including Alangiaceae

Alangium Lam.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & Kean Roe Mazo, 9 May 2021

  1. Alangium chinense (Lour.) Rehder, in Sargent, Pl. Wils. 2 (1916) 552; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 240; --Bloem., Blumea 1 (1935) 255; --Stylidium chinense Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 221. Africa, India, Tibet, Indochina, Thailand, China, Taiwan, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, PALAWAN, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Mainly in primary lowland forests, usually near forest edges, sometimes occurring at high elevation. Photos
  2. Alangium frutescens Zoll. & Moritzi in Zoll., Syst. Verz. Ind. Archip. 1 (1854) 63; --Type: from Java.
  3. Alangium longiflorum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 319; EPFP 3 (1923) 240; --Bloem., Blumea 1 (1935) 253; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 16 (1939) 159; --Type: FB 14773 Darling (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; BO, K, isolecto), Luzon: Cagayan, Malueg, on slopes along streams, c. 60m, 16-Apr-1909. Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Apayao, Cagayan, Quezon, Laguna, Batangas, Camarines Sur, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, TAWI-TAWI, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, South Cotabato, Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, Davao Oriental. Forests at low and medium elevation, sometimes along streams. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  4. Alangium meyeri Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 54; EPFP 3 (1923) 241; --Alangium javanicum var. meyeri (Merr.) Berhaman, Sandakania 4 (1994) 34; Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 1 (1995) 10; --Type: FB 2284 Meyer (PNH, holo, lost; BO, lecto; B, K, NY, S, SING, US, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River, Mt Mariveles, Dec-1904. --Alangium tutela Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 61 (1912) 10; --Type: from Singapore. Thailand, Singapore, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO, PANAY, MINDANAO. Throughout Luzon; lowland and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  5. Alangium pilosum Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 417; EPFP 3 (1923) 241; --Alangium villosum (Blume) Wangerin ssp. pilosum (Merr.) Bloem., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 16 (1939) 205; --Type: FB 3307 Ahern’s Collector (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Rizal, Sep-1905. --Alangium pilosum Merr. var. subglabrum Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 418; EPFP 3 (1923) 241; --Type: FB 23399 Contreras (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; K, isolecto), Negros: ?Negros Occidental, rocky places on slopes, c. 300m, 14-Jul-1914. Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Rizal, NEGROS. Medium elevation forests. Photos

Possibly present:

  1. Alangium kurzii Craib, Kew Bull. (1911) 60; --Bloem., Blumea 1 (1935) 262; --Type: from Thailand. --Alangium chinense ssp. tomentosum (Blume) Merr. var. vulgare (Wangerin) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 240. --Alangium chinense var. tomentosum (Blume) Merr., PJS 21 (1922) 505; --Diacicarpium tomentosum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 657. China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, ?Philippines. ?MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Forests, c. 650m. Note by P.B. Pelser (18-Jan-20): not reported from the Philippines by Bloembergen (1935).
  2. Alangium ridleyi King, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 71 (1902) 78; --De Wilde & Duyfles, Blumea 62 (2017) 45; --Type: from Singapore (lecto). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, ?Philippines. ?MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte. Note by Pieter B. Pelser & Kean Roe Mazo (9-May-21): The photos presented here are of a specimen that is part of the Alangium oblongum species complex and blurs the distinction between the three species in this complex, i.e. Alangium meyeri, Alangium oblongum, and Alangium ridleyi. Its leaves are quite a bit larger than those of Alangium meyeri and also has more robust twigs, and in fact seem to match those of A. ridleyi better. Also the petals seem a bit too large for Alangium meyeri. However, the plant does not match Alangium ridleyi well in some of the flower characters: its anthers seem considerably smaller and the length of the styles matches Alangium meyeri better than Alangium ridleyi and Alangium oblongum. Perhaps it would be better to adopt a more broadly delimited Alangium ridleyi of which Alangium meyeri and Alangium oblongum would be considered synonyms. Photos

Mastixia Blume [also placed in Nyssaceae]

Last edited by John Paul Collantes & Pieter B. Pelser, 1 June 2020

  1. Mastixia macrocarpa Matthew, Blumea 23 (1976) 75; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 94; --Type: from Sarawak. Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Known from Rizal from Montalban; BS 12389 Loher, UC.
  2. Mastixia pentandra Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 654. India, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Malaysia, Moluccas, Myanmar, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. Photos
  3. Mastixia tetrapetala Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 42; EPFP 3 (1923) 242; --Matthew, Blumea 23  (1976) 76; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 95; --Type: BS 28575 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; BO, K, NY, P, US, iso). --Mastixia crassifolia Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 486; EPFP 4 (1925) 250; --Type: BS 40377 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; A, BO, K, L, P, US, iso). --Mastixia pachyphylla Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 325; EPFP 3 (1923) 241; --Type: BS 30399 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; BO, NY, P, US, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Quezon, CATANDUANES, ?MINDANAO: ?Misamis Occidental, ?Lanao del Norte. Lowland to montane primary forests up to 2300m. Fl. Feb-Mar; fr. Sep-Feb.
  4. Mastixia trichotoma Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 655; --Matthew, Blumea 23 (1976) 68; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1977) 92.

    Possibly present:

  5. Mastixia rostrata Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1851) 258. Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, ?Philippines. ?SAMAR. This species is potentially represented in the Philippines by Gutierrez et al. 433 (PNH 117414) in L from Samar, Mt Apoy, Llorente, May/Jun-1969.


Berhaman, A. 1995. Alangiaceae. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak 1: 5-14.

Bloembergen, S. 1935. The genus Alangium in the Netherlands Indies. Blumea 1: 241-350

Bloembergen, S. 1939. A revision of the genus Alangium. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg ser. 3, 16: 139-235.

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Matthew, KM. 1976. A revision of the genus Mastixia (Cornaceae). Blumea 23: 51-93

Matthew, KM. 1977. Cornaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 8: 85-97

De Wilde, WJJO & BEE Duyfjes. 2016. A conspectus of Alangium sect. Alangium (Alangiaceae). Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 44: 74-87

De Wilde, WJJO & BEE Duyfjes. 2017. Taxonomy of Alangium section Conostigma (Alangiaceae). Blumea 62: 29-46

De Wilde, WJJO & BEE Duyfjes. 2017. The species of Alangium section Rhytidandra (Alangiaceae). Blumea 62: 75-83

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines.

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 6 January 2022