FB 3102 Ahern’s collector (K, NY, syn), same locality, Jun-1905. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, Surigao, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: Least Concern (De Kok 2013). Native.
  3. Premna odorata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 488; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 405; EPFP 3 (1923) 392; Type: Tadena PNH 9602 (BRI, neo; BM, isoneo), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling, 28-Feb-1949. = Premna vestita Schauer, Prodr. 11 (1847) 631; Type: Cuming 599 (B, holo; BM, K, iso), Philippines. = Premna subscandens Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 230; Fl. Manila (1912) 405; EPFP 3 (1923) 393; Type: FB 449 Ahern’s collector (BM, K, NY, US, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, Apr-1904; FB 443 Ahern’s collector (BM, K, NY, US, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, Apr-1904; FB 1095 W.W. Clarke (K, NY, US, syn), Ticao, May-1904; Merrill 1874 (K, NY, US, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, Apr-1903. = Premna depauperata Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 231; EPFP 3 (1923) 390; Type: Merrill 603 (PNH, holo; K, L, NY, US, iso), Culion: 30-Dec-1902. = Premna curranii H.J.Lam, Verbenaceae Malayan Archipel. (1919) 116; Type: Curran 19022 (L, holo), Luzon: Manila, May-1909. = Premna oblongata Miq. var. puberula H.J.Lam, Verbenaceae Malayan Archipel. (1919) 127; Type: Elmer 9388 (L, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Lucban, Tayabas, May-1907. = Premna depauperata Merr. var. serrulata Moldenke, Phytologia 5 (1954) 14; Type: BS 41360 Lopez (PNH, holo, lost; BO, NY, iso), Culion: Oct-1922. = Premna subscandens Merr. var. minutiflora Moldenke, Phytologia 5 (1954) 20; Type: FB 443 Ahern’s collector (NY, holo; BM, BO, K, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, Apr-1904. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the archipelago in most islands and provinces. Common in lowland thickets and secondary forests. Conservation status: Least Concern (De Kok 2013). Native.
  4. Premna pubescens Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 14 (1826) 816; Type: from Java. = Premna subscandens Merr. var. glabrescens Moldenke, Phytologia 8 (1962) 163; Type: UC 310092 Ramos & Edaño s.n. (UC, holo), Luzon: Isabela, San Mariano, Feb/Mar-1926. Distribution: Australia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Isabela, Rizal (photos). Conservation status: Vulnerable B2, biii+iv (De Kok 2013). Native.
  5. Premna regularis H.J.Lam, Verbenaceae Malayan Archipel. (1919) 131; Type: from New Guinea (lecto). = Premna serratifolia Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 342, nom. illeg., non L. = Premna subrotundifolia Elmer ex H.J.Lam, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 36; Type: Elmer 16711 (BO, holo; BM, K, L, NY, U, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Jul-1916. = Premna membranacea var. cordata Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 391; Type: BS 34861 Ramos & Pascasio (PNH, holo, lost; K, US, iso), Siargao, Jun-1919. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Cotabato, SIARGAO. Notes: Lowland forests, epiphytic climber or small tree. Conservation status: Least Concern (De Kok 2013). Native.
  6. Premna serratifolia L., Mant. 2 (1771) 253; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 423; Type: from India. = Premna obtusifolia R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 512; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 392; Type: from Australia. = Premna integrifolia auct. non L.; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 121; PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 431; Fl. Manila (1912) 405. = Premna nauseosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 489; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 405; EPFP 3 (1923) 391; ≡ Premna integrifolia Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed 2 (1845) 342, nom. superfl. = Premna congesta Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 232; EPFP 3 (1923) 390; Type: FB 3281 Ahern’s collector (PNH, holo, lost; K, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, 6-Aug-1905. = Premna subglabra Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 234; EPFP 3 (1923) 393; Type: Merrill 2243 (NY, K, isosyn), Mindoro: Polo, May-1903; Merrill 2165 (PNH, US, isosyn), Mindoro: Pinamalayan, May-1903; Whitford 670 (syn), Luzon: Tayabas, Atimonan, 19-Aug-1904; Whitford 671 (K, isosyn), Luzon: Tayabas, Atimonan, 19-Aug-1904. = Premna benguetensis C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 215; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 390; Type: R.S. Williams 1086 (K, NY, PNH lost, US, syn), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, 10-Jun-1904; Williams 1207 (K, NY, PNH lost, syn), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, 21-Jun-1904. = Premna membranifolia Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 388; EPFP 3 (1923) 391; Type: Wenzel 114 (PNH, holo; BM, GH, US, iso), Leyte, Jaro, 8-Jun-1913. = Premna leytensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 302; EPFP 3 (1923) 391; Type: Wenzel 1364 (PNH, holo; A, BM, GH, iso), Leyte: Leyte Prov Tigbao, near Tacloban, 14-Jun-1914. = Premna integrifolia ssp. dentatolabium H.J.Lam, Verbenaceae Malayan Archipel. (1919) 144-146; Type: Elmer 11115 (K, lecto; BM, L, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya (Mt Apo), Jul-1909. = Premna atra Merr., Phytologia 2 (1941) 5; Type: BS 41873 Ramos (A, holo; BM, K, L, P, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Mt Irig (Irid), Feb-1923. = Premna dallachyana Benth., Fl. Austral. 5 (1870) 59; Munir, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 7 (1984) 24. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Coastal thickets, scarcely occurring inland. Conservation status: Least Concern (De Kok 2013). Native.
  7. Premna tomentosa Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 3 (1800) 314; Type: from India. = Premna adenosticta Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 630; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 389; Type: Cuming 1230 (B, holo; K, L, P, iso), Luzon; Albay. = Premna cumingiana Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 634; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 390; Type: Cuming 778 (K, L, MO, P, isosyn), Luzon: Tayabas, 1841; Cuming 1280 (A, BM, K, L, MO, P, isosyn), Luzon: Cagayan (P.B. Pelser 12-Apr-14: Albay, 1841 according to De Kok 2013). = Premna stellata Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 203; EPFP 3 (1923) 393; Type: BS 24262 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; K, US, iso), Samar: Catubig River, 7-Feb-1916. = Premna cumingiana forma glabrescens Moldenke, Phytologia 5 (1954) 14; Type: Miranda s.n. (BO 22106, holo), Basilan, Sep-1912. = Premna cumingiana forma dentata Moldenke, Phytologia 5 (1954) 14; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 681 (BO, holo; K, L, NY, P, US, iso), Luzon: Bulacan, Angat, Dec-1914. = Premna cumingiana forma cordata Moldenke, Phytologia 8 (1962) 162; Type: BS 15630 M.S. Clemens (PNH, holo, lost; NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Jun-1924. Distribution: Australia, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka to China, Sumatra. LUZON: Aurora (photos), Isabela (photos). Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Lowland and medium elevation secondary forests, ascending to 1000m. Conservation status: Least Concern (De Kok 2013). Native.
  8. Premna trichostoma Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. ii. (1859) 892; Type: from Java. = Premna oblongifolia Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 48; EPFP 3 (1923) 392; Type: Elmer 5990 (BO, K, NY, P, US, isosyn), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1904; Whitford 816 (syn), Luzon: Quezon, Infanta, Sep-1904. = Premna areolata Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 73; EPFP 3 (1923) 389; Type: BS 16179 Reillo (PNH, holo, lost; BM, K, L, US, iso), Basilan, 6-Sep-1912. = Premna williamsii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 74; EPFP 3 (1923) 393; Type: R.S. Williams 2330 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, Feb-1905. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Quezon, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga. Notes: In thickets on rocky slopes and in ravines among boulders, Low and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: Least Concern (De Kok 2013). Native.

