Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 4 July 2022
  1. Dioscorea alata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1033; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 151; EPFP 1 (1922) 215; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 330. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Naturalized.
  2. Dioscorea bulbifera L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1033; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 151; EPFP 1 (1922) 215; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 311. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, La Union, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. bulbifera. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, La Union, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO. Notes: Thickets at low and medium elevation. Native.
  3. Dioscorea cumingii Prain & Burkill, J. As. Soc. Beng. ii, 4 (1908) 449; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 216; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 317; Kishor et al., Kew Bull. 76 (2022) 342; Type: Cuming 1469 (K, lecto; K, P, isolecto), Luzon: Batangas, 1841. = Dioscorea echinata R.Knuth in Engl., Pflanzenreich 87 (1924) 148; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 242. = Dioscorea inaequifolia Elmer ex Prain & Burkill in Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1595; Type: Elmer 10654 (NY, lecto; BISH, CAS, E, F, GH, K, L, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, May-1909. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Benguet, Camarines, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. cumingii. Distribution: LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Benguet, Camarines, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Thickets and forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Native.
    • var. polyphylla (R.Knuth) Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 317; ≡ Dioscorea polyphylla R.Knuth in Engl., Pflanzenreich 87 (1924) 148. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Native.
    • var. ramosii Burkill, ined.; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 317. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES. Notes: Burkill hints that this taxon may be conspecific with Dioscorea heptaphylla Sasaki of Taiwan. Native.
  4. Dioscorea divaricata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 797; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 216; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 332. = Dioscorea oxyphylla R.Knuth in Engl., Pflanzenreich 87 (1924) 269; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 242. = Dioscorea soror Prain & Burkill in Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1598; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 219. = Dioscorea soror var. glauca Prain & Burkill, J. As. Soc. Beng. ii, 10 (1914) 34; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 219. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, CEBU, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, NCR, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MARINDUQUE, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Native.
  5. Dioscorea elmeri Prain & Burkill in Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1594; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 216; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 317; Type: Elmer 9156 (K, lecto; CAL, GH, isolecto), Luzon: Lucban, Tayabas Island, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATANES, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation everwet forests, to 800m. Native.
  6. Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burkill, Gard. Bull. Straits Settl. 1 (1917) 396; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 151; EPFP 1 (1922) 216; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 307; ≡ Oncus esculentus Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 194. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BATANES, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, La Union, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, SEMIRARA. Notes: Low elevation thickets and secondary forests. Also often cultivated. Naturalized.
    • var. fasciculata (Roxb.) R.Knuth, Pflanzenr. 87 (1924) 190; Antonio & Buot, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 1787; ≡ Dioscorea aculeata var. fasciculata (Roxb.) Prain & Burkill, J. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 10 (1914) 20; ≡ Dioscorea fasciculata Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 801; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 216. Notes: Plants devoid of thorny roots; entirely cultivated. Naturalized.
    • var. spinosa (Roxb. ex Prain & Burkill) R.Knuth, Pflanzenr. 87 (1924) 189; Antonio & Buot, Biodiversitas 22 (2021) 1787; ≡ Dioscorea aculeata var. spinosa Roxb. ex Prain & Burkill, J. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 10 (1914) 20; ≡ Dioscorea spinosa Roxb. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6 (1892) 291, nom. illeg., non Burm. Notes: Plants well provided with thorny roots; includes both cultigens and wild forms. Naturalized.
  7. Dioscorea filiformis Blume, Enum. Pl. Jav. 1 (1827) 22; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 217; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 329. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. CULION, JOLO, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets and ravines. Native.
  8. Dioscorea flabellifolia Prain & Burkill in Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1593; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 217; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 309; Type: Elmer 9095 (B, lecto; CAL, isolecto), Luzon: Tayabas. Distribution: Borneo, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation humid forests. Native.
  9. Dioscorea grata Prain & Burkill, J. As. Soc. Beng. ii, 10 (1914) 35; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 217; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 328; Type: Loher 7017 (K, lecto), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: No Philippine data on habitat, but in New Guinea reported at 300m in Agathis forest. Native.
  10. Dioscorea hispida Dennst., Schlüssel Hort. Malabar. (1818) 33; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 217; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 318. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. hispida. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in thickets and regrowth forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
    • var. daemona (Roxb.) Prain & Burkill, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 14 (1936) 192. Distribution: ?Philippines. Native.
