Aclisia E.Mey. = Pollia

 Amischotolype Hassk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017

  1. Amischotolype hispida (Less. & A.Rich.) Hong, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 12 (1974) 461; --Forrestia hispida Less. & A.Rich., Sert. Astrolab. (1834) 2; --Type: from New Guinea. --Forrestia hispida var. philippinensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 197; --Forrestia philippinensis Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 35 (1905) 5; --Type: Merrill 4051 (PNH, holo; K, photo iso). China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Indochina, Indonesia, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO, CATANDUANES, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon, Agusan. Low and medium elevation forests, thickets and old clearings at the vicinity of primary forests. Photos
  2. Amischotolype marginata (Blume) Hassk., Flora 46 (1863) 392; --Campelia marginata Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae (1827) 7; --Type: from Indonesia. Myanmar, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, PALAWAN. Photos

Aneilema auctt., non R.Br. (no Philippine representative; = various genera)

Belosynapsis Hassk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017

  1. Belosynapsis ciliata (Blume) R.S.Rao, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 25 (1964) 187; --Cyanotis ciliata (Blume) Bakh.f., Blumea 6 (1950) 399; --Tradescantia ciliata Blume, Catalogus (1823) 61. --Cyanotis capitata (Blume) C.B.Clarke in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 243; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 198; --Tradescantia capitata Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae 1 (1827) 6. India, China, Taiwan, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea. Photos
  2. Belosynapsis moluccana (Roxb.) C.E.C.Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew (1928) 406; --Cyanotis moluccana (Roxb.) Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 266; Fl. Manila (1912) 139; EPFP 1 (1922) 199; --Commelina moluccana Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 176. Java, Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDORO, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation, on boulders in ravines, along small streams, etc.

Commelina L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 January 2021

  1. Commelina benghalensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 41; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 138; EPFP 1 (1922) 195. Africa, Middle East, Andaman Isls, India, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Philippines, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Ryukyu Isls, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Throughout the Philippines. Lowland and medium elevation grasslands, waste places in the settled areas. Often common. Photos
  2. Commelina caroliniana Walter, Fl. Carol. (1788) 68; --Faden, Taxon 38 (1989) 50; --Nampy et al., Phytotaxa 87 (2013) 26. India, Bangladesh, Nepal. Naturalized in the Philippines. Note by P.B. Pelser (17-Jan-21): I did not find notes on the ecology of this species for the Philippines, but elsewhere it is reported from paddy fields and along roadsides, ditches, and streams (Nampy et al. 2013).
  3. Commelina diffusa Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 18. Photos
  4. Commelina suffruticosa Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae 1 (1827) 3. India, Bangladesh, China, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Philippines. CULION. Record from Culion: Merrill 531, US.
  5. Commelina undulata R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 270; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 195. India, Bangladesh, China, Indian Ocean, Moluccas, Ryukyu Isls, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam, Australia, Philippines. LUZON. Record from Luzon: Loher s.n., US.
Incertae sedis:
  1. Commelina chamissonis Klotz. ex C.B.Clarke in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 186; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 195. “The type is a specimen from Luzon, collected by Chamisso, probably from either Cavite or Batangas Province or possibly from the vicinity of Manila. I have seen no specimens I can with certainty refer to it, but some may have been distributed sub C. nudiflora L.” Merr. (1922: 195). Endemic to the Philippines.

Cyanotis D.Don

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017

  1. Cyanotis axillaris (L.) D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 46; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 140; EPFP 1 (1922) 198; --Commelina axillaris L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 42. India, Sri Lanka, China, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam. Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Low to medium elevation in clearings, open places along streams, rice paddies, etc. Photos
  2. Cyanotis cristata (L.) D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 46; --Roem. & Schult., Syst. 72 (1830) 1150; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 140; EPFP 1 (1922) 198; --Commelina cristata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 42. India to Mauritius to Malesia. LUZON, BASILAN. In most or all provinces in Luzon. Old clearings, open places along streams, about cliffs, etc. At low and medium elevation. Photos
  3. Cyanotis pedunculata Merr., PJS c 10 (1915) 266. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE.

 Floscopa Lour.

  1. Floscopa scandens Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 193; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 199. Andaman Isls, India, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Australia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, CALAMIANES, MINDANAO. N Luzon to the Calamianes and Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces. In wet places along small streams at low and medium elevation. Photos

 Forrestia A.Rich. non Raf. = Amischotolype

 Murdannia Royle

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017

  1. Murdannia edulis (Stokes) Faden, Taxon 29 (1980) 77; --Commelina edulis Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. 1 (1812) 184. India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, S China, Taiwan, Java, Kangean Isl, Timor, Philippines, Papua New Guinea. LUZON: Pangasinan, Rizal. Lowlands, in shaded places along streams.
  2. Murdannia gigantea (Vahl) G.Brückn., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 15a (1930) 173; --Commelina gigantea Vahl, Enum. Pl. Obs. 2 (1805) 177. Australia, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Philippines, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Vietnam. SEMIRARA, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Low and medium elevation open grasslands.
  3. Murdannia loriformis (Hassk.) R.S.Rao & Kammathy, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 3 (1962) 393; --Aneilema loriforme Hassk. in Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1852) 143. India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, China, Japan, Java, Ryukyu Isls, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, Philippines. Photos
  4. Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan, Kew Bull. 7 (1952) 189; --Commelina nudiflora L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 41. India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Australia, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, Pacific Ocean, China, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Ryukyu Isls, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation, in open grasslands, waste places, etc. Common. Invasive species (CABI 2017).
  5. Murdannia spectabilis (Kurz) Faden, Taxon 29 (1980) 74; --Aneilema spectabile Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 40 (1871) 77. China, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, SEMIRARA. Low elevation open wet grasslands.
  6. Murdannia spirata (L.) G.Brückn., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 15a (1930) 173; --Commelina spirata L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 176. India, Sri Lanka, China, Java, Philippines, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Vietnam.
  7. Murdannia versicolor (Dalzell) G.Brückn., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 15a (1930) 173; --Aneilema versicolor Dalzell, Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 3 (1851) 136. India, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, CULION. Lowlands. Open wet grasslands, fallow rice paddies, etc. Photos
  8. Murdannia vaginata G.Brückn., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 15a (1930) 173. India, Sri Lanka, Andaman Isls, Cambodia, Bangladesh, China, Java, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, Philippines.

