Dipterocarpaceae

Anisoptera Korth.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 February 2022
  1. Anisoptera aurea Foxw., PJS 67 (1938) 271; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 334. = Anisoptera curtisii auct. non Dyer ex King; Foxw., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 255; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 92. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, POLILLO. Notes: Mixed dipterocarp forest, especially on ridges to 200m. Native.
  2. Anisoptera brunnea Foxw., PJS 6c (1911) 254; EPFP 3 (1923) 92; Type: FB 11292 Klemme (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Cagayan, Apr-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte. Native.
  3. Anisoptera costata Korth., Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bezitt., Bot. (1841) 65; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 330. = Anisoptera mindanensis Foxw., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 181; EPFP 3 (1923) 92. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Known from one record from Zamboanga. Primary lowland forest. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Anisoptera thurifera (Blanco) Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1852) 42; EPFP 3 (1923) 92; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 333; ≡ Dipterocarpus thurifer (Blanco) Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 310; Fl. Filip. ed. 3 2 (1878) 212; ≡ Mocanera thurifera Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 446. = Mocanera mayapis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 449; ≡ Dipterocarpus mayapis (Blanco) Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 212; ≡ Shorea mayapis (Blanco) Blume, Mus. Bot. Ludg.-Bat. 2 (1852) 33. = Anisoptera vidaliana Brandis, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 31 (1895) 44. = Anisoptera tomentosa Brandis, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 31 (1895) 45. = Anisoptera calophylla Perk., Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 22. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. BABUYAN ISLS, CEBU, LUZON, MASBATE, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SIBUYAN, TICAO. Notes: Dominant in evergreen and semi-evergreen primary forests below 750m; also occurring in some types of secondary forests. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Anisoptera marginata Korth., Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bezitt., Bot. 66. I. (1841) 6; Slik, Plants of Southeast Asia (2009 onwards). Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, ?Philippines, Sumatra. ?LUZON: ?Ilocos Norte. Notes: Possibly represented by Iwatsuki, Murata & Gutierrez 944 (L) from Ilocos Norte, Mt Sicapoa Range, Mt Bubungkayo, 6-Sep-1975.

