Ericaceae

Epacridaceae

Acrothamnus Quinn

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 August 2019
  1. Acrothamnus suaveolens (Hook.f.) Quinn, Austral. Syst. Bot. 18 (2005) 452; ≡ Styphelia suaveolens (Hook.f.) Warb. in Sarasin, Reisen. 2 (1905) 329; Sleumer, Blumea 12 (1963) 148; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, (1964) 428; ≡ Leucopogon suaveolens Hook.f., Icon. Pl. 5 (1852) t.898. = Styphelia philippinensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 419; EPFP 3 (1923) 252. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. LUZON: Benguet, MINDANAO: Davao, NEGROS. Notes: Exposed ridges on the higher mountains, 2000-2820m. Native.

Costera J.J.Sm.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 May 2018
  1. Costera lanaensis (Merr.) Airy Shaw & J.J.Sm., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 13 (1935) 421; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 3; ≡ Iaera lanaensis (Merr.) H.F.Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 83; ≡ Vaccinium lanaense Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 161; EPFP 3 (1923) 250; Type: Clemens 431(PNH, holo, lost). = Vaccinium medinilloides Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1097. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Norte, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Midmontane forest, humid river gullies, etc., epiphytic on branches, 700-1300m. Native.
  2. Costera loheri (Merr.) Airy Shaw & JJ.Sm., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 13 (1935) 421; ≡ Iaera loheri (Merr.) H.F.Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 85; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 3; ≡ Vaccinium loheri Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 323; EPFP 3 (1923) 250; Type: Loher 6187 (PNH, holo, lost; US). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, PANAY. Notes: In mossy forest, probably above 1000m. Native.
  3. Costera lucida (Merr.) Airy Shaw & J.J.Sm., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 13 (1935) 421; ≡ Iaera lucida (Merr.) H.F.Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 85; ≡ Diplycosia lucida Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 28; Type: BS 23504 (PNH, holo, lost; US), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Kilibong. = Vaccinium costeroides Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 248. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: Epiphytic in the mossy forest at c. 1000m. Fl. & fr. Aug. Known only from the type collection. Native.

Dimorphanthera (Drude) F.Muell. ex J.J.Sm.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 May 2018
  1. Dimorphanthera apoana (Merr.) Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. 55 (1918) 185; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 252; Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 89; Sleumer, Nova Guinea, Bot. no. 7 (1961) 83; ≡ Vaccinium apoanum Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. Philipp. 29 (1905) 39; Type: Copeland 1105 (PNH, holo, lost; K, NY, US, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. apoana. = Vaccinium calelanum Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1096. Distribution: MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: In mossy forest, often on exposed ridges or in summit vegetation, 1200-2450m. Fl. Jan-Dec.
    • var. mindanaensis (Merr.) P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 58 (1977) 439; ≡ Dimorphanthera mindanaensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 418; EPFP 3 (1923) 252; Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 92; Sleumer, Nova Guinea, Bot. no. 7 (1961) 82; Type: FB 4708 Mearns & Hutchinson (PNH, lecto, lost), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental, Mt Malindang, MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang), Bukidnon (Mt Lipa). Mossy forest, c. 1700m. Notes: Twice found.

Gaultheria Kalm ex L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 December 2020
  1. Gaultheria apoensis (Elmer) Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 303; ≡ Diplycosia apoensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1101, as ‘apoense’; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 246; Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 79; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 139; Type: Elmer 11676b (PNH, holo, lost; BISH, BO, E, FI, K, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Calelan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Notes: In dwarfed mossy forest, on exposed peaks and ridges, c. 2500m. Fl. Sep. Native.
  2. Gaultheria bartolomei (Ferreras & Argent) Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 303; ≡ Diplycosia bartolomei Ferreras & Argent, Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68 (2011) 39; Type: U. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Ferreras & N. Bartolome UF475 (PNH, holo; E, L, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Central Sierra Madre Mountains, Mt Mingan. AURORA. Native.
  3. Gaultheria benitotanii (Argent) Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 304; ≡ Diplycosia benitotanii Argent, Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 12 (2018) 73; Type: 20091158 (PNH, holo; E, L, iso), collected on 8-Apr-2010 from cultivated specimen at E from Argent P30a, Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, 15-Mar-1997. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Argent 2018, as Diplycosia benitotanii). Native.
  4. Gaultheria borneensis Stapf, Trans. Linn. Soc. II, Bot. 4 (1894) 190; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 246; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 163; Type: from Borneo. = Gaultheria itoana Hayata, Mat. Fl. Formosa (1908) 150. = Gaultheria benguetensis H.F.Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 58; Type: Merrill 4796 (PNH, holo, lost; K, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Pauai to Baguio, Oct/Nov-1905. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Prostrate, not rarely cushion-like shrublet in ± open places along pine forest edges, also on talus along road, 1800-2400m. Fl. & fr. Jan-Dec. Native.
  5. Gaultheria coi (Argent) Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 305; ≡ Diplycosia coi Argent, PJS 142 (2013) 52; Type: Argent 19972480 (PNH, holo; E, L, iso), cult. from Argent P30: Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, 25-Jan-2012. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Native.
  6. Gaultheria heterophylla (Blume) Endl. ex Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bog. (1844) 160; Kron et al., Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 306; ≡ Diplycosia heterophylla Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 858; Type: from Java. Native.
