Fabaceae

Mimosaceae, Papilionaceae

Abrus Adans.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 August 2019
  1. Abrus fruticulosus Wall. ex Wight & Arn., Prodr. 1 (1834) 236; Breteler, Blumea 10 (1960) 612; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 71, as ‘fruticulus’. = Abrus laevigatus E.Mey., Comm. 1 (1835-37) 126; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 303. Distribution: Pantropic. LUZON: Abra, Laguna. Notes: In Luzon from Abra to Laguna. Lowland and medium elevation thickets. Native.
  2. Abrus precatorius L., Syst. ed. 12 (1767) 472; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 303; Breteler, Blumea 10 (1960) 617; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 69. Distribution: Pantropic. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Lowland and medium elevation dry thickets. Native.
  3. Abrus pulchellus Wall. ex Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1859) 91. Native.
    • ssp. mollis (Hance) Verdc., Kew Bull. 24 (1970) 248; ≡ Abrus mollis Hance, J. Bot. 9 (1871) 430. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam.
    • ssp. pulchellus. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.

Acacia Mill.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 June 2020
  1. Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth., London J. Bot. 1 (1842) 377; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 58; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973; ≡ Racosperma auriculiformis (A.Cunn. ex Benth.) Pedley, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 92 (1986) 247. Distribution: Australia, Moluccas, New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Introduced elsewhere in SE Asia, including the Philippines where it is also now thoroughly naturalized. Naturalized.
  2. Acacia confusa Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 27; EPFP 2 (1923) 248; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 61; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philip. Trees (1999) 248; Maslin et al., Plant Diversity 41 (2019) 451; ≡ Racosperma confusum (Merr.) Pedley, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 92 (1986) 215; Type: Merrill 2114 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Subig (Subic) and vicinity, Apr-1903. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Zambales. Notes: On slopes and dry forest at low elevation. Very local; native to Zambales (Maslin et al. 2019), but widely planted elsewhere in the Philippines. Native.
  3. Acacia mangium Willd., Sp. Pl. ed. 4, 4 (1806) 1053; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 59; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philip. Trees (1999) 248; ≡ Racosperma mangium (Willd.) Pedley, Austrobaileya 2 (4) (1987) 152. Distribution: Australia, Moluccas, New Guinea. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Introduced and naturalized in the Philippines as a reforestation crop. Naturalized.

Acaciella Britton & Rose (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 February 2022
  1. Acaciella angustissima (Mill.) Britton & Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 23 (1928) 100; ≡ Mimosa angustissima Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8. (1768) n. 19. Naturalized.
    • var. angustissima. Distribution: America. Notes: Not native to the Philippines (Rico A. & Bachman 2006). Naturalized?.
  2. Acaciella glauca (L.) L.Rico, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 63 (2006) 210; ≡ Acacia glauca (L.) Moench., Meth. Pl. (1794) 466; Faridah Hanum & Van der Maesen, PROSEA 11 (1997) 58; ≡ Mimosa glauca L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 520. = Acaciella villosa (Sw.) Britton & Rose in Britton et al., N. Amer. Fl. 23 (1928) 104; ≡ Mimosa villosa Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 85. Distribution: America. Notes: Naturalized (PNH 7014)? P.B. Pelser (11-Feb-22): Rico A. & Bachman (2006) explain that Acaciella glauca (L.) L.Rico and Acaciella villosa (Sw.) Britton & Rose are taxonomically distinct, but it is unclear to me which of these was introduced to the Philippines. Naturalized.

Adenanthera L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 August 2019
  1. Adenanthera intermedia Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 228; Fl. Manila (1912) 229; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 168; EPFP 2 (1923) 251; Nielsen, Nordic J. Bot. 12 (1992) 102; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 169. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland primary forests, ascending to 700m. Fl. & fr. probably throughout the year. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Adenanthera pavonina L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 384. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Only known from cultivation in the Philippines (Nielsen 1992).

Possibly present

  1. Adenanthera kostermansii I.C.Nielsen, Nordic J. Bot. 12 (1992) 100. Distribution: Borneo, ?Philippines. ?LEYTE, ?MINDANAO: Surigao.

Aeschynomene L. (Not native)

  1. Aeschynomene americana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 713; Rudd, Reinwardtia 5 (1959) 25; Type: from Jamaica. Naturalized.
    • var. americana. Distribution: Caribbean. BOHOL, LUZON. Notes: Introduced to Malesia in Java and the Philippines.
  2. Aeschynomene indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 715; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 237; EPFP 2 (1923) 282; Rudd, Reinwardtia 5 (1959) 30; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 32. Distribution: N America. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Now widely distributed in tropical and warm temperate part of the Old World. Open water-logged grasslands and rice paddies. Naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Aeschynomene aspera L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 713. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) and Caton et al. (2010) as a weed of rice fields, but no specimens cited.

Afzelia Sm.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Afzelia rhomboidea (Blanco) S.Vidal, Cat. Pl. Prov. Manila (1880) 28; Ding Hou, Blumea 38 (1994) 318; in Ding Hou et. al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 441; ≡ Pahudia rhomboidea (Blanco) Prain, Sc. Mem. Med. Off. Army India 12 (1901) 46; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 257; ≡ Eperua rhomboidea Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 260; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1878) 119. = Intsia acuminata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 257. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; low to medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Aganope Miq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 August 2019
  1. Aganope heptaphylla (L.) Polhill, Kew Bull. 25 (1971) 268; ≡ Derris heptaphylla (L.) Merr., Interp. Rumph. Herb. Amb. (1917) 273; EPFP 2 (1923) 299; ≡ Sophora heptaphylla L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 373. = Pterocarpus diadelphus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 563; ≡ Derris diadelpha (Blanco) Merr., PJS 5, Bot. (1910) 103; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanea 344 (L, neo), Palawan: Taytay, May-1913. Distribution: India to Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, La Union, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: In thickets, secondary forests, etc., at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Aganope thyrsiflora (Benth.) Polhill, Kew Bull. 25 (1971) 268; ≡ Derris thyrsiflora Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4 (1860) Suppl. 249; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 301. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra. BASILAN, NEGROS. Notes: Lowland thickets. Native.

Airyantha Brummitt

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 July 2017
  1. Airyantha borneensis (Oliv.) Brummitt, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 378; ≡ Baphia borneensis Oliv., Hook., Icon. Pl. (1896) t. 2456; Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 396; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995). Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Known from PNH 3993 Sulit, A, PNH; Merrill (1926) cites two collections. Lowland forest. Native.

Albizia Durazz.

Last edited by Kelly Hageman & Pieter B. Pelser, 30 July 2021
  1. Albizia acle (Blanco) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 25; EPFP 2 (1923) 245; Nielsen, Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 46; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 71; ≡ Pithecellobium acle (Blanco) S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 121; ≡ Serialbizzia acle (Blanco) Kosterm., Bull. Org. Sci. Res. Indonesia No. 20 (1954) 16; ≡ Mimosa acle Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 1 (1837) 738; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 509; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 140. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Lowland forests, humid forests, 0-150m. Fl. Mar-Apr; fr. Sep-Oct, Jan-Feb. Common namee: Akle. Native.
  2. Albizia corniculata (Lour.) Druce, Bot. Soc. Exch. Club Brit. Isles 4 (1917) 603; Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 140; Nielsen, Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 45; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 73; ≡ Mimosa corniculata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 651; Type: from S China. = Albizia scandens Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 265; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 21; PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 87; EPFP 2 (1923) 248; Cockburn, Trees Sabah 1 (1976) 185. Distribution: Borneo, China, Indochina, Philippines, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  3. Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 3 (1844) 87; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 246; Nielsen, Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 30; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 75; ≡ Mimosa lebbeck L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 516. Notes: Probably native of E Africa and mainland Asia; cultivated and naturalized throughout Malesia including the Philippines. Naturalized.
  4. Albizia lebbekoides (DC.) Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 3 (1844) 89; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 246; Nielsen, Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 38; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 76; ≡ Acacia lebbekoides DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 467. Distribution: Cambodia, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Luzon to Mindanao. In dry thickets and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Fl. Mar-Jun, Sep; fr. Oct-Dec, Mar, May. Native.
  5. Albizia pedicellata Baker ex Benth., Trans. Linn. Soc. 30 (1875) 563; Nielsen, Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 44; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 78. = Albizia magallanensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 693; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 247; Type: Elmer 12089. = Albizia myriantha Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 8. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Camarines, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  6. Albizia philippinensis Nielsen, Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 42; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 79. = Albizia marginata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 23. = Albizia julibrissin auct. non Durazz.; Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 5. = Albizia chinensis auct. non (Osbeck) Merr.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 246. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Hill forest, 250(-?)m. Fl. Aug-Sep; fr. Apr, Jun. Native.
  7. Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 3 (1844) 89; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 247; Nielsen, Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 30; Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 11 (1992) 79; ≡ Mimosa procera Roxb., Pl. Corom. 2 (1799) 12. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand. BUSUANGA, LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, MINDORO. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Batangas. Second-growth forests, thickets, parang vegetation at low and medium elevation in regions subject to a long dry season. Fl. & fr. throughout the year. Native.
  8. Albizia retusa Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 3 (1844) 90; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 247; Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 30; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 80. Native.
    • ssp. retusa. Distribution: Australia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Thailand. BATANES, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout Malesia; throughout the Philippines; scattered along the seashore.
  9. Albizia saponaria (Lour.) Blume ex Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 11 (1855) 19; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 247; Nielsen, Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 32; Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 11 (1992) 82; ≡ Mimosa saponaria Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 653. Native.
    • var. saponaria. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MINDANAO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Also widely cultivated. N Luzon to Mindanao and Sulu Archipelago. Common in secondary forests, parang vegetation, roadsides, seashore, etc., from sea level to 1050m. Fl. Apr-Dec; fr. Jan-Mar, May-Aug, Oct-Nov.
    • var. velutina Nielsen, Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 33; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 83. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO.
  10. Albizia splendens Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. 2 (1861) 280; De la Estrella et al., Nordic J. Bot. 25 (2007) 46. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Bulacan, Quezon, Rizal, PALAWAN. Native.

Needs name

  1. Albizia butarek ined. Distribution: LUZON: Isabela. Notes: From Palanan Forest Dynamics Plot. Allied to Albizia kostermansii from Borneo, differing mainly in having a ferruginous inflorescence axis. Native.

Alysicarpus Neck. ex Desv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 August 2019
  1. Alysicarpus bupleurifolius (L.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 352; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 241; EPFP 2 (1923) 292; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 88; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 47; ≡ Hedysarum bupleurifolium L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 745. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao. Along roadsides, grasslands, cultivated lands, etc., in sunny places subject to a pronounced dry season, low to medium elevation. Native.
  2. Alysicarpus ovalifolius (Schumach.) J.Léonard, Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 24 (1954) 88; ≡ Hedysarum ovalifolium Schumach., Beskr. Guin. Pl. (1827) 359. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Singapore, Solomon Isls, Sumatra, Taiwan. Native.
  3. Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 353; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 242; EPFP 2 (1923) 292; Steenis, Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 87; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 47; ≡ Hedysarum vaginale L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 746. = Alysicarpus nummularifolius DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 353; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 242; EPFP 2 (1923) 292; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 47. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines, especially in areas subjected to at least a short annual dry season. Low elevation, along roadsides, grasslands, cultivated lands, etc. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Alysicarpus monilifer (L.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 353; Adema, Blumea 48 (2003) 148; ≡ Hedysarum moniliferum L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 102. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, India, Indian Ocean, Myanmar, Pakistan, ?Philippines, Sri Lanka. LUZON. Notes: Philippine record based on Clemens 17871 (SING) from Luzon. If present, probably not native to the Philippines.

Amherstia Wall. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Amherstia nobilis Wall. in Taylor & Philips, Phil. Mag. n.s. 3 (1828) 223; Corner, Wayside Trees, ed. 2, 1 (1952) 378; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 530; Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 717. Distribution: Myanmar. Notes: Introduced and cultivated in the Philippines.

Arachis L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 May 2021
  1. Arachis hypogaea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 741; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 237; EPFP 2 (1923) 283; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 34. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Now widely cultivated in most tropical and subtropical countries. Naturalized in open areas. Peanut. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C.Greg., Bonplandia 8 (1994) 81. Distribution: S America. Notes: Not naturalized. Cultivated as a ground cover.

Archidendron F.Muell.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Archidendron apoense (Elmer) Nielsen, Opera Bot. 76 (1984) 46; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 95; ≡ Zygia apoensis (Elmer) Kosterm., Bull. Organ. Natuurw. Onderz. Indon. 20 (1954) 31; ≡ Pithecellobium apoense Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 694; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 242. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Humid montane forest, 1100-1350m. Native.
  2. Archidendron clypearia (Jack) Nielsen, Adansonia ser. 2, 19 (1) (1979) 15; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 97; ≡ Abarema clypearia (Jack) Kosterm. Bull. Organ. Natuurw. Onderz. Indon. 20 (1954) 42; ≡ Inga clypearia Jack, Malayan Misc. ii. VII. (1822) 78. = Abarema angulata (Benth.) Kosterm. Bull. Organ. Natuurw. Onderz. Indon. 20 (1954) 47; ≡ Albizia angulata (Benth.) Kurz, Rep. Pegu, App. B (1875) 47; ≡ Pithecellobium angulatum Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 3 (1844) 208; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 242. Native.
    • var. clypearia. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Cagayan, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests.
    • var. casai (Blanco) Nielsen, Opera Bot. 76 (1984) 54; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 98; ≡ Mimosa scutifera Blanco var. casai Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 736; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 508; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 138. = Abarema clypearia (Jack) Kosterm. forma prainiana Kosterm., Bull. Organ. Natuurw. Onderz. Indon. 20 (1954) 46, nom. rejic; ≡ Pithecellobium prainianum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 61; EPFP 2 (1923) 244. = Abarema clypearia (Jack) Kosterm. forma subacutum Kosterm., Adansonia sér. 2, 6 (3) (1966) 354, nom. rejic; ≡ Pithecellobium subacutum Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 3 (1844) 210; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 244. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. BATANES, CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests, most common in montane forests, exposed slopes and ridges to 2000m.
    • var. sessiliflorum (Merr.) Nielsen, Opera Bot. 76 (1984) 54; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 99; ≡ Pithecellobium sessiliflorum Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 262; EPFP 2 (1923) 244; Type: BS 34675 Ramos & Pascasio. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand. MINDANAO: Surigao. Notes: Along streams at low elevation.
  3. Archidendron ellipticum (Blume) Nielsen, Adansonia sér. 2, 19 (1) (1979) 21; Opera Bot. 76 (1984) 68; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 100; ≡ Abarema elliptica (Blume) Kosterm., Bull. Organ. Natuurw. Onderz. Indon. 20 (1954) 53; ≡ Pithecellobium ellipticum (Blume) Hassk., Retzia 1 (1855) 225; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 243; ≡ Inga elliptica Blume, Cat. (1823) 88. Native.
    • ssp. elliptica. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, old clearings, etc., common along forest edges, along rivers and creeks. Fl. fr. throughout the year.
    • ssp. cordifoliolatum Nielsen, Opera Bot. 76 (1984) 68; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 101. Distribution: CEBU, MINDANAO, NEGROS. Notes: Light woods and ravines, c. 100-900m.
  4. Archidendron fagifolium (Blume ex Miq.) Nielsen, Opera Bot. 76 (1984) 38; ≡ Pithecellobium fagifolium Miq., Fl. Bat. i. I. 35. Distribution: Java, Philippines, Sumatra. Native.
    • var. mindanaense (Merr.) Nielsen, Opera Bot. 76 (1984) 39; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 104; ≡ Abarema mindanaense (Merr.) Kosterm., Bull. Organ. Natuurw. Onderz. Indon. 20 (1954) 63; ≡ Pithecellobium mindanaense Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 18; EPFP 2 (1923) 243. Distribution: BASILAN, JOLO, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Sur, Misamis, Zamboanga, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets and secondary forest, also on forested ridges, ascending to 1150m.
  5. Archidendron falcatum Nielsen, Opera Bot. 76 (1984) 44; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 104. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, TICAO. Notes: Level land at low elevation. Fl. Jun-Jul, Oct, fr. Jan, May-Jun. Native.
  6. Archidendron merrillii (MacBr.) Nielsen, Opera Bot. 76 (1984) 48; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 108; ≡ Pithecellobium merrillii MacBr., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. 11 (1931) 26; Type: Merrill Philip. Pl. 1779 (L, NY, SING, iso), Luzon: Benguet, railroad grade W of Baguio, in ravines along small streams, c. 1300m, May-1914. = Abarema multiflora (Merr.) Kosterm., Bull. Organ. Natuurw. Onderz. Indon. 20 (1954) 62, comb. inval.?; ≡ Pithecellobium multiflorum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 11, nom. illeg., non (Kunth) Benth.; EPFP 2 (1923) 243, pro parte (BS 31142). Distribution: ?Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Forest, 800-1300m. Native.
  7. Archidendron pauciflorum (Benth.) Nielsen, Opera Bot. 76 (1984) 41; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 112; ≡ Abarema pauciflora (Benth.) Kosterm., Bull. Organ. Natuurw. Onderz. Indon. 20 (1954) 60; ≡ Pithecellobium pauciflorum Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 3 (1844) 212; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 244. Native.
    • var. pauciflorum. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi. BOHOL, CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, MINDANAO: Surigao, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests.
    • var. caulostachyum (Merr.) Nielsen, Opera Bot. 76 (1984) 46; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 112; ≡ Zygia caulostachya (Merr.) Kosterm., Bull. Organ. Natuurw. Onderz. Indon. 20 (1954) 26; ≡ Pithecellobium caulostachyum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 10; EPFP 2 (1923) 242; Type: Merrill Philip. Pl. 1637 (NY, holo; L, SING, US, iso), Samar, Mt Cauayan, on forested slopes, Apr-1914. Distribution: SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests.
  8. Archidendron scutiferum (Blanco) Nielsen, Opera Bot. 76 (1984) 43; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 113; ≡ Pithecellobium scutiferum (Blanco) Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 3 (1844) 211; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 244; ≡ Mimosa scutifera Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 735; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 507; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 138. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Luzon to Mindanao. Primary and secondary forests, 0-900m. Common. Native.

Bauhinia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 February 2014
  1. Bauhinia acuminata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 375; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 230; EPFP 2 (1923) 258; de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 393; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 445. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. Notes: Indigenous to the monsoon area. Also widely cultivated and a frequent escape from gardens. Native.
  2. Bauhinia dolichocalyx Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 231; EPFP 2 (1923) 259; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 448; ≡ Gigasiphon dolichocalyx (Merr.) de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 420; Type: FB 7756 Curran & Merritt (PNH, holo, lost; US, candidate for lecto), Luzon: Batangas, 28-Oct-1907. = Bauhinia grandiflora Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 332; Fl. Filip. ed. 2, 1 (1845) 231; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1878) 67, nom. illeg., non Juss.; Type: non extant; possible candidate for neotype: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 531, leg. M Ramos (US, NY), Luzon: Batangas, Mt San Pedro, slopes, dry forest, 55m, 20-Aug-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas. Notes: Dry slopes at low elevation. Known only from the type locality and vicinity. Native.
  3. Bauhinia tomentosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 375; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 261; de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 409; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 454. Notes: Origin in tropical Asia, probably spontaneous in India. Introduced and cultivated in the Philippines, sometimes escaping. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Bauhinia monandra Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 42, ii (1873) 73; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 260; de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 401; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 450; Type: from Myanmar. Notes: Origin unknown, only known in the cultivated state. Closest relatives from South America and hence may be neotropic. Widely cultivated in the tropics on account of its showy flowers. In Malesia grown all over, but not commonly. Not naturalized?.
  2. Bauhinia purpurea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 375; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 261; de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 406; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 452; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 1050 (L, neo; US, isoneo). Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan. Notes: Cultivated throughout S and SE Asia. Not naturalized?.
  3. Bauhinia variegata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 375; de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 411; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 454. Distribution: China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Widely cultivated in the tropics, also in Malesia. Not naturalized?.

Brachypterum (Wight & Arn.) Benth.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 November 2019
  1. Brachypterum cumingii (Benth.) Adema & Sirich., Blumea 64 (2019) 278; ≡ Solori cumingii (Benth.) Sirich. & Adema, Taxon 63 (2014) 532; ≡ Derris cumingii Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4 (1860) suppl. 104; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 82; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 104; EPFP 2 (1923) 299; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 66; Type: Cuming 1208 (K, lecto; K, L, MO, isolecto), Philippines. = Derris cumingiana S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 113. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Pampanga, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets. Native.
  2. Brachypterum philippinensis (Merr.) Adema & Sirich., Blumea 64 (2019) 278; ≡ Solori philippinensis (Merr.) Sirich. & Adema, Taxon 63 (2014) 533; ≡ Derris philippinensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 104; EPFP 2 (1923) 300; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 67; ≡ Derris multiflora Benth. var. longifolia Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4 (1860) Suppl. 108; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Type: Cuming 1162 (K, lecto; E, L, isolecto), Luzon. = Derris multiflora auct. non Benth.; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 112; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 83; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 66; Type: Cuming 1162 (K, holo; E, L, iso), Luzon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and forests, ascending to 1400m. Native.
  3. Brachypterum scandens (Roxb.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1 (1855) 138; ≡ Solori scandens (Roxb.) Sirich. & Adema, Taxon 63 (2014) 533; ≡ Derris scandens (Roxb.) Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4 (1860) Suppl. 103; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 68; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 23; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 112; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 84; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 40; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 104; Fl. Manila (1912) 248; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 186; EPFP 2 (1923) 301; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 65; ≡ Dalbergia scandens Roxb., Pl. Coromandel. 2 (1798) t. 192. = Galedupa frutescens Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 562; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 391; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 354. = Millettia litoralis Dunn, PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 316; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 279; Type: DeVore & Hoove 250 (K, holo), Mindanao: St Cruz. Distribution: India to China through Malesia to Australia. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: N Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Native.

Brownea Jacq. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Brownea grandiceps Jacq., Collectanea 3 (1791) 287; Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 720. Distribution: S America.
  2. Brownea hybrida hort. ex Backer, Schoolfl. Java (1911) 418; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 530; Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 720. Notes: Hybrid of unknown origin and uncertain descent.