Dipterocarpus C.F.Gaertn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 June 2021
  1. Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G.Don., Gen. Hist. 1 (1831) 813; Type: Roxburgh s.n. (BR), Myanmar. = Dipterocarpus philippinensis Foxw., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 179; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 90; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 325. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: Primary mixed dipterocarp forest in seasonal areas. Rare. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Dipterocarpus condorensis Pierre, Fl. For. Cochinch. 3, 14 (1889) Pl. 214; Type: from Vietnam. Distribution: Philippines, Vietnam. Native.
    • ssp. condorensis; P.S.Ashton, Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 67 (2015) 357. = Dipterocarpus caudatus Foxw., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 177; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 89; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 305; Type: Alvarez FB 21193 (K, lecto), Luzon: Camarines, Barrio Hibatac. Distribution: Philippines, Vietnam. LUZON: Albay, Camarines, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Primary lowland forests. Local in everwet zone. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11 as Dipterocarpus caudatus Foxw.).
  3. Dipterocarpus eurhynchus Miq., Sum. (1862) 485; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 324. = Dipterocarpus basilanicus Foxw., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 179; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 88. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. BASILAN. Notes: Local, on undulating land in lowland primary dipterocarp forest. Rare. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Dipterocarpus gracilis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 224; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 89; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 301. = Dipterocarpus vernicifluus (Blanco) Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 314; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 91; ≡ Mocanera verniciflua Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 451. = Dipterocarpus fulvus Blume, Mus. Bot. 2 (1852) 37. = Dipterocarpus velutinus S.Vidal, Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 59. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao, Surigao, Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, POLILLO. Notes: Often gregarious in seasonal semi-evergreen dipterocarp forest on red soils; becoming scattered, rare, and confined to fertile red soils in everwet areas, below 800m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (Blanco) Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 314; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 89; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 317; -Mocanera grandiflora Blanco., Fl. Filip. (1837) 451. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BILIRAN, LUZON, MINDANAO: Agusan, Misamis, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Often common and dominant in semi-evergreen lowland and medium elevation dipterocarp forests, on small islands and on coastal hills in less seasonal part. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Dipterocarpus hasseltii Blume, Fl. Jav. (1829) 22; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 89; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 306, Fig. 23, 24; Type: from Java. = Dipterocarpus subalpinus Foxw., LPB 6 (1913) 1950. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 900m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Dipterocarpus kerrii King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 622 (1893) 93; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 305; Type: from Peninsular Malaysia (Malacca). = Dipterocarpus cuneatus Foxw., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 178; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 89; Type: FB 21469. = Dipterocarpus perturbinatus Foxw., PJS 13 (1918) 177. = Dipterocarpus obconicus Foxw., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 178; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 90; Type: Elmer 13498. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Albay, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: On lateritic soils in seasonally dry lowland primary dipterocarp forests, usually below 400m. Frequently gregarious. Native.
  8. Dipterocarpus kunstleri King., J. As. Soc. Beng. 62, 2 (1893) 96; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 309; Type: from Malaysia. = Dipterocarpus speciosus Brandis, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 31 (1895) 38; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 90; Type: Vidal 2160 (K), Basilan. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. BASILAN, LUZON: Albay, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Quezon, NEGROS, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Primary lowland forests, on undulating or flat land, especially near streams. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  9. Dipterocarpus pseudocornutus P.S.Ashton, Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 67 (2015) 359; Type: Gaerlan & Sagcal PPI 10209 (K, holo), Tawi-Tawi: Seratang Languyan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. TAWI-TAWI. Native.
  10. Dipterocarpus validus Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1852) 36; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 301. = Dipterocarpus affinis Brandis, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 31 (1895) 31; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 88. = Dipterocarpus lasiopodus Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip, (1904) 22; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 90. = Dipterocarpus warburgii Brandis, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 31 (1895) 32; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 91. = Dipterocarpus caudifera Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 398. = Dipterocarpus macrorhina van Slooten, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. III 8 (1927) 300. = Dipterocarpus woodii Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 398. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: Common and frequently gregarious both in primary and secondary forests, low elevation up to 300m. There is some evidence of hybridization with Dipterocarpus kunstleri in the Philippines. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Dipterocarpus orbicularis Foxw., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 180; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 90; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 326. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte. Notes: Lowland mixed dipterocarp forest. Resembles Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Blanco in fruit and Dipterocarpus gracilis Blume in the indumentum. Native.

