Convolvulaceae

Aniseia Choisy (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017
  1. Aniseia martinicensis (Jacq.) Choisy, Conv. Rar. (1838) 144; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 359; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 435; ≡ Convolvulus martinicensis Jacq., Select. Stirp. Amer. Hist. (1763) 26. Distribution: Neotropics. Naturalized.
    • var. martinicensis. Distribution: Malesia. PALAWAN. Notes: Among grasses in low elevation freshwater swamps. Very rare and local in the Philippines.

Bonamia Thouars

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017
  1. Bonamia semidigyna (Roxb.) Hallier f. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1892) 528; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 357; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 398; ≡ Convolvulus semidigynus Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 47. Native.
    • var. semidigyna. Distribution: Borneo, India, Indochina, Java, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. CULION. Notes: Low elevation thickets.

Camonea Raf.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 March 2021
  1. Camonea pilosa (Houtt.) A.R.Simões & Staples, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 183 (2017) 583; ≡ Ipomoea pilosa Houtt., Nat. Hist. 2 (1777) 573. = Merremia umbellata ssp. orientalis (Hallier f.) Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 449; ≡ Merremia umbellata var. orientalis Hallier f., Verslag Staat's Lands Plantentuin Buitenzorg 1895 (1896) 132; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 389; EPFP 3 (1923) 362. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Thickets, forest edges, grasslands, along fields, trails, etc. at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Camonea umbellata (L.) A.R.Simões & Staples, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 183 (2017) 583; ≡ Convolvulus umbellatus L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 155. Distribution: Africa, C & S America. MINDANAO (photos). Notes: Naturalized along roads and in farms (K.M.B. Lugtu, pers. comm. 20-Mar-21). Naturalized.
  3. Camonea vitifolia (Burm.f.) A.R.Simões & Staples, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 183(4) (2017) 583; ≡ Merremia vitifolia (Burm.f.) Hallier f. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1892) 552; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 362; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 448; ≡ Convolvulus vitifolius Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 45; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, LUZON: Laguna, NEGROS, PALAWAN. Notes: In regions with rather pronounced dry season. Open grasslands, abandoned clearings, thickets at low elevation. Native.

Decalobanthus Ooststr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 May 2022
  1. Decalobanthus distillatorius (Blanco) Staples, Blumea 67 (2022) 550; ≡ Merremia distillatoria (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 325; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 360; ≡ Convolvulus distillatorius Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 95; Type: Quisumbing PNH 8061 (A, neo; PNH, isoneo), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Ditumabo. = Decalobanthus similis (Elmer) Simões & Staples, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 183 (2017) 571; ≡ Merremia similis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 335; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 360; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 454; Type: A.D.E. Elmer 7341 (PNH, holo, lost; E, G, K, NY, iso), Leyte; Palo. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Misamis, Surigao, NEGROS, PANAY, ROMBLON, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Thickets and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Decalobanthus peltatus (L.) A.R.Simões & Staples, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 183 (2017) 571; Staples, Blumea 67 (2022) 59; ≡ Merremia peltata (L.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 441; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 362; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 452; ≡ Convolvulus peltatus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1194; Type: from Moluccas. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Borneo, Indian Ocean, Java, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BALABAC, BOHOL, CAMIGUIN, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Often common in secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Philippine forms are apparently uniformly yellow flowered. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Decalobanthus pulcher (Ooststr.) Simões & Staples, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 183 (2017) 571; Staples, Blumea 67 (2022) 65; ≡ Merremia pulchra Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1939) 348; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 451; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. Notes: A specimen collected in the Philippines by G.T. Lay without exact locality (BM) might be conspecific (Oostroom 1953, Staples 2022). Native.

