Cucurbitaceae

Alsomitra (Blume) Spach

  1. Alsomitra macrocarpa (Blume) M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 2 (1846) 117; ≡ Zanonia macrocarpa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 937; ≡ Macrozanonia macrocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Bull. Herb. Boiss. 1 (1893) 612; Cogn. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 66 (1916) 262; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 578; Type: from Java. = Macrozanonia philippinensis (Merr.) Cogn. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 66 (1916) 264; ≡ Zanonia philippinensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 141; Type: Clemens 324 (PNH, holo), Philippines. = Erythropalum triandrum Merr. & Quisumb., PJS 37 (1928) 142; Type: Ramos & Edaño BS 49096 (PNH, holo; K, iso), Philippines, Mindanao, Mati. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BILIRAN, LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Lanao, Zamboanga. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.

Benincasa Savi (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017
  1. Benincasa pruriens (Parkinson) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12 (2008) 268; ≡ Cucurbita pruriens Parkinson, J. Voy. South Seas (1773) 44. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (23-Oct-2017): Some seem to consider Cucurbita pruriens Parkinson an invalid name, and therefore use Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. for this species, but it is unclear to me why this would be the case. Naturalized.
    • forma hispida (Thunb.) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Sandakania 17 (2008) 47; ≡ Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 513; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 583; ≡ Cucurbita hispida Thunb., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 4 (1783) 38. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. Notes: Not native to the Philippines; cultivated for its large edible fruit in the Philippines, occasionally escaping. Wax gourd or winter melon; Kondol.

Citrullus Schrader (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 November 2020
  1. Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cat. Sem. & Spor. Hort. Bot. Univ. Imp. Tokyo (1916) 30; ≡ Momordica lanata Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. (1794) 13. = Citrullus vulgaris Schrad., Linnaea 12 (1838) 412; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 97; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 460; EPFP 3 (1923) 582. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Cultivated pantropically. Grown in many parts of the Philippines, not uncommonly escaping. Wate places. Watermelon. Naturalized.

Coccinia Wight & Arn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 May 2021
  1. Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. (1845) 59; ≡ Bryonia grandis L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 126; Type: from Sri Lanka. Widely distributed in Africa and Asia, incl. Distribution: Philippines. CEBU, LUZON: NCR (photos), PANAY (photos). Notes: Cryptogenic. Not reported for the Philippines by Holstein (2015), who noted that it is unclear if Coccinia grandis is native to Malesia. Native.

Cucumis L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 August 2019
  1. Cucumis javanicus (Miq.) Ghebret. & Thulin, Novon 17 (2007) 177; ≡ Mukia javanica (Miq.) C.Jeffrey, Hooker's Ic. Pl. 37 (1969) t. 3661; ≡ Karivia javanica Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1, 1 (1856) 661; Type: from Java. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  2. Cucumis maderaspatanus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1012; ≡ Mukia maderaspatana (L.) M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 2 (1846) 47; ≡ Melothria maderaspatana (L.) Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 623; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 580. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cavite, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Mountain Province, MASBATE, MINDANAO, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation grasslands, old clearings, etc. Native.
  3. Cucumis melo L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1011; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 775; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 534; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 179; Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 482; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 97; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 460; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 372; EPFP 3 (1923) 583. Distribution: ?Africa. Notes: Cultivated in all warm countries. Cultivated in several forms or varieties in the Philippines, occasionally escaping. Common melon. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Cucumis sativus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1012; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 97; Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 299; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 460; EPFP 3 (1923) 583. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand. Notes: Planted in all warm countries. Generally cultivated in the Philippines. Cucumber. Not naturalized?.

Cucurbita L. (Not native)

  1. Cucurbita maxima Duchesne in Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 151; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 97; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 457; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 373; EPFP 3 (1923) 585. = Cucurbita sulcata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 773; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 532; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 177. Distribution: America. Notes: Planted in all warm countries. Widely cultivated in the Philippines, occasionally escaping. Squash. Kalabasa. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poir., Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2. 11 (1819) 234. Distribution: America. Notes: Cultivated in Philippines. Not naturalized?.
  2. Cucurbita pepo L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 1010. Distribution: America. Notes: Squash, pumpkin. Cultivated. Not naturalized?.

Diplocyclos (Endl.) T.Post & Kuntze

  1. Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C.Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15 (1962) 352; ≡ Bryonia palmata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1012. = Bryonopsis laciniosa auct. non (L.) Naudin; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 583; Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) pl. 18-2. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. palmatus. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Vietnam. BASILAN, BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, PANAY. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets, old clearings, etc.
    • var. pedata (Merr.) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12 (2009) 405; ≡ Ilocania pedata Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 65; EPFP 3 (1923) 581; Type: Ramos BS 27552 (US, lecto), Philippines, Ilocos Norte, Bangui. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Native.