Hopea Roxb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 June 2021
  1. Hopea acuminata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 30; EPFP 3 (1923) 93; Gutierrez, Act. Manil. 4A (1968) 47; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 420. = Hopea maquilingensis Foxw., PJS 13 (1918) 184. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao, Misamis, Zamboanga, MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: Common in semi-evergreen and evergreen forests, 100(-300-800m). Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Hopea basilanica Foxw., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 260; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 93; Gutierrez, Act. Manil. 4A (1968) 53; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 425. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO, SIBUTU. Notes: Primary lowland forests on undulating hills below 70m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Hopea brachyptera (Foxw.) Slooten, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 317; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 415; ≡ Balanocarpus brachypterus Foxw., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 195; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 101. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Primary lowland forests. Rare. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Hopea cagayanensis (Foxw.) Slooten, Reinwardtia 3 (1956) 318; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 431; ≡ Balanocarpus cagayanensis Foxw., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 194; PJS 67 (1938) 285; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 101. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan. Notes: Primary lowland semi-evergreen forests. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Hopea foxworthyi Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1469; Gutierrez, Act. Manil. 4A (1968) 32; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 397; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 94. = Hopea glutinosa Elmer, LPB 8 (1912) 1470; Type: Elmer 12289 (MO, iso), Sibuyan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Locally common on red sticky volcanic soil along ridges at 600-700m, in seasonal semi-evergreen forest. Collections cited by Foxworthy and Merrill from islands other than Sibuyan belong to Hopea malibato. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Hopea malibato Foxw., LPB 6 (1913) 1953; EPFP 3 (1923) 93; Gutierrez, Act. Manil. 4A (1968) 39; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 403. = Hopea dalingdingan H.G.Gut., Kalikasan 5 (1976) 92. = Hopea woodiana Gutierrez, Act. Manil. 4A, 2 (1968) 42. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, NEGROS. Notes: Primary evergreen dipterocarp forests in aseasonal areas. Ascending up to 600m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Hopea mindanensis Foxw., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 261; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 93; Gutierrez, Act. Manil. 4A (1968) 63; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 435. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Primary lowland evergreen forests. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  8. Hopea philippinensis Dyer, J. Bot. 16 (1878) 100; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 94; Gutierrez, Act. Manil. 4A (1968) 65; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 434. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Lanao, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Primary evergreen forests on hills in aseasonal areas, ascending to 500m, often common. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  9. Hopea plagata (Blanco) S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) t. 15A; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 62; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 94; Gutierrez, Act. Manil. 4A (1968) 55; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 423; ≡ Mocanera plagata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 447; ≡ Dipterocarpus plagatus (Blanco) Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 311. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, BOHOL, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, TABLAS, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Common in semi-evergreen seasonal forests at low and medium elevation, often dominant. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  10. Hopea quisumbingiana H.G.Gut., Act. Manil. 4-A, 2 (1968) 31; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 398; Type: BS 1623 Ramos (GH, iso), Samar: Apr-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation everwet primary forest. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  11. Hopea reynosoi H.G.Gut., Rojo & Madulid, Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 4 (2010) 67; Type: E.J. Reynoso & De la Cruz PNH125470 (PNH, holo), Samar: Eastern Samar, Balangiga, Sta. Rosa, Mar-1978. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (Gutierrez et al. 2010). Native.
  12. Hopea rudiformis P.S.Ashton, Gard. Bull. Sing. 31 (1978) 30; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 409; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995). Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Known in the Philippines from Soejarto et al. 6587 (A, F, PNH). Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  13. Hopea samarensis H.G.Gut., Kalikasan 4 (1975) 236; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 427. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Mixed dipterocarp forests in moist lowland valleys. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  14. Hopea santosiana H.G.Gut., Rojo & Madulid, Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 4 (2010) 69; Type: E.J. Reynoso & De la Cruz, PNH125468 (PNH, holo), Samar: Eastern Samar, Balangiga, Sta. Rosa, Mar-1978. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (Gutierrez et al. 2010). Native.