    • var. latifolia (Blume) Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 306; ≡ Diplycosia heterophylla var. latifolia (Blume) Sleumer, Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 156; ≡ Diplycosia latifolia Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 858. = Diplycosia baclayensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1100; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 246; Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 78; Type: Elmer 11595 (PNH, holo, lost; E, K, L, MO, NY, iso). Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Free standing treelet or shrub to 6m, or an epiphyte in montane forest, especially in mossy forest, 1000-2500m.
  7. Gaultheria kitangladensis (P.W.Fritsch) Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 307; ≡ Diplycosia kitangladensis P.W.Fritsch, Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 62 (2017) 22; Type: D.S. Penneys 2257 (PNH, holo; CAS, CMUH, E, US, iso), Mindanao: Bukidnon, Mt Kitanglad Range Natural Park, Lantapan, Brgy Songco, 23-Apr-2014, 2510m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (Fritsch & Amoroso 2017, as Diplycosia kitangladensis). Native.
  8. Gaultheria leucocarpa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 856. Native.
    • var. leucocarpa.
      • forma cumingiana (S.Vidal) Sleumer, Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 179; ≡ Gaultheria cumingiana S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 184; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 246, pro parte; Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 61; Type: Cuming 934 (cited as ‘932’, MA, holo; BM, K, L, MEL, iso), Luzon: Albay, Mt Mayon, 1841. Distribution: China, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Laguna, Mountain Province, Zambales. Notes: Usually in open, exposed sites in the montane zone (common in the pine belt of the Cordillera Highlands), c. 900-2500m. On steep slopes, exposed outcrops along roadcuts, crater margins, gravelly ground, volcanic or occasionally peaty and generally poor soil, occasionally epiphytic. Fl. Jan-Dec.
      • var. psilocarpa (H.F.Copel.) Sleumer, Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 183; ≡ Gaultheria psilocarpa H.F.Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 62; Type: BS 38903 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; A, BM, BRI, L, iso), Mindanao: Bukidnon, Mt Candoon. = Gaultheria cumingiana auct. non S.Vidal; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 246, pro parte; LUZON: Laguna, MINDORO, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. 1800-2800m.
  9. Gaultheria loheri (Merr.) Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 308; ≡ Diplycosia loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 44; EPFP 4 (1925) 253; Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 67; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 131; Type: Loher 13693 (PNH, holo, lost; E, fragment of type; US). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: L.L.Co: Only known from the type collection. Native.
  10. Gaultheria luzonica A.Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sc. 5 (1861) 324; Kron et al., Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 308; ≡ Diplycosia luzonica (A.Gray) Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 293; EPFP 3 (1923) 247; Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 71; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 143; Type: USS Pacif. Expl. Exp. (GH, holo; US, iso). = Diplycosia scandens Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 219; EPFP 3 (1923) 247; Type: Merrill 4597 (cited as ‘4579’) (PNH, holo, lost; BO, K, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data. = Diplycosia fasciculiflora Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 52; EPFP 3 (1923) 246; Type: BS 37811 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Ifugao, Mt Polis. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. calelanensis (Elmer) Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 308; ≡ Diplycosia luzonica var. calelanensis (Elmer) Sleumer, Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 144; ≡ Diplycosia calelanensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1103; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 246; Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 74; Type: Elmer 11681 (US, holo; A, BISH, BO, CAL, E, FI, K, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Calelan, epiphytic shrub on stunted trees or shrubs on the summit, 8500ft, Sep-1909. = Diplycosia glabra Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 442; EPFP 3 (1923) 247; Type: BS 31784 J.K. Santos (PNH, holo, lost; A, BO, CAL, K, L, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Pauai. = Diplycosia opaca C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 355; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 247; Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 77; Type: BS 9385 Robinson (PNH, holo, lost; US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Infanta, Mt Binuang, Aug-1909. Distribution: LUZON: Benguet, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, South Cotabato, PALAWAN. Notes: In forest, especially in dwarfed mossy forest on exposed peaks and ridges, 900-2500m.
    • var. luzonica. Distribution: BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Laguna, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental, NEGROS. Notes: Both in mossy forest or forest edge, and on dry exposed grassland-slope, 1100-2700m. Fl. & fr. Jan-Dec.
    • var. merrittii (Merr.) Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 308; ≡ Diplycosia luzonica var. merrittii (Merr.) Sleumer, Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 144; ≡ Diplycosia merrittii Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 293; EPFP 3 (1923) 247; Type: Merrill 5670 (PNH, holo, lost; K, L, NY, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, Nov-1906. Distribution: MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO, PALAWAN.
    • var. pubens (Sleumer) Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 308; ≡ Diplycosia luzonica var. pubens Sleumer, Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 143; Type: BS 40397 Ramos & Edaño (L, holo; A, BO, K, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulogloco, Sep-1921. Distribution: LUZON: Benguet.
  11. Gaultheria merrillii Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 309; ≡ Diplycosia parvifolia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 211; EPFP 3 (1923) 247; Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 81; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 137; Type: Merrill 6995 (PNH, holo, lost; K, L, iso), Negros: Negros Occidental, Mt Kanlaon, c. 1500m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, NEGROS. Notes: In mossy forest, 1500-1855m. Native.
  12. Gaultheria platyphylla (P.W.Fritsch) Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 311; ≡ Diplycosia platyphylla P.W.Fritsch, PhytoKeys 69 (2016) 31; Type: D.S. Penneys 2302 (PNH, holo; CAS-1196249, CMUH-00010804, iso), Mindanao: North Cotabato, Mt Apo, Brgy Ilomavis, Matingao River Watershed, 29-Apr-2014. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: North Cotabato. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (Fritsch & Amoroso 2016, as Diplycosia platyphylla). Native.
