Commelinaceae

Amischotolype Hassk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017
  1. Amischotolype hispida (Less. & A.Rich.) Hong, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 12 (1974) 461; ≡ Forrestia hispida Less. & A.Rich., Sert. Astrolab. (1834) 2; Type: from New Guinea. = Forrestia hispida var. philippinensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 197; ≡ Forrestia philippinensis Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 35 (1905) 5; Type: Merrill 4051 (PNH, holo; K, photo iso). Distribution: China, Indochina, Java, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BASILAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Lanao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, thickets and old clearings at the vicinity of primary forests. Native.
  2. Amischotolype marginata (Blume) Hassk., Flora 46 (1863) 392; ≡ Campelia marginata Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae (1827) 7; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, PALAWAN. Native.

Belosynapsis Hassk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017
  1. Belosynapsis ciliata (Blume) R.S.Rao, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 25 (1964) 187; ≡ Cyanotis ciliata (Blume) Bakh.f., Blumea 6 (1950) 399; ≡ Tradescantia ciliata Blume, Catalogus (1823) 61. = Cyanotis capitata (Blume) C.B.Clarke in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 243; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 198; ≡ Tradescantia capitata Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae 1 (1827) 6. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Java, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan. Native.
  2. Belosynapsis moluccana (Roxb.) C.E.C.Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew (1928) 406; ≡ Cyanotis moluccana (Roxb.) Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 266; Fl. Manila (1912) 139; EPFP 1 (1922) 199; ≡ Commelina moluccana Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 176. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Moluccas, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation, on boulders in ravines, along small streams, etc. Native.

Commelina L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 January 2021
  1. Commelina benghalensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 41; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 138; EPFP 1 (1922) 195. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Lowland and medium elevation grasslands, waste places in the settled areas. Often common. Native.
  2. Commelina caroliniana Walter, Fl. Carol. (1788) 68; Faden, Taxon 38 (1989) 50; Nampy et al., Phytotaxa 87 (2013) 26. Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Nepal. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (17-Jan-21): I did not find notes on the ecology of this species for the Philippines, but elsewhere it is reported from paddy fields and along roadsides, ditches, and streams (Nampy et al. 2013). Naturalized.
  3. Commelina diffusa Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 18. Native.
    • ssp. diffusa. = Commelina luzonensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3184; Type: Elmer 22174 (K, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga, Camp Stotesnburg (Mt Pinatubo), thickets of moist ravines, 3500ft, 27-May-1927. Distribution: Pantropic. LUZON: Pampanga. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation grasslands, waste places, etc.
  4. Commelina suffruticosa Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae 1 (1827) 3. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand. CULION. Notes: Record from Culion: Merrill 531, US. Native.
  5. Commelina undulata R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 270; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 195. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indian Ocean, Moluccas, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam. LUZON. Notes: Record from Luzon: Loher s.n., US. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Commelina chamissonis Klotz. ex C.B.Clarke in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 186; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 195. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Notes: “The type is a specimen from Luzon, collected by Chamisso, probably from either Cavite or Batangas Province or possibly from the vicinity of Manila. I have seen no specimens I can with certainty refer to it, but some may have been distributed sub C. nudiflora L.” Merr. (1922: 195). Native.

Cyanotis D.Don

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017
  1. Cyanotis axillaris (L.) D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 46; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 140; EPFP 1 (1922) 198; ≡ Commelina axillaris L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 42. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Low to medium elevation in clearings, open places along streams, rice paddies, etc. Native.
  2. Cyanotis cristata (L.) D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 46; Roem. & Schult., Syst. 72 (1830) 1150; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 140; EPFP 1 (1922) 198; ≡ Commelina cristata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 42. Distribution: India, Indian Ocean to Malesia. BASILAN, LUZON. Notes: In most or all provinces in Luzon. Old clearings, open places along streams, about cliffs, etc. At low and medium elevation. Native.
  3. Cyanotis pedunculata Merr., PJS c 10 (1915) 266. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Native.

Floscopa Lour.

  1. Floscopa scandens Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 193; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 199. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. CALAMIANES, LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to the Calamianes and Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces. In wet places along small streams at low and medium elevation. Native.