Caesalpinia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 August 2019
  1. Caesalpinia crista L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 380; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 232; EPFP 2 (1923) 266 (excluding syn. Guilandina bonduc L., Guilandina bonducella L. & Caesalpinia bonducella Flem.); Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 20; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 542; Type: from Sri Lanka. = Caesalpinia nuga (L.) Aiton, Hort. Kew., ed. 2, 3 (1811) 32; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 54; Fl. Manila (1912) 232; EPFP 2 (1923) 267; ≡ Guilandina nuga L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 546; Type: from Ambon. = Caesalpinia laevigata Perr., Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1824) 104; Type: Perrottet s.n., Philippines. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Coastal thickets, tidal swamps, sandy beaches, in and behind the sandy parts of mangroves, etc. To be assigned to a different genus (Gagnon et al. 2013). Native.
  2. Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston, Fl. Ceylon, Suppl. (1931) 89; Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 24; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 543; ≡ Reichardia decapetala Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 212; Type: from India. = Caesalpinia sepiaria Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. Carey, 2 (1832) 360; Hort. Beng. (1814) 32, nom. nud.; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 55, 371; EPFP 2 (1923) 268; Type: from India. = Mezoneuron benguetense (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 362; ≡ Caesalpinia benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 226; Type: Elmer 8720 (BO, K, L, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Benguet, Isabela. Notes: Also cultivated in other tropical countries and then run wild. Thickets about limestone cliffs and boulders, c. 1200m. To be assigned to a different genus (Gagnon et al. 2013). Native.
  3. Caesalpinia parviflora Prain, J. As. Soc. Beng. 66, ii (1897) 230; Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 45; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 549; ≡ Caesalpinia parviflora var. typica Prain; Type: from Peninsular Malaysia. = Caesalpinia minutiflora Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1803; Type: Elmer 12969 (BM, K, L, NY, P, PNH, U, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), over riverbank woods at 250ft in red stony soil, Apr-1911. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests and clearings. To be assigned to a different genus (Gagnon et al. 2013). Native.
  4. Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw., Obs. Bot. (1791) 66; Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 50; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 551; ≡ Poinciana pulcherrima L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 380; Type: from India (syn). Distribution: America. Notes: Now distributed pantropically. Cultivated as an ornamental throughout the Philippines, naturalized in some regions. Naturalized.
  5. Caesalpinia sappan L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 381; Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 51; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 551; Type: from Sri Lanka. Notes: Origin unknown. Cultivated in S & SE Asia, Malesia, Africa and America. Sometimes escaped from cultivation. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation. In dry thickets, parang, etc., locally abundant. Naturalized.

Cajanus DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 August 2019
  1. Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Field Columb. Mus. Bot. 2 (1900) 53; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 255; Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 282; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 190; EPFP 2 (1923) 314; ≡ Cytisus cajan L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 739; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 597; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 93. = Cajanus bicolor DC., Hort. Monsp. (1813) 85; Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 416; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1879) 396. = Cajanus indicus Spreng., Syst. 3 (1826) 248; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 66; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 110; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 82; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 126. Notes: Probably of prehistoric introduction from tropical Asia or Malaya, now pantropic. Throughout the Philippines in the settled areas, cultivated, semi-cultivated or spontaneous, sea level to 2400m. Naturalized.
  2. Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) Thouars, Dict. Sci. Nat. 6 (1806) 167; ≡ Cantharospermum scarabaeoides (L.) Baill., Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris 1 (1883) 384, as ‘scarabeoideum’; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 128; Fl. Manila (1912) 128; EPFP 2 (1923) 315; ≡ Atylosia scarabaeoides (L.) Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 245; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 66; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 88; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 91; ≡ Dolichos scarabaeoides L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 726. Distribution: China, India, Indian Ocean, Malay Peninsula, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao. Low and medium elevation grasslands and thickets. Native.
  3. Cajanus volubilis (Blanco) Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 447; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1879) 395; ≡ Atylosia volubilis (Blanco) Gamble, Fl. Madras (1918) 369; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 91; ≡ Cantharospermum volubile (Blanco) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 127; Fl. Manila (1912) 127; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 190; EPFP 2 (1923) 315; ≡ Cytisus volubilis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 599; Type: Merrill's Species Blancoanae No. 142 (US, neo; A, BM, CAL, GH, K, L, NY, W, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, 6-Nov-1914. = Cajanus crassus (Prain in King) Maesen, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 85 (1986) 105; ≡ Atylosia crassa Prain in King, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 66 (1897) 45. = Atylosia mollis Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 243; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 66; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 23; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 110; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 88. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: La Union, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets. Native.

Callerya Endl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Callerya atropurpurea (Wall.) Schot, Blumea 39 (1994) 15; ≡ Millettia atropurpurea (Wall.) Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 249; ≡ Pongamia atropurpurea Wall., Numer. List (1831-32) n. 5910. Distribution: Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Probably not native to the Philippines. Cultivated.
  1. Callerya scandens (Elmer ex Dunn) Schot, Blumea 39 (1994) 31; ≡ Whitfordiodendron scandens Elmer ex Dunn, Kew Bull. (1912) 364; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 280; ≡ Whitfordia scandens Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 689, nom. illeg. (Whitfordia is a genus of fungi); Type: Elmer 12259. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.

Calliandra Benth. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 December 2020
  1. Calliandra calothyrsus Meissn., Linnaea 21 (1848) 251; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 212; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philip. Trees (1999) 255. Distribution: C America. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental. Naturalized in thickets and secondary forest. Naturalized.
  2. Calliandra haematocephala Hassk., Retzia 1 (1855) 216; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 555; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 212; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philip. Trees (1999) 255. Distribution: S America. Notes: Widely cultivated as an ornamental. Naturalized in along trails in forest (W. Suarez pers. comm.) and on riparian slopes (D. Cabactulan, pers. comm.). Naturalized.

Calopogonium Desv. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 July 2021
  1. Calopogonium caeruleum (Benth.) C.Wright, Anales Acad. Ci. Méd. Habana 5 (1869) 337; ≡ Stenolobium caeruleum Benth., Comm. Legum. Gen. (1837) 61. Distribution: America. LUZON: Camarines Sur (photos). Notes: Naturalized in thickets. Naturalized.
  2. Calopogonium mucunoides Desv., Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 1, 9 (1826) 423; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 631; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 94. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: A very common weed throughout the lowland open areas of the Philippines. Thoroughly naturalized. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.

Canavalia DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 January 2020
  1. Canavalia cathartica Thouars, J. Bot. Desv. 1 (1813) 31; Sauer, Brittonia 16 (1964) 158; Quisumb., Araneta J. Agric. 12 (1965) 2. = Canavalia microcarpa (DC.) Piper, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 30 (Oct 23, 1917) 177; Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 280; EPFP 2 (1923) 313; ≡ Lablab microcarpus DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 402. = Canavalia turgida Graham ex A.Gray, Bot. US Expl. Exped. 1 (1854) 440; Graham in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 5534, nom. nud.; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 81, 450; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 124; Fl. Manila (1912) 257. = Canavalia obtusifolia auct. non (Lam.) DC.; Prain, J. As. Soc. Beng. 66, 2 (1897) 68; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 88; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 67. Distribution: India to China, Malesia, Taiwan. BALABAC, BANCALAN, BATANES, BILIRAN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao del Sur, Surigao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Cultivated in Hawaii for flowers. Coastal thickets especially immediately behind beach, lake margins to at least 600m. Native.
  2. Canavalia macrobotrys Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 13; Sauer, Brittonia 16 (1964) 158; Quisumb., Araneta J. Agric. 12 (1965) 5; Type: BS 17517 Ramos (US, lecto), Samar: Cauayan Valley, 14-Mar-1914. = Canavalia luzonica Piper, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 30 (1917) 177; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 313; Type: Baker 2791 (PNH, holo, lost?), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños. = Canavalia ensiformis auct. non (L.) DC.; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 88; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 125, pro majore parte; Fl. Manila (1912) 258. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland to medium elevation dry thickets and forests, ascending to 1400m. Native.
  3. Canavalia ramosii Sauer, Brittonia 16 (1964) 156; Quisumb., Araneta J. Agric. 12 (1965) 7; Type: BS 42637 Ramos (UC, holo; SING, UC, US, W, iso), Bohol: Bilar, open places along the forest, 2000ft, 12-Sep-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, PANAY. Notes: Open sites in forests, c. 600m. Known only from the type collection. Native.
  4. Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 404; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 313; ≡ Dolichos roseus Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 105. = Canavalia maritima Thouars in Desv., J. de Bot. 1 (1813) 80; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 242; Sauer, Brittonia 16 (1964) 163; Quisumb., Araneta J. Agric. 12 (1965) 6. = Dolichos maritimus Aublet, Pl. Guian. France (1775) 765. = Dolichos acinaciformis auct. non Jacq.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 578. = Dolichos ensiformis auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 404; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 377. = Canavalia lineata auct. non (Thunb.) DC.; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 410; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 125; Fl. Manila (1912) 257; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 187. = Canavalia lineata non auct. (Thunb.) DC.; Sauer, Brittonia 16 (1964) 162; Quisumb., Araneta J. Agric. 12 (1965) 5. Distribution: Pantropic. BABUYAN ISLS, BATANES, FUGA, KALANGAMAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cagayan, Cavite, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Cotabato, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines. Along sandy seashores, usually in association with beach morning glory, Ipomoea pescaprae. P.B. Pelser (12-Jan-20): Dolichos maritimus Aublet is not the basionym of Canavalia maritima Thouars (Moteetee 2016). Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 404; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 64; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 125, pro parte; EPFP 2 (1923) 312; Sauer, Brittonia 16 (1964) 142; Quisumb., Araneta J. Agric. 12 (1965) 4; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 96; ≡ Dolichos ensiformis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 725. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO. Notes: Now pantropic in distribution. Occasionally planted in the Philippines but nowhere spontaneous.
  2. Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 404; Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 403; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1870) 376; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 126; Fl. Manila (1912) 258; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 189; EPFP 2 (1923) 312; Sauer, Brittonia 16 (1964) 150; Quisumb., Araneta J. Agric. 12 (1965) 4; ≡ Dolichos gladiatus Jacq., Coll. 2 (1788) 276. = Dolichos ensiformis auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 577.
    • var. gladiata. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON. Notes: Now pantropic in distribution. Occasionally planted, but nowhere spontaneous.

Cassia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 November 2019
  1. Cassia fistula L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 377; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1956) 207; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 339; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 237; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1878) 77; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 116; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 14; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 63; PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 82; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 50; Fl. Manila (1912) 234; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 174; EPFP 2 (1923) 262; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 557. Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka. Notes: Most certainly introduced in the Philippines. Naturalized.
  2. Cassia grandis L.f., Suppl. (1781) 230; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 559; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995). Distribution: Neotropics. PALAWAN. Notes: Introduced as an ornamental all over the tropics. Naturalized.
  3. Cassia javanica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 378; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 70; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 24; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 116; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 14; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 63; PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 82; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 48; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 174; EPFP 2 (1923) 263; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 561; Type: from India. Native.
    • ssp. javanica. Notes: Widespread in Malesia, wild and cultivated. Now widely cultivated all over tropical Asia. Introduced and planted in the more seasonal parts of the Philippines, low elevation.
    • ssp. nodosa (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen, Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam. Soc. 25 (1974) 205; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 564; ≡ Cassia nodosa Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. Carey, 2 (1832) 336. Distribution: Thailand through Malay Peninsula to Java and Lesser Sunda Isls. Notes: Also widely cultivated in the Neotropics. Introduced and planted in the more seasonal parts of the Philippines, low elevation.
    • ssp. pubiflora (Merr.) K.Larsen, Nord. J. Bot. 13 (1993) 403; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 564, as ‘pubiflora’; ≡ Cassia javanica var. pubifolia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 48; EPFP 2 (1923) 263; Type: Decades Philip. Forest Fl. No. 37, leg. Ahern’s collector (NY, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, Mar-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Ilocos Sur, Rizal. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation open forests and other open sites. Native.

Centrosema (DC.) Benth. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 August 2019
  1. Centrosema molle Mart. ex Benth., Commentat. Legum. Gen. (1837) 55. = Centrosema pubescens auct. non Benth.; Pancho & Obien, Manual Ricefield Weeds Philip. (1995) 130; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 104. Distribution: S America. Notes: Introduced and thoroughly naturalized in the Philippines. A common weed in cultivated fields and occasionally along ricefield dikes and canals. Naturalized.
  2. Centrosema plumieri (Turp.) Benth., Ann. Wien. Mus. 2 (1838) 118; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 65; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 109; Fl. Manila (1912) 258; EPFP 2 (1923) 303; Pancho & Obien, Manual Ricefield Weeds Philip. (1995) 130; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 104; ≡ Clitoria plumieri Turp. in Pers., Syn. 2 (1807) 303. Distribution: S America. Notes: Introduced and thoroughly naturalized throughout the Philippines. A common weed in cultivated fields and occasionally along ricefield dikes and canals. Naturalized.

Chamaecrista Moench

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene, Pittonia 4 (1899) 27; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 567; ≡ Cassia mimosoides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 379; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 51; EPFP 2 (1923) 263; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1956) 283; Type: from Sri Lanka. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Origin probably in continental SE Asia. Usually regarded as introduced in Malesia, Africa and the neotropics. Low and medium elevation grasslands, in some regions ascending to 1500m. Naturalized.
  2. Chamaecrista mindanaensis (Merr.) K.Larsen, Nord. J. Bot. 13 (1993) 404; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 569; ≡ Cassia mindanaensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 388; EPFP 2 (1923) 264; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1956) 286; Type: FB 28245 Mataya (NY), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Bulan, along banks of streams, c. 40m, 23-Nov-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Low elevation, along streams. Native.

Christia Moench

  1. Christia obcordata (Poir.) Bakh.f. ex Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 91; ≡ Lourea obcordata Desv., J. de Bot. 1 (1813) 122; DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 324; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 293; ≡ Hedysarum obcordatum Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 6 (1804) 425. Distribution: India to China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Dry grasslands usually subject to periodic burning, roadsides and other sunny sites, lowlands generally. Native.
  2. Christia vespertilionis (L.f.) Bakh.f. ex Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 90; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 52; ≡ Lourea vespertilionis (L.f.) Desv., J. de Bot. 1 (1813) 122; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 243; EPFP 2 (1923) 293; ≡ Hedysarum vespertilionis L.f., Suppl. (1781) 331. Notes: Sometimes held as native of Thailand, but probably also of Myanmar, Indochina and even Malesia. Now pantropic. Occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes. Native.

Clitoria L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 November 2020
  1. Clitoria fairchildiana R.A.Howard, Baileya 15 (1967) 16; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Flora Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 54. = Clitoria racemosa Benth., Ann. Mus. Vind. 2 (1832) 115, nom. illeg., non G.Don. Distribution: S America. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental. Naturalized in thickets. Naturalized.
  2. Clitoria ternatea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 753; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 303; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt. Makiling 2 (2006) 54. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Apparently naturalized in the Philippines at low and medium elevation, occasionally cultivated and escaping, but not far from human settlements. Naturalized.

Codariocalyx Hassk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 October 2017
  1. Codariocalyx gyroides (Roxb. ex Link) Hassk., Fl. 25, Beibl. 2 (1842) 49; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana no. 1 (1973) 43; ≡ Desmodium gyroides (Roxb. ex Link) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 326; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 285; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 250; ≡ Hedysarum gyroides Roxb. ex Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2 (1822) 247. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation lakeshore thickets, forest edges, etc. Native.
  2. Codariocalyx motorius (Houtt.) H.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 40 (1965) 367; Ginkgoana no. 1 (1973) 46; ≡ Desmodium motorium (Houtt.) Merr., J. Arnold Arb. 19 (1938) 345; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 254; ≡ Hedysarum motorium Houtt., Nat. Hist. 2, 10 (1779) 246. = Codariocalyx gyrans (L.f.) Hassk., Flora 25, Beibl. 2 (1842) 49; ≡ Desmodium gyrans (L.f.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 326; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 285; ≡ Hedysarum gyrans L.f., Suppl. (1781) 332. Distribution: Australia, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Notes: Introduced in America. Lowland to medium elevation thickets, ravines, etc., showing distinct preference for areas subject to a moderate to strong dry season. Native.

Crotalaria L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 November 2020
  1. Crotalaria acicularis Buch.-Ham. ex Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 476; in Wall., Cat. (1832) No. 5390, nom. nud.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 57; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 61; EPFP 2 (1923) 271; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 199; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 322; Type: from Myanmar (lecto). Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Middle East, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao, MINDORO. Notes: Medium elevation grassy slopes, 700-1400m. On Taal Volcano practically occurring at sea-level. Native.
  2. Crotalaria albida Heyne ex Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 333; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 61; EPFP 2 (1923) 271; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 200; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 322; Type: from India. Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. CULION, LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Batangas. Low and medium elevation grasslands, ascending to 1400m. Native.
  3. Crotalaria assamica Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 481; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 62; EPFP 2 (1923) 271; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 201; Type: from India. Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. philippinensis Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 310; Type: BS 7255 Ramos (L, holo), Luzon: Abra, Jan/Feb-1909. Distribution: BOHOL, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Zambales. Notes: Low elevation (to 300m) thickets, ravines, etc. Also reported on rocky, ultramafic soils. Most likely on limestone in Bohol. Fl. Aug-Sep; fr. Jan-Feb.
  4. Crotalaria calycina Schrank, Pl. Rar. Monac. (1819) t. 12; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 57; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 107; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 105; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 60; EPFP 2 (1923) 271; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 202; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 322; Type: Schrank, Plantae Rariores Horti Academic Monacensis 1817 plate 12. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation grasslands. Native.
  5. Crotalaria chinensis L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1158; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 57; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 107; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 272; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 202; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 321; Type: from India. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Rizal, MINDANAO: Misamis, NEGROS. Notes: Low elevation grasslands. Very local. Native.
  6. Crotalaria humifusa Graham ex Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 476; in Wall. Cat. (1832) 5421, nom. nud.; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 61; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 205; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 321; Type: Nepal (lecto). Distribution: Australia, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet. Native.
  7. Crotalaria incana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 716; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 57; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 107; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 104; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 60; Fl. Manila (1912) 241; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 178; EPFP 2 (1923) 272; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 205; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 320; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 78; Type: from Jamaica (lecto). = Crotalaria radiata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 63. Distribution: Caribbean. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Sorsogon. In waste places and cultivated areas in and about towns. Locally abundant. Crotalaria radiata Merr. is a form with abnormal flowers due to fungal or insect attack. Naturalized.
  8. Crotalaria juncea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 714; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 58; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 64; Fl. Manila (1912) 251; EPFP 2 (1923) 272; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 206; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 321; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 74; Type: from India (lecto). Distribution: Africa, America, Australia, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madura, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: An introduced plant in the Philippines where it is occasionally cultivated for Sunn hemp. Apparently naturalized. Naturalized.
  9. Crotalaria lejoloba Bartl., Index Sem. Hort. Acad. Gotting. (1837) 2; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 315; Type: from Java (neo). = Crotalaria ferruginea Graham ex Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 476; in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 5398, nom. nud.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 57; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 107; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 105; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 61; EPFP 2 (1923) 272; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 203; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 581. = Crotalaria ferruginea var. major Benth., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 477; Type: Cuming 1628 (K, holo), Philippines. Distribution: America, Borneo, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao, Misamis. Notes: Low and medium elevation grasslands. In Benguet ascending to 2000m. Native.
  10. Crotalaria linifolia L.f., Suppl. (1781) 322; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 57; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 107; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 105; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 60; Fl. Manila (1912) 241; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 178; EPFP 2 (1923) 272; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 207; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 315; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 74. = Crotalaria pumila auct. non Aiton; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 570. = Crotalaria pumila auct. non Schrank; Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 397; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1879) 366. = Quirosia secunda Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 398; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1879) 365. = Crotalaria montana B.Heyne ex Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 335; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 278. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madura, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Cagayan, Quezon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Quezon. Lowland and medium elevation grasslands. In Benguet ascending to 1400m. Native.
  11. Crotalaria luzoniensis Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 312; Type: BS 29236 Fenix (L, holo; BO, K, SING, iso), Luzon: La Union, Bauang, 31-Dec-1916. = Crotalaria bracteata auct. non Roxb. ex DC.; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 63; Fl. Manila (1912) 252; EPFP 2 (1923) 271. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, La Union. Notes: Forested ridges, open banks, etc., up to 400m. Fl. Oct; fr. Mar, Nov-Dec. Native.
  12. Crotalaria medicaginea Lam., Encycl. Meth. 2 (1790) 201; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 208; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 320; Type: from India. = Crotalaria trifoliastrum auct. non Willd.; Benth., Fl. Austral. 2 (1864) 183; Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 17; EPFP 2 (1923) 273. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, America, China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Low elevation, open places. Native.
  13. Crotalaria pallida Aiton, Hortus Kew. 3 (1789) 20; Type: from Ethiopia. = Crotalaria mucronata Desv., J. Bot. 3 (1814) 76; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 209. = Crotalaria striata DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 131; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 16; Type: from Jamaica. = Crotalaria saltiana auct. non Andrews; Prain ex King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 66, ii (1897) 41; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 62; EPFP 2 (1923) 273; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 278. = Crotalaria striata DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 131; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 278. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Not native to the Philippines; widespread. Waste places in and about towns. Common. Naturalized.
  14. Crotalaria prostrata Rottl. ex Willd., En. Hort. Berol. 2 (1809) 747; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 211; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 322; Type: from India. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDORO. Native.
  15. Crotalaria quinquefolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 716; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 569; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 397; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 365; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 58; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 107; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 104; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 64; Fl. Manila (1912) 252; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 177; EPFP 2 (1923) 273; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 212; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 320; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 78; Type: from India. Distribution: Africa, America, Australia, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Native country not precisely known. Now almost pantropic in distribution and throughout Malesia indifferent to presence or absence of dry season. N Luzon to Mindanao. Open wetlands, rice paddies and other waterlogged sites at low and medium elevation. Naturalized.
  16. Crotalaria retusa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 715; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 57; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 16; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 62; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 273; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 212; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 321; Type: from Sri Lanka (lecto). Notes: Probably a native of SE Asia, now pantropical in distribution, cultivated and introduced throughout Malesia. Africa, America, Australia, Cambodia, China, Hawaii, India, Laos, Maldive Isls, Myanmar, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. N Luzon to Mindanao. Lowlands and medium elevation, in open, usually damp places in settled areas. Photo. Native.
  17. Crotalaria sessiliflora L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1004; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 57; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 107; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 105; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 81; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 105; EPFP 2 (1923) 273; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 214; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 322; Type: from China. Distribution: Australia, Cambodia, China, Himalayas, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Sorsogon. Occasional in pyrogenous grasslands and parang vegetation at low and medium elevation. In Mountain Province ascending to 1300m. In areas subject to at least a feeble dry monsoon. Native.
  18. Crotalaria verrucosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 718; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 57; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 107; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 104; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 80; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 62; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 251; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 177; EPFP 2 (1923) 274; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 217; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 321; Type: from Sri Lanka. = Phaseolus bulai Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 572. = Quirosia anceps Blanco, Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 398; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 367. Distribution: Africa, America, Australia, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Native country not known. Now of pantropic distribution. Low elevation in open sites. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Crotalaria micans Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2 (1822) 228; Type: from Colombia. = Crotalaria anagyroides Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 6 (1823) 404; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 200. Distribution: America. Notes: Introduced as a green manure from tropical America. Commonly found throughout Malesia including the Philippines.
  2. Crotalaria orixensis Willd., Ges. Naturf. Neue Schr. 4 (1803) 217; Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 18; EPFP 2 (1923) 273; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 211; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 323. Distribution: Africa, India. Notes: Ascribed by Merrill to the Philippines on the basis of one record from “Luzon, Manila. BS 19145 Guerrero”. Perhaps a casual introduction which did not persist.
  3. Crotalaria trichotoma Bojer, Hort. Maurit. (1837) 88; Polhill, Fl. Mascar. 80 (1990) 200; Adema, Blumea 51 (2006) 320; Type: from Mauritius (neo). = Crotalaria usaramoensis Baker f., J. Linn. Soc. 42 (1914) 346; de Munk, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 216; Type: from Tanzania. = Crotalaria zanzibarica Benth., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 584; Verdc., Manual New Guinea Legumes (1979) 548; Polhill, Crotalaria in Africa & Madagascar (1982) 191; Type: from Tanzania. Distribution: ?Africa. Notes: Widely distributed throughout Malesia owing to usefulness as green manure.