Excluded

  1. Decalobanthus mammosus (Lour.) A.R.Simões & Staples, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 183 (2017) 571; ≡ Merremia mammosa (Lour.) Hallier f., Teysmannia 7 (1897) 164; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 450; ≡ Convolvulus mammosus Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 108; ≡ Batatta mammosa Rumph., Herb. Amb. 5 (1747) 370, nom. inval.; Type: Rumphius, Herb. Amboin. 5 (1747) t. 131. Notes: P.B. Pelser (22-May-22): In his description of Batatta mammosa, Rumphius wrote that this species originates from the Philippines. However, Merrill (1917) explained that Rumphius' description and plate of Batatta mammosa refer to “a composite species, the flowers and leaves of a convolvulaceous plant being figured with the tubers of a different plant attached.” He wrote that the tubers probably belong to Dioscorea and that the leaves and flowers look like Operculina turpethum. Simões & Staples (2017) however disagreed and concluded that Rumphius' plate (Rumphius, Herb. Amboin. 5 (1747) t. 131.) shows Decalobanthus mammosus (George Staples, pers. comm. 21-May-22) and they selected the plate as the lectotype of Convolvulus mammosus Lour. despite Merrill (1935, p. 40) advising against typifying Loureiro's species by citing a pre-Linnaean illustration. Decalobanthus mammosus has not been reported from the Philippines (Staples 2022).

Dichondra J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. (Not native)

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2016
  1. Dichondra micrantha Urb., Symb. Antill. 9 (1924) 243. = Dichondra repens auct. non J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 357; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 395. Distribution: N America. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Not native to the Philippines; ubiquitous in the warmer regions of the world, everywhere local. Dry slopes, c. 1300m. Naturalized.

Distimake Raf.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 May 2021
  1. Distimake dissectus (Jacq.) A.R.Simões & Staples, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 183 (2017) 574; ≡ Merremia dissecta (Jacq.) Hallier f., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16 (1893) 552; ≡ Convolvulus dissectus Jacq., Observ. Bot. 2 (1767) 4; Type: Jacquin’s plate 28. Distribution: America. Naturalized.
    • var. dissectus.
  2. Distimake quinatus (R.Br.) Simões & Staples, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 183 (2017) 574; ≡ Merremia quinata (R.Br.) Ooststr., J. Arnold Arb. 29 (1948) 417; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 447; ≡ Ipomoea quinata R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 486; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 367; Type: from Australia. Distribution: Australia, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Grasslands or thickets. Also mentioned from Myanmar & S China, but not certainly conspecific. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Distimake tuberosus (L.) Simões & Staples, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 183 (2017) 577; ≡ Merremia tuberosa (L.) Rendle, Fl. Trop. Afr. 4, 2 (1905) 104; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 447; ≡ Operculina tuberosa (L.) Meissn. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 7 (1869) 212; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 385; EPFP 3 (1923) 363; ≡ Ipomoea tuberosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 160; Type: from Jamaica. Notes: America. Note by P.B. Pelser (17-Jan-21), it is not clear to me if this species is naturalized in the Philippines.

Erycibe Roxb.

  1. Erycibe forbesii Prain, J. As. Soc. Beng. 73, 2 (1904) 15; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 420. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Java Sea, Philippines, Sumatra. Native.
  2. Erycibe malaccensis C.B.Clarke in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4 (1883) 182; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 428. = Erycibe dubia Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 589; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 358. Distribution: ?Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Bataan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  3. Erycibe micrantha Hallier f., Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1893) 524; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 412. = Erycibe griffithii auct. non C.B.Clarke; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 358. = Erycibe lateraliflora Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1767. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Moluccas, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  4. Erycibe ramosii Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1953) 316; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 419. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON. Native.
  5. Erycibe sargentii Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 56; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 359; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 413. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Pangasinan, Zambales, MINDANAO, PANAY. Notes: Forested slopes at low elevation. Fl. Feb-May. Native.
  6. Erycibe sericea Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1953) 317; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 416. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN. Notes: Known only from the type collection from Malamui, an island close to N Basilan. Native.
  7. Erycibe terminaliflora Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1768; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 359; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 418. = Erycibe rheedii auct. non Blume; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 358, pro parte. = Erycibe hallieriana Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2603. = Erycibe pararan Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2603. = Erycibe copelandii Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3077. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, La Union, Laguna, Quezon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1200m. Native.
  8. Erycibe tomentosa Blume, Bijdr. 16 (1826) 1048; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 426. = Erycibe princii Wall. ex Choisy in DC., Prodr. 9 (1845) 464; Wall, Cat. (1829) No. 1335, as ‘princei’, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 358. Native.
    • var. tomentosa. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Java Sea, Madura, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE.