Murdannia Royle

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017
  1. Murdannia edulis (Stokes) Faden, Taxon 29 (1980) 77; ≡ Commelina edulis Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. 1 (1812) 184. Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Java Sea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: Lowlands, in shaded places along streams. Native.
  2. Murdannia gigantea (Vahl) G.Brückn., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 15a (1930) 173; ≡ Commelina gigantea Vahl, Enum. Pl. Obs. 2 (1805) 177. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, SEMIRARA. Notes: Low and medium elevation open grasslands. Native.
  3. Murdannia loriformis (Hassk.) R.S.Rao & Kammathy, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 3 (1962) 393; ≡ Aneilema loriforme Hassk. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 143. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Java, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. Native.
  4. Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan, Kew Bull. 7 (1952) 189; ≡ Commelina nudiflora L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 41. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation, in open grasslands, waste places, etc. Common. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  5. Murdannia spectabilis (Kurz) Faden, Taxon 29 (1980) 74; ≡ Aneilema spectabile Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 40 (1871) 77. Distribution: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bulacan, SEMIRARA. Notes: Low elevation open wet grasslands. Native.
  6. Murdannia spirata (L.) G.Brückn., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 15a (1930) 173; ≡ Commelina spirata L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 176. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. spirata. Notes: According to Merrill (1922), credited to the Philippines by C.B. Clarke on the basis of a specimen collected by Baume (P) from Luzon: Laguna de Bay. “This specimen may be A[neilema] malabaricum (L.) Merr., or I may have included A. spiratum R.Br. in my conception of A. malabaricum (L.) Merr.”.
  7. Murdannia vaginata G.Brückn., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 15a (1930) 173. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. vaginata. Distribution: NEGROS.
  8. Murdannia versicolor (Dalzell) G.Brückn., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 15a (1930) 173; ≡ Aneilema versicolor Dalzell, Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 3 (1851) 136. Distribution: India, Philippines, Vietnam. CULION, LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Lowlands. Open wet grasslands, fallow rice paddies, etc. Native.

Pollia Thunb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 November 2021
  1. Pollia macrophylla (R.Br.) Benth., Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 90; ≡ Aneilema macrophyllum R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 270. = Aclisia cumingiana Hassk., Commelin. Ind. (1870) 47. Distribution: Australia, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao, SAMAR. Native.
  2. Pollia secundiflora (Blume) Bakh.f. in Backer, Beknopte Fl. Java Afl. x a. Fam. 211 (1949) 10; Type: from Indonesia. = Pollia sorzogonensis (E.Mey.) Steud., Nomencl. Bot. ed. 2. 2 (1841) 368; ≡ Aclisia sorzogonensis E.Mey., Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1827) 138. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao. Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  3. Pollia thyrsiflora (Blume) Steud., Nomencl. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 368; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 195; ≡ Tradescantia thyrsiflora Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae 1 (1827) 6; Type: from Indonesia. = Pollia philippinensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 275; Type: Elmer 9162, Luzon: Tayabas, Lucban, May-1907. Distribution: Andaman Isls to Java and Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Luzon (Cagayan to Sorsogon) to Palawan and Mindanao. Lowland and medium elevation forests. Native.

Excluded

  1. Pollia sumatrana Hassk., Commelin. Ind. (1870) 56. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (1-Apr-14): the name Pollia sumatrana Hassk. has been incorrectly applied to Philippine plants according to LaFrankie (pers. comm. 2014).

Rhopalephora Hassk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017
  1. Rhopalephora scaberrima (Blume) Faden, Phytologia 37 (1977) 480; ≡ Commelina scaberrima Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae 1 (1827) 4. Distribution: Himalayas to Malesia, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Native.
  2. Rhopalephora vitiensis (Seem.) Faden, Biosyst. Study Gen. Aneilema (Commelinaceae) 2 (1975) 395; ≡ Aneilema vitiense Seem., Fl. Vit. (1865-73) 314; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 197. = Aneilema vitiense var. petiolata C.B.Clarke in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 220; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 197. Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. Lowlands and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m, shaded ravines along creek gullies. Native.

Tradescantia L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 July 2017
  1. Tradescantia spathacea Sw., Prodr. (1788) 57; ≡ Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn, Baileya 5 (1957) 195. = Rhoeo discolor (L’Her.) Hance ex Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 3 (1853) 660; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 139; EPFP 1 (1922) 195; ≡ Tradescantia discolor L'Hér., Sert. Angl. 8 (1789) t. 12. Distribution: America. Notes: Now widely cultivated in the tropics, easily escaping and often becoming naturalized. Naturalized.
  2. Tradescantia zebrina Heynh., Alp. Aufz. Gew. (1847) 735; Type: not known, based on material cultivated in Europe. Notes: Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
    • var. zebrina. = Tradescantia pendula (Schnizl.) D.R.Hunt, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 197; ≡ Zebrina pendula Schnizl., Bot. Zeit. 7 (1849) 870; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 140; EPFP 1 (1922) 199. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Introduced from tropical America and cultivated as an ornamental, now more or less established in coconut groves, etc. at medium elevation. Wandering Jew.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R.Hunt, Kew Bull. 30 (1975) 452; ≡ Setcreasea pallida Rose, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 13 (1911) 294. = Setcreasea purpurea Boom, Acta Bot. Neerl. 4 (1955) 167; Type: from Mexico. Distribution: America. Notes: Widely grown as an ornamental in the tropics. Not naturalized?.

Tricarpelema J.K.Morton

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 May 2018
  1. Tricarpelema philippense (Panigrahi) Faden, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 76 (1991) 153; ≡ Dictyospermum philippense Panigrahi, Phytologia 29 (1974) 338. = Aneilema humile Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 4; EPFP 1 (1922) 196, nom. illeg., non Warb.; Type: Merrill 10459. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra. ALABAT. Notes: Lowland forests on wet slopes. Native.

Literature