Euphorbiaceae

Acalypha L.

Last edited by Pieter Pelser 23 May 2018
  1. Acalypha amentacea Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 676; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 243; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2; Type: Herbarium Roxburghii /Herbarium Martii 2615 (BR, holo; BM000926683, ?iso). Native.
    • var. amentacea Fosberg in Fosberg & Sachet, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 45 (1980) 8; ≡ Acalypha amentacea ssp. amentacea Fosberg in Fosberg & Sachet, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 45 (1980) 8. = Acalypha amboynensis Benth., London Journal of Botany 2 (1843) 233; ≡ Acalypha grandis Benth. var. amboinensis (Benth.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 10; Type: from Indonesia. = Acalypha stipulacea Klotzsch, Nova Acta Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 416; ≡ Ricinocarpus stipulaceus (Klotzsch) Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2 (1891) 618; Type: Cuming 621 (B, holo; A, BM, G, K, L, LE, MO, iso), Luzon: Manila. = Acalypha affinis Klotzsch, Nova Acta Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) 416. = Acalypha glandulosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 749. = Ricinocarpus blancoanus Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2 (1891) 617; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 20 (L, neo; A, US, isoneo), Samar. = Acalypha centromalayca Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV. 147. xvi (Heft 85) (1924) 150; Type: from Sulawesi (syn). = Acalypha luzonica Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 85 (1924) 154; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 243; Type: Curran et al. 18219 (K, lecto), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulog. = Acalypha warburgii Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 85 (1924) 155; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 244; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; Type: Warburg 13135 (B, holo), Luzon: Quezon, Tayabas, Sampalok. = Acalypha meyeri Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 85 (1924) 165; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2; Type: Meyer 2847 (SING, lecto; US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles. = Acalypha grandis auct. non Benth.; Miq., Flora van Nederlandsch Indie 1, 2 (1859) 405. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; lowland and medium elevation thickets, old clearings, etc. Common.
  2. Acalypha angatensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 750; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 193; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 227; EPFP 2 (1923) 445; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2; ≡ Ricinocarpus angatensis (Blanco) Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2 (1891) 617; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 333 (L, neo; A, US, isoneo), Luzon: Bulacan, Angat. = Acalypha tomentosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 750; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 516; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 150. = Ricinocarpus philippinensis Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2 (1891) 617. = Acalypha grandis Müll.Arg. var. velutina Müll.Arg., Flora 47 (1864) 441; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 143; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 357; ≡ Acalypha amentacea Roxb. var. velutina (Müll.Arg.) Fosberg in Fosberg & Sachet, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 45 (1980) 10; Type: Cuming 1159 (G-DC, holo; A, BM, K 3 sheets, L, LE, iso), Luzon: Albay prov. = Acalypha akoensis Hayata, Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo 30 (1911) 266; ≡ Acalypha grandis Benth. var. akoensis (Hayata) Hurus., Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Section III, Botany 6 (1954) 300; Type: from Taiwan. = Acalypha formosana Hayata, Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo 30 (1911) 267; ≡ Acalypha grandis Benth. var. formosana (Hayata) Hurus., Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Section III, Botany 6 (1954) 300; Type: from Taiwan. = Acalypha longe-acuminata Hayata, Icones Plantarum Formosanarum 9 (1920) 100; ≡ Acalypha grandis Benth. var. longe-acuminata (Hayata) Hurus., Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Section III, Botany 6 (1954) 300; Type: from Taiwan. Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Taiwan. BATANES, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Batanes and N Luzon to Mindanao. In thickets, chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 1500m. Native.
  3. Acalypha australis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1003; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 445; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 584; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2; ≡ Ricinocarpus australis (L.) Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2 (1891) 617; Type: Herb. Linn. No. 1139.5 (LINN, lecto). = Urtica gemina Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 558; ≡ Acalypha gemina (Lour.) Spreng., Systema vegetabilium 3 (1826) 880. = Acalypha gemina (Lour.) Spreng. var. genuina Muell.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 41, nom. inval.; Müll.Arg. in A.DC., Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis (1866) 866. = Acalypha sessilis Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 6 (1804) 205; Type: l'Herbier de Jussieu (P). = Acalypha pauciflora Hornem., Enumeratio plantarum horti botanici Hafniensis (1807) 1; Type: from China. = Acalypha chinensis Roxb., Flora indica, ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 677; Type: Roxburgh 2099 (K, holo). = Acalypha lanceolata Wall., Numer. List (1828) n. 7789, nom. nud., non Willd. = Acalypha australis L. var. lanceolata Hayata, Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo 20 (1904) 51; ≡ Acalypha australis L. forma lanceolata (Hayata) Hurus., Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Section III, Botany 6 (1954) 298; Type: from Taiwan. = Acalypha virgata auct. non L.; Thunb., Flora Japonica (1784) 268. Distribution: China, Japan, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: In open places near streams and settlements. Native.
  4. Acalypha cardiophylla Merr., PJS 1 (1906) 80; Type: Merrill 2506 (SING, lecto; BM, G, GH, MO, US, isolecto); Ahern's collector 1249 (BM, G, US, syn), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao Forest. Native.
    • var. cardiophylla. = Acalypha subcinerea Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2631; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973; Type: Elmer 13329 (PNH, holo; BM, BO, G, L, MO, NY, U, iso), Mindanao: Agusan, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. = Acalypha suirebiensis Yamam., Journal of the Society of Tropical Agriculture 5 (1933) 178; Type: from Taiwan. = Acalypha hontauyuensis H.Keng, Taiwania 6 (1951) 204; Type: from Taiwan. = Acalypha caturus auct. non Blume; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 445. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, SAMAR. Notes: Thickets and forests along streams at low and medium elevation. Acalypha cardiophylla is the proper name for Philippine plants previously identified as Acalypha caturus.
  5. Acalypha grandibracteata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 191; EPFP 2 (1923) 445; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2; Type: BS 3607 Fenix (PNH, lecto). = Acalypha kotoensis Hayata, Icones Plantarum Formosanarum 9 (1920) 99; ≡ Acalypha grandis Benth. var. kotoensis (Hayata) Hurus., Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Section III, Botany 6 (1954) 300; Type: from Taiwan. Distribution: Malesia, Philippines, Taiwan. BABUYAN ISLS, BATAN, LUZON. Notes: Low elevation thickets. An ally of Acalypha amentacea Roxb. Native.
  6. Acalypha indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1003; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 292; EPFP 2 (1923) 446; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 24; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 51; Type: from Sri Lanka. = Acalypha caroliniana Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 748, nom. illeg., non Walter; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 487 (L, neo; A, US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal Province, Guadalupe. = Acalypha ciliata Wall., Numer. List (1847) n. 7779J, nom. nud. = Acalypha canescens Wall., Numer. List (1847) n. 7785, nom. nud. Distribution: Africa, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Palaeotropics, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Introduced in the Neotropics. A common weed in and about towns, in thickets, waste places, etc. Native.
  7. Acalypha lanceolata Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 524; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 51; ≡ Ricinocarpus lanceolatus (Willd.) Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2 (1891) 617; ≡ Acalypha wightiana Müll.Arg. var. lanceolata (Willd.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 43; nom. illeg.; Type: L'Herbier de Paul Hermann 101 (Bibliotheque de l'Institute de France, lecto). Native.
    • var. lanceolata. = Urtica pilosa Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 558. = Acalypha boehmerioides Miq., Flora van Nederlandsch Indie, Eerste bijvoegsel (1861) 459; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 194; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 292; EPFP 2 (1923) 445; ≡ Acalypha boehmerioides Miq. var. genuina Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147. xvi (Heft 85) (1924) 96, nom. inval.; Type: from Indonesia. = Acalypha hispida Willd. var. pubescens Hook. & Arn., The botany of Captain Beechey's voyage (1837) 213. = Acalypha fallax Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 43; Type: Perrottet 462 (G-DC, lecto); Perrottet 463 (G-DC, syn). = Acalypha harmandiana Gagnep., Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de France 70 (1924) 873; Type: from Cambodia. = Acalypha ciliata auct. non Forssk.; Benth. in Wall., Numer. List: n.º 7779J (1847), nom. nud. = Acalypha virginica auct. non L.; Benth. in Wall., Numer. List: n.º 7779 (1847), nom. nud. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, LUZON: Batangas, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Manila, Rizal, MINDANAO. Notes: In and about towns at low elevation, on thickets, old stone walls, etc.
  8. Acalypha pulogensis Sagun & G.A.Levin, Blumea 52 (2007) 357; Type: PNH (Celestino) 4372 (L, holo; L, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Kabayan, Mt Pulog. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Acalypha hispida Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 203; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 445; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2; ≡ Acalypha densiflora Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 628, nom. superfl; ≡ Ricinocarpus hispidus (Burm.f.) Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2 (1891) 618; Type: Illustration t. 61, f. 1. (Burman, Fl. Ind. 1768). = Caturus spiciflorus L., Mantissa Plantarum (1767) 127; Type: Herb. Linn. No. 1163.1 (LINN, lecto). = Acalypha rubra auct. non Willd.; Noronha ex Hassk., Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie 11 (1844) 216. = Acalypha sanderi N.E.Br., Gardeners' Chronicle ser. 3, 20 (1896) 392; ≡ Acalypha hispida Burm.f. var. sanderi (N.E.Br.) J.J.Sm., Mededeelingen Uitgeven van het Departement van Landbouw in Nederlandsch-Indie 10 (1910) 19. = Acalypha wilkesiana auct. non Müll.Arg.; Warb., Botanische Jahrbuecher fuer Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 13 (1891) 358. Distribution: Bismarck Arch. Notes: Grown as a common ornamental plant throughout the Philippines, but nowhere spontaneous.
  2. Acalypha wilkesiana Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 817; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 293; EPFP 2 (1923) 446; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; ≡ Acalypha amentacea ssp. wilkesiana (Müll.Arg.) Fosberg & Sachet, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 45 (1980) 10; Type: from Fiji. = Acalypha compacta Guilf. ex C.T.White, Gardeners' Chronicle ser. 3, 94 (1933) 343; Type: C.T. White s.n. (BRI, lecto). = Acalypha grandis auct. non Benth.; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 3. = Acalypha longispica auct. non Warb.; K.Schum. & Lauterb., Die Flora der Deutschen Schutzgebiete in der Suedsee (1900) 401, pro parte. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Pacific Ocean, Solomon Isls. Notes: Now cultivated in most tropical countries, introduced to the Philippines around 1905, since then widely cultivated throughout the archipelago but nowhere spontaneous.