  13. Gaultheria trinervia (Elmer) Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 314; ≡ Diplycosia trinervia Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1102; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 247; Copel., PJS 47 (1932) 68; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 142; Type: Elmer 11676a (US, lecto; E, K, L, NY, PNH, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Todaya, Mt Apo, elfinwoods at the summit of Mt Calelan, Sep-1909. = Diplycosia luzonica Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1105, nom. illeg., non (A.Gray) Merr. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: In dwarfed mossy forest, c. 2500m. Fl. Sep. Only known from the type (Fritsch & Amoroso 2017). Native.
  14. Gaultheria urdanetensis (Elmer) Kron & P.W.Fritsch, Gard. Bull. Singapore 72 (2020) 314; ≡ Diplycosia urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2628; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 247; Fritsch & Amoroso, Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 62 (2017) 26; ≡ Diplycosia trinervia var. urdanetensis (Elmer) Sleumer, Reinwardtia 4 (1957) 143; Type: Elmer 13800 (PNH, lecto, lost?; A, BISH, BO, CAL, E, GH, HBG, K, L, MO, NA, NY, P, U, UC, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, mossy forest, epiphytic on mossy trunk, c. 2000m, Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Mossy forest, c. 2000m. Fl. Sep. Known only from the type collection (Fritsch & Amoroso 2017). Native.

Rhododendron L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 7 November 2020
  1. Rhododendron acrophilum Merr. & Quisumb., PJS 82 (1953) 333; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 130; Type: PNH 34 Edaño (A, holo; BM, K, L, PNH, US, iso), Palawan: Mt Mantalingahan. Mossy forest, c. 1725m, 13-May-1947. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Known only from the type collection. Fl. May. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Rhododendron apoanum Stein, Gartenflora 34 (1885) 194; Merr., EPFP (1923) 243; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 146; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 99; Type: Schadenberg s.n. (B, holo, lost), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, 1882. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao. Notes: Mossy forest on peaks and ridges, 1380-2930m, apparently not rare on Mt Apo. Fl. Mar, May-Oct. Native.
  3. Rhododendron bagobonum H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 151; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 154; Type: M.S. Clemens s.n. (UC, holo), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Jun-1924. = Rhododendron cuneifolium Stapf var. subspathulatum Ridl., J. St. Br. R. As. Soc. 33 (1900) 23. = Rhododendron galioides J.J.Sm., Bull. Jard. Bot. Btzg. 3, 13 (1935) 445. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Davao, PALAWAN. Notes: Probably an epiphyte, other local ecological notes not clearly stated. Those given by Sleumer are largely based on Borneo: in primary mossy forest on mountain ridges, heath forest, mostly open sunny places, 900-2135m. Fl. Jan-Dec. Native.
  4. Rhododendron brachygynum H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 137; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 219; Type: FB 28346 Cenabre & de la Cruz (PNH, holo, lost), Cebu: Sudlon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU. Notes: Known only from the type collection. Native.
  5. Rhododendron edanoi Merr. & Quisumb., PJS 83 (1953) 333; Type: PNH 153 Edaño (A, holo; BM, K, L, PNH, US, iso), Palawan: Mt Mantalingahan. Mossy forest, 1725m, 13-May-1947. = Rhododendron pneumonanthum Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 132. Native.
    • ssp. edanoi. Distribution: PALAWAN. Notes: Fl. May. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  6. Rhododendron jasminiflorum Hook., Bot. Mag. (1850) t. 4524. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. Native.
    • var. copelandii (Merr.) Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 130; ≡ Rhododendron copelandii Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. No. 29 (1905) 42; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 158; Type: E.B. Copeland 1439 (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; A, K, NY, P, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo summit thickets, Oct-1904. Distribution: MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: High-montane thickets, 2350-3100m. Fl. Mar-Nov. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  7. Rhododendron javanicum (Blume) Benn. in Benn. & Br., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1838) 85. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sumatra. Native.
    • ssp. palawanense Argent, Gard. Bull. Sing. 56 (2004) 90; ≡ Rhododendron palawanense (Argent) Craven, J. Adelaide Bot Gard. 27 (2014) 29; Type: Argent & Romero Acc. 19922770 (PNH, holo; E, iso), Palawan: Mt Mantalingahan, cultivated specimen collected 16-Jan-1998. Distribution: PALAWAN. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
    • ssp. schadenbergii (Warb.) Argent, Rhododendrons of Subgenus Vireya (2006) 247; ≡ Rhododendron javanicum var. schadenbergii (Warb.) Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 195; ≡ Rhododendron schadenbergii Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 3 (1905) 172; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 245, pro parte; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 170; Craven, J. Adelaide Bot Gard. 27 (2014) 29; Type: Schadenberg s.n. (B, holo, lost), Luzon: Abra, 1300m. = Rhododendron spectabile Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. Philipp. no. 29 (1905) 42; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 245; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 168; Type: E.B. Copeland 1438 (PNH, lecto, lost; A, E, fragm. ex PNH, K, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Oct-1904. = Rhododendron clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 160, 381; EPFP 3 (1923) 243; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 167; Type: Clemens 732 (PNH, holo, lost; US, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Camp Keithley, Oct-1906. Distribution: CAMIGUIN, JOLO, LUZON: Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao del Sur, South Cotabato, Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Low to high montane primary and secondary forests, also near volcanic craters, narrow ridge crests, steep slopes, in rather dry grounds, between rocks, along streams, etc., 600-2900m. Mostly epiphytic, but on Mt Apo also reported as a terrestrial shrub. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  8. Rhododendron kochii Stein, Gartenflora 34 (1885) 193; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 243; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 160; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 212; Type: Schadenberg s.n. (B, holo, lost); Elmer 11435 (L, neo; A, BM, BO, E, FI, GH, K, NY, U, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Copeland also mentions BS 692 Foxworthy from Palawan (Mt Victoria) as possibly conspecific but because material is merely in fruit, cannot be positively identified. Nonetheless, this is the only Rhododendron seen by him from Palawan. On ridges on mossy forest, 1000-2300m. Fl. Jan-Dec. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  9. Rhododendron leytense Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 55; EPFP 3 (1923) 244; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 165; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 218; Type: BS 15252 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; BM; E, fragm. ex PNH; K, L, P, US, iso), Leyte: Mt Ibuni (back of Dagami). = Rhododendron flaviflorum Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 244. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. leytense. Distribution: CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: Mossy forest, probably above 1000m.