Parashorea Kurz

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 June 2021
  1. Parashorea malaanonan (Blanco) Merr., Spec. Blancoanae (1918) 271; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 100; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 383; ≡ Mocanera malaanonan Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 858; ≡ Dipterocarpus malaanonan Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 312. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. CATANDUANES, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bulacan, Camarines, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Primary lowland forests, common. Native.
  2. Parashorea warburgii Brandis, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 31 (1895) 105; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 100; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 387. = Parashorea tomentella (Symington) Meijer, Acta Bot. Neerl. 12 (1963) 320. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao. Notes: Primary lowland forests. Native.

Shorea Roxb. ex C.F.Gaertn.

Last edited by Jayson Mansibang & Pieter B. Pelser, 23 August 2021
  1. Shorea almon Foxw., PJS 67 (1938) 313; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 507. = Shorea eximia auct. non (Miq.) Scheff.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 96. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Camarines, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Lanao, Misamis, Surigao, Zamboanga, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forest on undulating hills at low elevation, on clay soil. According to Ashton (1982), particularly variable in Mindanao where the leaves are much smaller and the tomentum more sparse and scabrid in some trees. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Shorea arsorianoi H.G.Gut., Rojo & Madulid, Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 4 (2010) 70; Type: Gutierrez, Reynoso & Aga, PNH123122, (PNH, holo), Mindanao: Surigao del Sur, Bislig, PICOP, Apr-1977. = Shorea virescens auct. non Parijs; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Mal. Prec. Dipt. Gard. Bull. Sing. 31 (1978) 44; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 492; Rojo, Kalikasan, Philipp. J. Biol. 5 (1976) 99. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, SAMAR. Conservation status: Endangered (Gutierrez et al. 2010). Native.
  3. Shorea assamica Dyer, Fl. Br. Ind. 1 (1874) 307; P.S.Ashton, Gard. Bull. Sing. 31 (1978) 43; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 491. Distribution: China, India, Myanmar, Philippines, Tibet. Native.
    • ssp. koordersii (Brandis ex Koord.) Y.K.Yang & J.K.Wu, Chinese Wild Plant 21 (2002) 4; Sym., Gard. Bull. S.S. 9 (1938) 331; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 491; ≡ Shorea koordersii Brandis ex Koord., Meded. Lands Plantentuin 19 (1898) 355. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur. Notes: Reported for Luzon by Ashton (1982).
    • var. philippinensis (Brandis) Y.K.Yang & J.K. Wu, Chinese Wild Plant Resources 21(3) (2002) 4 4 2002; ≡ Shorea assamica ssp. philippinensis (Brandis) Sym., Gard. Bull. S.S. 9 (1938) 331; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 492; ≡ Shorea philippinensis Brandis, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 31 (1895) 88; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 98; Foxw., PJS 67 (1938) 302. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Lanao, TICAO. Notes: Primary semi-evergreen and evergreen lowland forests in seasonal and relatively non-seasonal regions.
  4. Shorea astylosa Foxw., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 188; PJS 67 (1938) 297; EPFP 3 (1923) 96; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 460; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LUZON: Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Zamboanga, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Local in primary lowland evergreen dipterocarp forests. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Shorea contorta S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 15; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 88; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 95; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 467; ≡ Pentacme contorta (S.Vidal) Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 115; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 95; Foxw., PJS 67 (1938) 287. = Pentacme mindanensis Foxw., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 185; PJS 67 (1938) 289; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 95; ≡ Pentacme paucinervis Brandis, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 31 (1895) 73. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON, MARINDUQUE, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Lanao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, POLILLO, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Common in primary lowland forests from semi-seasonal to everwet areas, in the former often semi-gregarious. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Shorea falciferoides Foxw., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 189; PJS 67 (1938) 296; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 458. = Shorea balangeran Dyer ex S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 97, nom. illeg., nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 98. = Shorea gisok Foxw., PJS 67 (1938) 294. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
    • ssp. falciferoides. Distribution: BASILAN, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bulacan, Camarines, Pangasinan, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan, Zamboanga, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Mixed dipterocarp forests to 1000m, in moderately seasonal to everwet areas. According to Ashton (1982), specimens from the more seasonal NE Luzon (Shorea falciferoides) have more or less smaller leaves than other Philippine collections (formerly named Shorea gisok). The latter is more or less confined to ridgetops in the everwet areas.
  7. Shorea guiso (Blanco) Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1852) 34; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 97; Foxw., PJS 67 (1938) 292; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 447; ≡ Mocanera guiso Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 449; ≡ Dipterocarpus guiso (Blanco) Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 313. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Primary lowland forests on red soils, most common in slightly seasonal areas. Native.
  8. Shorea hopeifolia (Heim) Sym., Gard. Bull. S.S. 8 (1933) 150; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 482; ≡ Cotylelobium hopeifolia Heim, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris I (1891) 971. = Shorea kalunti Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 475; EPFP 4 (1925) 250; Foxw., PJS 67 (1938) 307. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao, Zamboanga. Notes: Primary forests on fertile clay rich soil on undulating terrain and hills below 600m. Native.
  9. Shorea malibato Foxw. in Elmer, LPB 6 (1913) 1955; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 97; Foxw., PJS 67 (1938) 298; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 460. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Zamboanga. Notes: Local in lowland primary forests in aseasonal areas, c. 450m in Agusan del Norte. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  10. Shorea negrosensis Foxw, PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 274; PJS 67 (1938) 315; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 96; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 502. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, BILIRAN, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao, Surigao, Zamboanga, NEGROS, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Primary evergreen and semi-evergreen lowland forests, common and often gregarious. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  11. Shorea ovata Dyer ex Brandis, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 31 (1895) 91; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 545. = Shorea agsaboensis W.L.Stern, Brittonia 17 (1965) 36; Rojo, Pterocarpus 3 (1977) 70. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Misamis Oriental. Notes: Primary forests at medium elevations to c. 900m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  12. Shorea polita S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 15; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 98; Foxw., PJS 67 (1938) 304; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 487. = Shorea mindanensis Foxw., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 192; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 97. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, Zamboanga, MINDORO. Notes: Apparently scattered in primary semi-evergreen and evergreen lowland forests. Native.
  13. Shorea polysperma (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 27 (1905) 22; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 99; Foxw., PJS 67 (1938) 309; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 514; ≡ Mocanera polysperma Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 448; ≡ Dipterocarpus polysperma (Blanco) Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1846) 312. = Shorea warburgii Gilg, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 18 Beibl. 45 (1894) 38; Type: Warburgh 12399 (K), Cagayan: Penablanca. = Shorea teysmanniana auct. non Dyer ex Brandis; Foxw., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 279; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 99. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, BASILAN, BILIRAN, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Quezon, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao, Misamis, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Often common in lowland and medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 1000m (exceptionally to 1200m). Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  14. Shorea seminis (Vriese) Slooten in Merr., Pl. Elm. Born. (1929) 204; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 451; ≡ Hopea seminis de Vriese, Minjak Tangkawang (1861) 32. = Isoptera borneensis Scheff. ex Burck, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 6 (1887) 222; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 101. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Primary lowland forests. Reported for the Philippines by Ashton (1982). Merrill (1923) also cites Malay Peninsula and Banka. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  15. Shorea squamata (Turcz.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex DC., Prodr. 16, 2 (1868) 632; Foxw., PJS 67 (1938) 310; ≡ Hopea squamata Turcz., Bull. Soc. Mosc. 31 2 (1858) 239. = Shorea palosapis (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 271; EPFP 3 (1923) 98; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 517; ≡ Dipterocarpus palosapis Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 312. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao, Misamis, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Primary lowland evergreen forests on fertile well-drained soil. In Mindanao ascending to 1000m. In some regions dominant. Native.