Crudia Schreber

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Crudia blancoi Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 309; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 118; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 39; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 170; EPFP 2 (1923) 256; de Wit, Bull. Bot. Gard. Buitenzorg III, 18 (1950) 419; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 579; Type: extant? Illustrative specimen: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 882 (L), Luzon. = Apalatoa blancoi (Rolfe) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 19. = Crudia spicata Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 261; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1878) 121, as ‘Crudya’. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Camarines, Laguna, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and forests, chiefly along streams. Native.
  2. Crudia cauliflora Merr., J. Arn. Arb. 35 (1954) 136; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 581; Type: BS 34092 (A, holo). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIARGAO. Notes: Known only from the type. Native.
  3. Crudia subsimplicifolia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) 39; EPFP 2 (1923) 256; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 592; Type: FB 4287 Klemme (K, iso; L, photo), Luzon: Cagayan, San Vicente, c. 10m, Jun-1906. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.

Cullen Medik.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 May 2021
  1. Cullen badocanum (Blanco) Verdc., Kew Bull. 43 (1988) 360; ≡ Psoralea badocana (Blanco) Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 416; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 277; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 103; ≡ Liparia badocana Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 597; Type: Cuming 1149 (L, NY 2 sheets, isoneo). Distribution: Australia, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Mountain Province, Pangasinan. Notes: Low and medium elevation grasslands and waste places. Native.

Cynometra L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 September 2021
  1. Cynometra cebuensis F.Seid., Blumea 58 (2013) 18; Type: Seidenschwarz s.n. (L0820723, holo; L0820722, L0820721, iso), Cebu: Tabunan forest. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU. Notes: Dry forest on limestone. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Cynometra copelandii (Elmer) Elmer., LPB 8 (1915) 2734; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 254; Meeuwen, Blumea 18 (1970) 17; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 601; ≡ Gleditsia copelandii Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 695; Type: Elmer 12234 (PNH, holo, lost; BO, L, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Only known from the type collection. Forests, 250m. Native.
  3. Cynometra elmeri Merr., Pl. Elmer. Born. (1929) 98; Meeuwen, Blumea 18 (1970) 29; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 602. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Only known from fruiting materials; in Sabah, recorded from forests near mangrove swamps, 50-300m. Native.
  4. Cynometra inaequifolia A.Gray in Wilkes, U.S. Expl. Exped. I (1854) 473; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 254; Meeuwen, Blumea 18 (1970) 26; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 603; Type: Wilkes, U.S. Expl. Exped., Luzon: Laguna, Los Banos (holo not located in GH & US); Cuming 1297 (BM, K, para). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Cagayan, Cavite, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Forests at low and medium elevation. Differs from the vegetatively similar Cynometra ramiflora by its ± smooth pods. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Cynometra iripa Kostel., Allg. Med. Pharm. Fl. 4 (1835) 1341; Meeuwen, Blumea 18 (1970) 21; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 603. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Pacific Ocean, Sri Lanka, Thailand. MINDANAO, PANAY, TABLAS. Notes: Mangrove swamps, littoral scrub; on or near beach, but also found in the hills up to 500m. Native.
  6. Cynometra mirabilis Meeuwen, Blumea 18 (1970) 25; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 605; Type: FB 20528 Miranda (L, holo; BO, UC, US, iso). = Cynometra bijuga var. mimosoides auct. non (Baker) Merr.; Merr. (1923), as to FB 20528 Miranda and FB 20504 Rafael & Ponce. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Near the seashore or along rivers, 0-150m. Native.
  7. Cynometra ramiflora L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 382; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 255; Meeuwen, Blumea 18 (1970) 23; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 606. = Cynometra bijuga Span. ex Miq., Fl. Bat. Ind. I, I (1855) 78; Span, Linnaea 15 (1841) 201, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 254. = Cynometra whitfordii Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2734; Type: Elmer 13465, Mindanao: Agusan, Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta), Aug-1912. Native.
    • var. ramiflora. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Characteristic constituent of the back mangrove forest.
    • var. bifoliolata (Merr.) Meeuwen, Blumea 18 (1970) 25; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 606; ≡ Cynometra bifoliolata Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 272; EPFP 2 (1923) 254; Type: FB 24211 Barros (PNH, holo, lost; K, US, iso). Distribution: LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao. Notes: On river banks, at low elevation.
  8. Cynometra simplicifolia Harms, Notizbl. Berl.-Dahl. 3 (1902) 186; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 255; Meeuwen, Blumea 18 (1970) 16; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 607; Type: Cuming 1134 (PNH, holo, lost; BM, C, G, K, L, M, NY, iso). = Cynometra simplicifolia var. oblongata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 37; EPFP 2 (1923) 255; Type: FB 2978 Ahern’s coll. (PNH, holo lost?; K, NY, US, iso). = Cynometra luzoniensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 266; EPFP 2 (1923) 255; Type: Merrill 2128 (PNH, holo, lost?; US, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: In thickets and open, dry forests on the slopes of mountains, up to 1300m. Native.
  9. Cynometra warburgii Harms, Notizbl. Berl.-Dahl. 3 (1902) 187; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 255; Meeuwen, Blumea 18 (1970) 28; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 607; Type: Warburg 12427 (B, holo, lost). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: L.L.Co: known from 2 collections only, apart from the type. In forests chiefly near streams, at low and medium elevation. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Cynometra cauliflora L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 382; –Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 254; Meeuwen, Blumea 18 (1970) 20; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 601. Notes: Only known in cultivated state, possibly a cultigen, according to Burkill probably derived from E Malesia from where it spread since Europeans arrived in the archipelago.

Possibly present

  1. Cynometra dongnaiensis Pierre, Fl. Cochin. 5 (1899) t. 389; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 254, as ‘dongnainsis’. Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, ?Philippines, Vietnam. ?CEBU, ?MINDANAO: ?Agusan del Norte, ?Davao. Notes: Merrill (1923) cited three collections from the Philippines, viz. ‘FB 6488 Espinosa, 20563 Miranda, 26244 Ceballos’. Unfortunately, Knaap van Meeuwen failed to see any duplicates of these numbers in the herbaria consulted, nor other Philippine collections which can be referred to this species, so the record remains questionable.

Dalbergia L.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 August 2020
  1. Dalbergia candenatensis (Dennst.) Prain, J. As. Soc. Beng. 70, 2 (1901) 49; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 97; EPFP 2 (1923) 294; ≡ Cassia candenatensis Dennst., Schlüs. Hort. Malabar. (1818) 32. = Dalbergia monosperma Dalz in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 36; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 67; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 112; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 82; Type: from India. Distribution: Australia, India to China, Malesia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean. LUZON: Bataan, Quezon, MINDANAO. Notes: From Luzon to Mindanao. Tidal stream thickets subject to the influence of salt or brackish water. Native.
  2. Dalbergia canescens (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 294; ≡ Derris canescens Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3087; Type: Elmer 17883 (BO, CAL, K, L, MO, NA, NY, U, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling, Jun/Jul-1917. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Lowland forest edge. Native.
  3. Dalbergia cumingiana Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 255; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 67; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 111; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 98; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 98; EPFP 2 (1923) 294; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 63; Type: Cuming 1244 (E, K, L, MO, OXF, iso), Luzon: Albay LUZON: Cagayan, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Locally common. Native.
  4. Dalbergia densa Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 217; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 295; De Castro et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3773; Type: from New Guinea (lecto). Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. CEBU, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: A variety in NE Australia. Lowland thickets. Native.
  5. Dalbergia mimosella (Blanco) Prain, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 10 (1904) 42; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 184; EPFP 2 (1923) 295; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 63; ≡ Amerimnon mimosella Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 563; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 393; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 358; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 40; Type: Ramos & Edaño PNH 28968 (L, neo), Luzon: Tayabas, Umiray. = Dalbergia minahassae Koord., Meded. Lands Plantent. 19 (1898) 430; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 98; Type: from Sulawesi. = Dalbergia lanceolaria auct. non L.f.; Llanos, Mem. Acad. Cienc. Madrid (1858); Fern.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 41 (1880) 103; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 67. = Dalbergia cassioides auct. non Wall.; A.Gray, Bot. Wilkes US Explor. Exped. (1854) 457; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 82. = Dalbergia davaoensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 700; Type: Elmer 10551 (L, lecto; BISH, K, MO, NY, U, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation secondary forests. Native.
  6. Dalbergia multifoliolata Adema, Blumea 61 (2016) 196; ≡ Dalbergia polyphylla Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 256; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 67; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 112; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 96; EPFP 2 (1923) 296, nom. illeg., non Poir.; Type: Cuming 1164 (K, holo; BM, K, L, OXF, iso), Luzon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Native.
  7. Dalbergia pinnata (Lour.) Prain, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 10 (1904) 48; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 96; EPFP 2 (1923) 296; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 64; ≡ Derris pinnata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 432; Type: from Vietnam. = Dalbergia tamarindifolia Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 233; Hort. Beng. (1814) 53, nom. nud., pro parte; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 67; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 111; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 82; Type: from Silhet. = Dalbergia dubia Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2731; Type: Elmer 13733 (K, holo; BISH, BM, L, MO, NA, NY, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. = Dalbergia pinnata var. badia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 96; EPFP 2 (1923) 296; Type: FB 9649 Curran (US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Pitogo, Mar-1908. = Dalbergia pinatubensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3198; Type: Elmer 22094 (K, holo; L, MO, NY, P, iso), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg, May-1927. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; lowland and medium elevation thickets and forests and coastal thickets., ascending to 1400m. Native.
  8. Dalbergia ramosii Sunarno & H.Ohashi, Blumea 61 (2016) 198; Type: Ramos BS 1367 (BO, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Morong. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Only known from the type. Native.
  9. Dalbergia reticulata Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 14; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 296; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 63; Type: FB 21406 Villamil (PNH, holo, lost?; US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling, Apr-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. JOLO, LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Primary forests, 400-500m. Native.
  10. Dalbergia rimosa Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 233; Hort. Bengal. (1814) 53, nom. nud.; Type: from India. = Dalbergia discolor Blume ex Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. (1855) 130. Distribution: Borneo, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC. Notes: Up to 400m. Native.
  11. Dalbergia rostrata Hassk., Flora 25 (2, Beibl. 1) (1842) 53; Type: from Java. = Dalbergia subalternifolia (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 14; EPFP 2 (1923) 296; ≡ Derris subalternifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1801; Type: Elmer 12965 (L, holo; BO, CAL, K, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), Apr-1911. Distribution: Borneo, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  12. Dalbergia stipulacea Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 233; Hort. Bengal. (1814) 53, nom. nud.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 67; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) t. 40; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 111. = Dalbergia ferruginea Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 228; Hort. Beng. (1814) 98, nom. nud.; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 81; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 65; PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 410; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 97; Fl. Manila (1912) 247; EPFP 2 (1923) 295; Type: from Malay Isl. = Dalbergia luzonensis Vogel, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 33; Type: Meyen s.n., Luzon. = Dalbergia ferruginea var. daronensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 699; Type: Elmer 11030 (PNH, holo, lost; BISH, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, along the upper limit of the cogon formation at 1250ft or higher, May/Jun?-1909. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: N Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Lowland and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Dalbergia latifolia Roxb., Plants of the coast of Coromandel 2 (1799) 7. Distribution: India, Java.
  2. Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 416. Distribution: Afghanistan, India, Java, Pakistan. Notes: A recent introduction in the Philippines.

Dalea L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 May 2021
  1. Dalea cliffortiana Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 3 (1802) 1336. = Dalea glandulosa (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 37; ≡ Parosela glandulosa (Blanco) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 68; Fl. Manila (1912) 246; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 180; EPFP 2 (1923) 277; PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 64; ≡ Amorpha glandulosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 555. = Dalea alopecuroides auct. non Willd.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 389; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 351; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 58. = Dalea nigra Mart. & Gal., Bull. Acad. Brux. 10, 2 (1843) 43; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 107; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 105; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 16. Distribution: C America. LUZON: Batangas, Ilocos Norte. Notes: In Luzon from Ilocos Norte to Batangas. Lowlands and medium elevation, ascending to 1300m, on open dry slopes, open grassland, in waste places (Merrill 1923). Naturalized.

Delonix Raf. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2 (1836) 92; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 231; EPFP 2 (1923) 266; Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 721; ≡ Poinciana regia Hook., Bot. Mag. 56 (1829) t. 2884. Distribution: Madagascar. Notes: Cultivated throughout the tropics for the magnificent flowers.

Dendrolobium (Wight & Arn.) Benth.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 July 2015
  1. Dendrolobium cumingianum Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. 2 (1852) 216; ≡ Desmodium cumingianum (Benth.) Benth. in Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 1 (1865) 519; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 61; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 108; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 107; Merr., PJS 5c (1910) Bot. 80; EPFP 2 (1923) 284; Type: Cuming 1454 (K, holo; K, BM, UPS, iso), Luzon: Batangas. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas. Native.
  2. Dendrolobium geesinkii H.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 73 (1998) 251; Type: Ridsdale 1554 (L, holo; A, BO, K, L, MO, PNH, TUS, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Sta. Cruz, Acoje Mine Concession Area, regrowth on abandoned mine road rubble, low elevation, 25-May-1986. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, SAMAR. Native.
  3. Dendrolobium quinquepetalum (Blanco) Schindl., Fedde, Repert. 20 (1924) 278; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana no. 1 (1973) 68; ≡ Desmodium quinquepetalum (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 20; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 239; EPFP 2 (1923) 288; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 256; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 68; ≡ Cytisus quinquepetalus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 598. Distribution: Australia, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Batangas, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Manila, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Common in low and medium elevation thickets. Native.
  4. Dendrolobium umbellatum (L.) Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 216; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana no. 1 (1973) 82; ≡ Desmodium umbellatum (L.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 325; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 290; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 263; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 603; ≡ Hedysarum umbellatum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 747; Type: from Sri Lanka. Distribution: Africa, Australia, India, Indian Ocean, Indochina, Myanmar, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand. BATAN, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, CULION, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO: Davao, PALAWAN, TABLAS. Native.

Derris Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 August 2019
  1. Derris elegans Graham ex Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 252; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 299; Type: from Myanmar. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
    • var. korthalsiana (Blume ex Miq.) Adema, Blumea 48 (2003) 400; ≡ Derris korthalsiana Blume ex Miq., Fl. Ned.-Ind. (1855) 143.
  2. Derris elliptica (Wall.) Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4 (1860) suppl. 111; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 299, pro parte, excl. syn. Cylista piscatoria Blanco & Millettia piscatoria Merr; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 67; ≡ Paraderris elliptica (Wall.) Adema, Blumea 48 (2003) 137; ≡ Pongamia elliptica Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 3 (1832) t.237; Type: from Ambon. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao. Low and medium elevation, along streamside thickets, secondary forests, etc. Often abundant. (Merrill 1923). Native.
  3. Derris lianoides Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 228; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 106; EPFP 2 (1923) 300; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 66; ≡ Paraderris lianoides (Elmer) Adema, Blumea 48 (2003) 138; Type: Elmer 7443 (holo PNH, lost?, CAL, K, MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, in forests, c. 1000m, May-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao and Palawan. Lowland and medium elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  4. Derris luzoniensis (Adema) Sirich. & Adema, Taxon 63 (2014) 534; ≡ Paraderris luzoniensis Adema, Blumea 48 (2003) 134; Type: ISU 564 Ridsdale et al. (L, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Isabela, Palanan, Dimapnat, secondary forest on riverine gravel banks surrounded by ultramafics, 50m, 15-Apr-1992. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Notes: L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection. Native.
  5. Derris oblongifolia Merr., PJS 7c (1912) Bot. 82; EPFP 2 (1923) 300; ≡ Paraderris oblongifolia (Merr.) Adema, Blumea 48 (2003) 139; Type: Vanoverbergh 280 (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Mountain Province, Bontoc. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Montane thickets and forests, 1300-1600m. Native.
  6. Derris piscatoria (Blanco) Sirich. & Adema, Taxon 63 (2014) 535; ≡ Paraderris piscatoria (Blanco) Adema, Blumea 48 (2003) 133; ≡ Cylista piscatoria Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 589; ≡ Derris elliptica auct. non (Wall.) Benth.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 299, pro parte, excl. syn. Galedupa elliptica Roxb; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 469 (L, neo; A, K, US, isoneo), Luzon: Batangas, Mt Batulo. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas. Native.
  7. Derris polyantha Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 83; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 103; EPFP 2 (1923) 301; Adema, Blumea 48 (2003) 402; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 69; Type: Merrill 1457. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Laguna, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: Lowland thickets and secondary forests. Native.
  8. Derris pubipetala Miq., Fl. Ned.-Ind. (1855) 115; Adema, Blumea 48 (2003) 401. = Derris mindorensis Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 82; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 106; EPFP 2 (1923) 300; Type: Merrill 953 (B or PNH, holo, lost; K, iso), Mindoro: Palauan. = Derris micans Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 82; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 106; EPFP 2 (1923) 300; Type: Merrill 2284 (B or PNH, holo, lost; K, US, iso), Luzon: Tanay. = Derris ferruginoides Quisumb. PJS 41 (1930) 324; Type: Clemens 7406a (UC, holo), Luzon: Isabela, Santiago, in thickets and secondary forests, Apr-1926. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. ALABAT, LUZON: Bulacan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Native.
  9. Derris spanogheana Blume ex Miq., Fl. Ned.-Ind. (1855) 141; Adema, Blumea 48 (2003) 403. = Derris cebuensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 273; EPFP 2 (1923) 299; Type: BS 11014 Ramos (US, iso), Cebu: Cebu, Bucacao, on dry hills, 19-Mar-1912. = Derris surigaoensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2733; Type: Elmer 13463 (NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi. CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Native.
  10. Derris trifoliata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 433; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 105; PJS 15 (1919) 241; Fl. Manila (1912) 248; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 185; EPFP 2 (1923) 301; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 66. = Pterocarpus frutescens Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 562; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 392; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 356, nom. illeg., non Vell.; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanea 541 (L, neo; US, isoneo), Luzon: Bulacan, Obando. = Derris uliginosa Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 252; J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4 (1860) Suppl. 107; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 68; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 112; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 410. = Derris diadelpha auct. non (Blanco) Merr.; Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 161. = Derris multiflora Benth., Pl. Jungh. 2 (1852) 253. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Strictly a littoral species. Throughout the Philippines on muddy seashores, tidal streams, etc. Abundant. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Derris zambalensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3199, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 22053 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga. Notes: Unaccounted for in Adema (2003). Native.

Desmodium Desv.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 January 2020
  1. Desmodium bolsteri Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 102; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 83; EPFP 2 (1923) 284; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 250; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 250; Type: BS 76896 Ramos (NY), Luzon: Cagayan, Peñablanca, bank of the river in forest. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Ecija. Notes: Lowlands, on boulders along streams on slopes, etc. Apparently very local. Native.
  2. Desmodium procumbens (Mill.) Hitchc., Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4 (1893) 76; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 239; EPFP 2 (1923) 288; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 255; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 42; ≡ Hedysarum procumbens Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8. (1768) n. 10. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Now pantropical. Thickets, open wastelands and settled areas. Naturalized.
  3. Desmodium scorpiurus (Sw.) Desv., J. Bot. 1 (1813) 122; Prodr. 2 (1825) 337; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 239; EPFP 2 (1923) 289; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 98; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 42; ≡ Hedysarum scorpius Sw., Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 107. Distribution: Neotropics. BALABAC, BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Now pantropical. Low and medium elevation dry thickets and grasslands. Naturalized.
  4. Desmodium velutinum (Willd.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 328; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 264; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana no. 1 (1973) 192; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 36; ≡ Hedysarum velutinum Willd., Sp. Pl. 3, 2 (1803) 117. = Desmodium lasiocarpum DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 328; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 241; PJS 14 (1919) 243; EPFP 2 (1923) 286. = Desmodium virgatum Zoll. & Mor., Nat. Geneesk. Arch. Ind. 3 (1846) 58; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 240; PJS 14 (1919) 243; EPFP 2 (1923) 290. Native.
    • var. velutinum. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Himalayas, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation thickets and grasslands.

Incertae sedis

  1. Desmodium malacophyllum (Link) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 338, as ‘malachophyllum’; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 84; EPFP 2 (1923) 287; ≡ Meibomia malacophylla (Link) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 198; ≡ Hedysarum malacophyllum Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 2 (1822) 247. Notes: Based on a Chamisso specimen (in B, cited by Merrill 1923) supposedly from Cavite. “An imperperfectly known endemic species known only from the original collection, perhaps not originating in the Philippines” (Merrill, 1923). Pelser (11-Jul-17): I am not sure if there is support for recognizing Meibomia as distinct from Desmodium. Naturalized.

Dioclea Kunth

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Dioclea decandra Amshoff ex Adema, Blumea 43 (1998) 234; ≡ Macropsychanthus ferrugineus Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 121; EPFP 2 (1923) 311. = Dioclea hexandra (Ralph) Mabb., Taxon 29 (1980) 605; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 98; ≡ Mucuna hexandra Ralph., Icon. Carpolog. (1849) 30; ≡ Dioclea reflexa Hook.f., Niger Flora (1849) 306; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 311. Distribution: Pantropic. BUSUANGA, LUZON: Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation dry thickets and forests, chiefly along small streams. Native.
  2. Dioclea umbrina Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 224; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 119; EPFP 2 (1923) 311; Adema, Blumea 43 (1998) 234; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 98. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests. Native.

Dolichos L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 September 2019
  1. Dolichos trilobus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 726; Verdc., Taxon 17 (1968) 170; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 117. Native.
    • ssp. trilobus. = Dolichos falcatus Klein in Willd. Sp. Pl. 3 (1800) 1047; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 66; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 82; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 135; Fl. Manila (1912) 264; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 193; EPFP 2 (1923) 321. Distribution: Africa, India, Java, Laos, Middle East, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam. CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Batangas, Ilocos Norte. Notes: In Luzon from Ilocos Norte to Batangas. Lowland thickets.

Dumasia DC.

  1. Dumasia villosa DC., Ann. Sci. Nat. 1, 4 (1825) 257; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 304. Distribution: Africa, India to China, Java, Madagascar, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Kalinga, Mountain Province. Notes: Montane thickets and ravines, 1200-1600m. Native.

