Ebenaceae

Diospyros L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 September 2022
  1. Diospyros brideliifolia Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 507; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 290; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 464; Type: Elmer 9722 (A, BISH, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, in moist dense woods at 4000ft, Apr-1908. = Diospyros hypoleuca Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2623; Type: Elmer 14203 (BISH, L, NA, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna, Nueva Ecija (photos), Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte, Zamboanga, NEGROS. Notes: Mossy forests, 1250-2000m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Diospyros buxifolia (Blume) Hiern, Trans. Cambr. Phil. Soc. 12 (1873) 218; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 290; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 97; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 47; ≡ Leucoxylum buxifolium Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 1169; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra. LUZON, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, 0-1000m. Native.
  3. Diospyros calcicola Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 487; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 99; Type: BS 41167 Ramos (A, L, US, iso), Coron: Abundant along small streams in dry forests on limestone formation, 17-Sep-1922. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CORON, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation dry forest on limestone. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Diospyros cauliflora Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 668; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 134; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 48. = Diospyros fasciculiflora Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 334; EPFP 3 (1923) 292; Type: BS 16101 Reillo (US, iso), Basilan: Aug-1912. = Diospyros pulgarensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 286; EPFP 3 (1923) 295; ≡ Rinorea pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1849. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, CEBU, LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, ?Nueva Ecija, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland to medium elevation dipterocarp and limestone forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Diospyros curranii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 306; EPFP 3 (1923) 290; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 136; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 52. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Misamis, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
    • var. curranii. = Diospyros reticulata Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 506, nom. illeg.; Type: Elmer 9241 (A, L, NY, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, near Butano Falls, May-1907. = Diospyros viridifolia Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2626; Type: Elmer 13460 (BISH, GH, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, in moist fertile humus-covered soil of dense forests at 750ft, Aug-1912. = Diospyros sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1506; Type: Elmer 12090 (A, BISH, GH, L, MO, NA, NY 2 sheets, syn); Elmer 12091 (BISH, L, MO, NY, US, syn), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (Magdiwang), in woods skirting grassy glens at 750ft, in compact well-drained soil, Mar-1910. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Misamis, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: In low and medium elevation primary forests, to 400m. Native.
  6. Diospyros diepenhorstii Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. Sum. (1860) 250; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 142; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 55; Type: from Sumatra. = Diospyros copelandii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 45; EPFP 3 (1923) 290; Type: Copeland 246 (US, syn), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River, Jan-1904. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Lowland and hill dipterocarp forests. Native.
  7. Diospyros discolor Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 1108; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 364; EPFP 3 (1923) 291; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 145. = Diospyros blancoi A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 237; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 42. = Diospyros philippensis (Desr.) Gürke in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 41 (1890) 164, nom. illeg.; ≡ Cavanillea philippensis Desr., Encycl. 3 (1792) 663. = Diospyros merrillii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1775; Type: Elmer 12895 (L, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), in deep soil of densely forested flat at 250ft, Mar-1911. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, PALAWAN. Notes: See Barrie (2006) for comments on the nomenclature of Diospyros philippinensis. In most or all islands and provinces; introduced in other tropical countries. Primary and secondary forests at low and medium elevation, including limestone. Also commonly planted in and about towns for its large and edible fruits, called mabolo. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  8. Diospyros elliptifolia Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 421; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 232; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 57; Type: BS 44020 Ramos & Edaño (NY, SING, US, iso), Tawi-tawi: damp forests along small streams at low elevation, Jul/Aug-1924. Distribution: MINDORO, TAWI-TAWI. Native.
    • forma elliptifolia. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra. TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland forest along small streams, rare. Native.
  9. Diospyros eriantha Champ. ex Benth., Kew J. Bot. 4 (1852) 302; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 183; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 58; Type: from Hong Kong. = Diospyros eriantha var. velascoi (Merr.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 183; ≡ Diospyros velascoi Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 46; EPFP 3 (1923) 296; Type: FB 23278 Velasco, Luzon: Cagayan, Camalaniugan, Patlao, on slopes, elevation c. 100m, 18-Oct-1914. Distribution: Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Cagayan, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  10. Diospyros everettii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 307; EPFP 3 (1923) 292; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 167; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 60; Type: FB 7261 Everett (US, iso), Negros: Negros Occidental, Mt Silay, in ridge forests, c. 650m. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, NEGROS. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests to 650m. Native.
