Gentianaceae

Canscora Lam.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 November 2017
  1. Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15 (1818) 301; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 367; EPFP 3 (1923) 318; Thiv., Blumea 48 (2003) 11; ≡ Gentiana diffusa Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3 (1794) 47. Distribution: Africa, Asia, Australia, Malesia. LUZON: Apayao, Benguet, Bulacan, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales. Native.
  2. Canscora macrocalyx Miq., Fl. Ned.-ind. 2 (1856) 558; Thiv., Blumea 48 (2003) 15. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte. Notes: Moist open places in grasslands, fields; heavy soil. 0-600m. Fl. Jan-Aug. Native.

Cyrtophyllum Reinw.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 January 2015
  1. Cyrtophyllum fragrans (Roxb.) DC., Prodr. 9 (1845) 31; ≡ Fagraea fragrans Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 32; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 314; Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 304; Wong & Sugau, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 2 (1996) 206. = ?Fagraea cochinchinensis (Lour.) A.Chev., Cat. Pl. Jard. Bot. Saigon (1919) 65; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 314. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, India, Java Sea, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, BUSUANGA, CULION, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests, especially secondary and disturbed ones. Native.

Exacum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 August 2019
  1. Exacum loheri (H.Hara) Klack., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 126 (2006) 478; ≡ Cotylanthera loheri Hara, J. Jap. Bot. 50 (1975) 327; Type: Loher 5189 (K, holo), Luzon: Montalban, 26-Oct-1895. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Native.
  2. Exacum parviflorum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 96; EPFP 3 (1923) 317; Type: Vanoverbergh 758. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Open slopes, c. 1200m. Native.
  3. Exacum tenue (Blume) Klack., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 126(4) (2006) 478; ≡ Cotylanthera tenuis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 707; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 223; EPFP 3 (1923) 317; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Mountain Province, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation damp primary forests, ascending to 1700m. Native.
  4. Exacum tetragonum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 413. = Exacum chironioides Griseb., Gen. Sp. Gent. (1839) 109; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 136; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 307; EPFP 3 (1923) 317. Distribution: Malesia. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation wet grasslands, swamps, etc. Native.

Fagraea Thunb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Fagraea auriculata Jack, Malay Misc. 2, No. 7 (1822) 82; Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 509; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 314; Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 326. = Fagraea epiphytica Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2743. Native.
    • ssp. auriculata. Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO, PANAY.
    • ssp. parviflora Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 328. = Fagraea curranii Merr, PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 50; EPFP 3 (1923) 314. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. LUZON.
  2. Fagraea blumei G.Don, Gard. Dict. 4 (1837) 69, as ‘blumii’; Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 320; Wong & Sugau, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 2 (1996) 202. = Fagraea obovata auct. non Wall.; Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 369; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315, pro parte. = Fagraea cuernosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 600; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 314. = Fagraea negrosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 599; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315. Native.
    • ssp. blumei. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. NEGROS.
    • ssp. plumeriiflora (DC.) Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 323; ≡ Fagraea plumeriiflora DC., Prodr. 9 (1845) 29; Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 598; LPB 3 (1910) 857; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315, excl. specimens from Sulawesi. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Intermediate forms between ssp. plumeriiflora and ssp. blumei occur in Borneo, Negros and Mindanao. Native.
  3. Fagraea borneensis Scheff. in Hassk., Flora 32 (1869) 309; Wong & Sugau, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 2 (1996) 202; ≡ Fagraea auriculata Jack ssp. borneensis (Scheff.) Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 328; Type: from Sarawak. = Fagraea nonok Elmer, LPB 3(1910) 858; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315. = Fagraea jackii Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2744. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland and montane forests. Native.
  4. Fagraea ceilanica Thunb., Vet. Acad. Handl. Stockh. 3 (1782) 132; Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 315. = Fagraea obovata Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 33; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315, pro parte. = Fagraea loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 49; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; Type: Loher. Distribution: China, Hong Kong, India, Indochina, Myanmar, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: Throughout Malesia, throughout the Philippines; high-climbing woody hemi-epiphyte in forests, 0-2100m. Native.
  5. Fagraea gitingensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 859; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315; Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 334. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. SIBUYAN. Native.
  6. Fagraea longiflora Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 260; Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 597; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315. = Fagraea macgregorii Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 51. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON, ?MINDANAO. Notes: A dubious specimen from Mindanao (BS 38650). Native.