Dunbaria Wight & Arn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2019
  1. Dunbaria cumingiana Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 242; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 66; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 110; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 127; EPFP 2 (1923) 314; Type: Cuming 819 (K, holo; BM, K, MEL, P, W), Luzon: Tayabas. = Dunbaria merrillii Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 225; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 127; EPFP 2 (1923) 315; Type: Elmer 8502 (K, lecto; BO, E, G, L, LY, NY, US, W, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDORO, POLILLO, SIARGAO. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets. Native.
  2. Dunbaria punctata (Wight & Arn.) Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 242; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 235; Fl. Manila (1912) 254; ≡ Dolichos punctatus Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1 (1834) 247. = Dunbaria rotundifolia (Lour.) Merr., PJS 15 (1919) 242; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 315; ≡ Indigofera rotundifolia Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 458. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, La Union, Rizal. Notes: Low elevation grasslands, margins of thickets, etc. P.B. Pelser (18-Aug-19): See Van der Maesen (1998) for comments about nomenclature. Native.
  3. Dunbaria villosa (Thunb.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16 (1902) 35; ≡ Glycine villosa Thunb., Syst. Veg., ed. 14 (1784) 659. Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Rizal. Native.

Dysolobium Prain

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2019
  1. Dysolobium pilosum (J.G.Klein ex Willd.) Maréchal, Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 47 (1977) 483; ≡ Vigna pilosa (J.G.Klein ex Willd.) Baker in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 2 (1876) 207; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 320; Blumea 30 (1985) 381; ≡ Dolichos pilosus J.G.Klein ex Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 3 (1802) 1043. Distribution: India to Taiwan. LUZON: Batangas, Ifugao, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal. Notes: Dry thickets at low elevation. Native.

Endosamara R.Geesink (Not native)

Possibly present

  1. Endosamara racemosa (Roxb.) Geesink, Leiden Bot. Ser. 8 (1984) 93; ≡ Millettia racemosa (Roxb.) Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 249; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 279; ≡ Robinia racemosa Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3 (1832) 329. Distribution: India to Myanmar and Thailand, ?Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Record from Rizal based on BS 1064 Ramos (Merrill 1923). "The identity of the Luzon specimen to this species is not certain as it is with buds only" (Merrill 1923).

Entada Adans.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 August 2021
  1. Entada parvifolia Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 229; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 33; EPFP 2 (1923) 252, pro parte; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 179. = Entada philippinensis Gagnep., Not. Syst. 2 (1911) 58. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BUSUANGA, CUYO ARCHIPELAGO, GOLO, GUIMARAS (photos), LUZON: Bataan, La Union, Zambales. Notes: Lowland thickets. Fl. Jul-Sep, fr. Dec. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 86; EPFP 2 (1923) 252; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 179; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973; ≡ Lens phaseoloides L. in Stickm., Herb. Amboin. (1754) 18. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Entada rheedii Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 2 (1825) 325; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 180. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Borneo, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Primary and secondary forest, especially along rivers, behind mangroves and beach forests, lowlands to medium elevation. Closely related to Entada phaseoloides and mixed up with that species by Merrill. Distinct by 3 or 4 (or 5) pairs of leaflets per pinna, a woody tough endocarp and slightly less asymmetric terminal leaflets. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Enterolobium Mart. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 July 2017

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb., Fl. Brit. West Indies (1860) 226; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 213; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philip. Trees (1999) 255; ≡ Mimosa cyclocarpa Jacq., Fragm. Bot. (1800) 30. Notes: C and N tropical South America. Widely cultivated in all tropics. Earpod.

Eriosema (DC.) Rchb.

  1. Eriosema chinense Vogel, Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 31; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 66; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 111; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 129; EPFP 2 (1923) 316. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. CULION, LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, SEMIRARA. Notes: Open grasslands chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2000m, occasionally at sea-level (Semirara). Native.

Erythrina L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 August 2019
  1. Erythrina fusca Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 427; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 113; Fl. Manila (1912) 256; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 187; EPFP 2 (1923) 305; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 89. = Erythrina ovalifolia Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 254; Hort. Beng. (1814) 53, nom. nud.; Fern.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 63; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 85; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 81. = Erythrina picta auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 565. = Erythrina caffra Blanco, Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 394; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 360, nom. illeg., non Thunb. Distribution: Africa, America, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, Caribbean, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao. Notes: Along streams and lakes, often in swampy places. Native.
  2. Erythrina stricta Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3 (1832) 251; Hort. Beng. (1814) 53, nom. nud.; Krukoff & Barneby, Lloydia 37 (1974) 352; Adema, Blumea 41 (1996) 465; Type: from India. = Erythrina stricta Roxb. var. suberosa (Roxb.) Niyomdham, Nord. J. Bot. 12 (1992) 342; ≡ Erythrina suberosa Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3 (1832) 253; Hort. Beng. (1814) 53, nom. nud.; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 1 (1973) 292; Krukoff & Barneby, Lloydia 37 (1974) 351; Type: Icon. Roxb. 104 (K), India. = Erythrina stipitata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 112; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 305; Type: Merrill 958 (NY, US, iso), Lubang, Apr-1903. = Erythrina microcarpa Koord. & Valeton, Boomsoort. van Java 2 (1895) 61. Distribution: Bhutan, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUBANG. Notes: Low elevation, dry open sites. Native.
  3. Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 113; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 305; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 88; ≡ Hypaphorus subumbrans Hassk., Retzia (1855) 198. Distribution: Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao. Low and medium elevation thickets, secondary forests, etc. occasionally planted. Native.
  4. Erythrina variegata L. in Stickm., Herb. Amb. (1754) 10; Krukoff & Barneby, Lloydia 37 (1974) 431; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 89. = Erythrina variegata L. var. orientalis (L.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 276; EPFP 2 (1923) 306; ≡ Erythrina orientalis (L.) Murr., Comm. Gotting. 8 (1787) 35; ≡ Erythrina corallodendrum L. var. orientalis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 706. = Erythrina indica Lam., Encycl. 2 (1788) 391. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines along the seashore, frequently planted inland. The typical form with mottled leaves occurs occasionally in the Philippines in cultivation. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Erythrina crista-galli L., Mantissa (1767) 99; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 628; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 88. Distribution: S America. Notes: A recent introduction as avenue trees in Baguio City and La Trinidad in Benguet. Occasionally seen elsewhere.

Euchresta Benn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 August 2019
  1. Euchresta formosana (Hayata) Ohwi, J. Jap. Bot. 12 (1936) 659; ≡ Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch.) Benn. var. formo­sana Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3 (1913) 81. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. MINDANAO: South Cotabato (photos). Native.
  2. Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch.) Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1840) 148; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 68; Ceron Cat. Pl. Herb. Manila (1892) 67; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 107; EPFP 2 (1923) 302; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 59; ≡ Andira horsfieldii Lesch., Ann. Mus. Paris 16 (1810) 481. Distribution: China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao. Of local occurrence on the higher mountains. Native.

Falcataria (I.C.Nielsen) Barneby & J.W.Grimes (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 February 2022
  1. Falcataria falcata (L.) Greuter & R.Rankin, Espermat. Cuba Invent. Prelim. (2016) XII; Espermat. Cuba Invent. Prelim. 2 (2016) 160; ≡ Adenanthera falcata L., Herb. Amb. (1754) 14. = Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 74 (1996) 255; ≡ Albizia moluccana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1 (1855) 26. = Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) I.C.Nielsen, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris, sér. 4, 5, sect. B; Adansonia no. 3 & (1983) 327; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 151; ≡ Albizia falcataria (L.) Fosb., Reinwardtia 7 (1965) 88; Cockburn, Trees Sabah 1 (1976) 187; ≡ Adenanthera falcataria L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1 (1762) 550. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea. CEBU (photos), MINDANAO: Bukidnon (photos). Notes: Introduced and naturalized in the Philippines. Naturalized.

Flemingia Roxb. ex W.T.Aiton

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 February 2020
  1. Flemingia lineata (L.) Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 56; Van Do & Gao, Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 22; ≡ Moghania lineata (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 199; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 434; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 317; ≡ Hedysarum lineatum L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1170; Type: from India. = Flemingia blancoana Llanos, Fragm. (1851) 80; Fern.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 41 (1880) 62. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bulacan, Rizal. Notes: Low elevation open grasslands. Native.
  2. Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Kuntze ex Prain, J. As. Soc. Beng. 66, 2 (1897) 440; Van Do & Gao, Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 34; ≡ Moghania macrophylla (Willd.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 199; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 434; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 81; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 130; EPFP 2 (1923) 317; ≡ Crotalaria macrophylla Willd., Sp. Pl. 3 (1800) 982; Type: from India. = Flemingia cumingiana Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 245; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 67; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 130, 354; Fl. Manila (1912) 253; EPFP 2 (1923) 316. = Flemingia philippinensis Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 103; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 130; EPFP 2 (1923) 317; Type: Merrill 4460 (L, NY, iso), Luzon: Lepanto District (vicinity of present-day Ilocos Sur and Mountain Province provincial borders), Cervantes to Mankayan, Nov-1905. Distribution: Africa, ?Australia, China, Himalayas to Cambodia, Laos, Malesia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Widespread throughout the Philippines . Lowland and medium elevation thickets. Native.
  3. Flemingia strobilifera (L.) R.Br. in Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 4 (1812) 350; Van Do & Gao, Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 19; ≡ Moghania strobilifera (L.) St. Hil. ex Jackson, Index Kew. 2 (1894) 252; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 433; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 81; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 317; ≡ Hedysarum strobiliferum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 764; Type: from India. Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malesia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low to medium elevation in settled areas, open dry waste places. Often very abundant. Native.
  4. Flemingia trifoliata (Jungh.) C.Y.Wu, J. W. China Border Res. Soc. 16 (1946) 175; Van Do & Gao, Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 21; ≡ Lepidocoma trifoliatum Jungh., Reisen durch Java (1845) 338; Type: from Java. = Flemingia involucrata Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 246; ≡ Moghania involucrata (Benth.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 199; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 436; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 316; Type: from Myanmar. Distribution: Australia, Cambodia, China, Himalayas, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. CULION. Notes: Open places at low elevation. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Flemingia ferruginea Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 1 (1865) 544; Van Do & Gao, Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 33; Type: from Myanmar. Distribution: China, Myanmar, ?Philippines. Notes: P.B. Pelser (10-Sep-19): reported for the Philippines by Nguyen (1979), but no specimens cited and not mentioned for the Philippines by Van Do & Gao (2020).
  2. Flemingia procumbens Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 56; Van Do & Gao, Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 36. Distribution: ?China, India, ?Laos, Nepal, ?Philippines, ?Vietnam. Notes: P.B. Pelser (10-Sep-19): reported for the Philippines by Nguyen (1979), but no specimens cited.
  3. Flemingia stricta Roxb., Hort. Kew., ed. 2, 4 (1812) 349; Van Do & Gao, Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 25; Type: India. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, ?Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: P.B. Pelser (10-Sep-19): reported for the Philippines by Nguyen (1979), but no specimens cited.

Fordia Hemsl.

  1. Fordia brachybotrys Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 397; Buijsen, Blumea 33 (1988) 397; Type: BS 44277 Ramos & Edaño (K, holo; P, SING, US, NY, iso), Tawi-tawi: Damp forest at low elevation, Jul-1924. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland forest. Native.

Galactia P.Browne

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 January 2020
  1. Galactia tashiroi Maxim., Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. 31 (1886) 34; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 33. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATAN. Notes: E side of Mt Iraya, on littoral cliff, Hatusima 28719. Native.
  2. Galactia tenuiflora (Klein ex Willd.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. (1834) 206; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 119; Fl. Manila (1912) 259; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 188; EPFP 2 (1923) 310; Steenis et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 431; Galactia striata var. tenuiflora (Klein ex Willd.) Burkart, Darwiniana 16 (1971) 721; ≡ Glycine tenuiflora Klein ex Willd., Sp. Pl. 3 (1800) 1059. = Dolichos repens auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 577; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 402; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 378. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Rizal. Notes: Grasslands and thickets often subjected to fires, more or less bound to seasonal climatic conditions, from sea-level to c. 2000m. Native.

Gleditsia L.

  1. Gleditsia rolfei S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 115, as 'Gleditschia’; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 63; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 51; EPFP 2 (1923) 265; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 621; Type: Vidal 1826 (K, lost?), Luzon: Nueva Ecija prov. Distribution: Laos, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Camarines, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Two sheets of R.S. Williams 564 in NY (barcode 00004392 & 00004393) labeled as neotype and iso(neo)type, respectively. Is the K type lost?. Native.

Gliricidia Kunth (Not native)

  1. Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1 (1840) 688; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 17; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 64; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 73; Fl. Manila (1912) 245; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 180; EPFP 2 (1923) 280; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 54; ≡ Robinia sepium Jacq., Enum. (1760) 28. = Gliricidia maculata Kunth, Nov. Gen. 6 (1824) 393; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 59; Merr., Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 1 (1903) 22; Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 30. = Galedupa pungam Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 558; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 390; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 352. = Millettia ?luzoniensis A.Gray, Wilkes US Explor. Exped. (1854) 456; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 82. = Millettia splendidissima auct. non Blume ex Miq.; Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 250; S.Vidal, Cat. Pl. Prov. Manila (1880) 25. Notes: Introduced from Mexico, thoroughly naturalized in the settled areas at low and medium elevation throughout the Philippines. Naturalized.

Glycine Willd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 August 2019
  1. Glycine tomentella Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 9 (1920) 29. = Glycine tomentosa Benth., Fl. Austral. 2 (1864) 245, nom. illeg., non L.; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 108; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 109; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 110; EPFP 2 (1923) 304. Distribution: Australia, China, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Apparently not again recollected in the Philippines since 1840. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Glycine max (L.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 274; ≡ Phaseolus max L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 725. Notes: Cultigen of Chinese origin. Soybean.

Grona Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 January 2020
  1. Grona adscendens (Sw.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93 (2018) 108; ≡ Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 332; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 245; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 199; ≡ Hedysarum adscendens Sw., Prodr. 1 (1788) 106. = Hedysarum adscendens var. trifoliastrum (Miq.) Schindl., Fedde, Repert. 21 (1925) 8; ≡ Desmodium trifoliastrum Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 1 (1855) 248; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 290. Distribution: Africa, America, Madagascar. MINDANAO: Surigao, Zamboanga, PANAY. Notes: Lowland thickets along streams. Naturalized.
    • var. adscendens. Distribution: MINDANAO: Surigao, Zamboanga, PANAY. Notes: Lowland thickets along streams.
  2. Grona heterocarpa (L.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93 (2018) 112; ≡ Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 337; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 285, as ‘heterocarpum’; Meeuwen et al. Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 95; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 251; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 210; ≡ Hedysarum heterocarpon L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 747; Type: from Sri Lanka. = Desmodium buergeri Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 45; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 85; EPFP 2 (1923) 284. Native.
    • ssp. heterocarpa.
      • var. heterocarpa. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Luzon to Mindanao. Low and medium elevation thickets and grasslands.
      • var. strigosa (Meeuwen) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93 (2018) 112; ≡ Desmodium heterocarpon var. strigosum Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 95; Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 251; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 215; Type: from New Guinea. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
    • ssp. ovalifolia (Prain) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93 (2018) 114; ≡ Desmodium ovalifolium (Prain) Wall. ex Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 1 (1922) 610; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 85; EPFP 2 (1923) 287; ≡ Desmodium polycarpum var. ovalifolium Prain, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 66 (1897) 141; ≡ Desmodium ovalifolium Wall., Cat. no. 5730, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 287. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan. Notes: Primary forests, 150-1100m. P.B. Pelser (16-Jan-20): Not listed for the Philippines by Ohashi & Ohashi (2018).
  3. Grona heterophylla (Willd.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93 (2018) 114; ≡ Desmodium heterophyllum (Willd.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 334; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 240; EPFP 2 (1923) 286; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 251; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 239; ≡ Hedysarum heterophyllum Willd., Sp. Pl. 3, 2 (1803) 1201; Type: from Sri Lanka. Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Madagascar, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  4. Grona nemorosa (F.Muell. ex Benth.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93 (2018) 115; ≡ Desmodium nemorosum F.Muell. ex Benth., Fl. Austral. 2 (1864) 234; Type: from Australia. Distribution: Australia, New Guinea, Philippines. Native.
    • ssp. whitfordii (Schindl.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93 (2018) 115; ≡ Desmodium whitfordii (Schindl.) Pedley, Austrobaileya 5 (1999) 247; ≡ Desmodium nemorosum var. whitfordii (Schindl.) H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 220; ≡ Desmodium nemorosum var. simplex Schindl. subvar. whitfordii Schindl., Fedde Repert. 21 (1925) 10; Type: H.N. Whitford 227 (CAL, K, syn), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Native.
  5. Grona styracifolia (Osbeck) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93 (2018) 116; ≡ Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 580; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 259; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 224; ≡ Hedysarum styracifolium Osbeck, Dagbok Ostind. Resa (1757) 247; Type: from China. = Desmodium capitatum (Burm.f.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 336; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 240; EPFP 2 (1923) 284; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 39; ≡ Hedysarum capitatum Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 167. Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Common roadside and grassland weed at low and medium elevation. Native.
  6. Grona triflora (L.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93(2): 117 (2018); ≡ Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 334; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 240; EPFP 2 (1923) 289; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 261; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 245; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 45; ≡ Hedysarum triflorum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 749; Type: from India. = Desmodium parvifolium auct. non DC.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 408. Distribution: Africa, America, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Lowlands, in open grassy places, dry thickets, cultivated lands, lawns, etc. Very common. Native.

Guilandina L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 September 2013
  1. Guilandina bonduc L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 381; ≡ Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 2 (1832) 362; Dandy & Exell, J. Bot. 76 (1938) 179; Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 17; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 541. Distribution: Africa, America, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Often in thickets along or near the seashore. Native.

Haematoxylum L. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Haematoxylum campechianum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 384; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 543; Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 723. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Now widely cultivated in the tropics.

Hanslia Schindl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 January 2020
  1. Hanslia ormocarpoides (DC.) H.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 79 (2004) 156; ≡ Desmodium ormocarpoides DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 337; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 287; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 98; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 255; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 113. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. JOLO. Notes: In teak plantation at low elevation. Native.

Hylodesmum H.Ohashi & R.R.Mill

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 December 2021
  1. Hylodesmum laxum (DC.) H.Ohashi & R.R.Mill, Edinburgh J. Bot. 57 (2000) 178; ≡ Desmodium laxum DC., Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 4 (1825) 102. Native.
    • ssp. laxum. Distribution: Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. ?MINDANAO: ?Lanao del Sur (photos).
  2. Hylodesmum leptopus (A.Gray ex Benth.) H.Ohashi & R.R.Mill, Edinburgh J. Bot. 57(2) (2000) 178; ≡ Desmodium leptopus A.Gray ex Benth., Pl. Jungh. 2 (1852) 226. = Desmodium laxum auct. non DC.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 287. = Desmodium laxum ssp. leptopus (A.Gray ex Benth.) H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana no. 1 (1973) 141; Type: Wilkes’ Expl. Exped. s.n. (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna, Los Banos. Distribution: China, Indochina, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao. Native.
  3. Hylodesmum podocarpum (DC.) H.Ohashi & R.R.Mill, Edinburgh J. Bot. 57(2) (2000) 181; ≡ Desmodium podocarpum DC., Ann. Sci. Nat. 1, 4 (1825) 102; Merr., PJS 5c (1910) Bot. 83; EPFP 2 (1923) 287; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 154. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam. Native.
    • ssp. podocarpum. Distribution: China, Himalayas, Japan, Philippines, Taiwan, Tibet. LUZON.
    • ssp. oxyphyllum (DC.) H.Ohashi & R.R.Mill., Edinburgh J. Bot. 57(2) (2000) 182; ≡ Desmodium oxyphyllum DC., Ann. Sci. Nat. 1, 4 (1825) 102; Type: Wallich s.n. (G-DC, E (microfiche), syn). = Desmodium racemosum (Thunb.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 337; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 257; ≡ Hedysarum racemosum Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 285. Distribution: China, Himalayas, India, Japan, Korea, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Montane thickets and ravines, 1100-1400m.
  4. Hylodesmum repandum (Vahl) H.Ohashi & R.R.Mill, Edinburgh J. Bot. 57(2) (2000) 185; ≡ Desmodium repandum (Vahl) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 334; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 258; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 160; ≡ Hedysarum repandum Vahl, Symb. 2 (1791) 82. = Desmodium scalpe DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 334; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 289. Distribution: Africa, ?Australia, Bhutan, Borneo, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Montane thickets and ravines, 1200-2200m. Native.

Hymenaea L. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Hymenaea courbaril L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1192; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 528; Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 724.
    • var. courbaril. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Cultivated elsewhere in the tropics.

Indigofera L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 December 2021
  1. Indigofera arrecta Hochst. ex A Rich., Tent. Fl. Abys. 1 (1847) 184; de Kort & Thijsse, Blumea 30 (1984) 109; Type: from Ethiopia. Distribution: Africa, Madagascar, Middle East. LUZON. Naturalized.
  2. Indigofera decora Lindl., J. Hort. Soc. 1 (1846) 68; de Kort & Thijsse, Blumea 30 (1984) 117; Type: from Hong Kong. Distribution: Hong Kong. LUZON. Notes: Not native to the Philippines, naturalized. Naturalized.
  3. Indigofera galegoides DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 225; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 274; de Kort & Thijsse, Blumea 30 (1984) 118; Type: from Sri Lanka. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. CALAMIANES. Native.
  4. Indigofera hendecaphylla Jacq., Coll. 2 (1788) 259; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 275, excl. Indigofera pusilla Lam; Du Puy et al., Kew Bull. 48 (1993) 731. = Indigofera spicata auct. non Forssk.; de Kort & Thijsse, Blumea 30 (1984) 132; Type: from Africa. Native.
    • var. hendecaphylla. Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Roadsides, grassfields.
  5. Indigofera hirsuta L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 751; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 275; de Kort & Thijsse, Blumea 30 (1984) 120; Type: from Sri Lanka. = Indigofera angustifolia Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 596; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 179; ≡ Indigofera tinctoria auct. non L.; Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 163; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 403 (BM, K, L, US), Luzon: Pangasinan, Umingan. Distribution: Pantropic. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (photos). Notes: Grasslands, waste places, riverbanks, 0-1500m. Native.
  6. Indigofera linifolia Retz., Obs. 4 (1786) 29; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 275; de Kort & Thijsse, Blumea 30 (1984) 123. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON. Native.
  7. Indigofera luzonensis de Kort & Thijsse, Blumea 30 (1984) 126; Adema, Blumea 56 (2011) 271; Type: Merrill 5043 (L, holo; BO, K, P, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, Mar-1906. = Indigofera erectifructa Y.Endo, H.Ohashi & Madulid, J. Jap. Bot. 80(5) (2005) 261. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Native.
  8. Indigofera nigrescens Kurz ex King & Prain, J. As. Soc. Beng. 67, 2 (1898) 268; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 275; de Kort & Thijsse, Blumea 30 (1984) 127; Type: from Myanmar. Distribution: China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON. Native.
  9. Indigofera spicata Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 138; Du Puy et al., Kew Bull. 48 (1993) 728; Type: from Yemen. Distribution: Africa, Indian Ocean, Madagascar, Middle East. MINDANAO: Bukidnon (photos). Naturalized.
  10. Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8 (1768) No. 2; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 275; de Kort & Thijsse, Blumea 30 (1984) 134; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 57. Distribution: Neotropics. Naturalized.
    • ssp. suffruticosa. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Wasteland.
  11. Indigofera tinctoria L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 751; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 276; de Kort & Thijsse, Blumea 30 (1984) 136; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 56; Type: from Sri Lanka. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Java, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: P.B. Pelser (31-May-21): Perhaps this species is best considered cryptogenic for the Philippines, because it is not clear to me if it is native or not. Roadsides, grassy fields, cultivated grounds, riverbanks, secondary forests, etc. Native.
  12. Indigofera trifoliata L., Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 327; Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1062; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 276; de Kort & Thijsse, Blumea 30 (1984) 137; Type: from India. Distribution: China, India, Myanmar, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • ssp. trifoliata. Distribution: Australia, China, Java, Java Sea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madura, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Roadsides, grassy areas, fallow fields, open forests.
    • ssp. unifoliolata (Merr.) de Kort & Thijsse, Blumea 30 (1984) 138; ≡ Indigofera unifoliolata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 65; EPFP 2 (1923) 276; Type: BS 1411 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Morong, along the borders of Laguna de Bay, Aug-1906. = Tetragonolobus simplicifolius Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 397; Fl. Filip. 3 (1879) 364; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905 ) 38; Voucher: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 965 (US), Luzon: Rizal, Pantay, Sep-1915. Distribution: LUZON: Bulacan, Laguna, Rizal. Notes: Lowland grasslands.
  13. Indigofera zollingeriana Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 1 (1855) 310; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 276; de Kort & Thijsse, Blumea 30 (1984) 142; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, China, Java, Java Sea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BATANES, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets, secondary thickets, etc., ascending to 1400m in Benguet. Native.