    • var. loheri (H.F.Copel.) Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 218; ≡ Rhododendron loheri H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 166; Type: Loher 14769 (PNH, holo, lost; E fragm. ex PNH, UC), Luzon: Rizal, Guiniuisan. Distribution: LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Known only from the type collection.
  10. Rhododendron loboense H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 137; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 130; Type: FB 28045 Mabesa (PNH, holo, lost; A, E, fragm.), Luzon: Batangas, Lobo Mtns. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Batangas, MINDORO, NEGROS (photos). Notes: Fl. Apr. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  11. Rhododendron madulidii Argent, New Plantsman 5(4) (1998) 204. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  12. Rhododendron mendumiae Argent, Gard. Bull. Sing. 56 (2004) 82. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: From Cleopatra Needle. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  13. Rhododendron mindanaense Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. Philipp. no. 29 (1905) 41; EPFP 3 (1923) 244; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 164; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 219; Type: E.B. Copeland 1042 (PNH, holo, lost); De Vore & Hoover 73 (PNH, para, lost; A, E fragm. ex PNH). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Mossy dwarfed shrub vegetation near summit, 2700-2895m. Fl. Jul-Aug. Photo. Native.
  14. Rhododendron nortoniae Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 220; EPFP 3 (1923) 244; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 149; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 103; Type: Clemens 500 (PNH, holo, lost; E fragm., sterile), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Camp Keithley, 800m. = Rhododendron catanduanense Merr. in Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 149; Type: BS 30346 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; E fragm., sterile, US, iso), Catanduanes: Mt Mariguidon, 270m, Nov/Dec-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, NEGROS. Native.
  15. Rhododendron quadrasianum S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 170; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 140; –Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 244; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 65; Type: Vidal (K, holo), Luzon: Albay, Mt Mayon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. quadrasianum. Distribution: LUZON: Albay, Camarines Sur, MINDORO. Notes: Rocky open slopes, 1330-2100m, abundant. Fl. & fr. May-Jun.
    • var. davaoense (H.F.Copel.) Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 65; ≡ Rhododendron quadrasianum forma davaoense H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 143; Type: Williams 2543 (PNH, holo, lost; GH, K, L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, 31-Mar-1905. = Rhododendron quadrasianum forma negrosense H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 142; Type: Merrill Philip. Pl. 247 (PNH, holo, lost; FI, L, U, US, iso), Negros: Negros Occidental, Mt Kanlaon, Apr-1910. Distribution: LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, South Cotabato, NEGROS. Notes: Dense mossy forest on summits, 1600-2440m. Fl. & fr. Jan-Dec.
    • var. intermedium Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 382; EPFP 3 (1923) 244; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 143; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 66; Type: FB 8063 Curran & Merritt (PNH, holo, lost; US, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Nov/Dec-1907. Distribution: LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Mountain Province, Zambales. Notes: Open exposed ridges, 2000-2400m.
    • var. malindangense (Merr.) H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 142; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 66; ≡ Rhododendron malindangense Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 256; EPFP 3 (1923) 244; Type: FB 4705 Mearns & Hutchinson (PNH, holo, lost; BO, K, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental, Mt Malindang, May-1906. Distribution: CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Misamis Occidental. Notes: Mossy forest, 1000-1600m. Fl. & fr. Mar-Sep.
    • var. marivelesense (H.F.Copel.) Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 66; ≡ Rhododendron quadrasianum forma marivelesense H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 141; Type: Merrill 3215 (PNH, holo, lost; BM, K, L 2 sheets, NY, P, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Oct-1903. Distribution: LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Laguna, MINDORO. Notes: Mossy forest, 1200-2500m. Fl. & fr. Mar-Nov.
    • var. rosmarinifolium (S.Vidal) H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 144; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 245; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 65; ≡ Rhododendron rosmarinifolium S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 172; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 245; Type: Vidal 1530 (K, holo; A fragm., FI, L 2 sheets, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Bontoc. = Rhododendron quadrasianum var. intermedium Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 382, pro parte; EPFP 3 (1923) 244, pro parte; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 65. = Rhododendron quadrasianum forma halconense H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 141; Type: Merrill 5736 (PNH, holo, lost; K, L, NY, P, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, Nov-1906. = Rhododendron quadrasianum forma banahaoense H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 145; Type: Cuming 804 (PNH, holo, lost; BM, CGE, FI, K, L, MEL, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Banahaw. = Rhododendron quadrasianum forma pulogense H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 144; Type: BS 44944 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; A, BRI, L, NY, UC, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulag, Feb/Mar-1925. Distribution: BILIRAN, LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Zambales, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Mossy (oak) forest, also in secondary growth and open places, locally common, 1300-2400m. Fl. & fr. Jan-Dec.