Agrostistachys Dalz

  1. Agrostistachys borneensis Becc., Nelle Foreste di Borneo (1902) 331; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3. = Agrostistachys leptostachya Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 57 (1912) 102; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 428; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, MINDANAO: Surigao. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests along streams. Fl. & fr. throughout the year. Native.
  2. Agrostistachys indica Dalz. in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 2 (1850) 41; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 14 (1960) 472; Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 210; Kew Bull. 29 (1974) 312; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 26; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 24; Sevilla & Welzen, Blumea 46 (2001) 83; Type: from India. = Agrostistachys indica var. maesoana (S.Vidal) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 57 (1912) 102; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 428; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; ≡ Agrostistachys maesoana S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1868) 242; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 428; Type: Vidal 897 (PNH, holo, lost; A, AAU, L, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Guinayangan. Distribution: Borneo, India, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand. BANCALAN, BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Isabela, Quezon, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland primary and secondary dipterocarp forest understorey, frequent along streams and drywater courses, ascending to 400m. Fl. Jan- Feb, Apr-Jul; fr. Mar-Jul, Sep-Oct. Native.

Alchornea Sw.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 May 2018
  1. Alchornea parviflora (Benth.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 168; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 438; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; ≡ Stipellaria parviflora Benth. in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 4; Type: Cuming 1800. Distribution: Borneo, Malaysia, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON: Bulacan, Rizal, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation second-growth forests and thickets. Native.
  2. Alchornea rugosa (Lour.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 170; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 438; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 53; ≡ Cladodes rugosa Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 574; Type: from Vietnam. = Alchornea petalostyla Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 395; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; Type: Vidal y Soler 3719 (K, holo). = Alchornea pubescens Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 399; EPFP 2 (1923) 438; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; Type: FB 22724 Castillo, Luzon: Cagayan. Distribution: Borneo, China, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BABUYAN ISLS, BALABAC, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; low and medium elevation thickets, secondary forests, etc. Common. Native.
  3. Alchornea sicca (Blanco) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 192; Fl. Manila (1912) 297; EPFP 2 (1923) 439; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; ≡ Excoecaria sicca Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 787; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 542; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 193; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 642 (K, neo; L, isoneo), Luzon: Metro-Manila, Makati, along banks of the Pasig River opposite Guadalupe, April-1914. Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Philippines, Vietnam. LUZON: Laguna, Manila, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: Lowland thickets along small streams. Native.

Aleurites J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 May 2021
  1. Aleurites moluccanus (L.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 590; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 290; EPFP 2 (1923) 448; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 29; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; Kew Bull. 20 (1967) 393; Kew. Bull. 26 (1972) 213; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 54; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 29; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 26; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 252; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 5; Alph. Enum. Euphorb. Philip. Isl. (1983) 4; Stuppy et al., Blumea 44 (1999) 80; ≡ Jatropha moluccana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1006; Type: from the Moluccas (lecto). Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, New Zealand, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Widely cultivated in the tropics generally. Cryptogenic: occurring wild and cultivated, from sea-level up to at least 1000m elevation on a variety of substrates, both on red loam and stony clay ground, on sand and limestone, sometimes in periodically rather dry areas (Smith 1910). Young plants are common as pioneers in disturbed gaps or margins of the vineforest (Forster 1996). Candlenut. Native.

Balakata Esser

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Balakata luzonica (S.Vidal) Esser, Blumea 41 (1999) 157; ≡ Sapium luzonicum (S.Vidal) Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 577; EPFP 2 (1923) 461; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 44; ≡ Myrica luzonica S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 40; Type: Vidal 610 (K, lecto), Luzon: Rizal, San Mateo. = Sapium lateriflorum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 83, nom. illeg., non Hemsl.; Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1303; Merr., PJS (1920) 577; ≡ Sapium merrillianum Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV 147 V (1912) 243; Type: FB 2565 Borden (PNH, holo, lost; K, P, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River, Mt Mariveles. = Urandra elliptica Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 195, nom. illeg., non G.Schellenb.; Sleumer, Blumea 17 (1969) 263; Type: FB 20003 Topacio (PNH, holo, lost; US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. BUCAS GRANDE, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, TICAO. Notes: Primary or secondary lowland semi-deciduous forests, also on limestone hills. May be locally very common and conspicuous on account of straight boles with scaly peeling bark. On clay, sand, or volcanic soils, 10-120m. Fl. Oct-Dec, Mar; fr. Feb-Jun; Sep. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Blachia Baill.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 October 2015
  1. Blachia philippinensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 277; EPFP 2 (1923) 455; Type: Curran FB 4128 (L, lecto; K, isolecto), Palawan: Palawan, near Puerto Princesa, Apr-1906; Curran & Merritt FB 8369 (US, syn), Luzon: Pangasinan Prov.; Merritt & Darling FB 13829 (US, syn), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Cape Bojeador. = Blachia andamica auct. non (Kurz) Hook.f.; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 10. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, La Union, Pangasinan, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets and forests in the more seasonal areas of the archipelago. Native.

Blumeodendron (Müll.Arg.) Kurz

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 January 2022
  1. Blumeodendron kurzii (Hook.f.) J.J.Sm., Meded. Dept. Landbouw 10 (1910) 463; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 57; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 10; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 70; Van Welzen et al., Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 143; Type: from Malaysia and Andaman Isls (syn). = Blumeodendron verticillatum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 557; EPFP 2 (1923) 429; Type: FB 2603 Meyer (PNH, holo, lost; L, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Bataan, SAMAR. Conservation status: Least Concern (Van Welzen et al. 2020). Native.
  2. Blumeodendron philippinense Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 16 (1920) 555; EPFP 2 (1923) 429; Type: FB 20054 Topacio (PNH, holo, lost; L, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Native.
  3. Blumeodendron subrotundifolium (Elmer) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 384; EPFP 2 (1923) 429; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 70; Van Welzen et al., Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 146; ≡ Sapium subrotundifolium Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 930; Type: Elmer 12349 (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; A, BISH, G, GH, HBG, K, NY, US, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting. = Blumeodendron subcaudatum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 557; EPFP 2 (1923) 429; Type: FB 21075 Sherfesee, Cenabre & Cortes (K, lecto; A, US, isolecto), Samar. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Conservation status: Least Concern (Van Welzen et al. 2020). Native.
  4. Blumeodendron tokbrai (Blume) Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 42 (1873) 245; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 60; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 10; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 71; ≡ Elateriospermum tokbrai Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 621; Type: from Indonesia (lecto). = Blumeodendron paucinervium (Elmer) Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 555; EPFP 2 (1923) 428; ≡ Elateriospermum paucinervium Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 484; Type: Elmer 7416 (PNH, holo, lost; L, iso), Luzon: Tayabas, Lucban. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Bataan, Quezon, Rizal (photos). Notes: Forests, up to 750m. Native.

Cheilosa Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2017
  1. Cheilosa montana Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 614; Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV, 147, 4 (1912) 12; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 496; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 68; Welzen, Banka & Leoncito, Blumea 38 (1993) 163; Type: from Java. = Cheilosa malayana (Hook.f.) Corner ex Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 16 (1963) 364; Euph. Born. (1975) 68; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 11; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 77; ≡ Baliospermum malayanum Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1888) 463. = Cheilosa homaliifolia Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 379; EPFP 2 (1923) 457; Type: Wenzel 147. = Cheilosa homaliifolia var. grandifolia Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 457; Type: BS 37282 Ramos & Edaño. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra. DINAGAT, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland primary forests, sometimes along streams. Fl. Feb, Jun-Nov; fr. Apr-Oct. Native.

Cladogynos Zipp. ex Span.

