Fagaceae

Castanea Mill. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Castanea mollissima Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 286; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 24. Distribution: China, India, Korea.

Castanopsis (D.Don) Spach

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 June 2018
  1. Castanopsis evansii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1778; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 391; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 305. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests to 2000m (Borneo), on brown, clayey loam soil. Native.
  2. Castanopsis glabra Merr., PJS C 9 (1915) 354. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  3. Castanopsis inermis (Lindl.) Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 3 (1880) 409; ≡ Castanea inermis Lindl. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2 (1830) 6. = Castanopsis sumatrana (Miq.) A.DC., J. Bot. 1 (1863) 182; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); ≡ Callaeocarpus sumatrana Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1851) 14. Distribution: Java, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: Known from Puerto Princesa, Irawan River Valley (Soejarto et al. 6412, A, F, PNH). Native.
  4. Castanopsis motleyana King, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 2 (1889) 96; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 396; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 314. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO. Notes: Primary, rarely secondary forests or disturbed hilly country to 500m. Native.
  5. Castanopsis philipensis (Blanco) S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 265; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 25, as ‘philippensis’; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 399; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 316; ≡ Fagus philipensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 503. = Castanopsis javanica auct. non (Blume) A.DC.; sensu S.Vidal. = Castanopsis inermis auct. non (Lindl.) Benth. & Hook.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 24. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, 400-1800m. Native.
  6. Castanopsis psilophylla Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 401; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 315. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Record in Palawan based on Ebalo 408. Lowland forest. Native.