Evolvulus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017
  1. Evolvulus alsinoides L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 392; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 382; EPFP 3 (1923) 357; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 395. = Evolvulus alsinoides var. hirsutus (Lam.) Ooststr., Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 14 (1934) 29; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 396; ≡ Evolvulus hirsutus Lam., Encycl. 3 (1792) 538. = Evolvulus alsinoides var. philippinensis Ooststr., Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 14 (1934) 30; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 396; Type: BS 27435 Ramos (SING, ?holo), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Bangui, Feb/Mar-1917. = Evolvulus alsinoides var. decumbens (R.Br.) Ooststr., Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 14 (1934) 38; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 396; ≡ Evolvulus decumbens R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 489. Distribution: Pantropic. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Open dry grasslands at low and medium elevation. Often common. The four varieties in the Philippines distinguished by Ooststroom intergrade to a high degree, hence the recognition here of just one highly variable species. Native.

Hewittia Wight & Arn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020
  1. Hewittia malabarica (L.) Suresh, Interpret. Rheede’s Hort. Malab. (1988) 88; Staples & Yang in Huang (ed.) Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 353; ≡ Convolvulus malabaricus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 155. = Hewittia sublobata (L.f.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 441; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 382; EPFP 3 (1923) 359; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 438; ≡ Convolvulus sublobatus L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 135. = Hewittia scandens (Milne) Mabb. in K.S.Manilal, Bot. Hist. Hort. Malabaricus (1980) 84. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in open grasslands and waste places, low and medium elevation, often common. Native.