Inga Mill. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Inga edulis Mart., Flora 20 (2, Beibl.) (1837) 113. Distribution: Africa. Naturalized.
  2. Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4 (1806) 1018; ≡ Mimosa laurina Sw., Prodr. (1788) 85. Distribution: C & S America. Naturalized.
  3. Inga spectabilis (Vahl) Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4 (1806) 1017; ≡ Mimosa spectabilis Vahl in Skrift. Nat. Selsk. Kjoeb. ii (1792) I 219. Distribution: Africa. Naturalized.

Inocarpus J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 July 2017

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Inocarpus fagifer (Parkinson) Fosb., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 31 (1941) 95; ≡ Aniotum fagiferum Parkinson, Journ. Voy. 'Endeavour' (1773) 39. = Inocarpus edulis J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. (1776) 66; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 302. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra. MINDANAO, SAMAR, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Cultivated only (Merrill 1923).

Intsia Thou.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 October 2017
  1. Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 192; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 235; EPFP 2 (1923) 257; Ding Hou, Blumea 38 (1994) 324; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 623; ≡ Macrolobium bijugum Colebr., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 12(2) (1819) 359. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; usually along the seashore, edge of rivers (including tidal), back of mangroves, in some localities occurring in inland forests, both primary and secondary. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Intsia palembanica Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1861) 289; Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1860) 107, nom. nud.; Ding Hou, Blumea 38 (1994) 326; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 623. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Isabela, PALAWAN. Notes: Primary and secondary lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Kingiodendron Harms

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Kingiodendron alternifolium (Elmer) Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 4 c (1909) 267; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 255; Meeuwen, Blumea 18 (1970) 46; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 627; ≡ Hardwickia alternifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 362; Type: Elmer 7356 (Merr. & Rolfe ‘7366’) (PNH, holo, lost; BO, iso). Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Cagayan, Camarines, Quezon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR, TICAO. Notes: In forests, up to 800m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Koompassia Maingay

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 October 2017
  1. Koompassia excelsa (Becc.) Taub. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 3 (1891) 156; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 262; de Wit, Bull. Bot. Gard. Buitenz. 3, 17 (1947) 311; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 632; ≡ Abauria excelsa Becc., Malesia 1 (1877) 169. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Kunstleria Prain

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 July 2019
  1. Kunstleria forbesii Prain, J. As. Soc. Beng. 66, 2 (1897) 111; Ridder-Numan & Kornet, Blumea 38 (1994) 471. = Kunstleria atroviolacea (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 14; EPFP 2 (1923) 298; ≡ Derris atroviolacea Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1798; Type: Elmer 12965. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland secondary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Kunstleria philippinensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 359; EPFP 2 (1923) 298; Ridder-Numan & Kornet, Blumea 38 (1994) 478; Type: Wenzel 836 (US, iso), Leyte: Leyte LEYTE, BASILAN. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Lowland forests to 500m. Native.

Lablab Adans. (Not native)

  1. Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 1 (1827) 481; Verdc., Kew Bull. 24 (1970) 410; ≡ Dolichos purpureus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1021. = Dolichos lablab L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 725; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 65; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 90; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 135; Fl. Manila (1912) 264; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 193; EPFP 2 (1923) 321; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 116. = Lablab cultratus DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 402; Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 405; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1879) 379. Distribution: Africa, India, Madagascar. Notes: Old World native and now pantropic in cultivation. A naturalized introduced plant in the Philippines. Commonly cultivated in the settled areas, sometimes escaping. Bataw. Naturalized.

Lathyrus L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 December 2021

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Lathyrus oleraceus Lam., Fl. Franç. 2 (1779) 580. = Pisum sativum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 272; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 62; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 108; Fl. Manila (1912) 249; EPFP 2 (1923) 302. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Europe, Middle East, W Asia. Notes: In the Philippines, cultivated, its occurrence dependents on imported seeds. Common pea; Chicharo.

Leptodesmia (Benth.) Benth. & Hook.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 January 2020
  1. Leptodesmia microphylla (Thunb.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93 (2018) 186; ≡ Desmodium microphyllum (Thunb.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 337; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 287; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 254; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 241; ≡ Hedysarum microphyllum Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 284. Native.
    • var. microphylla. Distribution: Australia, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Very common weed of lowland and hills, indifferent to distribution of rainfall.

Leptospron (Benth. & Hook.f.) A.Delgado (Not native)

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 November 2014
  1. Leptospron adenanthum (G.Mey.) A.Delgado, Amer. J. Bot. 98 (2011) 1710; ≡ Vigna adenantha (G.Mey.) Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, Taxon 27 (1978) 202; ≡ Phaseolus adenanthus G.Mey., Prim. Fl. Esseq. (1818) 239; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 89; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 132; Fl. Manila (1912) 261; EPFP 2 (1923) 318. Distribution: C & S America. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO. Notes: Luzon (Cagayan) to Mindanao. Thickets bordering swamps, streams, etc., at low and medium elevation. Naturalized.

Lespedeza Michx.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 November 2019
  1. Lespedeza juncea (L.f.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2 (1807) 318; Adema, Blumea 64 (2019) 273; ≡ Hedysarum junceum L.f., Dec. Pl. Hort. Upsal. 1 (1762) 7. = Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.Cours.) G.Don, Gen. Hist. 2 (1832) 307; ≡ Anthyllis cuneata Dum.Cours., Bot. Cult. 6 (1811) 100. = Lespedeza juncea var. sericea (Miq.) Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23 (1887) 181; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 104; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 94; ≡ Lespedeza sericea Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3 (1867) 49; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 294. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Australia, Bhutan, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Malaysia, Moluccas, Myanmar, N America, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, W Asia. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Open montane grasslands, 1200-2200m. Native.

Leucaena Benth. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 September 2019
  1. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Taxon 10 (1961) 53; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 560; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 182; ≡ Mimosa leucocephala Lam., Encycl. Meth. Bot. 1 (1783) 12; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philip. Trees (1999) 256. = Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. in Hook., J. Bot. 4 (1842) 416; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 227; EPFP 2 (1923) 250; ≡ Mimosa glauca auct. non L.; L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 2 (1763) 1504. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Ipil-ipil. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  2. Leucaena × spontanea C.E.Hughes & S.A.Harris, Pl. Syst. Evol. 212 (1998) 70. Distribution: C America, Caribbean, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Batangas. Notes: Hybrid between Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena diversifolia. Naturalized.

Lysiphyllum (Benth.) de Wit

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 October 2021
  1. Lysiphyllum binatum (Blanco) de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 432; ≡ Bauhinia binata Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 1 (1837) 331, as ‘binnata’; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 43; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 172; EPFP 2 (1923) 258; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 502; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 998 (L, neo; K, MO, US, W, isoneo), Luzon: Quezon, Pagbilao, Oct-1916. = Bauhinia blancoi (Benth.) Baker in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 2 (1878) 278; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 8; ≡ Phanera blancoi Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 264; Type: Cuming 1518 (E, PRC, W). Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand. BASILAN, BOHOL, CEBU, CORON, DUMARAN, LUZON: Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUTU. Notes: Restricted to coastal areas, in sandy soil as well as among rocks and in tidal forests. Prefential to seasonal areas. Native.

Macropsychanthus Harms ex Schumann & Lauterbach

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 7 December 2020
  1. Macropsychanthus mindanaensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 120; EPFP 2 (1923) 311; Bolster 330 (PNH, holo, lost), Mindanao: Surigao. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests along streams. Listed as a "dubious species.". Native.
  2. Macropsychanthus purpureus (Elmer) L.P. Queiroz & Snak, PhytoKeys 164 (2020) 102; ≡ Luzonia purpurea Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 220; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 120; PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 17; EPFP 2 (1923) 314; Adema, Blumea 43 (1998) 235; Type: Elmer 9013 (PNH, holo; A, E, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, wooded ravines, 775m, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Quezon. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1400m in Benguet. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11, as Luzonia purpurea). Native.

Macroptilium (Benth.) Urb. (Not native)

  1. Macroptilium atropurpureum (DC.) Urban, Symb. Antill. (Urban) 9 (1928) 457; ≡ Phaseolus atropurpureus DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 395; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 110. Distribution: America. Notes: Throughout the Philippines, in open grasslands and rice fields. Naturalized.
  2. Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urban, Symb. Antill. 9 (1928) 457; ≡ Phaseolus lathyroides L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1018; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 260; EPFP 2 (1923) 318; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 110. = Phaseolus semierectus L., Mantissa 1 (1767) 100; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 89; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 132. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Now pantropically distributed. Widespread in the Philippines, low elevation grasslands, rice fields, roadsides, etc. Naturalized.

Macrotyloma (Wight & Arn.) Verdc.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 September 2019
  1. Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc., Kew Bull. 24(2): 322 (1970); ≡ Dolichos uniflorus Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 299; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 135; EPFP 2 (1923) 322. Distribution: SE Asia. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Low elevation, in old rice fields. Native.

Medicago L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 July 2017
  1. Medicago lupulina L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 779; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 274; Fl. Manila (1912) 253; EPFP 2 (1923) 274. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Bangladesh, China, Europe, India, Middle East, Nepal, Pakistan, Tibet, W Asia. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Open grassy sites, 1500m. Naturalized.
  2. Medicago polymorpha L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 779. = Medicago denticulata Willd., Sp. Pl. 3 (1803) 1414; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 64; EPFP 2 (1923) 274. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Europe, Middle East, Nepal, Pakistan, W Asia. LUZON: Benguet, La Union, Manila. Notes: Apparently well established in Benguet. Naturalized.

Melilotus Mill. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 April 2022
  1. Melilotus indicus (L.) All., Fl. Ped. 1 (1785) 308; Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 15; EPFP 2 (1923) 274; ≡ Trifolium indicum L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 765. = Trifolium melilotus-indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 765. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Bangladesh, China, Europe, India, Middle East, Nepal, Pakistan, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Disturbed soil along the railroad grade, also as a weed in the Forestry Nursery (Merrill 1915). Naturalized.

Mezoneuron Desf.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 January 2020
  1. Mezoneuron andamanicum Prain, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 61 (1892) 131; Clark, Phytotaxa 274 (2016) 12; ≡ Caesalpinia andamanica (Prain) Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 15; De la Estrella et al., Nordic J. Bot. 25 (2007) 42; Type: from India. Distribution: India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  2. Mezoneuron cucullatum (Roxb.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. (1834) 283; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 268; Clark, Phytotaxa 274 (2016) 13; ≡ Caesalpinia cucullata Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 2 (1832) 358; Hort. Beng. (1814) 32, nom. nud.; Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1974) 22; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 543. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: Medium elevation forests along streams and lakes. Not mentioned for the Philippines by Clark (2016). Native.
  3. Mezoneuron hymenocarpum Wight & Arnott ex Prain, Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 66 (1897) 233; Clark, Phytotaxa 274 (2016) 22; Type: from Myanmar. Distribution: Australia, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Conservation status: Least Concern (Clark 2016). Native.
  4. Mezoneuron latisiliquum (Cav.) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 268; EPFP 2 (1923) 268; Clark, Phytotaxa 274 (2016) 16; ≡ Caesalpinia latisiliqua (Cav.) Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1973) 37; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 547; ≡ Bauhinia latisiliqua Cav., Ic. 5 (1799) 5; Type: Cavanilles’ plate excl. bauhinioid leaves, from Luzon; Cuming 1193 (K, epi; K, L, isoepi), Luzon: Albay. = Caesalpinia torquata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 336; Type: lost. = Mezoneurum procumbens Blanco, Fl. Filip. II (1845) 235; Type: lost. = Mezoneurum glabrum auct. non Desf.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 70. = Mezoneurum rubrum Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 7; Type: Merrill 805 (PNH, holo, lost; K, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Point Separacion, 20-Feb-1903. = Mezoneurum cabadbarense Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3757; Type: Elmer 13386 (BM, BO, GH, K, L, NY, P, PNH, U, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Jul-1912. = Mezoneuron sumatranum auct. non (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 269. Distribution: Borneo, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Vietnam. Notes: Rocks on sunny hot dry slopes, riverbanks and roadsides, secondary forest fringes and thickets, 50-1500m. Conservation status: LC (Clark 2016). Native.
  5. Mezoneuron mindorense Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 232; EPFP 2 (1923) 268; Clark, Phytotaxa 274 (2016) 25; ≡ Caesalpinia mindorensis (Merr.) Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1973) 41; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 548; Type: Merritt s.n., For. Bur. no. 479 (L, neo), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Pinamalayan, 20-Oct-1906. = Mezoneuron mindorense Merr. var. inermis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 232; EPFP 2 (1923) 268; Type: BS 1514 J Bermejos (BO, GH, K, NY, PNH, US, syn), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Bulalacao, 8-Sep-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland secondary forests, edge of swamps, thickets. Conservation status: Vulnerable (Clark 2016). Native.
  6. Mezoneuron pubescens Desf., Mém. Mus. Paris 4 (1818) 245; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 56; Fl. Manila (1912) 230; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 176; EPFP 2 (1923) 269; Clark, Phytotaxa 274 (2016) 23; ≡ Caesalpinia pubescens (Desf.) Hattink, Reinwardtia 9 (1973) 47; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 550; Type: from Java. Distribution: Java, Java Sea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madura, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bulacan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: Lowlands in open dry grasslands, thin thickets, etc. Prefers seasonal drought and flowers at the end of the wet season. Conservation status: Least Concern (Clark 2016). Native.

Millettia Wight & Arn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 September 2019
  1. Millettia ahernii Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 103; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 71; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 278; Adema, Blumea 45 (2000) 411; Type: BS 3373 Ahern’s collector (K, MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Sep-1905. = Millettia canariifolia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 71; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 279; Type: BS 4711 (syn); BS 4727 Ramos (K, syn), Luzon: Zambales, Dec-1907. = Millettia cavitensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 72; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 279; Type: Merrill 4181 (L, NY, P, US, iso), Luzon: Cavite, Maragondong, Jul-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Lowland thickets, ravines, and open forests. Native.
  2. Millettia brachycarpa Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 17; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 278; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 53; Adema, Blumea 45 (2000) 410; Type: Merrill 9578 (A, K, L, MO, NY, US), Palawan: Palawan, Silanga, May-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Laguna, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowlands, in thin forests, abandoned clearings, etc. Native.
  3. Millettia merrillii Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 81; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 279; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 53; Adema, Blumea 45 (2000) 413; Type: Merrill 1387 (A, K, lecto; NY 2 sheets, SING, US, isolecto), Luzon: Pampanga, Arayat, Mar-1903. = Millettia foxworthii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 72; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 279; Type: BS 740 Foxworthy (A, K, L, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Mar/Apr-1906. = ?Millettia stipulata Dunn, PJS 6 c (1912) Bot. 316; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 280; Type: FB 11140 Aguilar (US, iso), Luzon: Bulacan, Angat, Mar/Apr-1908. = Millettia capillipes Dunn, PJS 6 c (1912) Bot. 316; Type: FB 18549 Alvarez (K), Luzon: Isabela, Cabagan River, along stream bank, Apr-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Laguna, Rizal, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests, also along riverbanks. Locally abundant. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi in Panigrahi & Murti, Fl. Bilaspur Distr. 1 (1989) 210; Adema, Blumea 45 (2000) 411; ≡ Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, Fl. For. Cochinch. 5 (1907) t. 384; Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 271; EPFP 2 (1923) 298; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 65; ≡ Cytisus pinnatus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 741. = Pongamia pinnata var. xerocarpa (Hassk.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 298; ≡ Pongamia mitis (L.) Merr. var. xerocarpa (Hassk.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 101; ≡ Pongamia xerocarpa Hassk., Hort. Bogor. descr. ed. 2 (1858) 208. = Pongamia mitis (L.) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. For. Veg. Pegu, App. A (1875) 49; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 101; ≡ Robinia mitis L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1044, nom. illeg. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines along the seashore, common. Also extending inland. Native.
  5. Millettia platyphylla Merr. ex Dunn, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 41 (1912) 140; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 279; Adema, Blumea 45 (2000) 414; Type: C.M. Weber 1123 (A, K, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mar/Jul-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Misamis, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Native.
  6. Millettia tenuipes Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 398; Adema, Blumea 45 (2000) 414; Type: BS 44803 Ramos & Edaño (A, K, NY, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Mt Marayep, along forested streams at low elevation, 12-Dec-1924. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Notes: Only known from the type collection. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Millettia longipes Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 80; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 279; Adema, Blumea 45 (2000) 417. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Known only from uncorrelated fragmentary materials in K (Adema 2000). Native.

Mimosa L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 July 2017
  1. Mimosa diplotricha C.Wight ex Sauvalle, Anal. Real Acad. ci. Habana 5 (1868) 405; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 184. = Mimosa invisa auct. non Mart. ex Colla; Benth., Trans. Linn. Soc. 30 (1875) 436. Naturalized.
    • var. diplotricha. Distribution: America. LUZON.
  2. Mimosa pudica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 518; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 228; EPFP 2 (1923) 251. Naturalized.
    • var. hispida Brenan, Kew Bull. (1955) 186; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 186. Distribution: S America. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; open waste places at low and medium elevation in settled areas, common and abundant.
    • var. tetrandra (Willd.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 426; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 186; ≡ Mimosa tetrandra Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4(2) (1806) 1032. Distribution: S America. LUZON.
  3. Mimosa quadrivalvis L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 522; ≡ Schrankia quadrivalvis (L.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 30; EPFP 2 (1923) 250; Hopkins, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 205. Distribution: C America. LUZON: Batangas, MINDANAO: Misamis. Notes: In open grassland and waste places. “Apparently introduced to the Philippines by the Spanish from Mexico (Merrill 1910, 1918). I have seen only the specimens cited by Merrill (1923) and doubt that the species ever established in Malesia, though it has shown some persistence at Bauan, Batangas, where it was recollected in 1915 by Merrill, the first collection from that place being that of Blanco before 1837 (Merrill 1918)” (Hopkins 1992). Naturalized.

Monarthrocarpus Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 January 2020
  1. Monarthrocarpus securiformis (Benth.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 89; EPFP 2 (1923) 291; ≡ Desmodium securiforme Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 226; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 62; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 108; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 108; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 258; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 128; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 87. = Desmodium securiforme var. monophylla Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 90; EPFP 2 (1923) 291. = Desmofischera monosperma Holthuis, Blumea 5 (1942) 189. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY, POLILLO. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests. Native.