  1. Cladogynos orientalis Zipp. ex Span., Linnaea 15 (1841) 349; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 384; EPFP 2 (1923) 444; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 78. Distribution: China, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand. CEBU, SIQUIJOR. Notes: Lowland dry limestone thickets. Native.

Claoxylon Juss.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 May 2018
  1. Claoxylon albicans (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 220; EPFP 2 (1923) 429; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12; ≡ Prockia albicans Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 430. = Claoxylon elongatum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 204; EPFP 2 (1923) 430. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Pangasinan, Quezon. Notes: Lowland thickets, secondary and primary forests. Native.
  2. Claoxylon arboreum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 486; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 429; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  3. Claoxylon brachyandrum Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 115; Merr., EPFP 2(1923) 430; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BATAN, CULION, LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1400m. Native.
  4. Claoxylon crassipes Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 121; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 430; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12; Type: BS 9361 C.B. Robinson. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Tayabas. Notes: Mossy forests, c. 900m. Native.
  5. Claoxylon crassivenium Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 120; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 430; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12; Type: Merrill 5668. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Forests, c. 2000m. Native.
  6. Claoxylon ellipticum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 553; EPFP 2 (1923) 430; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12; Type: BS 32303 R.C. McGregor. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Notes: Forests, c. 800m. Native.
  7. Claoxylon euphorbioides (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 430; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12; ≡ Quadrasia euphorbioides Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2656; Type: Elmer 12424. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Primary forests, ascending to 600m. Native.
  8. Claoxylon indicum (Reinw. ex Blume) Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. (1844) 235; ≡ Erythrochilus indicus Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 615. Distribution: China through Indochina to New Guinea, Philippines. Native.
  9. Claoxylon longifolium (Blume) Endl. ex Hassk., Cat. Pl. Hort. Bogor. Alter (1844) 235; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 72; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 79; ≡ Erythrochilus longifolius Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 616. Native.
    • var. longifolium. Distribution: Borneo, India, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand.
  10. Claoxylon oblanceolatum (Merr.) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 115; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 431; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13; ≡ Claoxylon rubescens Miq. var. oblanceolatum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 79. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, Zambales. Notes: Low elevation forests on slopes. Native.
  11. Claoxylon pubescens Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 42; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13; Type: BS 76416 Edaño (NY, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Panagan River (erroneously as ‘Ponawa River’ in the typewritten label), on slopes in forest streams, 2700ft, 1-Dec-1928. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur. Notes: Forested slopes along streams, c. 820m. Native.
  12. Claoxylon purpureum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 204; EPFP 2 (1923) 431; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mountain Province. Notes: Montane forests, 1700-2400m, common. Native.
  13. Claoxylon rubescens Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1(2) (1859) 387. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. Native.
  14. Claoxylon rubrivenium Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV, 147, XVII (1924) 182. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  15. Claoxylon spathulatum Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 120; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 431; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13; Type: Ahern 266 (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Pasacao. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur. Native.
  16. Claoxylon subviride Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 907; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 431; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13; Type: Elmer 12374 (L, MO, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang, along lower slopes of Mt Giting-giting), red soil mixed with soft shale stones of humid forested slopes at 1750ft along the trail leading down to España, Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Native.

Cleidion Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 May 2018
  1. Cleidion javanicum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 613; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.vii (1914) 290; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 487; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2 (1963) 712; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 74; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 57; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 279; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 12; Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 50 (2005) 202; Type: from Java. Native.
    • var. javanicum. = Cleidion spiciflorum auct. non (Burm.f.) Merr.; Merr., Interpr. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 322; EPFP 2 (1923) 439; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 234; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 79; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 607; Alph. Enum. Euphorb. Philip. Isl. (1983) 13. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: N Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all provinces. Low and medium elevation primary and secondary forests, on various bedrocks but often occurring on limestone, frequent along rivers or streams. Fl. Jan-Apr; fr. Apr-Sep.
  2. Cleidion microcarpum Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 404; Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 50 (2005) 208; Type: BS 44226 Ramos & Edaño (UC, holo; A, B, K, NY, US, iso), Tawi-tawi. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, CEBU, PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI, TICAO. Notes: Disturbed and secondary forests, often on limestone. Elevation up to 670 m. Fl. & fr. mainly May-Oct. Native.
  3. Cleidion ramosii (Merr.) Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 400; EPFP 2 (1923) 439; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13; Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 50 (2005) 214; ≡ Mallotus ramosii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 401; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.vii (1914) 195; Type: BS 14602 Ramos (US, lecto; A, K, isolecto), Camiguin de Mindanao, near the summit of Mt Catarman. = Mallotus samarensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 488; Type: BS 17480 Ramos (K, US, iso), Samar: Yabong. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. ramosii. Distribution: MINDANAO, MINDORO, SAMAR, SIARGAO, TABLAS. Notes: Primary and secondary forests, often along rivers and on limestone, up to 470m. Fl. & fr. all year round.
    • var. lanceolatum (Merr.) Kulju in Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 50 (2005) 215; ≡ Cleidion lanceolatum Merr., PJS Bot. 9 c (1914) Bot. 474; EPFP 2 (1923) 439; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xiv (1919) 23; Airy Shaw, Alph. Enum. Euphorb. Philip. Isl. (1983) 13; Type: BS 1648 Ramos (G, lecto; A, BM, L, NSW, NY, SING, US, isolecto), Samar. Distribution: BOHOL, SAMAR. Notes: Often along rivers.

Incertae sedis

  1. Cleidion megistophyllum (Quisumb. & Merr.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 25 (1971) 528; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13; ≡ Actephila megistophylla Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 158; Type: BS 45466 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; K, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora, Casiguran. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Known only from the type collection consisting only of leaves and remants of the infructescenses and fruits. Staminate and pistillate flowers are needed to confirm placement in this genus. Native.

Cnesmone Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016
  1. Cnesmone philippinensis (Merr.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 119; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16; ≡ Tragia philippinensis Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 565; EPFP 2 (1923) 447. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.

Cnidoscolus Pohl (Not native)

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 June 2017
  1. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius I.M.Johnst., Contr. Gray Herb. 68 (1923) 86. Distribution: C America. CEBU. Notes: Introduced and cultivated as a vegetable in the Philippines. Naturalized near Cebu City, but not invasive. Naturalized.

Codiaeum Juss.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2017
  1. Codiaeum ciliatum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 571; EPFP 2 (1923) 453; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  2. Codiaeum hirsutum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 476; EPFP 2 (1923) 453; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  3. Codiaeum luzonicum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 81; EPFP 2 (1923) 453; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Isabela, Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon, SIARGAO. Notes: Locally common, in primary forests at low elevation. Native.
  4. Codiaeum macgregorii Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 573; EPFP 2 (1923) 453; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  5. Codiaeum megalanthum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 570; EPFP 2 (1923) 453; Airy Shaw, Alphab.Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte. Notes: On forested slopes at low elevation. Native.
  6. Codiaeum palawanense Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1283; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 453; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 17. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  7. Codiaeum trichocalyx Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 570; EPFP 2 (1923) 454; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 17. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Juss., Tent. Euph. 80 (1824) 111; Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 606; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 17; ≡ Croton variegatus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1199.
    • var. variegatum. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. Notes: Cultivated throughout the Philippines, very common and exceedingly variable. No form is indigenous, and none is even naturalized. The form commonly cultivated previously to about 1880 is that represented by Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 1062; most or all other cultural forms have been introduced since that date.

Croton L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 January 2021
  1. Croton argyratus Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 602; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 425; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 85; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 17. = Croton avellaneus Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 498; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 17. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BABUYAN ISLS, BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Batangas, Bulacan, Ilocos Sur, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Zamboanga, PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI (photos). Notes: Lowland forests and edges in the more seasonal parts of the archipelago. Native.
  2. Croton babuyanensis Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 499; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 17. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  3. Croton batangasensis Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 499; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 17. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  4. Croton bonplandianus Baill., Adansonia 4 (1864) 339. Distribution: S America. GUIMARAS. Notes: Naturalized in the Philippines in sandy beach area. Naturalized.
  5. Croton cascarilloides Raeusch., Nomencl. ed. 3 (1797) 280; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 84; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 91; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. = Croton cumingii Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 101; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 426; Type: Cuming 1384. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. CAGAYAN DE SULU, LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Nueva Ecija, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets. Native.
  6. Croton caudatus Geiseler, Crot. Monogr. (1807) 73; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 425; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 85; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. Distribution: Borneo, India to China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
  7. Croton colubrinoides Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 451; EPFP 2 (1923) 425; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 73; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  8. Croton consanguineus Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 101; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 426; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. consanguineus. Distribution: BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: In thickets and forests at low elevation.
    • var. molliusculus Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 504; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18.
  9. Croton cotabatensis Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 500; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  10. Croton cupreus Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1281; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  11. Croton ensifolius Merr., PJS C 11 (1916) 66. Distribution: Borneo, New Guinea, Philippines. Native.
  12. Croton heterocarpus Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15 (1866) 621; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 82. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra. Native.
  13. Croton lanceilimbus Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 395; EPFP 2 (1923) 426, as 'lancilimbus'; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  14. Croton leiophyllus Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 13; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 426; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. leiophyllus. Distribution: Philippines, Thailand. LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Widely distributed throughout the Philippines and often common in thickets and forests at low and medium elevation. Endemic unless referable to the Malayan Croton oblongus Burm.f.
    • var. multiflorus Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 426; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19.
  15. Croton leytensis Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 502; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip.(1983) 19. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  16. Croton luzoniensis Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 118; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 427; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Isabela, La Union, Mountain Province, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: In thickets and forests at low elevation, ascending to 1400m. Native.
  17. Croton novae-astigis Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 499; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  18. Croton palawanensis Merr. ex Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 505; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. = Croton heterocarpus auct. non Müll.Arg.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 426. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  19. Croton pampangensis Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 502; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  20. Croton quisumbingianus Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 500; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  21. Croton rectipilis Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 501; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip.(1983) 19. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  22. Croton samarensis Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 25 (1971) 516; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  23. Croton singularis Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 21 (1968) 374; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. Native.
  24. Croton tiglium L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1004; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 427; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. Notes: Throughout the Philippines, in and about towns, usually planted, sometimes naturalized. Of prehistoric introduction from Malaya; universally used for poisoning fish. Naturalized.
  25. Croton verreauxii Baill., Étude Euphorb. (1858) 357. Distribution: Australia, Philippines, Sulawesi. Native.
    • var. angustifolius Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 117; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 427; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20; ≡ Croton angustifolius (Müll.Arg.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 38 (1983) 68; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 17, nom. illeg. Distribution: Philippines.
  26. Croton vidalii Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 605. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  27. Croton zambalensis Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 405; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.