Ipomoea L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 January 2022
  1. Ipomoea aculeata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 715; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 486. Native.
    • var. mollissima (Zoll.) Hallier f. ex Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 574; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 486; ≡ Calonyction mollissimum Zoll., Syst. Verz. Ind. Archip. 2 (1854) 128. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madura, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON.
  2. Ipomoea alba L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 161; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 547; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 480; ≡ Calonyction album (L.) House, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 31 (1904) 591; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 384; EPFP 3 (1923) 369. = Calonyction aculeatum (L.) House, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 31 (1904) 590; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 384; EPFP 3 (1923) 369; ≡ Convolvulus aculeatus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 155. = Ipomoea grandiflora Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1793) 467; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 285. Distribution: America. JOLO, LUZON: Batangas, La Union, Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO, PALMAS. Notes: Settled areas, thickets, hedges, along trails at low and medium elevation. Also often near the sea. Naturalized.
  3. Ipomoea apoensis (Elmer) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 25; ≡ Argyreia apoensis (Elmer) Ooststr., Blumea 6 (1950) 344; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 509; Staples & Traiperm, Taxon 66 (2017) 449; ≡ Rivea apoensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2604; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 370; Type: Elmer 11231 (A, BISH, BO, E, G, GH, K, L, NY, P, US, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya (Mt Apo), Jul-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: In forests, c. 450m, forming dense tangled masses. Possibly only a variety of Ipomoea barnesii (Merr.) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland. Native.
  4. Ipomoea aquatica Forssk., Fl. Aeg.-Arab. (1775) 44; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 528; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 473. Distribution: Pantropic. Native.
    • var. aquatica. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in stagnant streams, freshwater swamps and pools. Widely used as a vegetable. Perhaps introduced.
  5. Ipomoea barnesii (Merr.) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 25; ≡ Argyreia barnesii (Merr.) Ooststr., Blumea 6 (1950) 343; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 509; ≡ Rivea barnesii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 40; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 371; Type: Barnes FB 68 (BO, K, NY, SING, US), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River, Nov-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. barnesii. = Rivea cinerea Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 335; Staples & Traiperm, Taxon 66 (2017) 450; Type: Elmer 8882 (A, BO, G, K, L, syn), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, near Sablan, Mar-1907. Distribution: GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Camarines, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Forests at low and medium elevation, forming tangled masses over the tops of trees and larger shrubs.
    • var. urdanetensis (Elmer) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 25; ≡ Argyreia barnesii var. urdanetensis (Elmer) Ooststr., Blumea 6 (1950) 344; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 509; Staples & Traiperm, Taxon 66 (2017) 450; ≡ Rivea urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2605; Type: 13361 (A, BO, G, GH, K, L, NY, P, U, US, syn), Mindanao: Agusan, Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta), Jul-1912. Distribution: MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Forests, 600m. Only known from the type (Staples & Traiperm 2017).
  6. Ipomoea biflora (L.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 1 (1805) 183; ≡ Convolvulus biflorus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1668. = Ipomoea plebeia R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 484; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 492; Fl. Males.ser. 1, 4 (1953) 463; addenda & corrigenda, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1972) 940. Distribution: Australia, Java, Java Sea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Only known from one collection, Vanoverbergh 1410. Native.
  7. Ipomoea binectarifera (Wall.) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 33; ≡ Lepistemon binectarifer (Wall.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. (1891) 446; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 383; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 489; ≡ Convolvulus binectariferus Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 47. = Polemonium obtusum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 103; ≡ Lepistemon obscurum (Blanco) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 364. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, ?New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Lanao. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets, often common. Conservation status: Least Concern (Staples 2007). Native.
    • var. binectarifera.
    • var. trichocarpa (Gagnep.) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 33; ≡ Lepistemon binectarifer var. trichocarpum (Gagnep.) Ooststr., Blumea 5 (1943) 343; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 490; ≡ Lepistemon trichocarpus Gagnep., Notul. Syst. (Paris) 3 (1915) 152; Type: Vanoverbergh 1869 (P, syn), Luzon, Bontoc. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan. LUZON: Mountain Province.
  8. Ipomoea boholensis (Merr.) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 25; ≡ Argyreia boholensis (Merr.) Ooststr., Blumea 6 (1950) 345; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 509; Staples & Traiperm, Taxon 66 (2017) 451; ≡ Lettsomia boholensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 485; Type: Ramos BS 42772 (A, BO, G, K, P, US, syn), Bohol: Aug/Sep-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, CEBU (photos), ?NEGROS (photos), PANAY (photos). Notes: Forest clearings and along streams, 300-600m. Native.
  9. Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. (1827) 287; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 391; EPFP 3 (1923) 364; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 542; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 478. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, China, India, Indian Ocean, Laos, Madagascar, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific Ocean, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Naturalized.
    • var. cairica. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, China, India, Indian Ocean, Laos, Madagascar, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific Ocean, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Cultivated; wild in waste places, thickets, hedges, etc.
  10. Ipomoea campanulata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 160; addenda & corrigenda, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 558; ≡ Stictocardia campanulata (L.) Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) 133; EPFP 3 (1923) 372. = Ipomoea illustris (C.B.Clarke) Prain, Beng. Pl. 2 (1903) 735; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 566; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 485; ≡ Ipomoea campanulata var. illustris C.B.Clarke in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4 (1883) 211. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, India, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON, PANAY. Notes: Seashores and along coastal thickets and forest edges near the sea. Native.
  11. Ipomoea corymbosa (L.) Roth in J.J.Roemer & J.A.Schultes, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 4 (1819) 232; ≡ Turbina corymbosa (L.) Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4, 1836 (1838)81; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 493; ≡ Legendrea corymbosa (L.) Ooststr., Blumea 5 (1943) 355; ≡ Rivea corymbosa (L.) Hallier f. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 18 (1894) 157; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 387; EPFP 3 (1923) 371; ≡ Convolvulus corymbosus L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 923. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON: Bulacan, Laguna, Rizal. Notes: Introduced here and there in the Old World. In some places now spontaneous in thickets and secondary forests. Naturalized.