Salvia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020
  1. Salvia coccinea Juss. ex Murr., Comm. Goett. 1 (1778) 86; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1 (1978) 359. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON: Mountain Province (photos). Notes: Cultivated in the tropics and occasionally escaping from cultivation. Montane forest. Thickets, montane forest. Naturalized.
  2. Salvia misella Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 2 (1818) 290. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Secondary forest. Naturalized.
  3. Salvia plebeia R.Br., Prod. (1810) 501; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 413; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 162; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 358; Type: from Australia. = Salvia violacea auct. non Ruiz & Pav.; Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 14; Fl. Filip., ed. 3 (1877) 27; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 343. Distribution: Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Korea, Middle East, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Taiwan, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan. Native.
  4. Salvia scapiformis Hance, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 368; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 413, as ‘scaphiformis’; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 161; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 357; Type: from Taiwan. Distribution: China, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. LUZON. Notes: On cliffs, mossy banks, boulders and in ravines along small streams, 400-1500m. Fl. Mar-Sep. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Salvia rosmarinus Schleid., Handb. Med.-Pharm. Bot. 1 (1852) 265. = Rosmarinus officinalis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 23; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 407; EPFP 3 (1923) 409; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 393. Distribution: Europe. Notes: Cultivated in gardens for medicinal purposes. Rosemary. Cultivated only?.
  2. Salvia splendens Sellow ex Schult. in Roem. & Schult., Mant. Pl. Altera (1822) 185. Distribution: S America. Notes: Only cultivated in the Philippines?.