Dimorphocalyx Thwaites (Not native)

Incertae sedis

  1. Dimorphocalyx angustifolius (Merr.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 412; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 412; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20; Van Welzen & Van Oostrum, Blumea 59 (2015) 199; ≡ Ostodes angustifolia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 403; EPFP 2 (1923) 454; Type: FB 9343 Whitford & Hutchinson, Mindanao: Zamboanga, Port Banga, 14-Jan-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Notes: P.B. Pelser (23-Jun-20): Merrill (1912) described this species from a specimen without flowers and with only one immature fruit. It is only known from this specimen, but it is unknown where this type specimen is. Van Welzen & Van Oostrum (2015) suggest that it was probably lost in WWII. Native.

Doryxylon Zoll.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 June 2021
  1. Doryxylon spinosum Zoll., Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 14 (1857) 152; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 428; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 16; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 21. = Sumbavia rottleroides Baill., Étud. Gén. Euphorb. (1858) 390; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 291. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. LUZON. Native.

Endospermum Benth.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 February 2022
  1. Endospermum ovatum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 481; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 457; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 24; Type: Fenix BS 15921 (US, lecto; BM, iso), Mindanao: Butuan Subprov., near Sumulao. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Native.
  2. Endospermum peltatum Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 35; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 457; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 24; Van Welzen et al., Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 149; ≡ Endospermum philippinense Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 457, nom. nud.; Type: Merrill 2604 ('2603' in protologue) (K, lecto; BM, isolecto), Luzon: Tayabas, Pagbilao, Apr/May-1903. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand. LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, MINDORO. Notes: In primary forests at low elevation. Conservation status: Least Concern (Van Welzen et al. 2020). Native.

Euphorbia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 June 2022
  1. Euphorbia antiquorum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 450; Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Siam (1972) 262; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 24. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. Native.
  2. Euphorbia atoto G.Forst., Prodr. Fl. Austr. (1786) 207; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 461; Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 111; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 24; ≡ Chamaesyce atoto (G.Forst.) Croizat in Degener, Fl. Hawaiiensis, Fam. 190, Chamaesyce, leafl. 4 (1936). Distribution: Australia, China, India, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: A characteristic plant along sandy seashores throughout the Philippines. Native.
  3. Euphorbia bifida Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1837) 213. = Euphorbia vachellii Hook. & Arn., Beech. Voy. (1837) 213; Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Siam (1972) 268; Euph. New Guinea (1980) 88; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26; ≡ Chamaesyce vachellii (Hook. & Arn.) Hara, Enum. Spermat. Jap., Pt. 3 (1954) 44; Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot.6 (1954) 283. = Euphorbia serrulata auct. non Thuill.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 282; EPFP 2 (1923) 463. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. Notes: Open grasslands. Native.
  4. Euphorbia cyathophora Murr., Comm. Götting. 7 (1786) 81; Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. New Guinea (1980) 83; Lin & Hsieh, Taiwania 36 (1991) 73; ≡ Poinsettia cyathophora (Murr.) Bartl., Ind. Sem. Hort. Acad. Gott. (1839) 6; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 24. = Euphorbia heterophylla auct. non L.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 462. Distribution: America. LUZON: Aurora (photos). Notes: Not native to the Philippines, naturalized along roadsides and in waste places. Naturalized.
  5. Euphorbia heterophylla L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 453; Lin & Hsieh, Taiwania 36 (1991) 75; ≡ Poinsettia heterophylla (L.) Klotzsch & Garcke, Monatsber. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859 (1859) 253. Distribution: America. LUZON: La Union (photos). Naturalized.
  6. Euphorbia hirta L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 454; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 283; EPFP 2 (1923) 462; Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 111; Euph. New Guinea (1980) 85; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 24; ≡ Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp., Publ. Field Columbian Mus., Bot. ser. 2 (1909) 303. Distribution: America. Notes: Naturalized throughout the Philippines, in waste places, open grasslands, etc. usually abundant. Naturalized.
  7. Euphorbia hypericifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 454; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 283; Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 111; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25; ≡ Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp., Field Columb. Mus. Bot. ser. 2 (1909) 302. = Euphorbia capillaris auct. non Gagnep.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 461. Distribution: America. LUZON: NCR. Notes: Not native to the Philippines, naturalized in waste places and open grasslands (Merrill 1912, 1923). Naturalized.
  8. Euphorbia lacei Craib, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1911 (1911) 456. = Euphorbia trigona auct. non Mill.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 464; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Thailand. LUZON: Bataan, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: In thickets and on limestone cliffs, usually along the sea shore (Merrill 1923). Native.
  9. Euphorbia luzoniensis Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 578; EPFP 2 (1923) 462; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25; ≡ Chamaesyce luzoniensis (Merr.) Soják, Cas. Nar. Muz. (Prague) 140 (1972) 169. Distribution: ?Java, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Native.
  10. Euphorbia maculata L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 455; Torrefiel & Buot, J. Wetlands Biodiversity 7 (2017) 169. Distribution: N America. Naturalized.
  11. Euphorbia makinoi Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 30 (1911) 262; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 462; ≡ Chamaesyce makinoi (Hayata) Hara, J. Jap. Bot. 14 (1938) 356. Distribution: ?China, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Native.
  12. Euphorbia pallens Dillwyn, Rev. Hortus Malab. (1839) 54. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  13. Euphorbia plumerioides Teijsm. ex Hassk., Hort. Bogor. Descript. 1 (1858) 29; Merr., EPFP2 (1923) 463; Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. New Guinea (1980) 85; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25; De Padua et al., PROSEA 12 (1999) 270. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea. GOLO, LUZON: Batangas. Notes: P.B. Pelser (31-May-2021): according to De Padua et al. (1999), this species is probably not native to the Philippines. Naturalized.
  14. Euphorbia prostrata Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 (1789) 136; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 283; EPFP 2 (1923) 463; Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. New Guinea (1980) 87; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25; ≡ Chamaesyce prostrata (Aiton) Small, Fl. SE United States (1903) 713. Distribution: America. Notes: Naturalized in the Philippines in waste places (Merrill 1912). Naturalized.
  15. Euphorbia serpens Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2 (1817) 41 (folio), 52 (quarto); Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25; ≡ Chamaesyce serpens (Kunth) Small, Fl. SE United States (1903) 709. Distribution: America. Notes: Naturalized in waste places. Naturalized.
  16. Euphorbia thymifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 454; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 283; EPFP 2 (1923) 464; Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 112; Euph. New Guinea (1980) 88; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26; ≡ Chamaesyce thymifolia (L.) Millsp., Field Columb. Mus. Bot. ser. 2 (1916) 412. Distribution: America. Notes: Naturalized in the Philippines in open waste places, road sides, fallow rice paddies (Merrill 1912, 1923). Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Euphorbia lactea Haw., Syn. Pl. Succ. (1812) 127. Distribution: LUZON: Pangasinan (photos). Notes: P.B. Pelser (24-Jul-20): widely cultivated, but unknown from the wild (Bruce DeJong, 16-Jan-20, pers. comm.).
  2. Euphorbia neriifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 451; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 462; Radcliffe-Smithin Airy Shaw, Euph. New Guinea (1980) 85; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25. = Euphorbia trigona auct. non Haw.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 281. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. Notes: P.B. Pelser (24-Jul-20): widely cultivated, but unknown from the wild (Bruce DeJong, 16-Jan-20, pers. comm.).
  3. Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch in Otto & Dietr., Allgem. Gartenz. 2 (1834) 27; ≡ Poinsettia pulcherrima (Willd. ex Klotzsch) Graham, Edinburgh N. Phil. J. 20 (1836) 412; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 282; EPFP 2 (1923) 462; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25. Distribution: C America. Notes: Not naturalized?.
  4. Euphorbia splendens Bojer ex Hook., Bot. Mag. 56 (1829) t.2902; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 281; EPFP 2 (1923) 463; Haevermans & Hetterscheid, Phytotaxa 488 (2021) 7. = Euphorbia milii auct. non Des Moul.; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25. Distribution: Madagascar.
  5. Euphorbia tirucalli L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 452; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 282; EPFP 2 (1923) 464; Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Siam (1972) 267; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26; Lin & Hsieh, Taiwania 36 (1991) 72. Distribution: Africa. Notes: In thickets and hedges.
  6. Euphorbia tithymaloides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 453; ≡ Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 19 (1812) 390. Notes: Cultivated. Not naturalized?.