  16. Rhododendron reynosoi Argent, Gard. Bull. Sing. 56 (2004) 84. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: From Cleopatra Needle. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  17. Rhododendron rousei Argent & Madulid, New Plantsman 5 (1998) 25; Type: Argent 8984 & E. Reynoso. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Known from Mt Giting-giting. Native.
  18. Rhododendron × sarcodes Argent & Madulid, New Plantsman 2 (1995) 156. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: North Cotabato. Notes: 1800m. Native.
  19. Rhododendron subsessile Rendle, J. Bot. 34 (1896) 357; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 245; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 174; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 228; Type: Whitehead s.n. (BM, holo), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data. = Rhododendron subsessile var. baucoense H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 175. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Rather common in the pine region and the pine-oak association below the mossy forest, rare in the mossy forest (Mt Pulag), again on exposed grass-covered slopes above the moss forest, often in clumps or masses, 1300-2400m. Fl. & fr. Jan-Dec. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  20. Rhododendron taxifolium Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 419; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 156; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 141; Type: BS 44880 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; A, BM, E type fragm., K, P), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulag. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: 2700m. Epiphytic shrub on trees in the mossy forest. Fl. Feb-Mar. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  21. Rhododendron vidalii Rolfe, J. Bot. 24 (1886) 348; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 245; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 152; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 151; Type: Vidal 1529 (K, holo; FI, L), Luzon: Mountain Province, Bontoc. = Rhododendron curranii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 255; EPFP 3 (1923) 243; Type: FB 8061 Curran & Merritt (PNH, lecto, lost; US). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • ssp. brachystemon Argent, Folia Malesiana 4 (2003) 101. Distribution: MINDORO.
    • ssp. vidalii. Distribution: LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Zambales. Notes: Mostly in mossy forest, but also terrestrial on banks in rather barren places or grassland, epiphytic on large, moss covered trees or terrestrial on shrubby mountain side or exposed ridges, locally not rare, 1000-2100m. Fl. Jan-Dec. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  22. Rhododendron whiteheadii Rendle, J. Bot. 34 (1896) 356; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 245; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 154; Sleumer, Blumea 21 (1973) 357; Type: Whitehead s.n. (BM, holo), Luzon: Ifugao, Mt Polis. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Zambales. Native.
  23. Rhododendron wilkiei Argent, Gard. Bull. Sing. 56 (2004) 88. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Known from Thumb Peak. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  24. Rhododendron williamsii Merr. ex H.F.Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 137; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 190; Type: Elmer 6519 (US, holo; K, NY, P), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio. = Rhododendron schadenbergii auct. non Warb.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 245, pro parte. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Zambales. Notes: Along streams and ravines, 1500-2200m. Native.
  25. Rhododendron xanthopetalum Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. Philipp. no. 29 (1905) 41; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 246; Copel., PJS 40 (1929) 169; Type: Whitford 322 (PNH, holo, lost). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: In Bataan, an epiphyte in mossy forest, 1200m. L.L.Co: An imperfectly known species, apparently rare. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  26. Rhododendron zollingeri J.J.Sm., Icon. Bog. 4 (1910) 73; Sleumer, Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 109; Type: from Java. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Reported elsewhere in Malesia on bare open slopes or ridges, exposed summits, volcanic rocks or crater walls, in fern-, grass-, and scrub vegetation or open forest, in Casuarina forest, on dry places, on sandy, stony, or ashy soil, also near solfataras, common locally, (1200-)1800-3090m. Fl. & fr. predominantly in the dry season Apr-Oct. Native.

Needs name

  1. Rhododendron brookeanum Low ex Lindl., J. Hort. Soc. 3 (1848) 82. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. Native.
    • ssp. palawanense ined.; Voucher: Argent M270, Palawan: Mt Mantalingahan. Very close to var. kinabaluense but differs in the longer flower-tubes, the almost glabrous ovary (lacking silvery scales as well as only having a few scattered simple hairs) and a longer style with a smaller stigma. Notes: Flowers orange with yellow star, highlighted with dark pink at the edge. Anthers purple.

Styphelia Sm.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 March 2022
  1. Styphelia malayana (Jack) J.J.Sm., Nova Guinea 8 (1912) 797; Crayn et al., Australian Syst. Bot. (2020) 140; Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, (1964) 426; ≡ Leucopogon malayanus Jack, Malayan Misc. 1 (1820) 20. Native.
    • ssp. malayana. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental, PALAWAN (photos). Notes: Ultramafic scrub vegetation, c. 1200m.

Vaccinium L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 February 2022
  1. Vaccinium agusanense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2630; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 247; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 551; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 49; Type: Elmer 13765 (PNH, holo, lost; BISH, BM, BO, FI, GH, K, L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, epiphytic shrub upon a mossy wind-swept peak of the Maaay group at 5750ft (1752m), Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur. Notes: In semi-open mountain forest, or in mossy forest, 1100-1800m. Fr. Feb, Sep. Native.