Pollia Thunb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 November 2021

  1. Pollia macrophylla (R.Br.) Benth., Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 90; --Aneilema macrophyllum R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 270. --Aclisia cumingiana Hassk.. Commelin. Ind. (1870) 47. Australia, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Davao. Photos
  2. Pollia secundiflora (Blume) Bakh.f. in Backer, Beknopte Fl. Java Afl. x a. Fam. 211 (1949) 10; --Type: from Indonesia. --Pollia sorzogonensis (E.Mey.) Steud., Nomencl. Bot. ed. 2. 2 (1841) 368; --Aclisia sorzogonensis E.Mey., Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1827) 138. India, Sri Lanka, Sikkim, Bhutan, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Philippines, Indonesia, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, PALAWAN, MINDANAO. Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao.. Low and medium elevation forests. Photos
  3. Pollia thyrsiflora (Blume) Steud., Nomencl. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 368; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 195; --Tradescantia thyrsiflora Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae 1 (1827) 6; --Type: from Indonesia. --Pollia philippinensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 275; --Type: Elmer 9162, Luzon: Tayabas, Lucban, May-1907. Andaman Isls to Java and Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, MINDANAO. Luzon (Cagayan to Sorsogon) to Palawan and Mindanao. Lowland and medium elevation forests. Photos


  1. Pollia sumatrana Hassk., Commelin. Ind. (1870) 56. Note by P.B. Pelser (1-Apr-14): the name Pollia sumatrana Hassk. has been incorrectly applied to Philippine plants according to LaFrankie (pers. comm. 2014).

 Rhoeo Hance  = Tradescantia sect. Rhoeo (Hance) DR Hunt

 Rhopalephora Hassk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017

  1. Rhopalephora scaberrima (Blume) Faden, Phytologia 37 (1977) 480; --Commelina scaberrima Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae 1 (1827) 4. Himalaya to W and C Malesia, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal.
  2. Rhopalephora vitiensis (Seem.) Faden, Biosyst. Study Gen. Aneilema (Commelinaceae) 2 (1975) 395; --Aneilema vitiense Seem., Fl. Vit. (1865-73) 314; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 197. --Aneilema vitiense var. petiolata C.B.Clarke in DC., Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 220; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 197. Philippines, Fiji, Samoa. LUZON: Cagayan, PALAWAN, MINDANAON. Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. Lowlands and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m, shaded ravines along creek gullies. Photos

 Setcreasea Schumann & Sydow  = Tradescantia sect. Setcreasea (Schumann & Sydow) D.R.Hunt

 Tradescantia L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 July 2017

  1. Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R.Hunt, Kew Bull. 30 (1975) 452; --Setcreasea pallida Rose, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 13 (1911) 294. --Setcreasea purpurea Boom, Acta Bot. Neerl. 4 (1955) 167; --Type: from Mexico. America. Widely grown as an ornamental in the tropics. Not naturalized? Photos
  2. Tradescantia spathacea Sw., Prodr. (1788) 57; --Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn, Baileya 5 (1957) 195. --Rhoeo discolor (L’Her.) Hance ex Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 3 (1853) 660; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 139; EPFP 1 (1922) 195; --Tradescantia discolor L’Her., Sert. Angl. 8 (1789) t. 12. America. Now widely cultivated in the tropics, easily escaping and often becoming naturalized. Photos
  3. Tradescantia zebrina Heynh., Alp. Aufz. Gew. (1847) 735; --Type: not known, based on material cultivated in Europe. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos

Tricarpelema J.K.Morton

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 May 2018

No Photos
  1. Tricarpelema philippense (Panigrahi) Faden, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 76 (1991) 153; --Dictyospermum philippense Panigrahi, Phytologia 29 (1974) 338. --Aneilema humile Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 4; EPFP 1 (1922) 196, nom. illeg., auct. non Warb.; --Type: Merrill 10459. Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines. ALABAT. Lowland forests on wet slopes.

Zebrina Schnizlein = Tradescantia sect. Zebrina (Schnizlein) DR Hunt


Backer, CA & RC Bakhuizen van den Brink. 1968. Flora of Java 3: 12-22.

Brennan, JPM. 1966. The classification of Commelinaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 59: 349-370.

CABI Invasive Species Compendium

Duistermaat, H. 2012. A taxonomic revision of Amischotolype (Commelinaceae) in Asia. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 64: 51–131

Faden, RB. 1989. Commelina caroliniana (Commelinaceae): A misunderstood species in the United States is an old introduction from Asia. Taxon 38: 43-53.

Nampy, S, SM Joseph & KM Manudev. 2013. The genus Commelina (Commelinaceae) in Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India with one new species and three new records. Phytotaxa 87: 19-29

Wang JC, Chen YJ & Peng CI. 2000. Commelinaceae. Flora of Taiwan 2nd. edition 5: 153-178.

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines.

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 9 January 2022