Gynostemma Blume

  1. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16 (1902) 179; ≡ Vitis pentaphylla Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 105; Type: from Japan. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • forma pentaphyllum. = Gynostemma pedatum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 23; Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 913; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1883) 352; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 267; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 392; EPFP 3 (1923) 586; Type: from Java. = Gynostemma laxum (Wall.) Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 914; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 586; ≡ Alsomitra laxa (Wall.) M.Roem., Syn. 2 (1846) 118; ≡ Zanonia laxa Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 2 (1831) 29; Cat. (1831) No. 3727, nom. nud.; Type: from India. Distribution: Borneo, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, damp ravines, along streams, etc., ascending to 2300m.
    • forma simplicifolium (Blume) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 52 (2007) 271; ≡ Gynostemma simplicifolium Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 23; Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 915; Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 329; EPFP 3 (1923) 586; Type: Blume 1493 (L, lecto; L, iso) (according to L.L. Co: R.S. Williams 2119). Distribution: Java, Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Forests 100-1600m.

Lagenaria Ser. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017
  1. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Chicago, Bot. Ser. 3 (1930) 435; ≡ Cucurbita siceraria Molina, Sag. Stor. Nat. Chili (1782) 133. = Lagenaria leucantha (Duchesne) Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 6 (1896) 43; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 458; Interp. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 493; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 373; EPFP 3 (1923) 584; ≡ Cucurbita leucantha Duchesne in Lam., Encycl. 2 (1782) 150. = Cucurbita lagenaria L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1010. = Cucurbita lagenaria-oblonga Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 772; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 531; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 175. = Cucurbita lagenaria-villosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 772; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 532; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 175. = Lagenaria vulgaris Ser., Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 3 (1825) 25; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 96; Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 417. Distribution: Africa, Madagascar. Notes: Cultivated throughout the tropics. Planted throughout the archipelago, in some parts naturalized. Naturalized.

Luffa Miller (Not native)

  1. Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 70; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 96; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 459; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 372; EPFP 3 (1923) 582; ≡ Cucumis acutangulus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1011; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 776; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 534; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 179. = Luffa foetida Cav., Icon. 1 (1791) 7; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 96. Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Notes: Cultivated in the Old World tropics. In the Philippines commonly grown for its edible fruits. Patola. Naturalized.
  2. Luffa aegyptiaca Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8 (1768); Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 96. = Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.Roem., Syn. 2 (1846) 63; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 138; Fl. Manila (1912) 459; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 372; EPFP 3 (1923) 582; ≡ Momordica cylindrica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1009. = Momordica luffa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1009. = Luffa petola Ser. in DC., Prodr. 3 (1828) 303; Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 334. Distribution: Bangladesh, India. Notes: Pantropic in cultivation. Commonly grown for its edible fruits, the fruits being larger than the very common wild form which occurs in thickets in the settled areas throughout the Philippines. Naturalized.

Melothria L. (Not native)

  1. Melothria pendula L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 35; de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51 (2006) 10. Distribution: America. Notes: Not native to the Philippines; at low elevation along roadsides, cultivated lands, etc. Fl. & fr. throughout the year. Naturalized.

Momordica L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2017
  1. Momordica charantia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1009; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 97; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 138; PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 84; Fl. Manila (1912) 461; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 370; EPFP 3 (1923) 581. = Momordica balsamina auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 768; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 539; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 172. Distribution: Pantropic. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in cultivation and also thoroughly naturalized in thickets, waste places, etc. at low and medium elevation. Naturalized.
  2. Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng., Syst. 3 (1826) 14; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 97; Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 445; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 116; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 142; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 461; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 371; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 581; ≡ Muricia cochinchinensis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 596. = Momordica sphaeroidea Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 771; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 453; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 174. = Passiflora saponaria Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 650. = Modecca ?saponaria Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 453; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 53. = Momordica ovata Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 446; Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 213; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 116; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 143. Distribution: China and Taiwan through Malesia to Moluccas, India to Indochina. BILIRAN, CAMIGUIN, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Cavite, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Rizal, Tarlac, MINDANAO: Agusan, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Native.