  2. Vaccinium alvarezii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 304; EPFP 3 (1923) 247; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 562; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 87; Type: FB 18466 (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Cagayan, Dalisay River. = Vaccinium turbinatum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 54; EPFP 3 (1923) 252; Type: BS 15068 Ramos (US, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio near Paete. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. alvarezii. Distribution: LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, Rizal. Notes: Primary forest, (100-)300 to at most 1470m (Sleumer’s maximum citation of ‘2000m’ is improbable as the highest point among aforecited localities is 1470m on Mt Irid summit).
    • var. moisense H.F.Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 564; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 88; Type: BS 47303 Ramos & Edaño (UC, holo; BM, L, NY, P, SING), Luzon: Isabela, Mt Moises, epiphytic, 900m, Mar-1926. Distribution: LUZON: Isabela. Notes: Known only from the type collection.
  3. Vaccinium bancanum Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 1 (1860) 587; Type: from Banka. = Vaccinium suluense H.F.Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 568; Type: Clemens 9337 (PNH, ?lost), Sulu. Native.
    • var. bancanum. Distribution: Borneo, Java Sea, Philippines, Riau Arch, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, SULU. Notes: Known from Bukidnon from Mt Maraniag (FB 30277 Rojas, ?lost), only collected in fruit and cited by Copeland as Vaccinium suluense. On a hill (possibly with secondary forest, 10m) in Sulu, c. 730m in Bukidnon. Sleumer (1961, 1967) did not accredit this species to the Philippines, though Vaccinium suluense is included in the synonymy of Vaccinium bancanum.
  4. Vaccinium banksii Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. Philipp. no. 35 (1906) 54; EPFP 3 (1923) 248; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 590; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 81; Type: Banks s.n. (PNH, holo, lost); Merrill 223 (US, FI, G, PNH, lost, neo). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: On ridges in the mossy forest, 1300-2000m. Native.
  5. Vaccinium barandanum S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 169; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 248; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 556; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 48; Type: Vidal 1532 (K, holo; FI, L, iso), Luzon: Lepanto (most likely in present-day W Mountain Province). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. barandanum. Distribution: LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: In damp shaded ravines and in mossy forest, also in pine-oak association, reported to be tree-like on cliffs, 1300-2600m, locally not rare. Fl. & fr. Jan-Dec.
    • var. cagayanense H.F.Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 557; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 49; Type: BS 47300 Ramos & Edaño (UC, holo; A, BM, BO, L, NY, P, SING 2 sheets, iso), Luzon: Isabela, Mt Moises, Mar-1926. Distribution: LUZON: Aurora, Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Isabela, Laguna, Quirino.
    • var. hutchinsonii (Merr.) H.F.Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 558; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 49; ≡ Vaccinium hutchinsonii Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 294; EPFP 3 (1923) 249; Type: Merrill 5524 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, Nov-1906. Distribution: MINDORO. Notes: Epiphytic in mossy ridge forest, 1600-2000m. Fl. Nov.
  6. Vaccinium benguetense S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 168; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 248; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 566; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 104; Type: Vidal 1534 (K, lecto; FI, L, MA, isolecto); Vidal 1515 (syn), Luzon: Benguet. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Zambales, PANAY. Notes: Forested slopes and in ravines, 500-1600m. Fl. Jan-Dec. Native.
  7. Vaccinium brachytrichum Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 78; Type: Merrill 9526 (not ‘BS 9526 Merrill’; Sleumer 1961) (L, holo; BM, BO, GH, K, NY, P, SING, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Mt Capoas, Apr-1913. = Vaccinium foxworthyi H.F.Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 580, pro parte, excl. type. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Only known from the type collection from Mt Capoas at 1000m, unless conspecific with Elmer 13202, in fruit, from nearby Mt Pulgar. The latter is similar to the type but with narrower leaves. Fl. & fr. Apr. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  8. Vaccinium camiguinense Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 248; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 578; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 72; Type: BS 14622 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN. Notes: Mossy forest near summit, c. 1000m. Fl. & fr. Mar-Apr. Native.
  9. Vaccinium carmesinum M.N.Tamayo & P.W.Fritsch, Phytotaxa 533 (2022) 174; Type: Plants and Lichens of the Southern Philippines Survey 611 (PNH, holo; A, BRIT, CAS, CMUH, NY, iso), Mindanao: Bukidnon, Malaybalay, Brgy Kibalabag, Mt Limbawon, Mt Tago Range, accessory trail to peak, 1546m, 10-Jun-2019. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Tamayo et al. 2022). Native.
  10. Vaccinium caudatum Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1905) 173; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 248; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 565; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 104; Blumea 12 (1963) 137; Type: Cuming 905 (B, lecto, lost; BM, FI, G, K, L), Luzon: Albay; Warburg 13753 (B, syn, lost; E, syn), Luzon: Laguna, Siniloan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Cagayan, Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Damp primary forests at low elevation, mostly below 500m. Fl. Jan-Dec. Native.
  11. Vaccinium cebuense Salares & Pelser, Phytotaxa 360 (2018) 257; Type: Obico 801 (PNH, holo; CHR, iso), Cebu: Alcoy, Brgy Nug-as, 14-Dec-2016. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Salares et al. 2018). Native.