Scutellaria L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 October 2019
  1. Scutellaria indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 600; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 409; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 167; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 325; Type: from India (lecto). = Scutellaria copelandii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 349; Type: Weber 1512, Mindanao: Cotabato. Distribution: China, Hong Kong, Indochina, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. MINDANAO: Cotabato, MINDORO. Native.
  2. Scutellaria javanica Jungh., Java 1 (1853) 661; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 168; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 325; Type: from Java. Native.
    • var. javanica. Distribution: Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON, MINDORO.
    • var. luzonica (Rolfe) H.Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 171; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 326; ≡ Scutellaria luzonica Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 315; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 410; Type: Lobb s.n. (K, holo)m Luzon. = Scutellaria marivelensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 516; Type: Elmer 6984, Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Bataan.
    • var. russeliifolia (Vatke) H.Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 172; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 326; ≡ Scutellaria russeliifolia Vatke, Bot. Zeit. 30 (1872) 716; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 410; Type: Jagor s.n. (B, holo, lost), Philippines. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDORO, PANAY.
    • var. sumatrana (Miq.) Bock, Trop. Natuur 10 (1921) 37; Keng, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 171; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 326; ≡ Scutellaria sumatrana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1859) 974; Type: from Sumatra. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sumatra. MINDANAO, MINDORO.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Scutellaria cordifolia (Cham. & Schltdl.) Benth. ex Hook., Bot. Mag. 73 (1847) t. 4290; ≡ Perilomia cordifolia Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 6 (1831) 374. = Scutellaria splendens Link, Klotsch & Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. Hort. Berol. 1 (1841) 31; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 326. Notes: Not naturalized?.

Symphorema Roxb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 October 2019
  1. Symphorema luzonicum (Blanco) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 162; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 3; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 122; Fl. Manila (1912) 400; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 335; EPFP 3 (1923) 406; ≡ Litsea luzonica Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 284; Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 2 (1878) 162; Type: Non extant; Llanos 69 (A, neo), Philippines. = Symphorema luzoniense (Turcz.) S.Vidal, Sin. Gen. Pl. Leños. Filip. (1883) t.75; ≡ Sczegleewia luzoniensis Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 36, 2 (1863) 213; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 365; Type: Cuming 648 (E, iso), Luzon. = Symphorema glabrum Hassk., Flora 48 (1865) 402; Type: Cuming s.n. (L, holo; BM, iso), Philippines. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. BUSUANGA, LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland secondary and primary forests. Native.

Tectona L.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 October 2019
  1. Tectona grandis L.f., Suppl. (1781) 151; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 389. Distribution: India to Indochina. Notes: Teak. Naturalized.
  2. Tectona philippinensis Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 2 (1876) 1152; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 389; ≡ Jatus philippinensis (Benth, & Hook.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 508; Type: Cuming 1432 (K, L, M, MO, S, iso), Philippines. = Diospyros tectona Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 609, nom. nud.; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 367. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ILIN, LUZON: Batangas. Notes: Lowland secondary forests and thickets. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Teijsmanniodendron Koorders