Excoecaria L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016
  1. Excoecaria agallocha L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1288; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 298; EPFP 2 (1923) 458; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 96; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 112; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26. Distribution: India to Taiwan and Ryukyu Isls, Malesia, Pacific Ocean. Notes: Throughout the Philippines along the seashore or within the influence of salt or brackish water. Native.
  2. Excoecaria bantamensis Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 124; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1923) 113; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26. = Excoecaria macrophylla J.J.Sm., Meded. Dept. Landbouw 12 (1910) 611; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 458. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines, Thailand. Native.
  3. Excoecaria borneensis Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) (Euph.-Addit. V) 422; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 113; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26. = Excoecaria mirandae Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 576; EPFP 2 (1923) 458. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Native.
  4. Excoecaria obtusa Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 389; EPFP 2 (1923) 458; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan. Notes: In forests at low elevation. Native.
  5. Excoecaria pachyphylla Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 575; EPFP 2 (1923) 458; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 27. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  6. Excoecaria philippinensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 82; EPFP 2 (1923) 458; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 27. = Excoecaria philippinensis var. euphlebia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 389; EPFP 2 (1923) 459. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. ALABAT, LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: In primary forests at low elevation. Native.
  7. Excoecaria stenophylla Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 189; EPFP 2 (1923) 459; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 27. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Excoecaria cochinchinensis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 612. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, Thailand. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized?.

Hancea Seem.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016
  1. Hancea cordatifolia (Slik) S.E.C.Sierra, Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 52 (2007) 363; ≡ Mallotus cordatifolius Slik, Blumea 43 (1998) 225; Type: PNH 117545 Gutierrez et al. (holo, L), Samar: Mt Sohoton. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Known only from the type locality. Logged-over forest. Native.
  2. Hancea hirsuta (Elmer) S.E.C.Sierra, Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 52 (2007) 364; ≡ Mallotus hirsutus Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2648; Type: Elmer 13480 (PNH, holo, lost; K, L, NY, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta). = Mallotus papuanus auct. non (J.J.Sm.) Pax & Hoffm.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 435. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Notes: In forest, 1333 m. Native.
  3. Hancea longistyla (Merr.) S.E.C.Sierra, Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 52 (2007) 364; ≡ Mallotus longistylus Merr., PJS 3 c (1920) 560; EPFP 2 (1923) 434. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Philippines. DINAGAT, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forest, up to 266m. Native.
  4. Hancea penangensis (Müll.Arg.) S.E.C.Sierra, Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 52 (2007) 364; ≡ Mallotus penangensis Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 186. = Mallotus echinatus Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 925; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 433; Type: Elmer 12253 (PNH, holo, lost; EDI, K, L, NY, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting. Philippines. = Mallotus sarawakensis Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich (1914) 201; Soejarto et al. (1995). Distribution: Thailand and Andaman Isls to New Guinea. LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: In forests at low and medium elevation. Mainly in understorey of primary forest or late secondary forest, where it can be very common, sometimes also in young secondary forest or scrub, along creeks, river banks, and roadsides; usually on dry, well-drained terrain, occasional also in swampy places; soils variable: from clay to sandy to loamy, also on limestone. Up to 1666m. Native.
  5. Hancea wenzeliana (Slik) S.E.C.Sierra, Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 52 (2007) 364; ≡ Mallotus wenzelianus Slik, Blumea 43 (1998) 229; Type: Wenzel 2697 (G, holo; UC, A, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Jubud. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Notes: In forest, 150m. Native.

Hevea Aubl. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2017

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 204; Fl. Manila (1912) 293; EPFP 2 (1923) 450; ≡ Siphonia brasiliensis Willd. ex A.Juss., Euphorb. Gen. (1824) t. 12. Distribution: S America. Notes: Introduced to the Philippines in the early part of the 20th century. Cultivated in Mindanao, Basilan, and elsewhere; occasionally planted in other islands. Para rubber.

Homonoia Lour.

  1. Homonoia riparia Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 637; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 296; EPFP 2 (1923) 448. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Sorsogon; a very characteristic species, very abundant along small swift streams at low and medium elevation, on the banks and in the stream beds. Native.

Hura L. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Hura crepitans L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 1008. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Widely cultivated in the tropics worldwide. Not naturalized?.

Jatropha L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 January 2020

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Jatropha curcas L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1006; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 289; EPFP 2 (1923) 449. Distribution: America. Notes: Introduced at an early date in colonial history from Mexico. Now pantropic. In hedges throughout the Philippines, usually very common in and about towns. Physic nut. Not naturalized?.
  2. Jatropha multifida L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1006; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 289; EPFP 2 (1923) 449. = Jatropha janipha Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 758; Merr. Species Blancoanae (1918) 229, nom. illeg., non L.; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 625 (L, neo), Luzon: Manila. Distribution: America. Notes: Introduced and cultivated in the Philippines. Not naturalized?.
  3. Jatropha podagrica Hook., Bot. Mag. 74 (1848) t. 4376. Distribution: C America, Caribbean. Notes: Planted as ornamental in the Philippines. Not naturalized in the Philippines, but dangerous invasive in Caroline Isls.
  1. Jatropha gossypiifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1006; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 290; EPFP 2 (1923) 449. Distribution: America, Caribbean. Naturalized.
  2. Jatropha integerrima Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. (1760) 32. = Jatropha hastata Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. (1760) 32. = Jatropha pandurifolia Andrews, Bot. Repos. 4 (1802) t. 267; ≡ Jatropha diversifolia var. pandurifolia (Andrews) M.Gómez, Anales Hist. Nat. 23 (1894) 51. Distribution: Caribbean. Naturalized.

Lasiococca Hook.f.

  1. Lasiococca brevipes (Merr.) Welzen & S.E.C.Sierra, Blumea 50 (2005) 276; ≡ Mallotus brevipes Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) 487; EPFP 2 (1923) 432. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Native.

Macaranga Thouars

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 February 2022
  1. Macaranga amplifolia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 392; EPFP 2 (1923) 440. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, Quezon. Notes: In damp primary forests at low elevation. Native.
  2. Macaranga auctoris Whitmore, Gen. Macaranga Prodr. (2008) 82; Type: Soejarto & Fernando 7445 (holo, L). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  3. Macaranga balabacensis Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 368; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 440; Type: BS 424 Mangubat. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC. Notes: Forested slopes at low elevation. Native.
  4. Macaranga bicolor Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 199; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 440. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, ?Aurora (photos), Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: In second-growth forests at low elevation. Native.
  5. Macaranga congestiflora Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) 282; EPFP 2 (1923) 440. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Old clearings at low elevation. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Macaranga cumingii (Baill.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 1005; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 441; Type: Cuming 1100. = Macaranga caudatifolia Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 427; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 440; Type: Elmer 9652. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. BATAN, BILIRAN, CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Camarines, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Tayabas, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN, TINAGO. Notes: Forests, deserted clearings, thickets, forested ravines, etc. ascending to 1500m. Native.
  7. Macaranga gigantea (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2) (1866) 995; ≡ Mappa gigantea Rchb.f. & Zoll., Linnaea 29 (1858) 465. Distribution: Myanmar to Malesia, Philippines. Notes: Specimens mentioned by L.L.Co: N Bartolome 4525, 4730, 4955, 4987. Native.
  8. Macaranga grandifolia (Blanco) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 394; Fl. Manila (1912) 441; EPFP 2 (1923) 441; ≡ Croton grandifolius Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 753; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 518; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 153. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, La Union, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: In second-growth forests at low elevation, locally abundant. Native.
  9. Macaranga hispida (Blume) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 990; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 442; ≡ Mappa hispida Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 624. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation, common in second growth forests, ravines, etc. Native.
  10. Macaranga leytensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 393; EPFP 2 (1923) 442; Type: BS 15253 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur (photos by Danilo Tandang). Notes: Forested slopes. Native.
  11. Macaranga loheri Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 423; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 442; Type: Elmer 8558. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Benguet, SAMAR. Notes: Forested ravines, 1000-1500m. Native.
  12. Macaranga lowii King ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1887) 453; Whitmore in Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 154; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 35. = Macaranga auriculata (Merr.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 19 (1965) 325; ≡ Mallotus auriculatus Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 396; EPFP 2 (1923) 432; Type: FB 7271 Everett (US, iso), Negros: 1907. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Lanao del Sur, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  13. Macaranga mappa (L.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 1000; ≡ Ricinus mappa L. in Stickm., Herb. Amboin. (1754) 4. = Macaranga gigantifolia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 391; EPFP 2 (1923) 441; Type: BS 14702 Ramos. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. CAMIGUIN, LUZON, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation forests and thickets. Native.
  14. Macaranga noblei Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 678; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 442; Type: Elmer 10816. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Surigao, Zamboanga. Notes: Streamside forests, 700-1000m. Native.
  15. Macaranga ovatifolia Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 562; EPFP 2 (1923) 442; Type: BS 34683 Ramos & Pascasio. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao. Notes: Low elevation forests along streams. Native.
  16. Macaranga sinensis (Baill.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 1001; ≡ Mappa sinensis Baill., Étude Euphorb. (1858) 430. = Macaranga dipterocarpifolia Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 205; EPFP 2 (1923) 441. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Apayao, Bataan, Benguet, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO. Notes: Primary forests and forested ravines, 400-1300m. Native.
  17. Macaranga stonei Whitmore, Gen. Macaranga Prodr. (2008) 247; Type: Soejarto, Fernando & Fernando 7957 (L, holo). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Native.
  18. Macaranga sylvatica Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 431; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 443; Type: Elmer 9388. = Macaranga cuernosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 429; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 440; Type: Elmer 9549. = Macaranga ramiflora Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 433; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 442; Type: Elmer 8108. = Macaranga montana Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 394; EPFP 2 (1923) 442; Type: Merrill 8076. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Mountain Province, Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Forests at medium elevation, ascending to 1200m. Native.
  19. Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 997; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 295; EPFP 2 (1923) 443; ≡ Ricinus tanarius L. in Stickm., Herb. Amboin. (1754) 14; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 111. = Macaranga tanarius var. tomentosa (Blume) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 997; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 443; ≡ Mappa tomentosa Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 624. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Borneo, China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: Throughout the Philippines, characteristic of thickets and second-growth forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  20. Macaranga triloba (Thunb.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 989; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 443; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 107; ≡ Ricinus trilobus Thunb., Ricin. (1815) 6; Reinw. ex Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 108. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Notes: Forested river banks, c. 1000m. Native.