  12. Ipomoea diversifolia R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 487; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 365; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 545; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 479. Distribution: India to Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Dry open places at low elevation. Native.
  13. Ipomoea eriocarpa R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 484; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 462; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 490. = Ipomoea hispida (Vahl) Roem. & Schult., Syst. 4 (1819) 238, nom. illeg., non Zuccagni; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 366; ≡ Convolvulus hispidus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3 (1794) 29. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Australia, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam. Native.
  14. Ipomoea hederifolia L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1759) 925; Ooststr., Nova Guinea n.s. 6 (1955) 28; Addenda, corrigenda et emendanda, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1958) 563. = Ipomoea angulata Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 464; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 553; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 481. = Quamoclit phoenicea (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Choisy, Conv. Or. (1834) 51; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 383; EPFP 3 (1923) 370; ≡ Quamoclit phoenicea (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Choisy, Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 6 (1834) 433. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: In Malesia cultivated for ornamental purposes but has run wild in waste places, fields, grasslands, thickets and thin forests. Naturalized.
  15. Ipomoea imperati (Vahl) Griseb., Cat. Pl. Cub. (1866) 203; ≡ Convolvulus imperati Vahl, Symb. Bot. 1 (1790) 17. = Ipomoea stolonifera (Cyrillo) J.F.Gmel., Syst. Nat. ed. 13, 2 (1791) 345; Merr., EPFP 3(1923) 368; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 540; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 478, nom. superfl; ≡ Convolvulus stolonifer Cirillo, Pl. Rar. Neapol. 1 (1788) 14, nom. superfl. Distribution: Africa, America, Andaman Isls, Australia, Caribbean, China, Europe, Java, Madura, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LUZON: Cagayan. Notes: On sandybeach along seashore. Native.
  16. Ipomoea indica (Burm.) Merr., Interpr. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 445; ≡ Convolvulus indicus Burm., Auctuarium (1755) 2 verso. = Ipomoea acuminata (Vahl) Roem. & Schult., Syst. 4 (1819) 228; addenda & corrigenda, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1972) 939; ≡ Convolvulus acuminatus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3 (1794) 26. = Ipomoea congesta R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 885; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 500; Fl.Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 465. Distribution: Pantropic. Notes: Throughout Malesia but yet to be found in Borneo. Native.
  17. Ipomoea littoralis Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 713; Ooststr., addenda & corrigenda, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1972) 940. = Ipomoea gracilis auct. non R.Br.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 365; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 516; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 470. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Sandy beaches and coastal thickets. Native.
  18. Ipomoea luzonensis (Hallier f.) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, PhytoKeys 143 (2020) 823; Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 28, nom. inval.; ≡ Argyreia luzonensis (Hallier f.) Ooststr., Blumea 5 (1943) 379; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 505; Staples & Traiperm, Taxon 66 (2017) 459; ≡ Rivea luzonensis Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boiss. 6 (1898) 714; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 371; Type: Cuming 692 (E, G, GOET, K, L, TCD, W, syn), Luzon: Batangas, Calawang, 1841; Vidal 1622 (K, syn), Luzon: Manila, San Mateo, Nov-1884; Meyen s.n. (B, syn, lost), Luzon: Manila, 1831. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Lanao. Notes: Common in thickets and forests, especially along mountain streams at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m. Native.
  19. Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq., Collect. 4 (1791) 216; addenda & corrigenda, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1972) 941. = Ipomoea digitata auct. non L.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 391; EPFP 3 (1923) 364; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 558; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 483. Distribution: Africa, Australia, C & S America, Cambodia, Caribbean, China, India, Indian Ocean, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. CORON, CULION, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, La Union, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO. Notes: Along coastal thickets and along streams at low elevation. Native.
  20. Ipomoea merrillii J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, PhytoKeys 143 (2020) 823; ≡ Ipomoea philippinensis (Merr.) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 30, nom. illeg., non Choisy; ≡ Argyreia philippinensis (Merr.) Ooststr., Blumea 6 (1950) 341; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 499; Staples & Traiperm, Taxon 66 (2017) 463; ≡ Lettsomia philippinensis Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 488; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; Type: BS 10964 Ramos (L), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, Aug-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Damp forests at low elevation. Native.
  21. Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth, Cat. Bot. 1 (1797) 36; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 390; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 497; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 465; ≡ Convolvulus nil L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 219. = ?Ipomoea hederacea Jacq., Icon. Pl. Rar. 1 (1781) t. 36; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 365. Distribution: America. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental. Naturalized in thickets and waste places (Merrill 1923). Naturalized.
  22. Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker Gawl., Bot. Reg. 3 (1817) t. 239; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 391; EPFP 3 (1923) 366; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 519; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 471; ≡ Convolvulus obscurus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 220. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Indian Ocean, Malesia, Pacific Ocean, SE Asia. Notes: Grasslands, thickets, along trails, waste areas, etc. Native.
    • var. obscura.
  23. Ipomoea paucinervia (Ooststr.) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 29; ≡ Argyreia paucinervia Ooststr., Blumea 6 (1950) 347; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 510; Staples & Traiperm, Taxon 66 (2017) 463; Type: BS 47260 Ramos & Edaño (NY, holo; B, BM, US, iso), Luzon: Isabela, Mt Moises, Mar-1926. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Notes: Forest slopes, c. 1000m. Only known from the type (Staples & Traiperm 2017). Native.
  24. Ipomoea pedicellata (Ooststr.) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 29; ≡ Argyreia pedicellata Ooststr., Blumea 5 (1943) 379; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 500; Staples & Traiperm, Taxon 66 (2017) 463; Type: Elmer 8439 (L, holo; A, BO, G, K, NY, US), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Native.
  25. Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R.Br. in Tuckey, Narr. Exp. Zaire (1818) 477; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 391; EPFP 3 (1923) 366; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 538; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 475; addenda & corrigenda, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1972) 941; ≡ Convolvulus pes-caprae L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 159. Native.
    • ssp. pes-caprae. Distribution: Africa, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra. Notes: Sandy beaches.
    • ssp. brasiliensis (L.) Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 533; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 475; ≡ Convolvulus brasiliensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 159. Distribution: Pantropic. Notes: The common subspecies throughout Malesia.