  12. Vaccinium cumingianum S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 167; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 248; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 584; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 82; Type: Cuming 805 (PNH, lecto, lost; BM, G, K, L, P, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Banahaw. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. cumingianum. Distribution: LUZON: Batangas, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Montane forest, especially mossy forest, locally common on exposed ridges, (600-)1100-2000m. Fl. Jan-Dec.
    • var. igorotorum H.F.Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 586; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 83; Type: Elmer 5804 (US, holo; K, NY, P, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Sto Tomas, Mar-1904. Distribution: LUZON: Benguet, La Union, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: 1500m to more than 2000m in the Cordillera Highlands of N Luzon.
    • var. marivelesense H.F.Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 586; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 83; Type: Whitford 459 (US, holo; K, NY, iso). Distribution: LUZON: Bataan, Zambales.
    • var. pyriforme (Merr.) H.F.Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 586; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 83; ≡ Vaccinium pyriforme Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 295; EPFP 3 (1923) 251; Type: FB 4424 Merritt (PNH, holo, lost; K, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon. Distribution: LUZON: Albay, Camarines, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Epiphytic in forest on Mt Halcon, at least 1260-2700m on Mt Mayon.
  13. Vaccinium elegans Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1903; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 249; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 569; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 69; Type: Elmer 11683 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BM, FI, G, GH, K, L, NY, P, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Notes: Mossy forest over ridges, 1980-2370m. Fl. Apr, Sep. Native.
  14. Vaccinium epiphyticum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 322; EPFP 3 (1923) 249; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 555; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 48; Type: Merrill 8087 (PNH, holo, lost; BM, K, L, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga (Sax River, Mtns above San Ramon), c. 900m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Known only from the type collection. Fl. Nov. Native.
  15. Vaccinium exiguum M.N.Tamayo, R.Bustam. & P.W.Fritsch, PhytoKeys 179 (2021) 147; Type: PTI-8 with R. Bustamante (PNH, holo; PPC; BRIT, iso), Palawan: Narra, Mt Victoria, 1700m, 27-Feb-2021. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Tamayo et al. 2021). Native.
  16. Vaccinium gitingense Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1490; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 249; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 553; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 46; Type: Elmer 12555 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BM, BO, DS, FI, G, GH, K, L, P, US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, SIBUYAN. Notes: On hot, dry, gravelly river bottom (probably washed down from mountain forest, showing minor leaves) or along streams and on ridges at low elevation, ascending to 450m. Aforecited localities (especially Surigao and Dinagat) are predominantly ultramafic sites. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  17. Vaccinium halconense Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 294; EPFP 3 (1923) 249; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 578; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 89; Type: Merrill 5665 (PNH, holo, lost; K, NY, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, South Cotabato, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: In mossy forest, on exposed ridges, 1200-2135m. Fl. & fr. Jan-Dec. Native.
  18. Vaccinium hamiguitanense P.W.Fritsch, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 14 (2020) 282; Type: Fritsch 2027 (PNH, holo; BRIT, CAS, CMUH, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, San Isidro, Brgy La Union, Mt Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary, 23-Jun-2015. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Fritsch et al. 2020). Native.
  19. Vaccinium indutum S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 169; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 249; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 594; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 35; Type: Vidal 1831 (K, holo; L, MA, iso). = Vaccinium macgregorii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 53; EPFP 3 (1923) 250; Type: BS 19846 McGregor (PNH, holo, lost; BM, K, P, US, iso), Luzon: Ifugao, Mt Polis. = Vaccinium sorsogonense Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3730; Type: Elmer 17026 (PNH, holo, lost; BM, BO, FI, K, L, NY, UC, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Sorsogon. Notes: Rocky ground of densely wooded steep slopes, also in mossy forest, apparently generally above 1000m, rarely down to 600m. Fl. Feb-Aug. Native.
  20. Vaccinium irigaense Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 52; EPFP 3 (1923) 249; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 576; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 88; Type: Philip. Pl. 1549 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; BM, BO, BRI, G, GH, L, K, NY, P, SING, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mt Iriga. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Sorsogon. Notes: On ridges in mossy forest, 530-1000m. Native.
  21. Vaccinium jagori Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1905) 174; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 250; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 592; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 98; Type: Jagor s.n. (B, holo, lost). = Vaccinium angustilimbum Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) 294; EPFP 3 (1923) 248; Type: BS 26603 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; A, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Dingalan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Exposed ridges in primary forest or in the mossy forest, (300-)1000-2000m. Native.
  22. Vaccinium luzoniense S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 168; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 250; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 570; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 77; Type: Vidal 1535 (K, holo). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Forested stream depressions and on ridges in the mossy forest, also on rocky banks by roadsides, 1500-2100m. Fl. & fr. Apr-Jul. Native.
  23. Vaccinium microphyllum Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 851; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 250; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 600; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 33; Type: from the Moluccas. = Vaccinium mindorense Rendle, J. Bot. 34 (1896) 355. Distribution: Moluccas, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Mossy exposed ridges and also epiphytic in mossy forest, locally common, 1220-2954m. Native.
  24. Vaccinium myrtoides (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1859) 1062; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 250; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 596; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 51; Blumea 12 (1963) 127; ≡ Thibaudia myrtoides Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 861; Type: from the Moluccas. = Vaccinium microphyllum auct. non Reinw. ex Blume; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 121, pro parte. = Vaccinium varingiaefolium auct. non (Blume) Miq.; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 30. = Vaccinium villarii S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 166. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Ifugao, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO. Notes: On steep rocky, open and bare slopes, pine-mossy forest borders, mossy forest undergrowth, summit vegetation, open montane grassland, c. 1000-3000m. Locally abundant in Benguet and summit area of Mt Apo. Native.