Mallotus Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & Shiella Mae Olimpos, 10 December 2020
  1. Mallotus cauliflorus Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 399; EPFP 2 (1923) 433. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines. Notes: In primary forests at low elevation. Native.
  2. Mallotus connatus M.Aparicio, Blumea 52 (2007) 54; Type: Mahyar et al. 1197 (L, holo; A, SING, iso), Borneo: Kalimantan, Sintang, HPH Km 86. = Mallotus moritzianus auct. non Müll.Arg.; Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 402. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. TAWI-TAWI. Native.
  3. Mallotus cumingii Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 195; ≡ Neotrewia cumingii (Müll.Arg.) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 212; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 437. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Sorsogon. In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation, often common. Native.
  4. Mallotus floribundus (Blume) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 187; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 433; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 113; ≡ Adisca floribunda Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 610. Distribution: Borneo, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
  5. Mallotus korthalsii Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 976; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 433; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 115. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  6. Mallotus lackeyi Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1298; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 433; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 114. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. Native.
  7. Mallotus leucocalyx Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 970; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 434; S.E.C.Sierra et al., Blumea 52 (2007) 75; Type: Unit. Stat. Explor. Exped. s.n. (G-DC, holo; GH, US, iso), Mindanao: Caldera. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO. Native.
  8. Mallotus minimifructus S.E.C.Sierra, Blumea 52 (2007) 79; Type: S (Y.P. Ching) 62305 (L, holo; CGE, K, KEP, SAN, iso), Borneo: Sarawak, Ulu Sungai Kebhor. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. Native.
  9. Mallotus miquelianus (Scheff.) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Nederl. Ind. 3 (1900) 290; Merr., EPFP 2(1923) 434; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 114; ≡ Rottlera miqueliana Scheff., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1869) 124. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
  10. Mallotus mollissimus (Geiseler) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 297; Euph. Born. (1975) 165; ≡ Croton mollissimus Geiseler, Croton. Monogr. (1807) 73. = Mallotus ricinoides (Pers.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 187; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 436; ≡ Croton ricinoides Pers., Syn. Pl. 2 (1807) 586. = Mallotus confusus Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 559; EPFP 2 (1923) 433. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines in most islands and provinces, usually very common in second-growth forests at low elevation, ascending to 2200m. Native.
  11. Mallotus nudiflorus (L.) Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 52 (2007) 124; ≡ Trewia nudiflora L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1193; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 431; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 134. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  12. Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 189; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 434; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 114; ≡ Croton paniculatus Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 207. = Croton appendiculatus Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 312, nom. illeg., non Hort. Veitch. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand to China and Taiwan. Native.
    • var. paniculatus. Notes: Widespread in the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Low and medium elevation forests, often abundant.
  13. Mallotus peltatus (Geiseler) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 187; ≡ Aleurites peltatus Geiseler, Crot. Monogr. (1807) 81. = Mallotus oblongifolius (Miq.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 192; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2(1973) 116; ≡ Rottlera oblongifolia Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1(2) (1859) 396. = Mallotus odoratus Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1299; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 434. = Mallotus alternifolius Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 395. = Mallotus camiguinensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 397. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland dry forests. Native.
  14. Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 196; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 435; ≡ Croton philippensis Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 206. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in lowland thickets, secondary forests, forest fringes and open sites. Native.
  15. Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 197; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 435; ≡ Croton repandus Willd., Neue Schriften Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin iv. (1803) 206. Distribution: Australia, India to China and Taiwan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in thickets and second-growth forests at low elevation. Native.
  16. Mallotus resinosus (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 222; EPFP 2 (1923) 436; ≡ Adelia resinosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 562. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BALABAC, BASILAN, LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan to Sorsogon. Common in second-growth forests at low elevation. Native.
  17. Mallotus tiliifolius (Blume) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 190; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 436; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 114; ≡ Rottlera tiliifolia Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 607. = Mallotus papillaris (Blanco) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 238; Fl. Manila (1912) 294; EPFP 2(1923) 434; ≡ Adelia papillaris Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 562. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in coastal thickets, never inland. Native.

Manihot Mill. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 November 2020
  1. Manihot esculenta Crantz, Inst. 1 (1766) 167. = Manihot utilissima Pohl, Pl. Bras. Icon. Descr. 1 (1827) 32; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 297; EPFP 2 (1923) 450. Distribution: America. Notes: Cassava. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Manihot carthagenensis (Jacq.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2) (1866) 1073; ≡ Jatropha carthagenensis Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. (1760) 32. Distribution: America, Caribbean.
    • ssp. glaziovii (Müll.Arg.) Allem, Novon 11 (2001) 160; ≡ Manihot glaziovii Müll.Arg. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 112 (1874) 446; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 297; EPFP 2 (1923) 450. Distribution: Java, New Guinea, Philippines. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized.

Megistostigma Hook.f.

  1. Megistostigma cordatum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 563; EPFP 2 (1923) 446. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra. Native.

Melanolepis Rchb.f. & Zoll.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 June 2021
  1. Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb. & Zoll., Linnaea 28 (1856) 324; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 431; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 118; ≡ Mallotus multiglandulosus (Reinw. ex Blume) Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot. 6 (1954) 308; ≡ Rottlera multiglandulosa Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 609. = Mallotus moluccanus Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 185; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 292. = Melanolepis multiglandulosa var. pendulus (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 432; ≡ Mallotus moluccanus var. pendulus Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 401. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation thickets and second-growth forests. Common. Alim. Native.

Moultonianthus Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 January 2020
  1. Moultonianthus leembruggianus (Boerl. & Koord.) Steenis, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg Ser. 3, 17 (1948) 405; ≡ Erismanthus leembruggianus Boerl. & Koord., Syst. Verz. 2 (1910) 30. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra. DINAGAT. Native.

Neoscortechinia Pax

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2017
  1. Neoscortechinia nicobarica (Hook.f.) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich iv, 147, xiv, add.vi (1919) 53; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 39; Welzen, Blumea 39 (1994) 314; ≡ Scortechinia nicobarica Hook.f., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 18 (1887) t. 1706. = Neoscortechinia arborea (Elmer) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich iv, 147, xiv, add. vi (1919) 52; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 456; ≡ Alchornea arborea Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1274. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Native.
  2. Neoscortechinia philippinensis (Merr.) Welzen, Blumea 39 (1994) 316; ≡ Alcinaeanthus philippinensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 380; Type: R.S. Williams 2884 (NY, neo; A, NY, isoneo). = Neoscortechinia parvifolia (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 456; ≡ Alcinaeanthus parvifolius Merr., PJS 9 c(1914) Bot. 461. = Neoscortechinia forbesii auct. non Hook.f. ex S.Moore; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 38. Distribution: Borneo, Java Sea, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, SAMAR. Native.