  26. Ipomoea pes-tigridis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 162; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 390; EPFP 3 (1923) 367; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 504; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 467. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Grasslands, waste places, thickets, fields, sea level to 1000m. Native.
    • var. pes-tigridis.
  27. Ipomoea pileata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 94; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 366; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 507; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 467. = Ipomoea involucrata auct. non P.Beauv.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 366. Distribution: Africa, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. CULION. Native.
  28. Ipomoea polymorpha Roem. & Schult., Syst. 4 (1819) 254; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 367; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 493; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 464. Distribution: Africa, Australia, ?India, Indochina and Taiwan to Australia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madura, New Guinea, Philippines. Notes: Regions with marked dry season. Native.
  29. Ipomoea purpuricarpa (Elmer) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 29; ≡ Argyreia purpuricarpa Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1766; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 372; Type: Elmer 12777 (BISH, BO, E, L, NY, syn), Palawan: Puerto Princesa (Mt Pulgar), Mar-1911. = Argyreia nitida (Desr.) Choisy, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 6 (1833) 424; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 371; Ooststr., Blumea 6 (1950) 339; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 498; Staples & Traiperm, Taxon 66 (2017) 461; ≡ Convolvulus nitidus Desr. in Lam., Encycl. 3 (1792) 544; Type: Commerson 24 (P, P-JU, syn), Luzon: Manila; Anonymous s.n. (P-JU). = Argyreia mollis auct. non (Burm.f.) Choisy; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 386. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CULION, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, Tarlac, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  30. Ipomoea quamoclit L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 159; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 555; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 482. = Quamoclit pinnata (Desr.) Bojer, Hort. Maurit. (1837) 224; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 383; EPFP 3 (1923) 370, as ‘pennata’; ≡ Quamoclit pinnata Bojer, Hortus Maurit. (1837) 224, as ‘pennata’, nom. superfl. Distribution: Pantropic. Notes: Cultivated and runs wild all over Malesia. Thickets (Merrill 1923). Naturalized.
  31. Ipomoea rubens Choisy, Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 6 (1834) 463; addenda & corrigenda, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1972) 941. = Ipomoea riparia G.Don, Gen. Syst. 4 (1838) 265; Ooststr; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 484. = Ipomoea fragrans Bojer ex Choisy in DC., Prodr. 9 (1845) 393; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 365; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 564. Distribution: Africa, Borneo, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Lanao. Notes: Thickets in and bordering freshwater swamps. Native.
  32. Ipomoea samarensis (Ooststr.) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 30; ≡ Argyreia samarensis Ooststr., Blumea 6 (1950) 347; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 510; Staples & Traiperm, Taxon 66 (2017) 465; Type: BS 17489 Ramos (L, holo; BM, K, P, US, iso), Samar: Mar/Apr-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Only known from the type (Staples & Traiperm 2017). Native.
  33. Ipomoea sorsogonensis (Ooststr. ex Staples & Traiperm) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 31; ≡ Argyreia sorsogonensis Ooststr. ex Staples & Traiperm, Taxon 66 (2017) 466; Ooststr., Blumea 6 (1950) 340; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 503, nom. inval.; ≡ Rivea sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3721, nom. inval.; Type: Elmer 16992 (P, holo; A, BM, BO, G, GH, K, L, NY, U, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt Bulusan), Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: In light woods among shrubberies at 300m. Native.
  34. Ipomoea tiliifolia (Desr.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 4 (1819) 229; ≡ Stictocardia tiliifolia (Desr.) Hallier f. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 18 (1894) 159; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 385; Ooststr., Blumea 5 (1943) 346; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 491; ≡ Convolvulus tiliifolius Desr. in Lam., Encycl. 3 (1792) 544. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. ALABAT, BATANES, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Laguna, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO, NEGROS, TICAO. Notes: Naturalized in thickets (Merrill 1912). Naturalized.
  35. Ipomoea triloba L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 161; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 391; EPFP 3 (1923) 368; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 509; Fl.Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 468. Distribution: America. Notes: Grasslands, thickets, along trails, waste places, etc. Sea level to 300m elevation. Naturalized.
  36. Ipomoea violacea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 161. = Ipomoea macrantha Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 4 (1819) 451, nom. superfl; addenda & corrigenda, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1982) 558. = Ipomoea tuba (Schltdl.) G.Don, Gen. Syst. 4 (1838) 271; Ooststr., Fl. Males.ser. 1, 4 (1953) 487. Distribution: Africa, America, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Batangas (photos). Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Ipomoea batatas (L.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 6 (1804) 14; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 392; EPFP 3 (1923) 364; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 512; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 469; ≡ Convolvulus batatas L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 154. Notes: Cultivated throughout the tropical and subtropical regions worldwide.
    • var. batatas. Notes: Widely grown in the Philippines since its introduction from Mexico during early Spanish colonial times. Not naturalized. Kamote or sweet potato.
  2. Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq., Hort. Schoenbr. 3 (1798) 40; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 551; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 481; ≡ Calonyction muricatum (L.) G.Don, Gen. Syst. 4 (1838) 264; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 370; ≡ Convolvulus muricatus L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 44. Distribution: America. Notes: Cultivated in the Philippines as an ornamental. Not naturalized.
  3. Ipomoea nervosa (Burm.f.) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 29; ≡ Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Bojer, Hort. Maurit. (1837) 244; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 386; EPFP 3 (1923) 371; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 499; ≡ Convolvulus nervosus Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 48. Distribution: India. Notes: Cultivated in other tropical countries and occasionally escaped. In the Philippines cultivated as a garden plant but not naturalized.
  4. Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Bot. Abhandl. (1787) 27; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 390; EPFP 3 (1923) 367; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 496; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 465; ≡ Convolvulus purpureus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 219. Distribution: America. Notes: In Malesia occasionally cultivated in gardens for ornamental purposes, but showing no tendency to become naturalized.
  5. Ipomoea setosa Ker Gawl., Bot. Reg. 4 (1819) t. 335. = Ipomoea campaniflora Hallier f., Meded. Rijksherb. Leiden no. 46 (1922) 20; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1940) 580; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 488. = Calonyction campanulatum Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boiss. 5 (1897) 1050; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 369. Distribution: C America. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized (Merrill 1923).