Gentiana L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Gentiana diversifolia Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 224; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 319; Type: Merrill 4443 (PNH, holo, ?lost), Luzon: Benguet, Kabayan. On damp, rocky banks, in open lands, rare, c. 1300m, 27-Oct-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Damp rocky banks among grasses, 1200-1900m. Native.
  2. Gentiana elmeriana Halda, Acta Mus. Richnov., Sect. Nat. 3(1) (1995) 46; ≡ Gentiana copelandii Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2671; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 319, nom. illeg., non Greene; Type: Elmer 11692. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: In mosses at the summit, c. 2500m. Native.
  3. Gentiana quadrifaria Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 14 (1826) 847. = Gentiana apoensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 223; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 318; Type: Copeland 1161 & 1432 (PNH, ?lost, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, summit area, c. 3000m, occasional in turf, but inconspicuous, not common, Apr/Oct-1904; de Vore & Hoover 371 (PNH, ?lost, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, May-1903. = Gentiana luzoniensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 224; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 319; Type: Merrill 4558 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data, on dry, open grassy slopes in thin pine forests at c. 2100m, 4-Nov-1905. Distribution: India, Java, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao, NEGROS. Notes: Open grasslands and exposed ridges on the higher mountains, 1700-2800m. Native.

Hoppea Willd. (Not native)

  1. Hoppea dichotoma Willd., Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Neue Schriften 3 (1801) 434; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 318; Thiv, Blumea 48 (2003) 28. Distribution: India. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan. Notes: Thiv argues that outside of India, this plant is non indigenous in occurrence. In the Philippines reported from open places at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1800m in Benguet. Rare or local. Naturalized.

Microrphium C.B.Clarke

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Microrphium pubescens C.B.Clarke, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74 (1906) 88. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand. Native.
    • ssp. elmerianum (Regalado & Soejarto) Thiv, Blumea 48 (2003) 33; ≡ Microrphium elmerianum Regalado & Soejarto, Novon 7 (1997) 77; Type: Soejarto et al. 6499 (F, holo; A, PNH, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Bacungan Hills, slopes above Nagtabon beach, 9°51’N, 118°37’E. Distribution: PALAWAN. Notes: Fl. Feb-Aug.

Schenkia Griseb. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 October 2019
  1. Schenkia spicata (L.) G.Mans., Taxon 53 (2004) 726; ≡ Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch ex Janch, Mitt. Naturwiss. Vereins Univ. Wien n.s., 5 (1907) 97; ≡ Erythraea spicata (L.) Pers., Syn. 1 (1905) 283; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 317; ≡ Gentiana spicata L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 230. Distribution: Europe. BATAN. Notes: Introduced into Taiwan by early Portuguese colonists, extending thereafter southward to the Batanes Isls Group. Open places at low elevation. Naturalized.

Swertia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Swertia decurrens C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1909) Bot. 214; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 319; Type: R.S. Williams 1529. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Open slopes, extending into the mossy forest, 1200-2300m. Native.

Tripterospermum Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 August 2017
  1. Tripterospermum luzonense (S.Vidal) J.Murata, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 14 (1989) 305; Wang & Chen in Huang, Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 186; ≡ Crawfurdia luzonensis S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 191; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 318. Distribution: Java, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Mossy forests in very damp shaded ravines, 1100-2400m. Native.

Utania G.Don

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2021
  1. Utania cuspidata (Blume) K.M.Wong, Sugumaran & Sugau, Gard. Bull. Singapore 65 (2013) 237; ≡ Fagraea cuspidata Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 170; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 314; Wong & Sugau, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 2 (1996) 204. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BALABAC. Notes: Mixed dipterocarp forests, in gaps and clearings, also secondary forests and forest edges. Native.
  2. Utania philippinensis (K.M.Wong & Sugau) K.M.Wong, Sugumaran & Sugau, Gard. Bull. Singapore 65 (2013) 237; ≡ Fagraea philippinensis K.M.Wong & Sugau, Sandakania 8 (1996) 35; Type: FB 3270 Ahern’s Collector (K, holo). = Fagraea racemosa auct. non Jack ex Wall.; Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 311, pro parte. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. Native.
  3. Utania spicata (Baker) K.M.Wong, Sugumaran & Sugau, Gard. Bull. Singapore 65 (2013) 238; ≡ Fagraea spicata Baker, Kew Bull. (1896) 25; Wong & Sugau, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 2 (1996) 214. = Fagraea congestiflora Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2741; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 316. = Fagraea racemosa auct. non Jack ex Wall.; Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 311. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. Notes: Lowland to montane forests, frequently in gaps and also secondary forests. Native.
  4. Utania volubilis (Wall.) Sugumaran, Gard. Bull. Singapore 64 (2012) 493; ≡ Fagraea volubilis Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 36; Wong & Sugau, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 2 (1996) 215. = Fagraea racemosa auct. non Jack ex Wall.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315; Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 311. = Fagraea scholaris Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 93; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 171. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Notes: Lowland forests, including secondary forests and forest edges. Native.

Literature