  11. Diospyros ferrea (Willd.) Bakh., Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 7 (1933) 162; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 50; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 61; ≡ Ehretia ferrea Willd., Phytogr. 1 (1794) 4. = Diospyros ferrea var. buxifolia (Rottb.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 50; ≡ Maba buxifolia (Rottb.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2 (1807) 606; Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 5 (1804) 418, nom. inval.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 289; ≡ Pisonia buxifolia Rottb., Nov. Act. Hafn. 2 (1783) 536. = Maba cumingiana A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 241; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 289; Type: Cuming 1694 (L, iso), Samar. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces; lowland forests and thickets. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  12. Diospyros hebecarpa A.Cunn. ex Benth., Fl. Austral. 4 (1869) 286; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 221; Jessup, Austrobaileya 9 (2014) 161; Type: from Australia. = Diospyros alvarezii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 335; EPFP 3 (1923) 290; Type: FB 21417 Alvarez (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Lanot, forested slopes at about sea-level, 12-May-1914. = Diospyros pellucida Hiern, Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 12 (1873) 209; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 294. Distribution: Australia, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  13. Diospyros heishi Govaerts, Skvortsovia 4 (2018) 79; ≡ Diospyros nitida Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1905) 57, nom. illeg., non Dawson; EPFP 3 (1923) 294; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 176; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philipp. Trees (1999) 93; Type: Merrill 1737 (NY, US, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, Mar-1903; Merrill 2976 (US, syn), Luzon: Zambales, Botolan, Jun-1903; FB 230 Gamill (NY, US, syn), Guimaras, Jan-1904; Elmer 6713 (NY, syn), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. = ?Diospyros kurzii auct. non Hiern; Umali et al., Ecosystems & Development Journal 8 (2018) 11; Malabrigo et al., Ecosystems & Development Journal 8 (2018) 14; De Castro et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3773. Distribution: China, Philippines, Vietnam. CATANDUANES, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Camarines, Cavite, La Union, Laguna, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, Misamis, ?PALAWAN, POLILLO. Notes: Secondary and primary lowland and hill forests, sometimes on limestone. Native.
  14. Diospyros korthalsiana Hiern, Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 12 (1873) 168; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 356; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 67. = Diospyros korthalsiana var. mirandae (Merr.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 356; ≡ Diospyros mirandae Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 335; EPFP 3 (1923) 292; Type: FB 18752 Miranda (US, iso), Mindanao: South Cotabato, SE ridge of Mt Glan, 90-125m, 6-Jun-1912. = Diospyros triflora Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 333; EPFP 3 (1923) 295; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); Type: BS 15652 Fenix (US, iso), Balabac: Cape Melville, along trails at low elevation, 18-Jul-1912. = Diospyros myrmecocalyx (Hiern) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 359; ≡ Maba myrmecocalyx Hiern, Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 12 (1873) 139. = Diospyros inclusa Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 308; EPFP 3 (1923) 292, excl. syn. Diospyros mirandae Merr; Type: Whitford 1682, Masbate: Masbate, Aroroy, on hillsides, c. 240m, Oct-1906. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BALABAC, LUZON: Quezon, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao, PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI. Native.
  15. Diospyros lanceifolia Roxb., Fl. India (Carey ed.) 2 (1832) 537; Hort. Beng. (1814) 93; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 70. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. ALABAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan, MINDORO, PANAY, SABTANG. Native.
    • forma cagayanensis Merr. ex Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 276; Type: FB 24216 Barros (A, US, syn), Luzon: Cagayan, Jul/Aug-1915; Loher 402 (US, syn), Luzon: Benguet. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Cagayan. Notes: Low and medium elevation. Native.
    • forma sabtanensis Merr. ex Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 276; ≡ Diospyros sabtanensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 426, as 'sabtanense'; EPFP 3 (1923) 295; Type: BS 3765 Fenix (US, syn); BS 3757 Fenix (US, syn), Sabtan, along mountain streams, 4-Jun-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal, SABTANG. Notes: Lowland thickets or forests along streams. Native.
    • forma wenzelii Merr. ex Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 276; Type: BS 48074 Ramos & Edaño (US, syn), Alabat, Sept/Oct-1926; BS 41054 Ramos (US, syn), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Pinamalayan, Jun-1922. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation. Native.