Mucuna Adans.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 September 2016
  1. Mucuna angustifolia Adema, Blumea 61 (2016) 103; Type: Ridsdale & Reynoso 1420 (L, holo), Luzon: Zambales, Santa Cruz, Acoje Mine concession area, 23-May-1986. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Notes: Up to 200m. Native.
  2. Mucuna aurea C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 183; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 307; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1990) 229; Type: R.S. Williams 1292 (NY, holo; K, NY, PNH, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, 13-Jul-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao. Notes: Medium elevation forests and thickets, ascending to 1700m. Native.
  3. Mucuna curranii Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 230; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 116; EPFP 2 (1923) 308; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1990) 231; Type: Elmer 8442 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BO, F, K, L, NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Montane thickets, also limestone cliffs and ravines, 1300-2200m. Native.
  4. Mucuna diplax Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1991) 240; Type: R.S. Williams 231 (NY, holo; A, K, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, 23-Nov-1903. = Negretia urens Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 586; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 409; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 387, nom. illeg., non Tussac; Type: Merrill Sp. Blanc. 779 (L, neo; K, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, San Mateo. = Mucuna imbricata auct. non Baker; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 38; PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 67. = Mucuna nigricans auct. non (Lour.) Steud; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 116, pro parte; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 187; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 107. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN (photos), POLILLO. Notes: Low elevation, recorded among others along riverine habitats. Native.
  5. Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC., Prod. 2 (1825) 405; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 308; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1990) 217. Native.
    • ssp. gigantea. Distribution: Africa, Australia, India, Indochina, Japan, Malay Peninsula to New Guinea, Myanmar, Pacific Ocean. ALABAT, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO. Notes: In forests, thickets, usually near or along the seashore.
    • ssp. plurisemina Verdc., Kew Bull. 33 (1979) 126; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1990) 218; Type: from New Guinea. Distribution: Australia, New Guinea. TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Habitat as in ssp. gigantea.
  6. Mucuna hainanensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 3 (1913) 72; Type: from China. Native.
    • ssp. multilamellata Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1991) 207; Type: from India. = Mucuna nigricans auct. non (Lour.) Steud.; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 116, pro parte; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 187, pro parte; EPFP 2 (1923) 309; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 39 (1984) 43; Kew Bull. 42 (1987) 30. = ?Negretia urens Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 586; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 409; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 387, ?pro parte. Distribution: India, Myanmar, Philippines. GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Pampanga, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, Zamboanga del Norte. Notes: Sea-level to medium elevation, secondary forests, thickets or open country, often near water.
  7. Mucuna longipedunculata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 18; EPFP 2 (1923) 308; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1990) 223; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 106, excl. syn. Mucuna macmillanii Elmer; Type: Elmer 6233 (PNH, holo, lost; K, NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Sablan, May-1904. = Mucuna macmillanii Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2736; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 308; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1990) 226; Type: Elmer 13594 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BISH, E, F, K, L, MO, NEB, NY, US, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ?PANAY, BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Aurora, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Misamis Occidental, Surigao del Norte, POLILLO. Notes: Ravines, forests, near streams, low and medium elevation up to 500m. Native.
  8. Mucuna mindorensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 231; EPFP 2 (1923) 309; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1990) 221; ≡ Mucuna acuminata Merr., PJS 1, Suppl. 3 (1906) 196, nom. illeg.; Type: Merrill 4069 (PNH, holo; K, L, NY, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Baco River. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Forest, along beach and rivers at low elevation. Native.
  9. Mucuna pachycarpa Parreno ex Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1990) 221; Type: BS 84971 Ramos & Edaño (A, holo), Mindanao: South Cotabato, Nutol, 18-Apr-1932. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: South Cotabato. Notes: Known only from the type?. Native.
  10. Mucuna platyplekta Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 152; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1990) 244; Type: BS 47232 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; NY, UC, iso), Luzon: Isabela, San Mariano, 16-Feb-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, ?Rizal. Notes: Lowland dry open forests along streams. Native.
  11. Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 405; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 86; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 67; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 117; Fl. Manila (1912) 259; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 188; EPFP 2 (1923) 309; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 39 (1984) 61; Kew Bull. 42 (1987) 40; Kew Bull. 46 (1990) 245; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 107; ≡ Dolichos pruriens L., Herb. Amboin. (Linn.) (1754) 23. = Negretia pruriens Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 411, nom. illeg., non (L.) Oken; Type: Merrill Species Blancoana 645 (L, neo), Luzon: Rizal, Fort William McKinley. Native.
    • var. pruriens. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. JOLO, LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Manila, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: Low to medium elevation thickets and secondary forests, streamsides.
    • var. utilis (Wall. ex Wight) Baker ex Burck, Ann. Jard. Buitenzorg 11 (1893) 187; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 39 (1984) 63; Kew Bull. 42 (1987) 45; Kew Bull. 46 (1990) 249; ≡ Mucuna utilis Wall. ex Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 2, t. 80. = Mucuna deeringiana (Bort) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 118; EPFP 2 (1923) 308; ≡ Stizolobium deeringianum Bort, Bull. Bur. Pl. Industr. U.S.D.A. 141 (1909) 31. = Mucuna nivea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn., Prodromus Florae peninsula orientalis (1834) 255; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 188; ≡ Carpopogon niveum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3 (1832) 285, as 'niveum'. = Mucuna cochinchinensis (Lour.) A. Chev., Bull. Agr. Inst. Sci. Saigon 1 (1919) 91; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 307; ≡ Macranthus cochinchinensis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 461. = Mucuna lyonii Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 197; Fl. Manila (1912) 259; Type: W.S. Lyon s.n. (PNH, holo, lost; K, US, iso), cult. in Manila from seeds from Luzon: Pampanga. = Negretia mitis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 588; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 410; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 388, nom. illeg., non Ruiz & Pav. Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Manila, Rizal, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte, NEGROS. Notes: Grown in the Philippines for fodder and green manure.
  12. Mucuna reticulata Burck, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 11 (1893) 184; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1990) 226; Type: from Sulawesi. = Mucuna foveolata Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 389; EPFP 2 (1923) 308; Type: FB 28379 Mabesa (PNH, holo, lost; K, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Kabibihan. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Quezon, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation, along streams, forest edges, and secondary forests. Native.
  13. Mucuna samarensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 390; EPFP 2 (1923) 309; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1990) 237; Type: BS 24341 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; K, NY, US, iso), Samar: Catubig River, Feb/Mar-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Lowlands, damp forests along margins of old clearings. Native.
  14. Mucuna sericophylla Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 86; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 117; EPFP 2 (1923) 310; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 109; Wilmot-Dear, Kew Bull. 46 (1991) 247; Type: Warburg 12438 (B, holo, lost), Luzon: Cagayan. = Mucuna luzoniensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 196; Type: Elmer 5599 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, US, iso), Luzon: La Union, Bauang, Feb-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Benguet, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Low to medium elevation dry thickets. Native.

Neptunia Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Neptunia gracilis Benth., J. Bot. 4 (1842) 355; Windler, Amer. J. Bot. 14 (1966) 414; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 188. = Neptunia depauperata Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 16; EPFP 2 (1923) 251. Distribution: Australia, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan. Native.
    • forma gracilis. Distribution: Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Open dry fields at low elevation.
  2. Neptunia oleracea Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 654; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 251; Windler, Amer. J. Bot. 14 (1966) 401; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 189. Distribution: Africa, America, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Caribbean, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur. Notes: Shallow lakes and swamps at low elevation. Native.

Neustanthus Benth.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 December 2021
  1. Neustanthus phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. 2 (1852) 235; Egan & Pan, Phytotaxa 218 (2015) 206; ≡ Pueraria phaseoloides Benth., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 9 (1865) 125; ≡ Dolichos phaseoloides Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3 (1832) 316; Type: from India. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte (photos). Native.
    • var. javanica (Benth.) A.N.Egan & B.Pan, Phytotaxa 218 (2015) 207; ≡ Neustanthus javanicus Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. 2 (1852) 235; Type: from Java. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam.
    • var. phaseoloides. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

Ormocarpum P.Beauv.

  1. Ormocarpum cochinchinense (Lour.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 76; EPFP 2 (1923) 282; ≡ Diphaca cochinchinensis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 454. = Ormocarpum sennoides (Willd.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 315; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 60; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 107; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 106; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 17; ≡ Hedysarum sennoides Willd., Sp. Pl. 3 (1803) 1207. Distribution: Africa, Australia, India to China, Malesia. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Batangas, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur. Notes: Dry open slopes and thickets at low and medium elevation. Native.

Ormosia Jacks.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 October 2021
  1. Ormosia bancana (Miq.) Merr., Enum. Born. (1921) 301; Knaap-Van Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 229; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 1 (1972) 300; Cockburn, Trees of Sabah 1 (1976) 201; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); ≡ Macrotropis bancana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. 2 (1861) 295. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Notes: In the Philippines recorded from Taytay, Mt Victoria, Trident Mine area, 4 collections (L, PNH). Native.
  2. Ormosia calavensis Azaola ex Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 230; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1878) 64; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 69; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 23; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 113; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 15; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 64; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 58; Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 262; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 177; EPFP 2 (1923) 269; Knaap-Van Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 229; Cockburn, Trees of Sabah 1 (1976) 201; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 32; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 707 (K, US, isoneo), Luzon: Bulacan, Angat, Mt Anginan, dry hill summit, c. 220m, 16-Dec-1914. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: In the Philippines from Luzon to Mindanao. Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  3. Ormosia macrodisca Baker in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 2 (1878) 253; Knaap-Van Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 230; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 1 (1972) 301. = Ormosia basilanensis Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 407; EPFP 2 (1923) 269; Type: FB 17893 Rafael (US, syn), Basilan: Basilan, Maluno, in forests, c. 140m, 13-Nov-1912; Hollier 508 (syn), probably same locality, Jan-1904. = ?Ormosia clementis Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 406; EPFP 2 (1923) 270; Type: M.S. Clemens 1139, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Camp Keithley, c. 900m, Jul-1907. = ?Ormosia grandifolia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 408; EPFP 2 (1923) 270; Type: FB 21172 Alvarez, Luzon: Camarines, Magdoronganon River, in forests near the river, c. 100m, 23-Mar-1914. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, LUZON: Camarines, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: Lowland forest to c. 900m. Native.
  4. Ormosia paniculata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 21; EPFP 2 (1923) 270; Knaap-Van Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 232; Type: FB 2028 Borden (NY, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Sep/Dec-1904. = Ormosia orbiculata Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 405; EPFP 2 (1923) 270; Type: BS 32775 Ramos (K, L, US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Burgos, 17-Jul-1918. Distribution: Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Bataan, Ifugao (photos), Ilocos Norte. Notes: Lowland forest, up to 300m. Native.
  5. Ormosia surigaensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 405; EPFP 2 (1923) 263; Knaap-Van Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 236; Type: BS 34494 Ramos & Pascasio (L, US, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, on ridges at low elevation at the iron deposit on the NE coast, 24-Apr-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Notes: Forested ridge at low elevation. Native.

Ototropis Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 January 2020
  1. Ototropis sequax (Wall.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 87 (2012) 116; ≡ Desmodium sequax Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 2 (1831) 46; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 98, 100; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 259; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana no. 1 (1973) 112. = Desmodium dasylobum Miq., Fl. Ind. Bot. Suppl. (1860-61) 305; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 284. Distribution: China, Himalayas, India, Indochina, Java, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Kalinga, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Notes: Montane thickets, ravines and forests, 1200-2400m. Native.

Pachyrhizus Rich. ex DC. (Not native)

  1. Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, Symb. Antill. 4 (1905) 311; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 135; Fl. Manila (1912) 263; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 193; EPFP 2 (1923) 321; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 112; ≡ Dolichos erosus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 726. = Pachyrhizus angulatus Rich. ex DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 402; Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 405; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1879) 380; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 65; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 110. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in the settled areas at low and medium elevation. Sometimes planted. Yam bean; singkamas. Naturalized.

Parkia R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 March 2019
  1. Parkia speciosa Hassk., Flora 25 (1842) 55, 105; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 198. = Parkia harbesonii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1804; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 253. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests, 0-150m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Parkia sumatrana Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat., Suppl. 1, Sumatra (1861) 284; Hopkins, Blumea 37 (1992) 77; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 199. Native.
    • ssp. sumatrana. Distribution: Borneo, ?Philippines, Sumatra. Notes: Perhaps in the Philippines: see comments under Parkia sherfeseei, an insufficiently known taxon.
  3. Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 33; Fl. Manila (1912) 229; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 201; ≡ Inga timoriana DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 442. = Parkia roxburghii G.Don, Gen. Syst. 2 (1832) 397; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 564. = Parkia javanica auct. non (Lam.) Merr.; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 168; EPFP 2 (1923) 253; Corner, Wayside Trees 1 (1940) 415; Wayside Trees ed. 3 (1988) 458; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 1 (1972) 281; Cockburn, Trees Sabah 1 (1976) 191. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: La Union, Laguna, Pampanga, PALAWAN. Notes: In Luzon from La Union and Pampanga to Laguna. Low and medium elevation forest, especially in the more seasonal parts of W Philippines. Briefly deciduous. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Parkia sherfeseei Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 9; EPFP 2 (1923) 253; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 204; Type: FB 21962 Sherfesee, Cenabre & Ponce (US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, May-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Tidal streams and Nipa swamp at sea-level. “Described from incomplete material, but some collections cited by Merrill (1923) have not been traced. The leaves resemble Parkia sumatrana, but the habitat suggests a different ecology. Pods are needed to assess whether it is morphologically distinct or not” (Hopkins 1992). Native.

Peltophorum (Vogel) Benth.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 October 2017
  1. Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) Backer ex Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind., ed. 2 (1927) 755; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 651. = Peltophorum inerme (Roxb.) Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1880) t. 335; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 69; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 57; Fl. Manila (1912) 233; EPFP 2 (1923) 269; ≡ Caesalpinia inerme Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 90; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 367. = Peltophorum ferrugineum Benth., Fl. Austral. 2 (1864) 279; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 69; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 110; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 114; Type: from Timor. Distribution: Australia, Cambodia, Malesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, CORON, LUZON: Batangas, Pangasinan, Zambales, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Usually along coastal forests and behind mangroves. Now extensively cultivated elsewhere in parks and roadsides as an ornamental shade tree. Native.

Pericopsis Thwaites

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Pericopsis mooniana Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1864) 414. = Ormosia villamilii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 313; EPFP 2 (1923) 270; Type: FB 13290 Foxworthy, Villamil & de Mesa (US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, opposite Olutanga Is, forested slopes near the sea, c. 20m, 16-May-1912. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: Lowland forests near the sea. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Phanera Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 January 2020
  1. Phanera aherniana (Perkins) de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 448; ≡ Bauhinia aherniana Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 8; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 258; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 461; Type: Merrill 1237 (A, lecto; BM, K, NY 2 sheets, SING, TI, US, isolecto), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Baco, Jan-1903. = Bauhinia halleriana Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 691; Type: Elmer 12172 (NY, lecto; C, P, US, W, isolecto), Romblon, Mar-1910. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. Native.
    • var. aherniana. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDORO, ROMBLON. Notes: Lowlands in open sites, up to 650m. Native.
    • var. subglabra (Merr.) Bandyop., Ghoshal & M.K.Pathak, Bangladesh J. Pl. Taxon. 19 (2012) 55; ≡ Bauhinia aherniana Perkins var. subglabra (Merr.) K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen, Nord. J. Bot. 13 (1993) 661; Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 462; ≡ Phanera semibifida var. subglabra (Merr.) de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 469; ≡ Bauhinia subglabra Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 230; EPFP 2 (1923) 261; Type: BS 821 Foxworthy (K, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Palawan: Palawan, Mar/Apr-1906. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Phanera ferruginea (Roxb.) Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 26; ≡ Bauhinia ferruginea Roxb. Fl. Ind. (Roxburgh) 2 (1832) 331, De la Estrella et al., Nordic J. Bot. 25 (2007) 42. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Thailand. LUZON: Quezon. Native.
  3. Phanera finlaysoniana Grah. ex Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 262; ≡ Bauhinia finlaysoniana (Grah. ex Benth.) Baker in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 2 (1878) 278. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Native.
    • var. leptopus (Perkins) de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 509; ≡ Phanera finlaysoniana var. leptopus (Perkins) K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen, Nord. J. Bot. 13 (1993) 663; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 514; ≡ Bauhinia leptopus Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 10; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 44; EPFP 2 (1923) 259; Type: Warburg 12824 (E, lecto), Luzon: Quezon prov. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Moluccas, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Sur, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests.
  4. Phanera integrifolia (Roxb.) Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 263; de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 478; ≡ Bauhinia integrifolia Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 90, nom. nud., Fl. Ind., ed. Carey, 2 (1832) 331; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 480. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
    • ssp. cumingiana (Benth.) de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 480; ≡ Phanera integrifolia (Roxb.) Benth ssp. cumingiana (Benth.) K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen, Nord. J. Bot. 2 (1982) 332; Nord. J. Bot. 13 (1993) 658; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 481; ≡ Bauhinia cumingiana (Benth.) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 73; ≡ Phanera cumingiana Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 263; Type: Cuming 1785 (K, lecto; E, G, L, OXF, P, PRC, W, isolecto). Distribution: Borneo, Philippines.
      • var. cumingiana. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO. Notes: Luzon (Cagayan) to Mindanao. Low and medium elevation forests.
      • var. nymphaeifolia (Perkins) de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 482; ≡ Phanera integrifolia (Roxb.) Benth. ssp. cumingiana (Benth.) de Wit var. nymphaeifolia (Perkins) K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen, Nord. J. Bot. 13 (1993) 658; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 482; ≡ Bauhinia nymphaeifolia Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 11; Type: Cuming 1181 (K, lecto; E, G, K, L, P, PRC, W), Luzon. = Bauhinia whitfordii Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 229; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 44; EPFP 2 (1923) 261; Type: Elmer 8897 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Zambales. Notes: Lowland to medium elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  5. Phanera lingua (DC.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. i. I. 67; ≡ Bauhinia lingua DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 516; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 483. = Bauhinia warburgii Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 12; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 46; EPFP 2 (1923) 261; Type: Warburg 12823. = Bauhinia pinchotiana Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 12; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 45; Type: Cuming 1119 (K, lecto; E, G, L 2 sheets, P, W, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Sur prov. = Bauhinia semibifida auct. non Roxb.; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 24; Fern-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 73. Native.
    • var. lingua. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Camarines, Ilocos Sur, Quezon, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation forests.
    • var. antipolana (Perkins) Bandyop., Ghoshal & M.K.Pathak, Bangladesh J. Pl. Taxon. 19 (2012) 58; ≡ Bauhinia lingua DC. var. antipolana (Perkins) K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen, Nord. J. Bot. 13 (1993) 660; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 485; ≡ Bauhinia antipolana Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 9; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 45; Type: Merrill 1317 (NY), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, Feb-1903. = Bauhinia chalcobapta Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 151; Type: BS 47217 Ramos & Edaño (NY, US iso), Luzon: Isabela, San Mariano, along stream in open forests, c. 650m, 26-Mar-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Rizal. Notes: Open forests, c. 650m. Native.
  6. Phanera merrilliana (Perkins) de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 461; ≡ Bauhinia merrilliana Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 10; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 45; EPFP 2 (1923) 260; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 485; Type: Merrill 694 (A, holo; BM, NY, SING, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, I-wi-ig (Iwahig) River, 18-Feb-1903. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. Native.
    • var. merrilliana. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets and forests. Native.
  7. Phanera pachyphylla (Merr.) de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 461; ≡ Bauhinia pachyphylla Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 25; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 487; Type: Loher 12978 (K, lecto; M, isolecto), Luzon: Rizal, Balintingan, c. 1400m, Apr-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. pachyphylla. Distribution: LUZON: Rizal. Notes: L.L.Co: Known only with certainty from the type collection. A collection from Aurora prov. (Baler), according to Larsen has floral characters agreeing with this species but with different leaves.
    • var. wenzelii (K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen) Bandyop., Ghoshal & M.K.Pathak, Bangladesh J. Pl. Taxon. 19 (2012) 59; ≡ Bauhinia pachyphylla Merr. var. wenzelii K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen, Nord. J. Bot. 13 (1993) 659; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 488; Type: Wenzel 2537 (NY, holo; BO, BR, K, MO, PR, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, 20-Apr-1927. Distribution: MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte.
  8. Phanera pauciflora (Merr.) de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 462; ≡ Bauhinia pauciflora Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 13; EPFP 2 (1923) 260; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 488; Type: BS 13113 Foxworthy & Ramos (K, lecto; L, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Dapdap Point, in forest, Mar-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Lowland forest. L.L.Co: Known only with certainty from the type. De Wit (1956) and Larsen (1996) cite several collections from Mountain Province (actually Ifugao), Zambales, Rizal, and Quezon as probably conspecific with this species. Native.
  9. Phanera semibifida (Roxb.) Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 263; de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 465; ≡ Bauhinia semibifida Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. Carey, 2 (1832) 330; Hort. Beng. (1814) 31, nom. nud.; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 490. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Native.
    • var. semibifida. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Notes: Forest margins.
    • var. perkinsiae (Merr.) Bandyop., Ghoshal & M.K.Pathak, Bangladesh J. Pl. Taxon. 19 (2012) 59; ≡ Bauhinia semibifida Roxb. var. perkinsae (Merr.) K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen, Nord. J. Bot. 13 (1993) 661; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 494; ≡ Bauhinia perkinsae Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 2; EPFP 2 (1923) 260, as ‘perkinsiae’; Type: Merrill 731 (NY, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Palawan: Palawan, I-wi-ig (Iwahig) River, 18-Feb-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Phaseolus L. (Not native)

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 November 2014
  1. Phaseolus lunatus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 724; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 573; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 400; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 370; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 64; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 89; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 32; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 354; Fl. Manila (1912) 261; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 191; EPFP 2 (1923) 318; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 112. = Phaseolus inamoenus L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 724; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 571; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 399; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 368. = Phaseolus ilocanus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 572. = Phaseolus tunkinensis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 435; Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 399; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 369. = Phaseolus vexillatus auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 574. = Phaseolus vulgaris auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 401; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 371. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Now pantropic in distribution. In the Philippines now thoroughly naturalized and common in thickets at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2000m; some forms cultivated. Lima bean. Naturalized.
  2. Phaseolus vulgaris L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 723; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 64; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 261; EPFP 2 (1923) 319. Distribution: C America. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Various forms cultivated in the Philippines. In the Mountain Province, occasionally subspontaneous. Common bean. Naturalized.

Phylacium Benn.

  1. Phylacium bracteosum Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1840) 159; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 108; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 20; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 94, 354; EPFP 2 (1923) 294; Bresser, Blumea 24 (1978) 490. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao. Low and medium elevation dry thickets, ascending to 1400m; locally abundant. Native.

Phyllodium Desv.

  1. Phyllodium pulchellum (L.) Desv., J. de Bot. ser. 2, 1 (1813) 124; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana 1 (1973) 276, Pl. 39b; ≡ Desmodium pulchellum (L.) Benth., Fl. Hongk. (1861) 83; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 79; Fl. Manila (1912) 239; EPFP 2 (1923) 288; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 256; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 603; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 39; ≡ Hedysarum pulchellum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 747. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation wastelands, open thickets, settled areas, etc. Native.

Piliostigma Hochst.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 February 2014
  1. Piliostigma malabaricum (Roxb.) Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852); ≡ Bauhinia malabarica Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. Carey, 2 (1832) 321; Hort. Beng. (1814) 31, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 260; K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 456. = Piliostigma malabaricum (Roxb.) Benth. var. acidum de Wit, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 531. Distribution: Australia, Cambodia, India, Java to Lesser Sunda Isls, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: A typical species of the more seasonal parts of the archipelago. Native.

Pithecellobium Mart.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 3 (1844) 199; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 225; EPFP 2 (1923) 243; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 155; ≡ Mimosa dulcis Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1(4) (1798) 67. Distribution: C America. Notes: Cultivated and naturalized in most of the tropics. Throughout the Philippines in the lowlands to medium elevation, particularly common in the more seasonal regions. Wastelands, dry river beds, brushwoods, etc. Naturalized.

Incertae sedis

  1. Pithecellobium platycarpum Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 17; EPFP 2 (1923) 244. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: “Topotypic material needed from Twin Peaks, prov. of Benguet, Luzon before the identity of this taxon can be known” (Nielsen 1992). Native.

Pleurolobus J.St-Hil.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 January 2020
  1. Pleurolobus gangeticus (L.) J.St.-Hil. ex H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93 (2018) 184; ≡ Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 327; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 241; EPFP 2 (1923) 285; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 249; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 607; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana No. 1 (1973) 184; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 36; ≡ Hedysarum gangeticum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 746. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation open wastelands, thickets and secondary forests. Native.

Prosopis L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 November 2017
  1. Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 447; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 215; ≡ Mimosa juliflora Sw., Prodr. (1788) 85. = Prosopis vidaliana Naves, Descr. Prosopsis vidaliana (1877) 15; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 228; EPFP 2 (1923) 251. Distribution: America. Notes: Widely cultivated and naturalized in the tropics. Widespread and thoroughly naturalized in the Philippines, often forming dense thornbushes behind the beach. Naturalized.

Pseudarthria Wight & Arn.

  1. Pseudarthria viscida (L.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. (1834) 209; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 90; EPFP 2 (1923) 291; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 105; ≡ Hedysarum viscidum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 747. Distribution: India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi. LUZON: Bulacan, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Waste places near towns, deserted clearings, coconut groves, etc. Native.