Possibly present

  1. Ipomoea capitiformis (Poir.) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 26; ≡ Argyreia capitiformis (Poir.) Ooststr., Fl. Males., ser. 1, 6 (1972) 941; Staples & Traiperm, Taxon 66 (2017) 452; ≡ Convolvulus capitiformis Poir., Encycl. Suppl. 3 (1814) 469; Type: from India. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, ?Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: See Staples & Traiperm (2017) for possible presence in the Philippines.
  2. Ipomoea carrii J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 26; ≡ Argyreia discolor Ooststr., Blumea 7 (1952) 175; Staples & Traiperm, Taxon 66 (2017) 454; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, ?Philippines, ?Sumatra. ?LUZON.

Excluded

  1. Ipomoea nellygherya (Choisy) J.R.I.Wood & Scotland, Nat. Plants 5 1136-44 (2019) Suppl. 29; ≡ Argyreia nellygherya Choisy, Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 6 (1834) 414; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 372. Notes: Erroneously reported for the Philippines (Ooststroom 1953; Staples & Traiperm 2017).

Jacquemontia Choisy

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017
  1. Jacquemontia paniculata (Burm.f.) Hallier f. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 18 (1894) 95; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 359; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 432; ≡ Ipomoea paniculata Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 50. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. paniculata. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
    • var. philippinensis Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1939) 274; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 433. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
    • var. tomentosa (Warb.) Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 432; ≡ Convolvulus parviflorus var. tomentosus Warb., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 18 (1893) 207. Distribution: Australia, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines. Notes: APO IS. Apo Island in Mindoro Strait.