Neoalsomitra Hutch.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2017
  1. Neoalsomitra clavigera (Wall.) Hutch., Ann. Bot. N-S, 6 (1942) 101; de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 48 (2003) 105; ≡ Zanonia clavigera Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2 (1831) 28. = Neoalsomitra integrifoliola (Cogn.) Hutch., Ann. Bot. n.s. 6 (1942) 99; ≡ Alsomitra integrifoliola (Cogn.) Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Tokyo 30 (1911) 121; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 579; ≡ Gynostemma integrifoliola Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 916; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1883) 353; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (185) 116; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 143; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 138; Type: Cuming 517 (K, lecto; L, P, iso) (According to L.L. Co: Cuming 767). = Hemsleya elongata (Merr.) Cogn. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 66 (1916) 26; ≡ Gynostemma elongatum Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 267; Type: Curran FB 5474I (B, lost), Philippines, Luzon. = Alsomitra pubescens Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 64; EPFP 3 (1923) 579; Type: Mabesa FB 26346 (PNH, lost). Distribution: Australia, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets, ascending to 1200m. Native.
  2. Neoalsomitra sarcophylla (Wall.) Hutch., Ann. Bot. N-S , 6 (1942) 100; de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 48 (2003) 111; ≡ Alsomitra sarcophylla (Wall.) M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 2 (1846) 118; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 352; ≡ Zanonia sarcophylla Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2 (1831) 28. = Alsomitra philippinensis Cogn. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 66 (1916) 15; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 579; ≡ Neoalsomitra philippinensis (Cogn.) Hutch., Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 6 (1942) 100; Type: Copeland 255 (B, lost). Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets or forests. Native.

Scopellaria W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 July 2022
  1. Scopellaria marginata (Blume) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51 (2006) 297; ≡ Scopella marginata (Blume) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51 (2006) 35, nom. illeg.; ≡ Zehneria marginata (Blume) Keraudren, Fl. Cambodge, Laos & Vietnam 15 (1975) 55; ≡ Melothria marginata (Blume) Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 573; in Engl., Pflanzenreich 66 (1916) 93; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 580; ≡ Bryonia marginata Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 924; Type: from Java. Native.
    • var. marginata. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets.

Sechium P.Browne (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2017

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Fl. Ind. Occ. (1800) 1150; ≡ Sicyos edulis Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. (1760) 32. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Widely cultivated. Chayote.

Thladiantha Bunge

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2020
  1. Thladiantha nudiflora Hemsl. in Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 23 (1887) 316; De Wilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12 (2009) 412; Type: from China. Distribution: China, Philippines, Taiwan. MINDANAO. Notes: Only known from the Philippines from one collection: Schwabe s.n. (B). Native.