Psophocarpus Necker ex DC. (Not native)

  1. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 403; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 66; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 110; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 136; Fl. Manila (1912) 264; EPFP 2 (1923) 322; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 117; ≡ Dolichos tetragonolobus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1020; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 576; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 402; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 374. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Cultivated, semi-cultivated, and occasionally spontaneous or subspontaneous in most parts of the Philippines at low and medium elevation. Introduced. Asparagus bean; cigarillas. Naturalized.

Pterocarpus Jacq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Pterocarpus indicus Willd., Sp. Pl. 3 (1800) 904; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 246; EPFP 2 (1923) 297; Rojo, Phanerog. Monog. 5 (1972) 41; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 60. = Pterocarpus blancoi Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 6 (1904) 7; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 297. = Pterocarpus pubescens Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 271; EPFP 2 (1923) 297. Native.
    • forma indicus. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Cambodia, Malesia, Myanmar, Pacific Ocean, Ryukyu Isls, Thailand. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Lowland (usually evergreen) forests, ascending to 1300m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
    • forma echinatus (Pers.) Rojo, Phanerog. Monog. 5 (1972) 46; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 60; ≡ Pterocarpus echinatus Pers., Syn. Pl. 2 (1807) 277; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 247. = Pterocarpus vidalianus Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 309; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 297. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., Pl. Corom. 2 (1799) 9; Rojo, Phanerog. Monog. 5 (1972) 58.

Pterolobium R.Br. ex Wight & Arnott

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Pterolobium membranulaceum (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 22; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 52; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 175; EPFP 2 (1923) 266; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 658; ≡ Mimosa membranulacea Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 739; Type: non extant; Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 454, leg. M Ramos (L, neo; L, isoneo), Luzon: Bulacan, Angat, 1-Sep-1913; Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 664 (L, isosynneo), Luzon: Bulacan, Angat, Dec-1913. = Reichardia pentapetala Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 233; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1878) 71. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets about cliffs. Also on coralline limestone. Fl. Sept.; fr. Nov., Dec. Native.

Pueraria DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 July 2017
  1. Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr., Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. ser. 2, 24(2) (1935) 10; ≡ Dolichos montanus Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 439. Native.
    • var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & Pradeep; ≡ Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18 (1947) 16; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 34; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 99; ≡ Dolichos lobatus Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 3(2) (1802) 1047. = Pueraria thunbergiana (Sieb. & Zucc.) Benth., J. Linn. Soc. 9 (1867) 122; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 410; EPFP 2 (1923) 312; ≡ Pachyrhizus thunbergianus Siebold & Zucc., Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4(3) (1846) 237. = Pueraria phaseoloides auct. non (Roxb.) Benth.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 64; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 39; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 123; Fl. Manila (1912) 254; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 189; EPFP 2 (1923) 311; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 100. = Pachyrhizus teres Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 580. = Pachyrhizus montanus auct. non (Lour.) DC.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 406; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 381. = Dioscorea bolojonica Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 800; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 551; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 208. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Java, Malay Peninsula, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Taiwan. BATANES, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Batanes and N Luzon to Mindanao. Low and medium elevation grasslands and thickets, in the Cordillera Highlands ascending to 2000m.
    • var. thomsonii (Benth.) Wiersema ex D.B.Ward, Phytologia 84 (1999) 386. Distribution: Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam.
  2. Pueraria pulcherrima (Koord.) Merr. ex Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verzeich. 2 (1914) 132; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 312; ≡ Mucuna pulcherrima Koord., Meded. Lands Plant. 19 (1908) 440. = Glycine warburgii (Perkins) Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 231; ≡ Pueraria warburgii Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 87; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 124; Type: Warburg 14664 (B), Mindanao: Davao, Taumo. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Surigao del Norte. Notes: Lowland thickets and forests. Native.

Pycnospora R.Brown ex Wight & Arn.

  1. Pycnospora lutescens (Poir.) Schindl., J. Bot. 64 (1926) 145; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 437; ≡ Hedysarum lutescens Poir. in Lam., Enc. Bot. 6 (1806) 417. = Pycnospora nervosa (Graham) Wight & Arn., Prodr. (1834) 197; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 91; EPFP 2 (1923) 292; ≡ Crotalaria nervosa Graham in Wall., Cat. (1832) no. 5428, nom. nud. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Vietnam. CULION, LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao, PANAY, SEMIRARA. Notes: Open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Native.

Rhynchosia Lour.

  1. Rhynchosia acuminatissima Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 1 (1855) 171; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 440. = Rhynchosia calosperma Warb. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 12 (1891) 314; Merr., PJS 5c (1910) Bot. 128; EPFP 2 (1923) 316. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, China, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sumatra. GUIMARAS, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Lowland thickets; apparently very rare or local in the Philippines. Native.
  2. Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1852) 385; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 316; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 439; ≡ Dolichos minimus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1020. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, America, Australia, Bangladesh, Caribbean, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Grassland in region with a pronounced dry season, low elevation. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Rhynchosia volubilis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 460; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 316; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 443. Distribution: China, Japan, Korea, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: In open grasslands, 1400-2000m. According to Meeuwen et al. (1960), this SE-E Asiatic species has never been found native in Malesia. It is said to be cultivated in Bogor during Blume’s time but has since disappeared and not been naturalized.

Samanea (Benth.) Merr. (Not native)

Last edited by Kelly Hageman & Pieter B. Pelser, 8 June 2021
  1. Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 6 (1916) 47; EPFP 2 (1923) 242; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 156; ≡ Albizia saman (Jacq.) F.Muell, Select Pl. ed. 2 (1876) 12; ≡ Enterolobium saman (Jacq.) Prain ex King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 662 (1897) 352; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 225; ≡ Mimosa saman Jacq., Fragm. Bot. (1800) 15. Distribution: S America. Notes: Naturalized pantropically. Introduced to the Philippines c. 1860, now widely planted as a shade tree. In many places spontaneous. Rain-tree; akasya. Naturalized.

Saraca L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 January 2021
  1. Saraca indica L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 98; Zuijderhoudt, Blumea 15 (1967) 423. Distribution: Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Cultivated. P.B. Pelser (18-Jan-21): Possibly naturalized along road side through secondary forest. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Saraca thaipingensis Cantley ex King, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 66 (1897) 211; Zuijderhoudt, Blumea 15 (1967) 416. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized.

Sarcodum Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 9 April 2022
  1. Sarcodum scandens Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 462; Clark, Kew Bull. 63 (2008) 156; Type: from Vietnam. = Clianthus binnendyckianus Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 40, 2 (1871) 51; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 282; Type: from Moluccas. Distribution: China, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Vietnam. CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Surigao, POLILLO. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and forests. Conservation status: Least Concern (Clark 2008). Native.

Schizolobium Vogel (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) S.F.Blake, Contr. US Nat. Herb. 20 (1919) 240; Sp. Pl. (1753) 384; Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 728; ≡ Cassia parahyba Vell., Fl. Flumin. (1829) 168. = Schizolobium excelsum Vogel, Linnaea 11 (1837) 399; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 542. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental in the Philippines.

Schleinitzia Warb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Schleinitzia megaladenia (Merr.) Guinet & Nielsen, Adansonia sér. 2, 20 (2) (1980) 166; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 191; ≡ Albizia megaladenia Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 16; EPFP 2 (1923) 247; Type: BS 29023 Ramos & Edaño (US, holo; NY, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Umiray, in forest along the Umiray River, Jun-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Lowland damp forest along rivers. Native.

Senegalia Raf.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 June 2020
  1. Senegalia merrillii (I.C.Nielsen) Maslin, Seigler & Ebinger, Blumea 58 (2013) 41; ≡ Acacia merrillii I.C.Nielsen, Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 9; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 51; Type: PNH 18680 Conklin (P, holo; A, L, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Yagaw, SE slopes, 330m, 27-Jul-1953. = Acacia philippinarum auct. non Benth.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 249, pro parte (BS 1431, 4578, 26291; Elmer 18159, FB 5267; Merrill 2812, 3796; Williams 478). = Acacia caesia auct. non (L.) Willd.; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 6; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 29; Maslin et al., Plant Diversity 41 (2019) 397. = Acacia intsia auct. non (L.) Willd.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 74; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) t. 45; Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 111; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 120; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 62. = Acacia concinna auct. non DC.; Fern.-Vill. in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 374. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDORO. Notes: Hill forest, lowland rainforests, secondary forest; at riverbanks, in clearings and cultivated areas; also on limestone, up to 330m. Fl. mainly Jun-Sep; fr. Nov-Jan(-May). Native.
  2. Senegalia palawanensis (I.C.Nielsen) Maslin, Seigler & Ebinger, Blumea 58 (2013) 41; ≡ Acacia palawanensis I.C.Nielsen, Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 16; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 52; Type: PNH 12528 MD Sulit (L, holo; A, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Aborlan, Mt Iraan, SE slopes, vicinity of Ibato River, forest edge, 100m, 5-Jun-1950. = Acacia pennata var. arrophula auct. non (D.Don) Baker; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 29; EPFP 2 (1923) 249. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Forest along rivers, forest margins, c. 100m. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Apr. Native.
  3. Senegalia pluriglandulosa (Verdc.) Maslin, Seigler & Ebinger, Blumea 58 (2013) 41; ≡ Acacia pluriglandulosa Verdc., Kew Bull. 32 (1978) 472; Type: from New Guinea. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. Native.
  4. Senegalia rugata (Lam.) Britton & Rose, North American Flora. Mimosaceae 23 (1928) 120; Maslin et al., Plant Diversity 41 (2019) 438; ≡ Mimosa rugata Lam., Encycl. 1(1) (1783) 20; Type: from India. = Acacia concinna (Willd.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 464; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 248; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 48; ≡ Mimosa concinna Willd., Sp. Pl. ed. 4, 4 (1806) 1039. = Acacia philippinarum Benth., London J. Bot. 1 (1842) 514; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 249, pro parte. = Acacia quisumbingii Merr., PJS 82 (1953) 316; Type: PNH 6572 Quisumbing (L, iso), Luzon: Batangas, Calatagan, 16-Jan-1949. = Acacia pennata auct. non (L.) Willd.; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 29, pro parte; EPFP 2 (1923) 249. = Mimosa tenuifolia auct. non L. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, La Union. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets. Native.
  5. Senegalia sulitii (I.C.Nielsen) Maslin, Seigler & Ebinger, Blumea 58 (2013) 42; Maslin et al., Plant Diversity 41 (2019) 363; ≡ Acacia sulitii I.C.Nielsen, Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 24; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 55; Type: PNH 8082 MD Sulit (L, holo), Samar: Western Samar, Wright, Loquilocon, Apr/May-1948. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. Notes: Forests, thickets, roadsides, creek banks, sea-level to 550m. Fl. May-Aug. Native.
  6. Senegalia tawitawiensis (I.C.Nielsen) Maslin, Seigler & Ebinger, Blumea 58 (2013) 42; ≡ Acacia tawitawiensis I.C.Nielsen, Opera Bot. 81 (1985) 22; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 56; Type: BS 44167 Ramos & Edaño (NY, holo; SING, iso), Tawi-tawi, Jul/Aug-1924. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. TAWI-TAWI. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Senegalia catechu (L.f.) P.J.H.Hurter & Mabb., Mabberley's Pl.-Book (2008) 1021; Maslin et al., Plant Diversity 41 (2019) 460; ≡ Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd., Sp. Pl. ed. 4, 4 (1806) 1079; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 206; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philip. Trees (1999) 247; ≡ Mimosa catechu L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 439. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand. Notes: Introduced in the Philippines (Maslin et al. 2019).

Possibly present

  1. Senegalia pluricapitata (Steud. ex Benth.) Maslin, Seigler & Ebinger, Blumea 58 (2013) 41; Maslin et al., Plant Diversity 41 (2019) 443; ≡ Acacia pluricapitata Steud. ex Benth., Nomencl. ed. 2, 1 (1840) 7; Benth., Trans. Linn. Soc. 30 (1875) 531; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 53; Type: G. Porter in Wallich Cat. no. 5255A (K-WALL, holo). = Acacia pennata var. arrophula (D.Don) Baker in Hook.f, Fl. Brit. Ind. 2 (1878) 298; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 249. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, ?Myanmar, ?Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, ?Vietnam. ?LUZON: ?Laguna, Quezon, SAMAR. Notes: In forest. Fl. fr. throughout the year.

Excluded

  1. Senegalia caesia (L.) Maslin, Seigler & Ebinger, Blumea 58 (2013) 40; Maslin et al. 41 (2019) 376; ≡ Acacia caesia (L.) Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4 (1806) 1090; Nielsen, Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viet-nam (1981); ≡ Mimosa caesia L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 522. According to Maslin et al. (2019) erroneously reported for the Philippines by Nielsen (1981).

Senna Mill.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 May 2021
  1. Senna alata (L.) Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 349; Irwin & Barneby, Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 35 (1982) 460; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 675; ≡ Cassia alata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 378; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 234; EPFP 2 (1923) 262; Corner, Wayside Trees (1940) 388; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1956) 231; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 540. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation, in the settled areas, secondary forests and clearings. Sometimes planted. Naturalized.
  2. Senna divaricata (Nees & Blume) K.Larsen, Nordic J. Bot. 13 (1993) 404; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 677; ≡ Cassia divaricata Nees & Blume, Syll. Ratisb. 1 (1824) 94; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 116; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 49; EPFP 2 (1923) 262. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Zambales. Notes: Medium elevation forests and thickets to 1600m. Native.
  3. Senna fruticosa (Mill.) Irwin & Barnaby, Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 35 (1982) 121; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 678; ≡ Cassia fruticosa Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8 (1768) no. 10; Corner, Wayside Trees (1940) 388; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1956) 247; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 537. Distribution: C America. Notes: Pantropically cultivated as ornamental. In the Philippines grown as an ornamental tree from the lowlands to c. 1400m. Said to rarely escape cultivation and becoming naturalized. Seed-setting is also reportedly poor. Naturalized.
  4. Senna hirsuta (L.) Irwin & Barneby, Phytologia 44 (1979) 499; Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 35 (1982) 425; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 679; ≡ Cassia hirsuta L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 378; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 70; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 30; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 50; Fl. Manila (1912) 234; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 173; EPFP 2 (1923) 263. Naturalized.
    • var. hirsuta. Distribution: S America. LUZON: Laguna, Manila, Rizal. Notes: Long naturalized as a weed in the Old World tropics. Lowlands, occasional in waste places in the settled areas. Fl. throughout the year.
    • var. puberula Irwin & Barneby, Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 35 (1982) 429; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 680; Type: from Paraguay. = Cassia leptocarpa Benth. var. hirsuta Benth, Trans. Linn. Soc. 27 (1871) 531; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1955) 251. = Cassia hirsuta auct. non L.; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 50. = Cassia longisiliqua Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 338, nom. illeg., non L.f.; Irwin & Barneby, Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 35 (1982) 430. = Cassia sulcata Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 236; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1878) 76, nom, illeg., non DC.; Irwin & Barneby, Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 35 (1982) 430; Type: none extant. Notes: It has, as far as we know, not been found elsewhere in SE Asia. An introduced weed in the Philippines, perhaps via Europe, reported as a wayside weed by Blanco as early as 1837.
  5. Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby, Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 35 (1982) 252; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 681; ≡ Cassia obtusifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 377; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 30; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1955) 254; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 540. Distribution: ?America. Notes: Origin uncertain, widespread throughout the tropics; in Malesia collected from Singapore, Java, Philippines and New Guinea, but probably occurs all over. Lowlands. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  6. Senna occidentalis (L.) Link, Handb. 2 (1831) 140; Irwin & Barneby, Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 35 (1982) 436; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 681; ≡ Cassia occidentalis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 377; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 338; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 236; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1878) 75; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 70; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 110; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 115; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 50; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 173; Fl. Manila (1912) 234; EPFP 2 (1923) 264; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1956) 256. Distribution: S America. Notes: Now widespread pantropically. A long-time immigrant in the Malesian region. Throughout the Philippines, from sea-level to 1200m, often a weed in waste places in and about towns. Fl. throughout the year. Naturalized.
  7. Senna siamea (Lam.) Irwin & Barneby, Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 35 (1982) 98; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 685; ≡ Cassia siamea Lam., Encycl. 1 (1785) 648; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 71; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 116; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 51; Merr., Fl Manila (1912) 233; EPFP 2 (1923) 264; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1956) 263. = Cassia florida Vahl, Symb. 3 (1794) 57; Merr., Philip. Bureau Forestry Bull. 1 (1903) 24. = Cassia arayatensis auct. non Llanos; Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1877-83) t. 426. Distribution: ?Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Widely planted throughout the tropics. Commonly planted shade tree in the Philippines at low elevation. Naturalized.
  8. Senna sophera (L.) Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 347, as ‘sophora’; Irwin & Barneby, Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 35 (1982) 440; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 686; ≡ Cassia sophera L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 379; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 50; EPFP 2 (1923) 264; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1956) 265; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 538; Type: from Sri Lanka. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON. Notes: Now pantropically distributed. An occasional weed in N to C Luzon in settled areas at low and medium elevation. Naturalized.
  9. Senna spectabilis (DC.) Irwin & Barneby, Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 35 (1982) 600; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 686; ≡ Cassia spectabilis DC., Cat. Hort. Monsp. (1813) 90; Corner, Wayside Trees, ed. 2 (1952) 727; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1955) 267. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: A widely grown ornamental all over Malesia. Naturalized.
  10. Senna timoriensis (DC.) Irwin & Barneby, Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 35 (1982) 98; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 689; ≡ Cassia timorensis DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 499; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 264; Corner, Wayside Trees (1940) 390; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1955) 273; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 541. = Cassia arayatensis Llanos, Fragm. (1851) 71; Fern.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1880) 55; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 173. = Cassia montana auct. non Heyne; Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 452; Sp. Blancoaonae (1918) 173. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Tarlac. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets. Fl. throughout the year. Native.
  11. Senna tora (L.) Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 340; K.Larsen & Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 689; ≡ Cassia tora L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 376; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 337; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 235; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1878) 74; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 70; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 110; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 115; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 49; Fl. Manila (1912) 234; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 173; EPFP 2 (1923) 265; de Wit, Webbia 11 (1955) 276; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 539; Type: from India. Notes: Cryptogenic: origin not certain, but strictly limited to the Old World tropics. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation, a very common weed in the settled areas. Native.

Serianthes Benth.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 November 2017
  1. Serianthes grandiflora Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 3 (1844) 225; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 241; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 160. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Beach forests and behind mangroves. Native.

Sesbania Scop.

  1. Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Pers., Syn. 2 (1807) 316; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 74; Fl. Manila (1912) 250; EPFP 2 (1923) 281; ≡ Aeschynomene cannabina Retz., Obs. 5 (1789) 26. = Sesbania aegyptiaca auct. non Poir.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 59; Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 405. = Sesbania aculeata auct. non (Willd.) Pers.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 59; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 107; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 106; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 17. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao; lowlands to medium elevation along streams, open wetlands, etc. Native.
  2. Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers., Syn. 2 (1807) 316; Blanco, Fl. Filip (1837) 599; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 418; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 399; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 60; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 23; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 17; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 75; Fl. Manila (1912) 250; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 181; EPFP 2 (1923) 281; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 71; ≡ Robinia grandiflora L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 722. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Planted in other tropical countries. Certainly an introduced plant in the Philippines. N Luzon to Mindanao; lowlands to medium elevation in the settled areas. Often planted. Naturalized.
  3. Sesbania roxburghii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 269; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 74; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 181; EPFP 2 (1923) 281. = Sesbania aculeata Poir. var. paludosa Baker in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 2 (1876) 115; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 59. Distribution: China, India, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. LUZON: Laguna, Rizal. Notes: Along streams, in swamps, and in shallow water of lakes. Native.
  4. Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 235; EPFP 2 (1923) 282; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 72; ≡ Aeschynomene sesban L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 714. Distribution: Pantropic. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. In open poorly-drained fields in the lowlands. Naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Sesbania speciosa Taub. ex Engl., Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1894 (1894) 21. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited. Naturalized.

Shuteria Wight & Arn.

  1. Shuteria involucrata (Wall.) Wight & Arn., Repert. Bot. Syst. (Walpers) 1(4) (1842) 761; H.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 50 (1975) 305; ≡ Glycine involucrata Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 3 (1832) 22. = Shuteria vestita (Graham) Wight & Arn., Prodr. (1834) 207; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 109; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 110, 354; EPFP 2 (1923) 304; ≡ Glycine vestita Graham in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 5512, nom. nud. Distribution: India to China. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Open slopes and in thickets associated with pine forests, 1300-2000m. Native.

Sindora Miq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 December 2020
  1. Sindora coriacea (Baker) Prain, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 66 (1897) 206; De la Estrella et al., Nordic J. Bot. 25 (2007) 45; Choo & Ngo, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 238; ≡ Afzelia coriacea Baker in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 2 (1887) 275; Type: from Peninsular Malaysia. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Rizal. Conservation status: Least Concern (Choo & Ngo 2020). Native.
  2. Sindora inermis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 314; EPFP 2 (1923) 256; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 700; Type: FB 23054 Ferraris (US, iso), Mindanao: Sarangani, Sarangani Bay, Sapu, near mangrove, 3-Oct-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, JOLO, LUZON: Camarines, MINDANAO: Sarangani, Zamboanga, SIBUTU. Notes: Forest along the seashore and at low elevation inland. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Sindora supa Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 198; EPFP 2 (1923) 256; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 706; Type: Merrill 2611 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Pagbilao, May-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Camarines, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, MINDORO. Notes: Forests at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Sindora wallichii Benth., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 11 (1867) t. 1017-18; De la Estrella et al., Nordic J. Bot. 25 (2007) 45; Choo & Ngo, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 250; Type: from Singapore. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra. LUZON: Quezon. Conservation status: Least Concern (Choo & Ngo 2020). Native.

Smithia Aiton

  1. Smithia ciliata Royle, Illustr. Bot. Himal. (1839) 201; C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 184; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 77; EPFP 2 (1923) 283; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 444. Distribution: Himalayas, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Pine forest, 1100-2200m. Native.
  2. Smithia conferta Sm. in Rees, Cycl. 33, no. 2 (1816); Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 445. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Vietnam. MINDORO. Notes: Known from Occidental Mindoro from PNH 22478 Sulit. Native.
  3. Smithia sensitiva Aiton, Hort. Kew. 3 (1789) 496; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 283; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 444. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, MINDANAO: Lanao. Notes: Open wet places, chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2000m. Native.

Sohmaea H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 January 2020
  1. Sohmaea diffusa (DC.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93 (2018) 161; ≡ Desmodium diffusum DC., Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 4 (1825) 100; Type: from India. = Desmodium laxiflorum auct. non DC.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 286; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 252; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana no. 1 (1973) 101 pro parte. Distribution: Bhutan, China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  2. Sohmaea laxiflora (DC.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93 (2018) 162; ≡ Desmodium laxiflorum DC., Ann. Sci. Nat. 1, 4 (1825) 100; Prodr. 2 (1825) 335; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 42; Type: from Nepal. Distribution: Bhutan, China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BATAN, JOLO, LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Rizal. Notes: In dry wastelands. Native.
  3. Sohmaea zonata (Miq.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 93 (2018) 163; ≡ Desmodium zonatum Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 11 (1855) 248; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 290; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 97; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 265; H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana no. 1 (1973) 107; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malaysia, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets. Native.