Vatica L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 June 2021
  1. Vatica elliptica Foxw., PJS 67 (1938) 329; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 369. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Twice collected. Mature fruit not known. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Vatica mangachapoi Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 401; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 101; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 364. Distribution: Borneo, China, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • ssp. mangachapoi. = Vatica scaphula Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. (1880) 21, nom. illeg., non Dyer. = Vatica bureavi Heim., Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 2 (1891) 955; ≡ Sunaptea bureavi (Heim.) Heim., Rech. Dipt. (1892) 114. = Vatica whitfordii Foxw., PJS 67 (1938) 322. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Vietnam. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao, SAMAR. Notes: Primary lowland and medium elevation forests, ascending to 800m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
    • ssp. obtusifolia (Elmer) P.S.Ashton, Gard. Bull. Sing. 31 (1978) 23; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 365; ≡ Vatica obtusifolia Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1471; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 102; Type: Elmer 12963. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Notes: Primary lowland forests. According to Ashton, a species with much local variation especially in the Philippines. Forms approaching both Vatica odorata ssp. mindanensis and Vatica pachyphylla occur and suggest hybridization. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  3. Vatica maritima Slooten, Bull. Bot. Gard. Buitenz. 3, 17 (1942) 245; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 359. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Vatica mendozae H.G.Gut., Rojo & Madulid, Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 4 (2010) 72; Type: J.P. Rojo PNH121551 (PNH, holo; CLP, iso), Quezon: Real, Kinalumbakan, 26-May-1972. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Conservation status: Endangered (Gutierrez et al. 2010). Native.
  5. Vatica odorata (Griff.) Sym., J. Mal. Br. R. As. Soc. 19 (1941) 156; P.S.Ashton, Gard. Bull. Sing. 22 (1967) 263; Gard. Bull. Sing. 31 (1978) 23; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 360; ≡ Sunaptea odorata Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 4 (1854) 516. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • ssp. mindanensis (Foxw.) P.S.Ashton, Gard. Bull. Sing. 22 (1967) 263; ≡ Vatica mindanensis Foxw. in Elmer, LPB 6 (1913) 1957; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 102. = Vatica sorsogonensis Foxw., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 196. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Zamboanga. Notes: Primary lowland and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1100m.
  6. Vatica pachyphylla Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 311; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 102; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 363; Type: FB 27102 Alhambra (PNH, holo, ?lost; photo in Foxworthy 1938), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Paracale. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Quezon, POLILLO. Notes: Scattered in aseasonal, primary dipterocarp forests below 80m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Vatica rassak Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. (1852) 31; P.S.Ashton, Gard. Bull. Sing. 31 (1978) 20; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 353. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. TAWI-TAWI. Native.
  8. Vatica umbonata (Hook.f.) Burck, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 6 (1887) 232; P.S.Ashton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 349; ≡ Pachynocarpus umbonatus Hook.f., Trans. Linn. Soc. 23 (1860) 159. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
    • ssp. umbonata. = Vatica blancoana Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1473; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 101. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Primary lowland and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).

Literature