Combretaceae

Combretum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 May 2018
  1. Combretum acuminatum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 228; Hort. Beng. (1814) 28, nom. nud.; Roxb. ex G.Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 15 (1827) 440, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 148; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 538. Distribution: Borneo, India, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi. LEYTE, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: Low elevation secondary forests. Native.
  2. Combretum confusum Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 116; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 544. = Combretum sundaicum auct. non Miq.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Rizal. Notes: Forested slopes, low and medium elevation. According to Exell, what is extant in the Philippines (Luzon) is a possible hybrid between Combretum sundaicum and Combretum latifolium. However, both putative parents are not yet known from the Philippines. Exell (1954) tentatively accepts Combretum confusum Merr. & Rolfe as the name for this particular form. Native.
  3. Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps, Useful Pl. Dominica (1998) 277; ≡ Quisqualis indica L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 556; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 349; EPFP 3 (1923) 154; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 547. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in thickets, secondary forest, sandy-gravelly riverbanks, etc. Sometimes planted for its fragrant flowers. Native.
  4. Combretum latifolium Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 641; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 542. = Combretum extensum Roxb. ex G.Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 15 (1827) 414; Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 28, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 148. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Misamis, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  5. Combretum punctatum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 640. Native.
    • ssp. squamosum (Roxb. ex G.Don) Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 539; ≡ Combretum squamosum Roxb. ex G.Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 15 (1827) 419; Fl. Ind. ed. Carey 2 (1832) 231; Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 28, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149. Distribution: Borneo, India, Indochina, Java Sea, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand. BASILAN, BUSUANGA, CULION, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets and secondary forests.

Lumnitzera Willd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017
  1. Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcut. (1845) 39; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 153; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 586; ≡ Pyrrhanthus littoreus Jack, Malayan Misc. 2(7) (1822) 57. Distribution: Australia, Pacific Ocean, SE Asia. Notes: Throughout the Philippines along the seashore and tidal streams. Native.
  2. Lumnitzera racemosa Willd., Neue Schr. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berl. 4 (1803) 187; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 350; EPFP 3 (1923) 154; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 588, Fig. 1b. Native.
    • var. racemosa. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Madagascar, Pacific Ocean, SE Asia. CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Beach swamps and along tidal streams.

Terminalia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 January 2022
  1. Terminalia calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 310, as ‘calamansanay’; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 556. = Terminalia calamansanai var. acuminata Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 646; EPFP 3 (1923) 150. = Terminalia calamansanai var. platypteris Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 646; EPFP 3 (1923) 150. = Terminalia blancoi Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) 645; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149. Distribution: ?Borneo, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. Notes: Throughout the Philippines, often common. Native.
  2. Terminalia catappa L., Mant. 1 (1767) 128; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 349; EPFP 3 (1923) 150; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 566. Distribution: Asia, Australia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. Notes: Commonly planted in the tropics. Throughout the Philippines along the seashore, also often planted inland. Native.
  3. Terminalia citrina (Gaertn.) Roxb., As. Res. 11 (1810) 183; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 555; ≡ Myrobalanus citrina Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2 (1790) 91. = Terminalia comintana (Blanco) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 300; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 150; ≡ Bucida comintana Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 856. Distribution: India, Indochina, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand. BANCALAN, LEYTE, LUZON, MASBATE, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, TICAO. Notes: Throughout Malesia; widespread in Luzon; forests at low and medium elevation, also frequent along the seashore. Native.
  4. Terminalia copelandii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1795; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 151; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 579. = Terminalia crassiramea Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 287; EPFP 3 (1923) 151. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur, Davao, Surigao, PALAWAN. Notes: Freshwater swamps and low elevation primary forests. Native.
  5. Terminalia darlingii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 202; EPFP 3 (1923) 151; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 559; Type: FB 18735 Darling (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Mambulao, in forest, c. 100m, 6-Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Camarines, Isabela, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests at low elevation. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Terminalia foetidissima Griff., Not. Pl. As. 4 (1854) 685; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 577. = Terminalia oocarpa Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 32, as ‘ovocarpa’; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Primary forests at low elevation. Low elevation primary forests. Native.
  7. Terminalia macrantha Rojo, Blumea 17 (1969) 93. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Summit of flat ridge, 300m. Locally common. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  8. Terminalia microcarpa Decne., Nuov. Ann. Mus. Paris 3 (1834) 457; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 562. = Terminalia edulis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 265; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 151. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: In all or most provinces in the Philippines. A usually tall tree common in both primary evergreen and in seasonal deciduous forests, up to 800m. Native.
  9. Terminalia nitens C.Presl, Epim. (1851) 214; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 559. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  10. Terminalia pellucida C.Presl, Abh. Kön. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. V, 6 (1851) 574; Epim. (1851) 214; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 575. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Tarlac, Zambales, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Native.
  11. Terminalia plagata Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 414; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 575. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. TAWI-TAWI. Native.
  12. Terminalia polyantha C.Presl, Abh. Kön. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. V, 6 (1851) 574; Epim. (1851) 214; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 555. = Terminalia montalbanica Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 153, nom. nud. Distribution: Indochina, Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO. Notes: Dry thickets and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  13. Terminalia surigaensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 295; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 153; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 559. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao. Notes: Along streams at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Excluded

  1. Terminalia magarapali S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 26. According to Merrill (EPFP 3 (1923) 151), possibly referable to Elaeocarpus monocera Cav.

Literature