Trichosanthes L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2020
  1. Trichosanthes cochinchinensis M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 2 (1846) 96; ≡ Gymnopetalum cochinchinense (Lour.) Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 40, 2 (1871) 57; Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 391; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 116; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 142. = Gymnopetalum chinense (Lour.) Merr., PJS 15 (1919) 256; EPFP 3 (1923) 584; ≡ Euonymus chinensis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 156. Distribution: India to China and Malay Peninsula. BALABAC, BASILAN, CEBU, LUZON: Quezon, MASBATE, MINDANAO, PANAY. Notes: Lowland clearings, open waste areas, etc. Native.
  2. Trichosanthes cucumerina L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1008; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 95; Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 337; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 138; Fl. Manila (1912) 457; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 373; EPFP 3 (1923) 584. = Trichosanthes amara auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 774; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 533; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 178, pro parte. = Trichosanthes luçoniana Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 450. Distribution: India through Malay Peninsula to Australia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: Lowland to medium elevation thickets, ascending to 1200m. Native.
    • var. cucumerina. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON. Notes: Only known from one collection from the Philippines.
  3. Trichosanthes edulis Rugayah in Rugayah & W.J.de Wilde, Reinwardtia 11(4) (1999) 254; Type: from PNG. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. Native.
    • var. punctata W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 13 (2012) 225; Type: Barbon, Romero & Fuentes PPI 13044 (L, holo; PNH, iso), Luzon: Isabela. Distribution: LUZON: Isabela. Notes: Only known from type.
  4. Trichosanthes ellipsoidea Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 332; EPFP 3 (1923) 585; Type: Ramos BS 30364 (PNH, holo: lost; K, US, iso). Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. CATANDUANES. Notes: Lowland forests near abaca plantations. Native.
  5. Trichosanthes elmeri Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 299; Type: Elmer 20298 (PNH, holo; BR, L, NSW, U, iso), Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Native.
  6. Trichosanthes philippinensis Rugayah in Rugayah & W.J.de Wilde, Reinwardtia 11(4) (1999) 271; Type: Elmer 11067 (L, holo; BM, K, U), Mindanao. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, PANAY. Native.
  7. Trichosanthes pilosa Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 1 (1790) 588. Native.
    • var. pilosa. = Trichosanthes vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 458; EPFP 3 (1923) 585; Type: Vanoverbergh 3662 bis (K, iso), Luzon: Bontoc, Bauco (According to L.L. Co: Vanoverbergh 1262). = Trichosanthes vanoverberghii Merr. var. breviloculata Lu Q.Huang, Trichosanthes (2009) 137, as 'brevilocalata'. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, China, India, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Singapore, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDORO. Notes: Thickets, 1200-1400m.
  8. Trichosanthes planiglans Rugayah in Rugayah & W.J.de Wilde, Reinwardtia 11(4) (1999) 273; Type: Ramos & Edaño BS 29110 (US, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Mt Tulaog. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Notes: Only known from type. Native.
  9. Trichosanthes quinquangulata A.Gray, Bot. Wilkes US Explor. Exped. (1854) 645; Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 378; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 138; PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 84, 439; Fl. Manila (1912) 458; EPFP 3 (1923) 585; Type: Wilkes s.n. (GH-A, holo), Mangsi Is., Sulu Sea. = ?Trichosanthes bracteata auct. non (Lam.) Voigt; Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 64; EPFP 3 (1923) 584; Rugayah & De Wilde, Blumea 42 (1997) 472. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MANGSEE, MASBATE, MINDANAO, PANAY. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation thickets, clearings, etc., ascending to 1500m. Native.
  10. Trichosanthes refracta C.H.Yueh, Bull. Bot. Res. Harbin 10(4) (1996) 500; Type: Ramos BS 43279 (UC, holo; K, L, iso), Bohol: Valencia. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BOHOL. Native.
  11. Trichosanthes samarensis C.H.Yueh & Lu Q.Huang, Trichosanthes (2009) 110; Type: A. Castro 2099-4 (A, holo), Samar: Eastern Samar, Oras, Brgy Bantayan, Sitio Kadapnan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Native.
  12. Trichosanthes scabra Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 589; ≡ Gymnopetalum scabrum (Lour.) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12 (2008) 268. = Trichosanthes lucioniana Naves ex Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. (1880) 95; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 13. Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  13. Trichosanthes valida Rugayah in Rugayah & W.J.de Wilde, Reinwardtia 11(4) (1999) 277; Type: from Sulawesi. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. CEBU, LUZON. Native.
  14. Trichosanthes villosa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 934; Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 366; Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 458; EPFP 3 (1923) 585; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Thailand. CEBU (photos), LUZON: Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Notes: Thickets or forests up to 1000m. Native.
    • ssp. mindorensis Rugayah in Rugayah & W.J.de Wilde, Reinwardtia 11(4) (1999) 278; Type: Conklin PNH 19132 (L, holo), Mindoro. Distribution: BOHOL, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN.

Excluded

  1. Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 589; Rugayah & De Wilde, Blumea 42 (1997) 481; De Wilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12 (2009) 412; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 19 (2010) 308; Type: from Vietnam. Notes: Excluded from the Philippines by De Wilde & Duyfjes (2009, 2010).

Zanonia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 August 2021
  1. Zanonia indica L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 1292. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BOHOL (photos), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, NEGROS, SULU. Native.
    • ssp. orientalis W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 52 (2007) 284. = Alsomitra simplicifolia Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 470; EPFP 3 (1923) 579; Type: BS 37397 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; BO, K, L, P, iso), Mindanao: Malangas. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, NEGROS, SULU. Notes: Lowland forests along streams.

