Alangiaceae, Nyssaceae

Alangium Lam.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 September 2023
  1. Alangium chinense (Lour.) Harms, Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 15 (1897) 24; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 240; Bloem., Blumea 1 (1935) 255; ≡ Stylidium chinense Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 221. Distribution: Africa, China, India, Indochina, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet. BOHOL (photos), CEBU (photos), LUZON: Batangas, Camarines Sur, Cavite (photos), Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Rizal, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: Mainly in primary lowland forests, usually near forest edges, sometimes occurring at high elevation. Native.
  2. Alangium frutescens Zoll. & Moritzi in Zoll., Syst. Verz. Ind. Archip. 1 (1854) 63; Type: from Java. Distribution: BALABAC, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
    • var. palawanense Wilde & Duyfjes, Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 44 (2016) 79; Type: Ridsdale SMHI 1506 (L, holo; L, iso), Palawan: Pagdanan Range, Ibangley Brookside Hill, 22-Apr-1984. ≠ Alangium salviifolium ssp. hexapetalum auct. non (Lam.) Wangerin; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 241. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests, ascending to 700m. Native.
  3. Alangium longiflorum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 319; EPFP 3 (1923) 240; Bloem., Blumea 1 (1935) 253; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 16 (1939) 159; Type: FB 14773 Darling (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; BO, K, isolecto), Luzon: Cagayan, Malueg, on slopes along streams, c. 60m, 16-Apr-1909. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay (photos), Apayao, Batangas, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Davao Oriental, Lanao del Sur, South Cotabato, Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Forests at low and medium elevation, sometimes along streams. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
    • var. brachyanthum (Merr.) Wilde & Duyfjes, Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 44 (2016) 82; ≡ Alangium brachyanthum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 319; EPFP 3 (1923) 240; Bloem., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 16 (1939) 162; Type: FB 1034 Curran (PNH, holo, lost; NY, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Pagsalam, in beach forest, 5m, 9-Apr-1908. Distribution: ?Moluccas, ?New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Forests along seashore, 5m. Native.
    • var. longiflorum. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines. Native.
  4. Alangium meyeri Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 54; EPFP 3 (1923) 241; ≡ Alangium javanicum var. meyeri (Merr.) Berhaman, Sandakania 4 (1994) 34; Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 1 (1995) 10; Type: FB 2284 Meyer (PNH, holo, lost; BO, lecto; B, K, NY, S, SING, US, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River, Mt Mariveles, Dec-1904. = Alangium tutela Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 61 (1912) 10; Type: from Singapore. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela (photos), Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PANAY, POLILLO. Notes: Throughout Luzon; lowland and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
    • var. meyeri. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra. Native.
  5. Alangium pilosum Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 417; EPFP 3 (1923) 241; ≡ Alangium villosum ssp. pilosum (Merr.) Bloemb., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 16 (1939) 205; Type: FB 3307 Ahern’s Collector (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Rizal, Sep-1905. = Alangium pilosum var. subglabrum Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 418; EPFP 3 (1923) 241; Type: FB 23399 Contreras (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; K, isolecto), Negros: ?Negros Occidental, rocky places on slopes, c. 300m, 14-Jul-1914. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan (photos), Ilocos Norte, Rizal, NEGROS. Notes: Medium elevation forests. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Alangium kurzii Craib, Kew Bull. (1911) 60; Bloem., Blumea 1 (1935) 262; Type: from Thailand. = Alangium chinense ssp. tomentosum var. vulgare (Wangerin) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 240. = Alangium chinense var. tomentosum (Blume) Merr., PJS 21 (1922) 505; ≡ Diacicarpium tomentosum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 657. Distribution: Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, ?Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. ?MINDANAO: ?Lanao del Sur. Notes: Forests, c. 650m. Note by P.B. Pelser (18-Jan-20): not reported from the Philippines by Bloembergen (1935).
  2. Alangium ridleyi King, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 71 (1902) 78; De Wilde & Duyfles, Blumea 62 (2017) 45; Type: from Singapore (lecto). Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, ?Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. ?MINDANAO: ?Zamboanga del Norte. Notes: Note by Pieter B. Pelser & Kean Roe Mazo (9-May-21): The photos presented here are of a specimen that is part of the Alangium oblongum species complex and blurs the distinction between the three species in this complex, i.e. Alangium meyeri, Alangium oblongum, and Alangium ridleyi. Its leaves are quite a bit larger than those of Alangium meyeri and also has more robust twigs, and in fact seem to match those of A. ridleyi better. Also the petals seem a bit too large for Alangium meyeri. However, the plant does not match Alangium ridleyi well in some of the flower characters: its anthers seem considerably smaller and the length of the styles matches Alangium meyeri better than Alangium ridleyi and Alangium oblongum. Perhaps it would be better to adopt a more broadly delimited Alangium ridleyi of which Alangium meyeri and Alangium oblongum would be considered synonyms.

Mastixia Blume

Last edited by John Paul Collantes & Pieter B. Pelser, 1 June 2020
  1. Mastixia macrocarpa K.M.Matthew, Blumea 23 (1976) 75; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 94; Type: from Sarawak. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Known from Rizal from Montalban; BS 12389 Loher, UC. Native.
  2. Mastixia pentandra Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 654. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Malaysia, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. CEBU, LUZON: Apayao, Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya (photos), Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Cotabato, Lanao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, Surigao del Sur, PALAWAN. Native.
    • ssp. philippinensis (Wangerin) K.M.Matthew, Blumea 23 (1976) 81; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 96; ≡ Mastixia philippinensis Wangerin, Fedde Repert. 10 (1912) 273; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 241. = Mastixia subcaudata Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 43; EPFP 3 (1923) 242. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Aurora, Bataan, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Cotabato, Misamis Occidental, Surigao del Sur, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Lowland forests up to 1350m. Fl. May-Sep; fr. Jan-Dec. Native.
  3. Mastixia tetrapetala Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 42; EPFP 3 (1923) 242; Matthew, Blumea 23 (1976) 76; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 95; Type: BS 28575 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; BO, K, NY, P, US, iso). = Mastixia crassifolia Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 486; EPFP 4 (1925) 250; Type: BS 40377 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; A, BO, K, L, P, US, iso). = Mastixia pachyphylla Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 325; EPFP 3 (1923) 241; Type: BS 30399 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; BO, NY, P, US, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Benguet, Quezon, ?MINDANAO: ?Lanao del Norte, ?Misamis Occidental. Notes: Lowland to montane primary forests up to 2300m. Fl. Feb-Mar; fr. Sep-Feb. Native.
  4. Mastixia trichotoma Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 655; Matthew, Blumea 23 (1976) 68; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 92. Distribution: MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. clarkeana (King) Danser, Blumea 1 (1934) 62; Matthew, Blumea 23 (1976) 72; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 93; ≡ Mastixia clarkeana King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 71, ii (1902) 75. = Mastixia premnoides (Elmer) Hallier f., Beihefte Bot. Centralblat. 342 (1916) 41; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 242; ≡ Vitex premnoides Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2874; Bramley, Fl. Males. ser 1, 23 (2019) 421; Type: Elmer 11644 (PNH, holo, lost; K, L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Todaya (Mt Apo). Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: Possibly present:. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Mastixia rostrata Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1851) 258. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, ?Philippines, Sumatra. ?SAMAR. Notes: This species is potentially represented in the Philippines by Gutierrez et al. 433 (PNH 117414) in L from Samar, Mt Apoy, Llorente, May/Jun-1969.