Lithocarpus Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 November 2021
  1. Lithocarpus apoensis (Elmer) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 123; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 217; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 354; ≡ Quercus apoensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 946; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 25. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON, MINDANAO: Davao, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, 1000-1700m. Fl. Mar-Dec; fr. Apr-Sep. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Lithocarpus boholensis (Merr.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 10 (1929) 132; ≡ Quercus boholensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 476; Type: Ramos 43350 (BM, K, US, A), Bohol: Oct-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (9-Jan-20): Widely considered to be a synonym of Lithocarpus coopertus (Blanco) Rehder, but J.V. LaFrankie (pers. comm., 3-Jun16) suggests to consider it distinct for now, because it is different from L. coopertus in having an acorn that only covers half the seed. Native.
  3. Lithocarpus bullatus Hatus. ex Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 223. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Known from Soejarto 6432 (L) 6-Apr-1989, Palawan Ridge between Mt Viadung and Mt Beufort on chromite rich soil. Native.
  4. Lithocarpus castellarnauianus (S.Vidal) A.Camus, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 92 (1945) 84; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 226; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 377; ≡ Quercus castellarnauiana S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 264; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 26. = Quercus merrittii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 325; EPFP 2 (1923) 28. = Quercus obliquinervia Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 250; EPFP 2 (1923) 29. = Quercus cagayanensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 6; EPFP 2 (1923) 26. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Rizal, Zambales, MARINDUQUE, MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: Forests at (60-)200-2200m. Fl. Aug-Jul; fr. Sep-May. Native.
  5. Lithocarpus caudatifolius (Merr.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 123; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 226; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 350; ≡ Quercus caudatifolia Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 324; EPFP 2 (1923) 26. = Quercus minahassae Koord., Syst. Verzeich. 3 (1911) 28; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 28. = Quercus bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3736, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Camarines, Pangasinan, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Low to medium elevation primary and secondary forests, on ridges, along rivers, ascending to 1350m on Mt Apo. Fl. Sep-Jun; fr. May-Jan. Native.
  6. Lithocarpus celebicus (Miq.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 123; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 227; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 374; ≡ Quercus celebica Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1863-64) 110; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 26. = Quercus llanosii A.DC., Prodr. 162 (1864) 97; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 28. = Quercus lipacon Elmer, LPB 6 (1913) 1983; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. = Quercus mabesae Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 7; EPFP 2 (1923) 28. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao. Notes: Forests at low and medium elevation, 20-1200m, but more common in the lowlands below 800m, on clayey soil. Fl. Sep-May; fr. Jun-Apr. Native.
  7. Lithocarpus coopertus (Blanco) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 124, as ‘cooperta’; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 231; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 335; ≡ Quercus cooperta Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 503; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 26; Type: Elmer 14012 (L, NY, US, isoneo), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. = Quercus pruinosa auct. non Blume; Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 940; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 30. = Quercus reflexa King in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1888) 616; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 30. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Bulacan, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Surigao, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, from low elevation to 1200m. Common in Mindanao, rare and scattered in Luzon, Leyte, Samar. Fl. Feb-Oct; fr. Nov-May. Native.
  8. Lithocarpus glutinosus (Blume) Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 243; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 354; ≡ Quercus glutinosa Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 304. = Quercus zschokkei Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 944; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. = Quercus copelandii Elmer, LPB 6 (1913) 1984; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Davao, Zamboanga. Notes: Forests, 75-900m. Native.
  9. Lithocarpus gracilis (Korth.) Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 243; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 362; ≡ Quercus gracilis Korth., Kruidk. (1844) 207. = Quercus cyrtorrhyncha Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1860-61) 350; Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 939; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Singapore, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Forest, c. 600m. Native.
  10. Lithocarpus jordanae (Laguna) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 127; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 250; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 382; ≡ Quercus jordanae Laguna, Apuntes Sobre Nuev. Roble Filip. (1875) 7; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. = Quercus caraballoana Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. (1880) 209. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: Mossy forests on the higher mountains, 1200-2400m. Rather common. Fl. Jan, Jul; fr. Aug-Apr. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  11. Lithocarpus luzoniensis (Merr.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 133; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 256; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 381; ≡ Quercus luzoniensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 323; EPFP 2 (1923) 28. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Zambales. Notes: Mossy forests, 1500-2700m. Rather common in the Cordillera Highlands of N Luzon. Fl. Jan-Jun; fr. Jul-Mar. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  12. Lithocarpus mindanaensis (Elmer) Rehder, Arn. Arb. 1 (1919) 128; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 261; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 355; ≡ Quercus mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 942; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 28. = Quercus dasystachya auct. non Miq.; Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 938, as 'lasystachya'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Misamis, Surigao del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: Common in Mindanao, scattered in Leyte. Low to medium elevation forests, 20-1000m, more commonly encountered below 600m. Fl. Oct-Mar; fr. May-Sep. Native.
  13. Lithocarpus nieuwenhuisii (Seem.) A.Camus, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 92 (1945) 255; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 262; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 379; ≡ Quercus nieuwenhuisii Seem., Bull. Dép. Agr. Ind. Néerl. 1 (1906) 6. = Quercus clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 321; EPFP 2 (1923) 26. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: Forests at low and medium elevation. Rare. Fl. & fl. throughout the year. Native.
  14. Lithocarpus ovalis (Blanco) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 129; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 264; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 361; ≡ Quercus ovalis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 502; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 29. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Pampanga, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Low elevation forests. Fl. Nov-Apr; fr. Jun-Aug. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  15. Lithocarpus philippinensis (A.DC.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 129; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 267; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 353; ≡ Quercus philippinensis A.DC., Prodr. 162 (1864) 97; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 29. = Quercus wenzelii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 267; EPFP 2 (1923) 31. = Quercus rizalensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 272; EPFP 2 (1923) 30. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Batangas, Camarines, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO, SAMAR. Notes: Forests on the higher mountains, 500 to 2000m. Fl. Dec-Jul; fr. Oct-Nov. Native.
  16. Lithocarpus robinsonii Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 1 (1919) 130. = Lithocarpus buddii (Merr.) A.Camus, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 92 (1945) 85; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 222; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 383; ≡ Quercus buddii Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 6; ≡ Quercus robinsonii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 297; EPFP 2 (1923) 30, nom. illeg., non Ridl. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, 200-1000m. Common on Mt Makiling, rare in Samar and Leyte. Fl. Oct-Jun; fr. Jun-Dec. Native.
  17. Lithocarpus rotundatus (Blume) A.Camus, Riviera Scient. 18 (1932) 41, as ‘rotundata’; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 275; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 331; ≡ Quercus rotundata Blume, Verh. Bat. Gen. K. & W. 9 (1823) 219. = Quercus curranii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 329; EPFP 2 (1923) 27. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Forests, 800-900m on Mt Banahaw. Fl. Jul-Oct; fr. Oct-Feb. Native.
  18. Lithocarpus solerianus (S.Vidal) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 131; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 279; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 355; ≡ Quercus soleriana S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 261; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 30. = Lithocarpus bicoloratus (Elmer) A.Camus, Rivièra Sci. 18 (1931) 39; ≡ Quercus bicolorata Elmer, LPB 6 (1913) 1985; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 26. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, MINDORO. Notes: Forests at 700-1200m. Fl. Aug-May; fr. Apr-Oct. Native.
  19. Lithocarpus submonticola (Elmer) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 131; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 280; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 377; ≡ Quercus submonticola Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 943; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. = Quercus monticola auct. non G.Kirchn.; Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 942; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 29. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, MINDORO. Notes: Forests, 1000-1700m. Fl. Sep-May; fr. Jun-Dec. Native.
  20. Lithocarpus sulitii Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 280; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 359; Type: PNH 17646 Sulit & Conklin (L, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mansalay, Mt Yagaw, E slope, 617m, 1-Jun-1953. = Quercus bennettii auct. non Miq.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 25. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO. Notes: Low to medium elevation forests in regions with pronounced dry season, up to 700m. Common in Luzon, rare in Mindoro. Fl. Sep-Jan; fr. Feb-Jun. Native.
  21. Lithocarpus sundaicus (Blume) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 131; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 282; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 358; ≡ Quercus sundaica Blume, Verh. Bat. Genoots. 9 (1825) 216; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Notes: Primary forests, up to 1900m, commonly found between 500-1500m. Native.
  22. Lithocarpus vidalii (Fern.-Vill.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 134; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 285; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 358; ≡ Quercus vidalii Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 209; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Forests, 1100-1800m. Fl. Feb-May; fr. Jun-Nov. Native.
  23. Lithocarpus woodii (Hance) A.Camus, Riviera Scient. 18 (1932) 42; Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 287; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 358; ≡ Quercus woodii Hance, J. Bot. 12 (1874) 240; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDANAO, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, 1200-2300m, must be below 900m in Samar. Fl. Aug-Jun; fr. Apr-Nov. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Lithocarpus oreophilus Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 264. Philippine records fide Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 942, are not confirmed. Elmer had specimens of Lithocarpus submonticola. According to the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (3-Nov-2017), Lithocarpus oreophilus Soepadmo is a synonym of Lithocarpus monticola (Koidz.) Rehder and endemic to Sumatra.

Quercus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Quercus merrillii Seem., Fedde Repert. 5 (1908) 21; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 28; Soepadmo, Gard. Bull. Sing. 22 (1968) 397; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 394. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Mossy thickets at summit, c. 1300m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Quercus subsericea A.Camus, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 80 (1933) 254. Distribution: Java, Malaysia, Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Literature