  16. Diospyros longiciliata Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 303; EPFP 3 (1923) 292; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 463; Type: BS 35189 Ramos & Pascasio (A, US, iso), Dinagat, in forests at low elevation, 11-May-1919. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Surigao, Zamboanga. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  17. Diospyros macrophylla Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 670; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 242; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 73; Type: from Java. = Diospyros suluensis Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 422; Type: BS 44068 (NY, US, iso), Tawi-tawi, in forests along small streams at low elevation, Aug-1924. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  18. Diospyros maritima Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 669; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 292; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 265; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 76; Jessup, Austrobaileya 9 (2014) 167; Type: from Java. = Diospyros camarinensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 336; EPFP 3 (1923) 290; Type: FB 21443 Alvarez (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Mt Calinigan, May-1914. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Batan, Luzon to Palawan, Sulu, Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces. Often common in coastal thickets and forests, also occurring inland to medium elevation. Native.
  19. Diospyros mindanaensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 309; EPFP 3 (1923) 293; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 349; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 76; Type: FB 9453 Whitford & Hutchinson (US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Port Banga, Feb-1908. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Lanao, Zamboanga del Sur, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  20. Diospyros montana Roxb., Pl. Corom. 1 (1795) 37; Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 310; EPFP 3 (1923) 293; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 200. Distribution: LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. montana. Distribution: India to Australia. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. Notes: Lowland thickets or forests. Naturalized.
    • var. timorensis Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 201. = Diospyros montana var. parva Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 293; Type: FB 13953 Merritt & Darling, Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Badoc, on rocky hillside, c. 65m. Distribution: LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija. Notes: Lowland thickets and forests. Native.
  21. Diospyros multibracteata (Merr.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 76; ≡ Maba multibracteata Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 295; EPFP 3 (1923) 289. = Maba euphlebia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 333; EPFP 3 (1923) 289; Type: BS 13335 Ramos (K, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Tagcawayan. Forests, c. 90m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, LUZON: Aurora, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, Tayabas, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  22. Diospyros multiflora Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 303; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 271. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. APULIT, LEYTE, LUZON: Batangas, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, NCR, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
    • forma canomoi (A.DC.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 271. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Thickets, primary and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
    • forma phanerophlebia (Merr.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 271; ≡ Diospyros phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 310; EPFP 3 (1923) 294; Type: FB 10993 Curran (US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Jan-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Laguna, Mountain Province, Rizal. Notes: Lowland to midmontane forests, along streams in pine forests, to 1000m. Native.
  23. Diospyros nigra (J.F.Gmel.) Perr., Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1825) 113; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 316; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philipp. Trees (1999) 93; ≡ Sapota nigra J.F.Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. 13(bis). 2 (1791) 750. = Diospyros nigra Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1945) 211; Voucher: Species Blancoanae 618, Manila. = Diospyros revoluta Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) 5 (1804) 435. = Diospyros digyna Jacq., Pl. Hort. Schoenbr. 3 (1798) 35; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philip. Trees (1999) 89. = Diospyros ebenaster Retz., Obs. 4 (1789) 31; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 362; EPFP 3 (1923) 291. Distribution: C & S America. LUZON, PALAWAN. Notes: A Mexican species introduced in the Philippines and escaped from cultivation and became wild. Widely cultivated in the Philippines in and about towns for its large edible fruits. Naturalized.
  24. Diospyros philippinensis A.DC., Prodr. Syst. Nat. 8 (1844) 231; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 112; Type: Cuming 1142 (L 2 sheets, MO, NY 2 sheets, WU, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, 1841. = Diospyros bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3807, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Voucher: Elmer 15893 (L, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt Bulusan, Apr-1916. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland primary forests to 100m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  25. Diospyros pilosanthera Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 304; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 294; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 243; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 83; Type: Not extant; illustrative specimen: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 820 leg. M Ramos (US), Luzon: Batangas, Punta Santiago, in dry forest, 5m, 11-Feb-1915. = Diospyros polyalthioides Korth. ex Hiern, Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 12 (1873) 198; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 241. = Diospyros plicata Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 336; EPFP 3 (1923) 295; Type: FB 13281 Foxworthy, de Mesa & Villamil (US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, near Margosatubig, 11-May-1912. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
    • var. pilosanthera. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: In most or all Philippine islands and provinces; lowland and medium elevation mixed dipterocarp forests. Native.
    • var. oblonga (Wall. ex G.Don) Ng, Malay Forester 40 (1977) 237; Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 81; ≡ Diospyros oblonga Wall. ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 40. = Diospyros dubia Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 295; Type: Elmer 16885 (L, NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Oct-1915. Native.