Omalanthus Juss.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 May 2018
  1. Omalanthus fastuosus (Linden) Fern.-Vill. in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3, Nov. App. (1880) 196; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 459; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 32; Esser, Blumea 42 (1997) 435; ≡ Mappa fastuosa Linden, Ann. Hort. Belge Étrangère 15 (1865) 100. = Omalanthus alpinus Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 307; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 459; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 32. = Omalanthus bicolor Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 282; EPFP 2 (1923) 459; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 32. = Omalanthus milvus Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 611. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Lanao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Common in thickets, on ridges, old clearings, etc. mostly above 750m ascending to 2400m. Photo. Native.
  2. Omalanthus macradenius Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich iv, 147, v (1912) 51; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 459; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 33; Esser, Blumea 42 (1997) 443. = Omalanthus megaphyllus Merr., PJS 9 c (1915) Bot. 485; EPFP 2 (1923) 459; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 33. = Omalanthus rotundifolius Merr., PJS 9 c (1915) Bot. 486; EPFP 2 (1923) 460; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 33. = Omalanthus concolor Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 398; EPFP 2 (1923) 459; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 32. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  3. Omalanthus populneus (Geiseler) Pax in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 5 (1890) 96; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 460; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 102; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 32; Esser, Blumea 42 (1997) 453; ≡ Stillingia populnea Geiseler, Croton. Monogr. (1807) 80. = Omalanthus populneus var. laevis (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 230; EPFP 2 (1923) 460, as ‘levis’; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 33; ≡ Excoecaria laevis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 788. = Omalanthus populneus var. minor (Müll.Arg.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 390; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 33; ≡ Carumbium populneum var. minus Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2) (1866) 1145. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Laguna, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: In thickets, deserted clearings at low and medium elevation. Native.

Omphalea L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016
  1. Omphalea bracteata (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 230; EPFP 2 (1923) 457; Whitmore,Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 121; ≡ Tragia bracteata Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 480. = Omphalea philippinensis Merr., PJS 3 (1908) 236. Distribution: Borneo, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand. Native.
  2. Omphalea grandifolia Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 574; EPFP 2 (1923) 457. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  3. Omphalea malayana Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 71; EPFP 2 (1923) 458; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 121. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Isabela. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  4. Omphalea sargentii Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 574; EPFP 2 (1923) 458. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi. BANCALAN. Notes: P.B. Pelser (5-Sep-14): According to Gillespie in Van Welzen & Chayamarit (see Literature section) difficult to distinguish from Omphalea bracteata without fruits. Native.

Pachystylidium Pax & K.Hoffm.

  1. Pachystylidium hirsutum (Blume) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 681 (1919) 108; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 446; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 115; Kew Bull 26 (1971) 311; ≡ Tragia hirsuta Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 630; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 446. = Tragia hirsuta var. irritans (Pax & Hoffm.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 446. Distribution: Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. Native.

Paracroton Miq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2017
  1. Paracroton pendulus (Hassk.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 382; ≡ Fahrenheitia pendula (Hassk.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 410; Kew Bull 26 (1972) 270; Euph. Born. (1975)114; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 97; ≡ Croton pendulus Hassk., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1848) 266; Type: from Java. Native.
    • ssp. pendulus. = Ostodes macrophylla (Müll.Arg.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Jackson, Index Kew. 2 (1895) 382; Merr., EPFP2 (1923) 454; ≡ Tritaxis macrophylla Müll.Arg., Flora 47 (1864) 482. = Ostodes serratocrenata Merr., PJS 4 (1909) 283; Type: Klemme FB 7078 (syn), Luzon: Cagayan, San Vicente; FB 11271 (syn), Luzon: Cagayan, Aparre. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, ?Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand. LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Tayabas, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: In shaded primary evergreen and mixed deciduous forest, 25?200m.

Pimelodendron Hassk.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016
  1. Pimelodendron griffithianum (Müll.Arg.) Benth. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1888) 468; ≡ Stomatocalyx griffithianus Müll.Arg., Prodr. 15 (1866) 1142. Distribution: Malesia, Philippines, Thailand. TAWI-TAWI. Native.

Plukenetia L.

  1. Plukenetia corniculata Sm., Nov. Act. Soc. Sci. Upsal. 6 (1799) 4; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 447; ≡ Pterococcus corniculatus (Sm.) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 681 (1919) 22; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 82. Distribution: Borneo, Himalayas, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation, in old clearings. Native.

Ptychopyxis Miq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 December 2020
  1. Ptychopyxis bacciformis Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 49; Van Welzen et al., Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 155; Type: from Borneo. = Ptychopyxis philippina Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 49; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 14 (1960) 372; Type: Wenzel 2710 (A, syn), Mindanao: Surigao; Wenzel 3501 (A, syn), Mindanao: Surigao. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Conservation status: Least Concern (Van Welzen et al. 2020). Native.

Reutealis Airy Shaw

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 July 2019
  1. Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1972) 395; ≡ Aleurites trisperma Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 755; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 290; EPFP 2 (1923) 448. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Camarines, Cavite, La Union, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao, NEGROS. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, widely scattered, sometimes planted. Naturalized in Java (Stuppy et al. 1999) and also grown elsewhere. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Ricinus L. (Not native)

  1. Ricinus communis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1007; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 296; EPFP 2 (1923) 447. Distribution: Africa. Naturalized.

Shirakiopsis Esser

  1. Shirakiopsis sanchezii (Merr.) Esser, Blumea 41 (1999) 189; ≡ Sapium sanchezii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 402; EPFP 2 (1923) 461. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. MINDANAO: Cotabato, Lanao, Surigao. Notes: Thickets and forests along or near the seashore. Native.

Spathiostemon Blume

  1. Spathiostemon javensis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 622; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 45; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 196; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 202; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 35; Alph. Enum. Euphor. Philip. Isl. (1983) 45; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 132; Welzen, Blumea 43 (1998) 146; ≡ Homonoia javensis (Blume) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 200; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 447; PJS 11c (1916) Bot. 283; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 492; Type: from Java. = Homonoia javensis var. ciliata Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 391; EPFP 2 (1923) 447; Type: FB 7246 Everett, Negros: Negros Occidental, Cauayan. = Mallotus eglandulosus Elmer, LPB Bot. 1 (1908) 313; Type: Elmer 7152 (PNH, holo, lost; A, K, NY, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Palo. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. CEBU, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Surigao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Lowland primary and secondary forests. Often on limestone. Fl. & fr. Jan-Dec. Native.

Stillingia Garden ex L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2017
  1. Stillingia lineata (Lam.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15 (1866) 1157; ≡ Sapium lineatum Lam., Encycl. 2 (1788) 734. Native.
    • ssp. pacifica (Müll.Arg.) Steen., Blumea Suppl. 5 (1966) 302; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 27 (1972) 93; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 35; Esser, Blumea 44 (1999) 195; ≡ Stillingia pacifica Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2) (1866) 1156; Type: from Fiji. = Sapium plumerioides Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 507; Type: Bartlett 15167 (A, holo), Babuyan Isls: Dalupiri. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. DALUPIRI. Notes: In Malesia only known from coastal forest and coconut plantation on coral soil, but poorly known.

Strophioblachia Boerl.

  1. Strophioblachia fimbricalyx Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 3, 1 (1900) 236; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 455; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philip. Is. (1983) 45. Distribution: Cambodia, China, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: La Union, Pangasinan, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Of typical dry monsoon distribution. Secondary and edges of primary semi-deciduous forests, thickets near the seashore. On rocky, calcareous and sandy soils, 0-250m. Fl. & fr. throughout the year (but less so in Nov-Jan). Native.

Sumbaviopsis J.J.Sm.

  1. Sumbaviopsis albicans (Blume) J.J.Sm. in Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Boom. Java 12 (1910) 357; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 428; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 132; ≡ Adisca albicans Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 611. Distribution: Borneo, India, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.

Suregada Roxb. ex Rottler

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 April 2021
  1. Suregada glomerulata (Blume) Baill., Étud. Gén. Euph. (1858) 396; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 198; ≡ Gelonium glomerulatum (Blume) Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bogor. (1844) 237; Merr., EPFP2 (1923) 455; ≡ Erythrocarpus glomerulatus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 605. = Gelonium philippinense Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 52 (1912) 22; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 456. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Native.
  2. Suregada racemulosa (Merr.) Croizat, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 17 (1942) 216; ≡ Gelonium racemulosum Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 281; EPFP 2 (1923) 456; Type: For. Bur. 9260 Whitford & Hutchinson (syn), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Port Banga, Jan-1908; For. Bur. 9349 Whitford & Hutchison (syn), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Port Banga, Jan-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Native.
  3. Suregada stenophylla (Merr.) Croizat, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 17 (1942) 216; ≡ Gelonium stenophyllum Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 30; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; Type: Loher 13345, Luzon: Rizal Prov. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Native.

Triadica Lour.

  1. Triadica cochinchinensis Lour., Fl. Cochin. Ed. 1, 2 (1790) 610; Esser, Blumea 44 (1999) 201. = Sapium discolor (Champ. ex Benth.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 121; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 192; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 44; Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 404; ≡ Stillingia discolor Champ. ex Benth., Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 6 (1854) 1. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Native.