Zehneria Endl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 June 2021
  1. Zehneria bodinieri (H.Lev.) W.J.deWilde & Duyfjes, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 32 (2004) 17; ≡ Pilogyne bodinieri (H.Lev.) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12, 5 (2009) 410; ≡ Melothria bodinieri H.Lev., Fl. Louy-Tcheou (1914) 122; Type: from China. Distribution: Borneo, India to China, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Native.
  2. Zehneria boholensis (Merr.) M.D.Dwivedi, A.K.Pandey & H.Schaef., Taxon 67 (2018) 62; ≡ Neoachmandra boholensis (Merr.) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51 (2006) 15; ≡ Melothria boholensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 495; Type: BS 42779 (UC, holo, lost; K, iso), Bohol: Kalingohan, in recent clearings, c. 600m, 26-Aug-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, MINDANAO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Low elevation up to 600m, in newly opened clearings, also reported from mangrove. Fl. & fr. throughout the year. Native.
  3. Zehneria indica (Lour.) Keraudren, Fl. Cambodge, Laos & Vietnam 15 (1975) 52; ≡ Neoachmandra indica (Lour.) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51 (2006) 21; ≡ Melothria indica Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 35; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 98; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 116; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 143; Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 589; in Engl., Pflanzenreich 66 (1916) 98; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 439; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 392; Fl. Manila (1912) 456; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 370; EPFP 3 (1923) 579; Type: from Vietnam (neo). = Cucumis luzonicus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 861; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 470; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 848 (US, neo; K, L, W, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, between Guadalupe and Pasig, Dec-1914. Distribution: Borneo, India and China to Java, Philippines. BATANES, CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna, Mountain Province, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Lanao, POLILLO. Notes: Low and medium elevation clearings and along streams. Native.
  4. Zehneria leucocarpa (Blume) M.D.Dwivedi, A.K.Pandey & H.Schaef., Taxon 67 (2018) 62; ≡ Neoachmandra leucocarpa (Blume) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51 (2006) 23; ≡ Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 601; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 580; Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) pl. 18-4; ≡ Bryonia leucocarpa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 924; Type: from Java (lecto). Distribution: Sumatra. Notes: Note by L.L. Co: Check identity of Philippine materials named by Merrill as Melothria leucocarpa; note by P.B. Pelser, 11-Mar-13: not listed for Philippines by De Wilde & Duyfjes 2010. Native.
  5. Zehneria macrantha (W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes) H.Schaef. & S.S.Renner, Taxon 60 (2018) 135; ≡ Neoachmandra macrantha W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51 (2006) 25; Type: BS 40215 Ramos & Edaño (P, holo; K, UC, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data, 2200m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Known only from the type collection. Native.
  6. Zehneria mucronata (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1 (1856) 656; C.Jeffrey Kew Bull. 15(1962) 371; Simmonds & W.J.deWilde Blumea 45 (2000) 237; Blumea 51 (2006) 65; ≡ Pilogyne mucronata (Blume) W.J.deWilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12(5) (2009) 410, nom. inval.; ≡ Melothria mucronata (Blume) Cogn. in DC., Monog. Phan. 3(1881) 608; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 580; ≡ Bryonia mucronata Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 923; Type: from Java. = Melothria lobata Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 104; EPFP 3(1923) 580; Type: Vanoverbergh 1241, Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, along trails, c. 1300m, 11-Jun-1911. = Melothria leucocarpa Cogn. var. philippinensis Cogn. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 66 (1916) 102. Distribution: Australia, India to Taiwan, Indian Ocean, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR, TICAO. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets, along trails, etc., ascending to 2300m. Native.
  7. Zehneria nesophila (W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes) H.Schaef. & S.S.Renner, Taxon 60 (2011) 135; ≡ Neoachmandra nesophila W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51 (2006) 26; Type: from Java. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MINDORO. Native.
  8. Zehneria repanda (Blume) C.Simmons, Blumea 45 (2000) 240; W.J.deWilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51(2006) 75; ≡ Pilogyne repanda (Blume) W.J.deWilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12(5) (2009) 410; ≡ Bryonia repanda Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 923; ser. (1828) 305; Type: from Java (lecto). Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. LUZON, MINDORO. Notes: Montane scrubs and forest edges. Native.
  9. Zehneria rizalensis (W.J.deWilde & Duyfjes) Pelser & H.Schaef., Blumea 66 (2021) 97; ≡ Pilogyne rizalensis W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12 (2009) 410; Type: Ramos BS 2023 (BM, holo; BRI, PNH, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Nov-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Only known from type. Native.
  10. Zehneria scaberrima (Merr.) Pelser & H.Schaef., Blumea 66 (2021) 97; ≡ Neoachmandra scaberrima (Merr.) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51 (2006) 29; ≡ Melothria scaberrima Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 330; EPFP 3 (1923) 581; Cogn. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 66 (1916) 97; Type: Elmer 5862 (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; BO, K, PNH, lost, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal. Notes: Thickets, shrubbery, along streams, grassy roadsides, 300-1000m. Native.
  11. Zehneria trichocarpa W.J.deWilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12(4) (2008) 271; ≡ Pilogyne trichocarpa (W.J.deWilde & Duyfjes) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12(5) (2009) 411; Type: Ramos & Edaño BS 84954 (GH, holo), Mindanao: Cotabato, Nutol. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Cotabato. Notes: Only known from type. Native.

Literature