    • var. tayabensis (Merr.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 243; ≡ Diospyros tayabensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 17; Type: BS 28489 Ramos & Edaño (A, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Binuang, forested ridges at low or medium elevation, 21-May-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  26. Diospyros poncei Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 335; EPFP 3 (1923) 295; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 131; Type: BS 22842 Ponce (A 2 sheets, NY, US), Mindanao: Surigao, Combot, on semi-open slopes, c. 15m, 28-Aug-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Camarines Norte, Isabela, Quezon, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Surigao, MINDORO. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
    • forma poncei. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Isabela, Quezon, MINDANAO: Surigao. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  27. Diospyros pyrrhocarpa Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. (1860) 250, 583; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 305; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 87; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2438; Type: from Sumatra. = Diospyros ahernii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 305; EPFP 3 (1923) 289; Type: FB 3071 Ahern’s Collector (NY, US, syn), May-1905; BS 3298 Ramos (syn), Jun-1907, the above from Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso; Elmer 9110 (syn), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907. Distribution: Borneo, India, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation mixed dipterocarp forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  28. Diospyros rigida Hiern, Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 12 (1873) 257; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 88. = Diospyros pauciflora C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 213, nom. illeg., non King & Gamble; EPFP 3 (1923) 294; Type: Williams 2317, Mindanao: Zamboanga Distr, Sax River, 28-Feb-1905. Distribution: Borneo, India, Moluccas, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Lowland primary forests up to 300m. Native.
  29. Diospyros streptosepala Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 322; EPFP 3 (1923) 295; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 261; Type: BS 30481 Ramos (US, iso), Catanduanes: Mt Mariguidon, forest near summit, c. 400m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Notes: Medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  30. Diospyros tenuipes Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 483; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 261; Type: FB 29432 Salazar (PNH, holo, possibly lost; UC, iso), Luzon: Cagayan, Gonzaga, Bawa Barrio. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: Lowland primary forest. Known only from the type collection. Native.
  31. Diospyros toposia Buch.-Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 15 (1827) 115; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 291; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 95. = Diospyros foveo-reticulata Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 308; EPFP 3 (1923) 292; Type: Ahern 278 (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Pasacao, Jan/Jun-1902. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, India, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Isabela, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  32. Diospyros transita (Bakh.) Kosterm., Blumea 23 (1977) 473; ≡ Diospyros maritima var. transita Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1941) 416; Type: Elmer 12951 (A, F, GH, L, iso), Palawan: Mt Pulgar. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  33. Diospyros ulo Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 30; EPFP 3 (1923) 295; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 312; Ng, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 97. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  34. Diospyros whitfordii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 311; EPFP 3 (1923) 296; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 466; Type: FB 9019 Whitford (syn), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Port Banga, Nov-1907; FB 4811 Hutchinson (syn), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Ayala, on forested ridges, c. 30m, Jul-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Surigao, Zamboanga del Sur. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  35. Diospyros wrayi King & Gamble, Mat. Fl. Mal. Pen. In J. As. Soc. Beng. 74 (1906) 209; Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 15 (1936) 174. = Diospyros alata Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1774; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 290; Type: Elmer 13128, Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, Apr-1911. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets and secondary forests. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Possibly present

  1. Diospyros littorea (R.Br.) Kosterm., Blumea 23 (1977) 461; Jessup, Austrobaileya 9 (2014) 172; ≡ Diospyros ferrea var. littorea (R.Br.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 50; ≡ Maba littorea R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 527; Type: from Australia. Distribution: Australia, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, ?Philippines, Thailand. CUYO ARCHIPELAGO, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Littoral thickets and forests. Note by P.B. Pelser (17-Jan-20): It is unclear to me if this name is misapplied in the Philippines to plants of Diospyros ferrea.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Diospyros andamanica (Kurz) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1937) 34; ≡ Macreightia andamanica Kurz, Rep. Veg. Andaman Isl., ed. 2 (1870) 42. = Diospyros malayana (Hiern) Bakh., Gard. Bull. Str. Sett. 7 (1933) 163; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 15 (1936) 75; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philip. Trees (1999) 91; ≡ Maba punctata Hiern, Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 12 (1873) 136. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Diospyros ehretioides Wall. ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 40; Wall., Numer. List (1831) n. 4137, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philipp. Trees (1999) 89. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  3. Diospyros kaki L.f., Sp. Pl. Suppl. 2 (1781) 439; Co, Common Med. Pl. Cordillera Region (1989) 214; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philipp. Trees (1999) 90. Distribution: ?China, Japan. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Introduced in the Philippines, chiefly in the vicinity of Sagada and Bauko, where it is grown quite extensively. Fr. Jul-Nov. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  4. Diospyros virginiana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1057; Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philipp. Trees (1999) 95. Distribution: N America. Notes: Persimmon. Cultivated, not naturalized.

References