  11. Dioscorea loheri Prain & Burkill, J. As. Soc. Beng. ii, 10 (1914) 33; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 217; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 332; Kishor et al., Kew Bull. 76 (2022) 348; Type: Loher 1886 (K, lecto; CAL, P, M, isolecto), Luzon: San Francisco del Monte (Manila), 16-Oct-1890. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets. According to Merrill (1922) perhaps referable to Dioscorea divaricata Blanco. Native.
  12. Dioscorea luzonensis Schauer, Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 444; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 218; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 325. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DALUPIRI, LUZON: Apayao, Batangas, Bulacan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, NCR, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Chiefly at low and medium elevation thickets. Common in the provinces near Manila where there are two drier breaks in the year. Fl. Sep or earlier. Native.
  13. Dioscorea merrillii Prain & Burkill in Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1598; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 218; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 332; Kishor et al., Kew Bull. 76 (2022) 348; Type: Elmer 11924 (K, lecto; BISH, BM, CAL, isolecto), Mindanao: Todaya, Mt Apo, Oct-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur, MINDORO. Notes: Old clearings and thickets, c. 700m. Native.
  14. Dioscorea nummularia Lam., Encycl. Meth. 3 (1789) 231; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 218; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 331. = Dioscorea nummularia var. glauca Prain & Burkill, J. As. Soc. Beng. ii, 10 (1914) 35; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 218. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Vietnam. BASILAN, CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Mountain Province, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, POLILLO. Notes: In most or all provinces in Luzon. Low and medium elevation thickets. Native.
  15. Dioscorea palawana Prain & Burkill, Kew Bull. (1925) 59; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 242; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 305; Kishor et al., Kew Bull. 76 (2022) 355; Type: Merrill 9584 (US, lecto; K, SING, isolecto), Palawan: Silanga, May-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN, PANAY. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  16. Dioscorea pentaphylla L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1032; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 152; EPFP 1 (1922) 218; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 315. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Rizal, MINDORO, PANAY. Native.
    • var. malaica Prain & Burkill, J. As. Soc. Beng. ii, 10 (1914) 23. Distribution: China to Malay Peninsula to New Guinea, India. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Rizal, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets. Naturalized.
    • var. palmata Burkill, Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 3 (1924) 258. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. Native.
  17. Dioscorea peperoides Prain & Burkill in Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1597; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 219; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 325; Type: Elmer 6399 (NYBG, lecto; CAL, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Twin-peaks, May-1904. Distribution: Philippines, Vietnam. GOLO, LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
    • var. peperoides. = Dioscorea peperoides var. sagittifolia Prain & Burkill, J. As. Soc. Beng. ii, 10 (1914) 28; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 219. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. GOLO, LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, PALAWAN. Notes: Thickets up to 1300m. In Palawan occurring on limestone formations at sea level. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Dioscorea mindanaensis R.Knuth in Engl., Pflanzenreich 87 (1924) 271; Merr., EPFP 1 (1925) 242. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: Burkill (1951): “The name is virtually a nomen nudum, the scrap of which it was given being inadequate even for the establishment of the section. But it is interesting to know that a Dioscorea occurs on the E slopes of Mt Apo in Mindanao (S Philippines) at that considerable height of 2000m”. Native.
  2. Dioscorea wilkesii Uline ex R.Knuth in Engl., Pflanzenreich 87 (1924) 271; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 242. Distribution: LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Known from Wilkes Expedition s.n., Laguna, Los Baños. Apparently unaccounted for in Burkill (1951). Synonym of Dioscorea loheri Prain & Burkill? Native.

Stenomeris Planch.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 January 2022
  1. Stenomeris borneensis Oliv. in Hook., Icon. Pl. 4 (1894) t. 2328; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 297. = Stenomeris mindanaensis R.Knuth in Engl., Pflanzenreich 87 (1924) 345; Merr., EPFP 1 (1925) 242; Caddick & Wilkin, Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 710. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Surigao del Norte (photos), Zamboanga. Native.
  2. Stenomeris dioscoreifolia Planch., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. iii, 18 (1852) 320; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 219; Burkill, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 295; Caddick & Wilkin, Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 709. = Stenomeris cumingiana Becc., Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital. 2 (1870) 8; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 219. = Stenomeris wallisii Taub. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 15 Beibl. 38 (1893) 2; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 220. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao, Zamboanga Sibugay, MINDORO, ROMBLON, SAMAR (photos), SIBUYAN. Native.

References