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 October 2019
  1. Teijsmanniodendron ahernianum (Merr.) Bakh., J. Arnold Arb. 16 (1935) 74; ≡ Vitex aherniana Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 6 (1904) 18; EPFP 3 (1923) 394; Type: Merrill 1007 (PNH, holo, lost; GH, K, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Baler, Aug/Oct-1903. = Vitex curranii H.J.Lam, Verb. Malay. Archipel. (1919) 207; Type: FB 17463 Curran (PNH, holo, lost; L, iso), Negros: Oct-1909. = Vitex bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3798; Type: Elmer 17004 (PNH, holo, lost; BM, L, NY 2 sheets, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Irosin, Aug-1916. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BABUYAN ISLS, LEYTE, LUBANG, LUZON: Albay, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Pangasinan, Quezon, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Surigao, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests. Native.
  2. Teijsmanniodendron bogoriense Koord., Ann. Jard. Buitenz. 19 (1904) 20; Type: from Indonesia. = Teijsmanniodendron longifolium (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 398; ≡ Vitex longifolia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 227; Type: FB 7574 Hutchinson (PNH, holo; K, US, iso), Mindanao: Surigao, May/Jun-1907. = Vitex merrillii H.J.Lam, Verb. Malay. Archipel. (1919) 212; Type: BS 15906 Fenix (PNH, holo, lost; BM, K, L, NSW, iso), Mindanao: Butuan. Distribution: Borneo, ?Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  3. Teijsmanniodendron hollrungii (Warb.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 1 (1951) 103; ≡ Vitex hollrungii Warb., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 18 (1893) 208; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 380; Type: from New Guinea. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. Native.
  4. Teijsmanniodendron holophyllum (Baker) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 1 (1951) 97; ≡ Vitex holophylla Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew (1896) 25; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Vietnam. TAWI-TAWI. Native.
  5. Teijsmanniodendron pteropodum (Miq.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 29; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 398; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 3 (1978) 309; ≡ Vitex pteropoda Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 567; Type: from Sumatra. = Teijsmanniodendron pteropodum (Miq.) Bakh. forma cristatum Moldenke, Phytologia 44(7) (1979) 473; Type: from Borneo. = Vitex philippinensis Merr., Forest. Bur. Philip. Bull. 1 (1903) 52; Type: Ahern 387 (PNH, holo, lost; BO, US 2 sheets, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Malangas, Oct/Nov-1919. Distribution: Borneo, India, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra. BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao, Surigao del Norte (photos), Zamboanga. Native.
  6. Teijsmanniodendron unifoliolatum (Merr.) Moldenke, Phytologia 4 (1952) 58; ≡ Vitex unifoliolata Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 438; EPFP 3 (1923) 398; Type: BS 37048 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo; K, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Malangas, Oct/Nov-1919. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: Forests along streams at low elevation. Native.

Teucrium L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 October 2019
  1. Teucrium viscidum Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 827; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 409; Keng, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 318; Type: from Java. = Teucrium philippinense Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 100; Type: FB Curran 4935 (syn), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio; Vanoverbergh 1374 (syn), Luzon: Bontoc, Bauko. Distribution: China, Hong Kong, India, Indochina, Japan, Java, Korea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Native.

Thymus L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2017

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Thymus vulgaris L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 591. Distribution: Europe. Notes: Stated to be cultivated in the Philippines and in Java.