  25. Vaccinium nitens Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 97; Type: PNH 17677 Sulit & Conklin (L, holo; BM, K, L, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Yagaw, E slopes, steep rocky slope in virgin forest, 2500ft, 7-Jun-1953. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Steep rocky slope in virgin forest, 760m. Fl. Jul. Native.
  26. Vaccinium oscarlopezianum Co, Edinburgh J. Bot. 59 (2002) 373; Type: Co 3326 (PNH, holo; A, PUH, CAHUP, L, US, K, iso), Luzon: Isabela, San Mariano, Brgy Disulap, Dappig Creek. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Isabela. Notes: High-canopy epiphyte in fairly open sites like creeks and logging trails, 490-740m. Collected in flower in Feb and fruiting in Mar. Fairly common in the vicinity of the type locality. Thus far known from two sites that are c. 175(?) km apart. Native.
  27. Vaccinium palawanense Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 373; EPFP 3 (1923) 251, pro parte; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 581; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 73; Type: BS 696 Foxworthy (PNH, holo, lost; BM, BO, K, L, NY 2 sheets, SING, US, iso), Palawan: Mt Victoria. Mar/Apr-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. palawanense. Distribution: MINDANAO: Davao, PALAWAN. Notes: On exposed ridges and steep cliffs in mossy forest, 1000-1820m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
    • var. foxworthyi (H.F.Copel.) Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 73; ≡ Vaccinium foxworthyi H.F.Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 580; Type: BS 649 Foxworthy (PNH, holo, lost; BM, BO, GH, L, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Mt Victoria, Mar/Apr-1906. Distribution: PALAWAN. Notes: Once found together with var. palawanense at 1750m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  28. Vaccinium perrigidum Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1094; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 251; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 561; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 86; Type: Elmer 11686 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BM, BO, FI, GH, L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao. Notes: On rocky bluffs or ridges in the mossy forest, 1525-1675m. Native.
  29. Vaccinium philippinense Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1905) 174; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 251; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 550; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 49; Type: Cuming 832 (cited by Sleumer as ‘822’) (B, holo, lost; A, BM, K, L, NY, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Mayayay (possibly Majayjay, a classical Cuming locality). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: On forested slopes and ridges, 800-1200m. Fl. & fr. Apr-Dec. Native.
  30. Vaccinium platyphyllum Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 294; EPFP 3 (1923) 251; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 573; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 50; Type: BS 26583 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; US, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Dingalan. Aug/Sep-1916. = Vaccinium ilocanum Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 441; EPFP 3 (1923) 249; Type: BS 33372 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; A, BO, K, L, P, US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Mt Palimlim, Aug-1918. = Vaccinium rizalense Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 43; EPFP 4 (1925) 253; Type: Loher 14979 (PNH, holo, lost; UC, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Balacbac. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Ilocos Norte, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Shrub, small tree or epiphytic in primary lowland to mossy forest, 200-1100m. Fl. Jun-Aug. Native.
  31. Vaccinium pseudocaudatum Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 103; Type: FB 31527 Franco (NY, holo), Mindanao: Bukidnon, Maramag, Sitio Bagumbaan. Near creek along edge of grassland, 2200ft, 17-Dec-1932. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Near creek along edge of grassland, 670m. Perhaps also growing at higher elevation. Fl. Feb, Dec. Native.
  32. Vaccinium sylvaticum Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1095; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 251; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 588; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 98; Type: Elmer 11819 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BM, BO, FI, G, GH, K, L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, 1250m. = Vaccinium mearnsii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1098; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 250; Type: Elmer 11251 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BM, BO, FI, G, GH, K, L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, 1000m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Forested ridges, 1000-1250m. Fl. & fr. Aug-Sep. Native.
  33. Vaccinium tenuipes Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 375; EPFP 3 (1923) 251; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 571; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 77; Blumea 12 (1963) 130; Type: Clark s.n. (PNH, lecto, lost); Elmer 10108 (US, syn and neolecto; BM, BO, FI, K, L); Merrill 6133 (PNH, syn, lost); FB 11485 Merritt (PNH, syn, lost); Elmer 9819 (PNH, syn, lost). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: In primary forest, 600-1500m; on Mt Pulag in mossy forest at 2600m. Fl. Feb-Sep. Native.
  34. Vaccinium trichocarpum Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 47; Type: PNH 10778 Mendoza & Convocar (L, holo). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental. Notes: In summit vegetation, 1300-1750m. Fl. & fr. Apr. Native.
  35. Vaccinium vidalii Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 374; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 252; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 582; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 80. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: On exposed ridges in the mossy forest, (300-)850-2000m. Native.
  36. Vaccinium whitfordii Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 295; EPFP 3 (1923) 252; Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 594; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 35; Type: Whitford s.n. (PNH, lecto, lost; K, US), Negros: Negros Occidental, Mt Silay. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Aurora, Benguet, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Kalinga, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: In forests, open heaths and thickets, 1000-2500m. Fl. & fr. Jan-Dec. Native.
  37. Vaccinium woodianum H.F.Copel., PJS 42 (1930) 591; Sleumer, Blumea 11 (1961) 82; Type: Merrill 5506 (PNH, holo, lost; NY flowers partly galled, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, 2700m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Known only from the type collection. Native.

Literature