Trigonostemon Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 July 2021
  1. Trigonostemon filiformis Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 328; Yu & Van Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 194; Yu et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 927; Blumea 65 (2020) 13; Type: M.S. Clemens 16751 (NY, lecto, lost; A, UC, isolecto), Luzon: Isabela, Mt Moises. = Trigonostemon stenophyllus Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 330; Yu & Van Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 225; Type: BS 47331 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; A, K, NY, UC, iso), Luzon: Isabela, Mt Moises. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Isabela. Native.
  2. Trigonostemon laevigatus Müll.Arg., Flora 47 (1864) 538; Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 203; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 135; Yu & Van Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 195; Yu et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 930; Type: from Borneo (lecto). = Trigonostemon everettii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 408; EPFP 2 (1923) 451; Type: Everett FB 7257 (PNH, holo, lost; A, iso), Negros: Mt Silay. = Trigonostemon anomalus Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 569; EPFP 2 (1923) 451; Type: Villamil FB 22018 (PNH, holo, lost; A, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga District, Naganaga. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. laevigatus. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam.
  3. Trigonostemon longifolius Wall. ex Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15 (1866) 1108; Yu & Van Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 197; Yu et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 929; Type: from Malaysia. = Trigonostemon longipedunculatus (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1306; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 452; ≡ Croton longipedunculatus Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 311; Type: Elmer 7264 (PNH, holo; A, BO, E, G, K, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Palo. = Trigonostemon oblanceolatus C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 337; EPFP 2 (1923) 452; Type: Williams 2185 (PNH, holo; K, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga District, Sax River. = Trigonostemon longipedunculatus (Elmer) Elmer var. mollis R.I.Milne, Kew Bull. 50 (1995) 40; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, China, India, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Native.
  4. Trigonostemon longipes (Merr.) Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 191; EPFP 2 (1923) 452; Yu & Van Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 199; Yu et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 927; Blumea 65 (2020) 16; ≡ Dimorphocalyx longipes Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 82; Type: Whitford FB 1066 (K, lecto; NY, P, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDORO. Native.
  5. Trigonostemon merrillii Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1304; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 452; Yu & Van Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 203; Yu et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 929; Blumea 65 (2020) 16; Type: Elmer 12819 (L, lecto; BISH, BM, BO, F, G, HBG, MO, NY, US, isolecto), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Trigonostemon oblongifolius Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 409; EPFP 2 (1923) 452; Yu & Van Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 203; Yu et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 929; Type: Ramos BS 13965 (PNH, holo, lost; A, US, iso), Luzon: Cagayan, Abulug River. = Trigonostemon luzoniensis Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 568; EPFP 2 (1923) 452; Type: Ramos & Edaño PNH 33539 (PNH, holo, lost; A, K, iso), Luzon: Camarines, Paracale. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte. Native.
  7. Trigonostemon palustris R.Y.Yu & Welzen, Blumea 65 (2020) 20; Type: Yu 260 (PNH, holo; DLSUH, L, iso), Palawan: El Nido, trail to the Nakalit-kalit Waterfalls, 2-Apr-2018. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  8. Trigonostemon philippinensis Stapf in Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 206, as 'philippinense'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 452; Yu & Van Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 206; Yu et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 930; Type: Elmer 8326 (PNH, holo, lost; BO, G, K, L, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Camarines, Laguna, PANAY. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Locally abundant. Native.
  9. Trigonostemon polyanthus Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 492; EPFP 2 (1923) 452; Yu & Van Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 207; Yu et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 928; Type: Ramos BS 1645 (PNH, holo, lost; BM, BO, BRI, G, GH, L, NY, P, SING, iso), Samar: Cauayan Valley. = Trigonostemon diffusus ssp. condensus R.I.Milne, Kew Bull. 50 (1995) 47; Type: Lagrimas et al. PNH 39433 (K, holo; L, PNH lost, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Ilyang Binuauangan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests at low elevation. Native.
  10. Trigonostemon victoriae R.Y.Yu & Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 215; Yu et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 928; Blumea 65 (2020) 20; Type: Sulit PNH 12317 (L, holo; PNH, iso), Palawan: Mt Victoria, Panacan, Aborlan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  11. Trigonostemon villosus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 397; Yu & Van Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 215; Yu et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 928; Type: from Malaysia. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. Native.
    • var. borneensis (Merr.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 4 (1975) 205; ≡ Trigonostemon borneensis Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 162; Type: from Borneo. = Trigonostemon hirsutus C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 335; EPFP 2 (1923) 451; Type: Robinson BS 11798 (PNH, holo, lost), Mindanao: Zamboanga District, Port Banga. = Trigonostemon wenzelii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 380; EPFP 2 (1923) 453; Type: Wenzel 186 (PNH, holo, lost; A, G, GH, L, US, iso), Leyte: Dagami. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga.
    • var. merrillianus (Airy Shaw) R.Y.Yu & Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 220; Yu et al., Blumea 65 (2020) 23; ≡ Trigonostemon merrillianus Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 25 (1971) 549; Type: from Borneo. = Trigonostemon acuminatus Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 190; EPFP 2 (1923) 451; Type: Ramos BS 24528 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BM, BO, K, L, US, iso), Samar: Catubig River. = Trigonostemon laxiflorus Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 567; EPFP 2 (1923) 451; Type: Ramos & Edaño BS 31097 (PNH, holo, lost; A, K, P, US, lost), Panay: Capiz, Jamindan. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR.
  12. Trigonostemon viridissimus (Kurz) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 25 (1971) 545; Euph. Born. (1975) 205; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 135; Yu & Van Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 221; Yu et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 930; ≡ Sabia viridissima Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 41 (1872) 304; Type: from India. = Trigonostemon macgregorii Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 566; EPFP 2 (1923) 452; Type: McGregor BS 32424 (PNH, holo, lost; K, P, US, iso), Panay: Antique, Culasi. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, China, India, Indochina, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. PANAY. Native.
    • var. viridissimus. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. NEGROS (photos), PANAY.

Incertae sedis

  1. Trigonostemon angustifolius Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 396; EPFP 2 (1923) 451; Yu & Van Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 224; Type: Ramos & Edaño BS 36764 (of 36560) (PNH, holo, lost; A, K, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga District, Malangas. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Notes: Only known from the type. Native.
  2. Trigonostemon whiteanus (Croizat) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 38 (1983) 68; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 48; Yu & Van Welzen, Blumea 62 (2018) 225; ≡ Cheilosa whiteana Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 507; Type: Curran FB 17733 (A, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Arayat. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Only known from the type. Native.

Tritaxis Baill.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 June 2020
  1. Tritaxis cumingii (Müll.Arg.) Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 17 (1878) 221; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 449; Yu et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 932; ≡ Dimorphocalyx cumingii (Müll.Arg.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 124; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20; ≡ Trigonostemon cumingii Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 213; Type: Cuming 1693 (G-DC, holo; BM, E, G, K, L, P, iso), Samar. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Native.
  2. Tritaxis denticulata (Merr.) R.Y.Yu & Welzen, Taxon 68 (2019) 932; ≡ Dimorphocalyx denticulatus Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 278; EPFP 2 (1923) 455; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20; Type: Whitford & Hutchinson FB 9033 (PNH, holo, lost; K, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Port Banga, Nov/Dec-1907. = Dimorphocalyx murinus Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1285, as 'murina'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 455; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 87; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 21; Type: Elmer 12844 (L, lecto; BM, G, GH, HBG, K, L, NY, P, U, US, isolecto), Palawan: Puerto Princesa (Mt Pulgar). = Dimorphocalyx loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 30; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20; Loher 12467 (UC, lecto; A, isolecto), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11, as Dimorphocalyx denticulatus). Native.
  3. Tritaxis ixoroides (C.B.Rob.) R.Y.Yu & Welzen, Taxon 68 (2019) 932; ≡ Dimorphocalyx ixoroides (C.B.Rob.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 412; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20; ≡ Ostodes ixoroides C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 332; EPFP 2 (1923) 454; Type: Klemme FB 13426 (PNH, holo, lost; US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Bangui. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  4. Tritaxis malayana (Hook.f.) R.Y.Yu & Welzen, Taxon 68 (2019) 933; ≡ Dimorphocalyx malayanus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 404; Type: from Malaysia (lecto). = Dimorphocalyx luzoniensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 192; EPFP 2 (1923) 455; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 87; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 21; Type: Tamesis FB 11907 (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños. = Dimorphocalyx bulusanensis (Elmer) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 27 (1972) 92; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20; ≡ Trigonostemon bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3739; Type: Elmer 17296 (PNH, holo, lost; HBG, K, L, MO, NY, S, U, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt Bulusan). Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand. Native.

Wetria Baill.

  1. Wetria insignis (Steudel) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 350; Kew Bull. 27 (1972) 87; Euph. Born. (1975) 206; Euph. New Guinea (1980) 207; ≡ Trewia insignis Steud., Nomencl. Bot. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 698. = Agrostistachys pubescens Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 274; Pax in Engl., Pflanzenreich 57 (1912) 99; Type: FB 5940 Curran (US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mabayo, in bamboo thickets along streams, Jan-1907. = Wetria macrophylla J.J.Sm., Meded. Dept. Landbouw 10 (1910) 471; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 437, nom. superfl; ≡ Trewia macrophylla Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 612, nom. illeg., non Roth. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. BANCALAN, LUZON: Bataan, NEGROS. Notes: Lowland bamboo thickets and forests. Native.

Literature