Merremia Dennst. ex Endl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 May 2018
  1. Merremia emarginata (Burm.f.) Hallier f. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1892) 552; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 360; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1939) 312; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 444; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 5 (1958) 560; ≡ Evolvulus emarginatus Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 77. Distribution: Africa, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, SE Asia, Sulawesi. LUZON. Notes: Confined to regions with strong to very strong dry season, on rather heavy soils, in open areas from sea-level to 200m. Native.
  2. Merremia gemella (Burm.f.) Hallier f. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1892) 552; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 389; EPFP 3 (1923) 360; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 441; ≡ Convolvulus gemellus Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 46. Native.
    • var. gemella. Distribution: Australia, Malesia, SE Asia. Notes: Thickets, hedges or grasslands, rice field dikes, often on moist soil,.
  3. Merremia hederacea (Burm.f.) Hallier f. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 18 (1894) 168; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 388; EPFP 3 (1923) 361; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1939) 302; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 441; ≡ Evolvulus hederaceus Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 77. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Vietnam. Native.
    • forma hederacea. Notes: Thickets and open grasslands at low elevation.
  4. Merremia hirta (L.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 244; Fl. Manila (1912) 388; EPFP 3 (1923) 361; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1939) 307; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 442; ≡ Convolvulus hirtus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 159. = Ipomoea reptans (L.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 3 (1814) 460; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 392; EPFP 3 (1923) 368; ≡ Convolvulus reptans L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 158. Native.
    • var. hirta. Distribution: Australia, India to China, Malesia, Thailand. Notes: Open grasslands, dry rice fields, along trails.
    • var. retusa Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1939) 311; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 443. = ?Ipomoea hepaticifolia Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 72; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 324. Distribution: LUZON: Bulacan, Tarlac.

Operculina Silva Manso

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 May 2020
  1. Operculina riedeliana (Oliv.) Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1939) 366; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 457; Staples et al., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 105 (2020) 111; ≡ Ipomoea riedeliana Oliv., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 15 (1883) t. 1424; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Borneo, China, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Thailand. CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, La Union, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets and secondary forests. Native.
  2. Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso, Enum. Subst. Braz. (1836) 16; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 385; EPFP 3 (1923) 363; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 454; Staples et al., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 105 (2020) 115; ≡ Convolvulus turpethum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 155; Type: from Sri Lanka (lecto). Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Singapore, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, BATANES, LUZON: Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.

Excluded

  1. Operculina bufalina (Lour.) Hallier f., Meded. Rijks Herb. 1 (1910) 26; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 363; ≡ Convolvulus bufalinus Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 109. Notes: Proposed for rejection (Staples et al. 2017).

Porana Burm.f. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 November 2020
  1. Porana volubilis Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 51; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 358; Ooststr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 402; Staples, Blumea 51 (2006) 456. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, NEGROS. Notes: Seemingly introduced and naturalized in India, Myanmar, Philippines; disturbed forests and thickets. Naturalized.

Poranopsis Roberty (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Poranopsis paniculata (Roxb.) Roberty, Candollea 14 (1952) 26; ≡ Porana paniculata Roxb., Pl. Corom. 3 (1819) 31; Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1938) 87; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 404. Distribution: India, Myanmar. Notes: Cultivated as an ornamental elsewhere in the tropics, occasionally escaping. Not reported to be naturalized in the Philippines.

Xenostegia D.F.Austin & Staples

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 October 2016
  1. Xenostegia tridentata (L.) D.F.Austin & Staples, Brittonia 32 (1981) 533; ≡ Merremia tridentata (L.) Hallier f., Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1893) 552; ≡ Convolvulus tridentatus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 157. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Middle East, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout Malesia; open grasslands including cogonals, thickets, along trails, etc. Native.
    • ssp. hastata Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1939) 317; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1953) 445; ≡ Merremia hastata Hallier f. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1892) 552, nom. illeg.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 388; EPFP 3 (1923) 361; ≡ Convolvulus hastatus Desr. in Lam., Encycl. 3 (1792) 542, nom. illeg.
    • ssp. tridentata.

Literature