Vitex L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 October 2019
  1. Vitex bicolor Willd., Enum. Pl. 2 (1809) 660; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 400; ≡ Vitex negundo var. bicolor (Willd.) H.J.Lam, Verb. Malay. Archipel. (1919) 191; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 395. = Vitex negundo var. philippinensis Moldenke, Phytologia 38 (1978) 308; Type: Elmer 8125 (PNH, holo, lost; K, NY, holo), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños, Apr-1906. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, China, India, Java, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam. Native.
  2. Vitex glabrata R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 512; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 394; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 310; de Kok, Kew Bull. 63 (2008) 22; Type: from Australia. = Vitex pentaphylla Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 320; Type: FB 9490 Whitford & Hutchinson (K, PNH lost, US, syn), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Norte, Siocon River, Mar-1908; FB 11245 Hutchinson (PNH, US, syn), same locality, Mar-1908; R.S. Williams 2949 (PNH lost, NY, US, syn), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Sta Cruz, 16-Jun-1905. = Vitex nitida Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 343; Type: FB 19546 Klemme (PNH, holo, lost; K, iso), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental, Tangob, growing near the mountains, 7-May-1911. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, CULION, LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests, seasonally flooded swamps, along rivers and streams, on sandy-clay, up to medium elevation. Fl. Aug-May, fr. Aug-Mar. Native.
  3. Vitex negundo L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 638; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 404; EPFP 3 (1923) 394; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 311; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 426, Pl. 180; de Kok, Kew Bull. 63 (2008) 25; Type: from India. = Vitex elmeri Moldenke, Phytologia 38 (1978) 307; Type: Elmer 5611 (NY, holo), Luzon: La Union, Bauang, Feb-1904. = Vitex negundo var. incisa (Lam.) C.B.Clarke in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4 (1885) 584; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 395; ≡ Vitex incisa Lam., Encycl. 2 (1788) 612; Type: from China. Distribution: China, India, Java, Philippines. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low to medium elevation, along roadsides, dry river flood plains, waste places, thickets and secondary forests. Fl. & fr. throughout the year. Native.
  4. Vitex parviflora Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 7 (1806) 76; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 404; EPFP 3 (1923) 395; de Kok, Kew Bull. 63 (2008) 26; Type: in P-Herb. Jussieu (photo cited by de Kok), Philippines. = Vitex geniculata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 514; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 333. = Vitex latifolia Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 514; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 333. = Vitex altissima Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 516, nom. illeg., non L.f.; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 333. = Vitex glandulosa H.J.Lam, Verb. Malay Archipel. (1919) 199; Type: Mangubat 1361 (BO, holo, photo K; L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Cavite, Mendez Nuñez, Aug-1906. = Vitex parviflora Juss. forma sterilis H.J.Lam ex Moldenke, Phytologia 6 (1957) 42; Type: BS 1218 R.C. McGregor (BO, holo; NY, iso), Bohol: May-1906. = Vitex parviflora Juss. var. puberulenta Moldenke, Phytologia 3 (1951) 489; Type: BS 1361 Mangubat (BO, holo; K, photo; L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Cavite, Mendez Nuñez, Aug-1906. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Common in both secondary and primary forests, on clay loam or volcanic soils, over limestone or ultamafics at low elevation. Fl. Apr-Dec; fr. all year round. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Vitex pinnata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 638; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 311; de Kok, Kew Bull. 63 (2008) 28; Type: from Sri Lanka. = Vitex pubescens L. ex Vahl, Symb. 3 (1794) 85; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 396; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. CULION, MINDORO, PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Primary and secondary forests, pyrogenous parang vegetation. Lowlands generally. Fruits eaten by birds. Seeds do not germinate in shade. Fl. Nov-May (Aug); fr. Nov-Aug. Native.
  6. Vitex quinata (Lour.) F.N.Williams, Bull. Herb. Boiss. ii, 5 (1905) 431; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 396; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 426; de Kok, Kew Bull. 63 (2008) 30; ≡ Cornutia quinata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 387; Type: from China. Distribution: India to China and Taiwan, Japan, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Sur, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Surigao, Zamboanga, NEGROS. Notes: Low elevation primary to secondary forests, sometimes on limestone. Fl. May-Dec; fr. Jul-Apr. Native.
  7. Vitex rotundifolia L.f., Pl. Syst. Veg. (1781) 294; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 428; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 413; Type: from Japan. = Vitex trifolia var. ovata (Thunb.) Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 17 (1903) 92, nom. superfl; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 397; ≡ Vitex ovata Thunb. in J.A.Murray, Syst. Nat. ed. 14 (1784) 578; Type: from China. = Vitex trifolia var. simplicifolia Cham., Linnaea 7 (1832) 107; Type: Chamisso s.n. (LE, holo, photo in K), Luzon: Cavite, Dec-1817 to Jan-1818. = Vitex repens Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 513; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 332. = Vitex trifolia ssp. littoralis Steenis, Blumea 8 (1957) 516; de Kok, Kew Bull. 63 (2008) 32; Type: from Lesser Sunda Isls. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, China, India, Japan, Korea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. On littoral sandy beach, common. Native.
  8. Vitex trifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 638; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 404; EPFP 3 (1923) 397; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 311; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 428; de Kok, Kew Bull. 63 (2008) 32; Type: from India. Distribution: Australia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, SE Asia. Native.
  9. Vitex turczaninowii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 77; EPFP 3 (1923) 397; Bramley et al. Taxon 58 (2009) 508; ≡ Viticipremna philippinensis (Turcz.) H.J.Lam, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 47; ≡ Premna philippinensis Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(2) (1863) 215; Type: Cuming 1294 (MEL, lecto; BM, K, NY, PNH, isolecto), Philippines: 1841. = Vitex cumingiana Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 31 (1858) 416; Type: Cuming 1173 (MO), Luzon. = Vitex luzonica H.J.Lam in H.J.Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 61; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 394; Type: Ahern 706Q (BO, holo; NY, iso), Luzon. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. BATANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Surigao, MINDORO, TICAO. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Vitex leucoxylon Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 516; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 332; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 420. Notes: Perhaps based on material of Vitex negundo and Vitex parviflora.

Volkameria L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 October 2019
  1. Volkameria inermis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 637; ≡ Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn., Fruct. 1 (1788) 271; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 401; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 304; Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 417; Type: from India. = Clerodendron commersonii Spreng., Syst. 2 (1825) 758; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 403. = Clerodendron capsulare Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 509; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 422; Type: Anonymus s.n. (PNH, holo, lost); Ramos s.n. (Merrill Species Blancoanae 813; US, neo), Luzon: Batangas, Santiago trail. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Along seashore and tidal streams. Native.

Literature