Sophora L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 November 2019
  1. Sophora longipes Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 12; EPFP 2 (1923) 270; Steenis, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 17 (1948) 424; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 6 (1961) 105; Type: BS 26765 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Batangas, Oct-1916. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. GOLO, LUZON: Batangas. Notes: Low elevation, on slopes in an old clearing; on Golo in open thickets on ultramafic bluffs. Native.
  2. Sophora tomentosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 373; Blanco, Fl. Filip (1837) 328; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 229; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 63; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 69; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 23; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 113; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 82, 409; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 58; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 177; EPFP 2 (1923) 270; Niyomdham, Thai For. Bull. 13 (1980) 19. = Sophora heptaphylla auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip (1837) 329; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 229; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1879) 63; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 69. Notes: Pantropic strand plant. Widespread along the seashore throughout the Philippines. Locally abundant. Native.
  3. Sophora velutina Lindl., Bot. Reg. 14 (1828) t.1185; Niyomdham, Thai For. Bull. 13 (1980) 19. = Sophora philippinensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 449; EPFP 2 (1923) 270; Type: Vanoverbergh 2612 (US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, Jan/May-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Montane thickets, 1200-1500m. Native.

Spatholobus Hassk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2019
  1. Spatholobus apoensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 698; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 310; Rid.-Num., Reinwardtia 10 (1985) 181; Blumea Suppl. 10 (1996) 98; Type: Elmer 11795. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao. Notes: Forests, c. 1200m. Native.
  2. Spatholobus ferrugineus Benth., Pl. Jungh. 2 (1852) 238; Rid.-Num., Reinwardtia 10 (1985) 170; Blumea Suppl. 10 (1996) 107; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Native.
  3. Spatholobus gyrocarpus Benth. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 238; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 63; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 109; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 110; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 87; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 119; EPFP 2 (1923) 310; Rid.-Num., Reinwardtia 10 (1985) 170; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 86; ≡ Butea gyrocarpa Wall., Cat. (1832) No. 5442, nom. nud. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests. P.B. Pelser (22-Nov-19): Not listed for the Philippines by Ridder-Numan (1996). Native.
  4. Spatholobus littoralis Hassk., Flora 25 (2, Beibl.) (1842) 52; Rid.-Num., Reinwardtia 10 (1985) 177; Blumea Suppl. 10 (1996) 98. = ?Derris leytensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 361; Rid.-Num., Blumea Suppl. 10 (1996) 98. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines. Native.
  5. Spatholobus macropterus Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1861) 303; Rid.-Num., Reinwardtia 10 (1985) 178; Type: from Sumatra. = Spatholobus palawanensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 310; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 86; ≡ Derris palawanensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1800. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Native.
  6. Spatholobus maingayi Prain, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 66 (1897) 79; Rid.-Num., Reinwardtia 10 (1985) 181. = Spatholobus philippinensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 17; Type: FB 26841 Mabesa (K, P), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Maquiling, Jul-1917. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Native.
  7. Spatholobus sanguineus Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3087; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 310; Rid.-Num., Reinwardtia 10 (1985) 172; Blumea Suppl. 10 (1996) 98; Type: Elmer 17560 (C, K, L, U, lecto). Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. Native.

Strongylodon B.Vogel

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Strongylodon caeruleus Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 306; S.F.Huang, Wageningen Agric. Univ. Papers 90-8 (1991) 28; Type: Elmer 6097 (A, lecto; GH, K, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Sablan. = Strongylodon paucinervis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 16; EPFP 2 (1923) 307; Type: BS 18858 McGregor (NY?, holo; BM, BO, L, US, iso), Biliran, Jun-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Rizal, SAMAR. Notes: In forests, 300-1200m. Fl. Mar-Apr, Jun. Note: Huang also listed the locality Uyungan for Loher 5895 (K), without indicating what prov.; probably in the Sierra Madre near the tri-provincial borders of Rizal-Bulacan-Quezon. An entry “Oyongan R.(iver)” is cited in the Gazetteer of the Philippine Islands as 15-01.4’N, 121-21.2’E. Native.
  2. Strongylodon elmeri Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 306; S.F.Huang, Wageningen Agric. Univ. Papers 90-8 (1991) 38; Type: Elmer 6260 (K, lecto; GH, K, NY, P, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Sablan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Rizal. Notes: Thickets and forests, 0-1600m. Fl. Feb-Apr; fr. Apr-May. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Strongylodon juangonzalezii Hadsall, Alejado & Cajano, PhytoKeys 73 (2016) 2; Type: Cajano & Alejado 7708 (CAHUP, holo; PNH, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Mulanay, Brgy Buenavista, Sitio Maglayaw, Buenavista Protected Landscape (BPL), 295m, 5-Feb-2015. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Hadsall et al. 2016). Native.
  4. Strongylodon loheri S.F.Huang, Wageningen Agric. Univ. Papers 90-8 (1991) 40; Type: Loher 2304 (K, holo; US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, ?Mt Tonglon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Camarines Sur. Notes: ?1300-1900m in Benguet and low elevation in Camarines Sur. Fl. Mar. Native.
  5. Strongylodon lucidus (G.Forst.) Seem., Fl. Vit. (1865) 61, as 'lucidum'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 306; S.F.Huang, Wageningen Agric. Univ. Papers 90-8 (1991) 43; ≡ Glycine lucida G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. (1786) 51; Type: from Tahiti. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Indian Ocean, Java Sea, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi. BALABAC, BALUT, PANAY. Notes: Forests and thickets along streams at low and medium elevation. Philippine plants belong to the ‘typical’ 'lucidus populations', one of three informal groupings distinguished by Huang. The other two are distributed in the Pacific islands. Native.
  6. Strongylodon macrobotrys A.Gray, Bot. Wilkes US Explor. Exped. (1854) 448; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 307; S.F.Huang, Wageningen Agric. Univ. Papers 90-8 (1991) 52; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 102; Type: Rich s.n. (US, holo), Luzon: Laguna, mtns near Los Baños (Mt Makiling). = Strongylodon megaphyllus Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 16; EPFP 2 (1923) 307; Type: Loher 5935 (K, lecto; M, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban. As pointed out by Merrill and Huang, this is a mixtum of different and unrelated plants. = Strongylodon warburgii Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 85. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Cavite, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDORO. Notes: Damp forested ravines along streams, 110-1000m. Fl. Jan-Jun; fr. Nov-Dec. Cultivated elsewhere. ‘Minsag River Norte prov.’ For Edano 9615 (or 9615?). Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Strongylodon pulcher C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 184; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 307; S.F.Huang, Wageningen Agric. Univ. Papers 90-8 (1991) 58; Paguntalan et al., Project Tawsi: Sulu Hornbill Project (2020) 40; Type: R.S. Williams 2362 (NY, holo; GH, K, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River. = Strongylodon agusanensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2738; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 306; Type: Elmer 13461 (NY, lecto; A, BM, BO, E, GH, K, L, MO, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Catangan Creek bed, 750ft, in wet stony soil, Aug-1912. = Strongylodon mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 696; Type: Elmer 11818 (NY, lecto; BM, BO, E, GH, L, MO, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo (Todaya), along Mainit Creek, scandent on lofty trees in humid forest, 4000ft. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao, Zamboanga, SAMAR, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Climbing in swampy forest near creeks, or forest edges along rivers, 90-1700m. Fl. Feb-Mar, Aug-Sep; fr. Mar. Native.
  8. Strongylodon zschokkei Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 227; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 307; S.F.Huang, Wageningen Agric. Univ. Papers 90-8 (1991) 60; Type: Elmer 8540 (K, lecto; BO, E, GH, L, LE, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio. Limestone sinks between Baguio and Irisan, 4750ft, Mar-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Quezon. Notes: Thickets about limestone boulders and cliffs and along creeks, recorded at c. 1400m in Benguet. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Strongylodon crassifolius Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 85; EPFP 2 (1923) 306; S.F.Huang, Wageningen Agric. Univ. Papers 90-8 (1991) 63. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.

Stylosanthes Sw. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 November 2021
  1. Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 1789 (1789) 296; ≡ Trifolium guianense Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane (1775) 776. Distribution: C & S America. LUZON: Cagayan, Zambales, PANAY. Notes: Naturalized in secondary forest. P.B. Pelser (28-Nov-21): I have not seen this reported to be present in the Philippines in the literature, but L has specimens annotated by Adema under this name. Naturalized.
  2. Stylosanthes humilis Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 6 (1823) 506; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 449. Distribution: America. CEBU, LUZON: Zambales. Notes: Introduced in the Philippines as a cover crop. Naturalized?. Naturalized.

Sympetalandra Stapf

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Sympetalandra densiflora (Elmer) Steenis, Blumea 22 (1975) 165; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 711; ≡ Erythrophleum densiflorum (Elmer) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 267; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 35; EPFP 2 (1923) 253; Meeuwen, Blumea 18 (1970) 31; ≡ Cynometra densiflora Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 222; Type: Elmer 9014 (L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, in humid woods at 500m near Sampaloc, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: In forests from the lowland up to 500m. Fl. Apr-May; fr. Jul. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Sympetalandra unijuga (Airy Shaw) Steenis, Blumea 22 (1975) 163; Ding Hou in Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 713; ≡ Erythrophleum unijugatum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. (1939) 180; Type: from Sabah. = Erythrophleum densiflorum auct. non (Elmer) Merr.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 253. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON. Native.

Tadehagi H.Ohashi

  1. Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana no. 1 (1973) 290; ≡ Desmodium triquetrum (L.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 326; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 262; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 240; EPFP 2 (1923) 290; ≡ Hedysarum triquetrum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 746. Native.
    • ssp. triquetrum. Distribution: Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indochina, Myanmar, New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan. CULION, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Throughout Malesia; lowland and medium elevation thickets.
    • ssp. auriculatum (DC.) H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana no. 1 (1973) 293; ≡ Desmodium auriculatum DC., Prodr. 3 (1827) 326; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 284. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Malesia, Myanmar. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation grasslands.
    • ssp. pseudotriquetrum (DC.) H.Ohashi, Ginkgoana no. 1 (1973) 295; ≡ Desmodium triquetrum (L.) DC. ssp. pseudotriquetrum (DC.) Prain, J. As. Soc. Beng. 66, 2 (1897) 390; Meeuwen, Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 263; ≡ Desmodium pseudotriquetrum DC., Ann. Sci. Nat. 1, 4 (1825) 100; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 87; EPFP 2 (1923) 288. Distribution: China, India, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal. Notes: Medium elevation dry, open grassy slopes.

Tamarindus L. (Not native)

  1. Tamarindus indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 34; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 29; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 20; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 39; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 71; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 110; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 118; Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 24; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 40; Fl. Manila (1912) 235; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 179; EPFP 2 (1923) 257; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 728; Ding Hou et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1996) 728. Notes: Perhaps indigenous in Africa. Widely cultivated all over the tropics. Throughout the settled areas of the Philippines, of prehistoric introduction. Tamarind, Sampalok. Naturalized.

Tephrosia Pers.

  1. Tephrosia candida (Roxb.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 249; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 278; Bosman & de Haas, Blumea 28 (1983) 445; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 57; ≡ Robinia candida Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3 (1832) 327; Hort. Beng. (1814) 56, nom. nud.; Type: from India. Distribution: India. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Introduced, cultivated and naturalized in the Philippines. Introduced as green manure crop. Naturalized.
  2. Tephrosia luzoniensis Vogel, Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 15; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 59; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 17; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 69; EPFP 2 (1923) 277; Bosman & de Haas, Blumea 28 (1983) 452; Type: Meyen s.n. (B, lost), Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 499 (L, neo; BM, BO, K, US, isoneo). = Tephrosia dichotoma auct. non Desv.; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 69; Fl. Manila (1912) 244; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 180; EPFP 2 (1923) 277; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 59. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madura, Philippines. Notes: Open dry grasslands, waste places, roadsides, etc. on various types of soils, lowlands to medium elevation. Native.
  3. Tephrosia noctiflora Bojer ex Baker in Oliver, Fl. Trop. Africa 2 (1871) 112; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 594; Bosman & de Haas, Blumea 28 (1983) 458; Type: from Zanzibar. = Tephrosia hookeriana Wight & Arn., Prodr. (1834) 212; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 278. Distribution: Africa, India, Indian Ocean, Madagascar, S America. JOLO. Notes: Naturalized in many parts of Malesia including the Philippines. In waste places. Naturalized.
  4. Tephrosia obovata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 69; EPFP 2 (1923) 278; Bosman & de Haas, Blumea 28 (1983) 460; Type: FB 16939 Curran (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Palaui Is. (off NE tip of Luzon, Cagayan), Mar-1909. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON, PALAUI. Notes: Low elevation, dry open places. Native.
  5. Tephrosia pumila (Lam.) Pers., Syn. 2 (1807) 330; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 594; Bosman & de Haas, Blumea 28 (1983) 463; ≡ Galega pumila Lam., Enc. Meth. 2, 2 (1788) 599; Type: from Madagascar. = Tephrosia dichotoma Desv., Ann. Sc. Nat. 1, 9 (1826) 415; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 277; Type: Desvaux s.n., (P; K photo), Philippines, left hand specimen. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Middle East, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
    • ssp. pumila.
  6. Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., Syn. 2 (1807) 329; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 17; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 68; Interpet. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 264; EPFP 2 (1923) 278; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 594; Bosman & de Haas, Blumea 28 (1983) 464; ≡ Galega purpurea L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1063; Type: from Sri Lanka. Native.
    • ssp. purpurea. Distribution: ?India, ?Java. LUZON: Batangas, Cavite, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Misamis. Notes: Now pantropic in distribution. Lowland grasslands and open wastelands.
    • ssp. barbigera Bosman & de Haas, Blumea 28 (1983) 467; Type: Cuming 601 (MEL), Philippines.
      • var. barbigera. Distribution: Australia, New Guinea, Philippines.
  7. Tephrosia vestita Vogel, Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 15; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 68; EPFP 2 (1923) 278; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 595; Bosman & de Haas, Blumea 28 (1983) 473; Type: Meyen s.n., (B, lost). Distribution: Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur, Misamis, NEGROS. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets. Native.
  8. Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. ex Benth. in Hook., Niger Fl. (1849) 296; Bosman & de Haas, Blumea 28 (1983) 478; Type: from Niger. Distribution: Africa. Naturalized.

Teramnus P.Browne

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 January 2020
  1. Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng., Syst. 3 (1826) 235; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 63; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 108; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 109; Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 84; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) 110; Fl. Manila (1912) 257; EPFP 2 (1923) 305; ≡ Glycine labialis L.f., Suppl. (1781) 325. Native.
    • ssp. labialis, Verdcourt, Kew Bull. 24 (1970) 267. = Teramnus angustifolius Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 83; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 305; Type: Vanoverbergh 716, Luzon: Bontoc Subprov, Bauco, 28-Jul-1910. Distribution: Pantropic. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Luzon to Mindanao. Thickets, waste places, etc., at low and medium elevation in the settled areas.

Teyleria Backer

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2018
  1. Teyleria tetragona (Merr.) J.A.Lackey ex Maesen, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 85 (1985) 119; ≡ Pueraria tetragona Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 312; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 312; Type: BS 295 Bermejos (PNH, holo; NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, near Puerto Princesa, Jan-1906. Distribution: China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland old clearings. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Trifidacanthus Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2019
  1. Trifidacanthus unifoliolatus Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 269; EPFP 2 (1923) 292; ≡ Desmodium unifoliolatum (Merr.) Steenis, Reinwardtia 10 (1982) 23-24; Type: BS 27196 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Burgos, Feb/Mar-1917. Distribution: China, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Vietnam. LUZON: Batangas, Ilocos Norte. Notes: Lowland dry thickets. Native.

Trifolium L. (Not native)

  1. Trifolium repens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 767. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Continental Asia, Europe, India, Middle East, Nepal, Pakistan, W Asia. LUZON. Notes: Introduced purposely or casually in the mountains of Luzon. Naturalized.

Uraria Desv.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 May 2014
  1. Uraria crinita (L.) DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 324; ≡ Hedysarum crinitum L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 102. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. BATANES. Native.
  2. Uraria lagopodioides (L.) Desv. ex DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 324, as ‘lagopoides’; Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 4 (1826) 309; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 242; EPFP 2 (1923) 293; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 451; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 50; ≡ Hedysarum lagopodioides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1198. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, China, India, New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: From N Luzon to Mindanao; open grasslands at low and medium elevation, often abundant. Native.
  3. Uraria picta (Jacq.) Desv., J. Bot. 1 (1813) 123; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 293; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 452; ≡ Hedysarum pictum Jacq., Coll. Bot. 2 (1788) 262. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: From N Luzon to Mindanao; occasional in open grasslands and thickets at low and medium elevation. Native.

Vachellia Wight & Arn. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 June 2015
  1. Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1 (1834) 272; ≡ Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 1083; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 227; EPFP 2 (1923) 249; Pedley, Austrobaileya 1 (1979) 102; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 44; ≡ Mimosa farnesiana L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 521; Blanco, Fl. Filip. 1 (1837) 729. Distribution: America. Notes: Naturalized, scattered in open grasslands, thickets, waste grounds, etc., sea-level to 400m. Especially common in regions with long dry season. Fl. throughout the year. Naturalized.

Vigna Savi

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2021
  1. Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc., Kew Bull. 24 (1970) 558; Maréchal et al., Boissiera 28 (1978) 216; ≡ Phaseolus dalzellianus Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 202. Distribution: Cambodia, India, Laos, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet. Native.
  2. Vigna glabrescens Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, Taxon 27 (1978) 201; Maréchal et al., Boissiera 28 (1978) 212. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Japan, Philippines, Vietnam. Native.
  3. Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth. in Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Sri Lanka (1859) 90; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 319; ≡ Dolichos luteolus Jacq., Hort. Bot. Vindob. 1(1) (1770) 39. Distribution: Pantropic. MINDANAO: Cotabato, Lanao del Sur. Notes: Thickets or grasslands. Native.
  4. Vigna marina (Burm.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 285; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 320; ≡ Phaseolus marinus Burm., Auctuarium (Burman) Index Universalis (1755). Notes: Pantropic strand plant. Throughout the Philippines along the seashore. Native.
  5. Vigna minima (Roxb.) Ohwi & H.Ohashi, Journ. Jap. Bot. xliv (1969) 30; ≡ Phaseolus minimus Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 290; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 132; Fl. Manila (1912) 261; EPFP 2 (1923) 319. Distribution: China, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao. Lowland and medium elevation grasslands; widely scattered. Native.
  6. Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, Kew Bull. 11 (1956) 128; ≡ Phaseolus mungo L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 101; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 318. Distribution: India, Pakistan. Notes: Cultivated throughout the Philippines, but not a native of the archipelago. Scarcely naturalized. Naturalized.
  7. Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek, Fl. Congo Belge & Ruanda-Urundi 6 (1954) 386; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 114; ≡ Phaseolus radiatus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 725; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 132; EPFP 2 (1923) 318; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 114. = Phaseolus aureus Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 297; Hort. Beng. (1814) 55, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 318. Native.
    • var. radiata. Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Pakistan. Notes: Now pantropic in cultivation. Extensively grown in the Philippines, scarcely spontaneous. Mung bean. Munggo.
    • var. sublobata (Roxb.) Verdc., Kew Bull. 24 (1970) 559; ≡ Phaseolus sublobatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 288; Hort. Beng. (1814) 54, nom. nud.; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 133; EPFP 2 (1923) 319. = Phaseolus trinervius Heyne in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 5603; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 65. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Laguna, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO. Notes: Grasslands, waste places, etc., occasional; sometimes planted.
  8. Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & H.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 44 (1969) 31; ≡ Dolichos umbellatus Thunb., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 2 (1794) 339. = Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 289; Hort. Beng. (1814) 54, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 318. Distribution: India to China, Japan, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Vietnam. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: N Luzon to Babuyan Isls to Mindanao and Palawan. Open grasslands and thickets. Some forms cultivated. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & H.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot. 44 (1969) 29; ≡ Dolichos angularis Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 3(2) (1802) 1051. Distribution: C America, China, India, ?Philippines, Vietnam.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 1 (1843) 779; ≡ Dolichos unguiculatus L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 725. = Vigna sinensis (L.) Savi ex Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bogor. (1844) 279; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 320; ≡ Dolichos sinensis L., Cent. Pl. II. (1756) 28. Notes: Cultivated in all tropical and warm-temperate countries. Widely grown in the Philippines. Cowpea.
    • ssp. sesquipedalis (L.) Bertoni, Anales Ci. Parag. ser. 1, 9 (1911) 16; Verdc. in Davies, Fl. Turkey 3 (1970) 266; Kew Bull. 24 (1970) 544; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 114; ≡ Dolichos sesquipedalis L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 2 (1763) 1019. Notes: Probably a native of China. Cultivated pantropically. Widely cultivated in the Philippines for its edible pods and beans. Yardlong bean; sitaw.

Wallaceodendron Koord.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Wallaceodendron celebicum Koord., Meded. Lands Plantent. 19 (1898) 446; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 245; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 164. = Pithecellobium williamsii Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 223; Type: Elmer 8833 (L, NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, on a ridge of the Sablan canyon, Mar-1907. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. BURIAS, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, CEBU, LUZON: Aurora, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Quezon, MASBATE, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests, especially near the seashore, but also inland to a considerable elevation, 0-850m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Zapoteca H.M.Hern. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 July 2017
  1. Zapoteca portoricensis (Jacq.) H.M.Hern., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73(4) (1987) 758; ≡ Calliandra portoricensis (Jacq.) Benth., London J. Bot. 3 (1844) 99; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 554; Nielsen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 212; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philip. Trees (1999) 255; ≡ Mimosa portoricensis Jacq., Collectanea 4 (1791) 143. Distribution: C America, Caribbean, S America. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental. Naturalized?. Naturalized.

Zornia J.F.Gmel.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020
  1. Zornia gibbosa Span., Linnaea 15 (1841) 192; Mohlenbrock, Webbia 16 (1962) 652. = Zornia diphylla auct. non (L.) Pers.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 238; EPFP 2 (1923) 283; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 453; ?Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 297. = Zornia cantoniensis Mohlenbr., Webbia 16 (1961) 124; Webbia 16 (1962) 653. = Lupinus angustifolius Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 566. = Smithia bigemminata Blanco, Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 395; Fl. Filip. 3, 2 (1878) 362. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Rizal. Notes: An example of a class of plants which, though not absent under everwet climatic conditions favors those areas which are subject to a dry period. In N and C Luzon; in open dry grasslands in the settled areas at low and medium elevation, with all the appearance of an introduced species. Native.

Literature