Combretaceae

Combretum L.

Last edited by Heidi Newton & Pieter B. Pelser, 19 September 2023
  1. Combretum acuminatum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 228; Hort. Beng. (1814) 28, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Roxb. ex G.Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 15 (1827) 440, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 148; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 538. Distribution: Borneo, India, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: Isabela, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: Low elevation secondary forests. Native.
  2. Combretum confusum Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 116; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 544. ≠ Combretum sundaicum auct. non Miq.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Rizal. Notes: Forested slopes, low and medium elevation. According to Exell, what is extant in the Philippines (Luzon) is a possible hybrid between Combretum sundaicum and Combretum latifolium. However, Combretum sundaicum is not yet known from the Philippines. Exell (1954) tentatively accepts Combretum confusum Merr. & Rolfe as the name for this particular form. Native.
  3. Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps, Useful Pl. Dominica (1998) 277; ≡ Quisqualis indica L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 556; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 349; EPFP 3 (1923) 154; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 547. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BILIRAN, CORON, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, NCR, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan (photos), Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO: Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SEMIRARA, SIBUYAN, TICAO. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in thickets, secondary forest, sandy-gravelly riverbanks, etc. Sometimes planted for its fragrant flowers. Native.
  4. Combretum latifolium Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 641; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 542. = Combretum extensum Roxb. ex G.Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 15 (1827) 414; Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 28, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 148. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bulacan, MINDANAO: Misamis, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  5. Combretum punctatum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 640. Distribution: BASILAN, BUSUANGA, CULION, DINAGAT (photos), LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, NCR, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Native.
    • ssp. squamosum (Roxb. ex G.Don) Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 539; ≡ Combretum squamosum Roxb. ex G.Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 15 (1827) 419; Fl. Ind. ed. Carey 2 (1832) 231; Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 28, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149. Distribution: Borneo, India, Indochina, Java Sea, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand. BASILAN, BUSUANGA, CULION, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, NCR, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets and secondary forests. Native.

Lumnitzera Willd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 December 2022
  1. Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcut. (1845) 39; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 153; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 586; ≡ Pyrrhanthus littoreus Jack, Malayan Misc. 2(7) (1822) 57. = Petaloma coccinea Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 345. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, CULION, DANJUGAN, DINAGAT, JOLO, LUZON: Aurora, Bulacan, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MALAMAWI, MASBATE, MINASAWA, MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur, Misamis, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, OLANGO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines along the seashore and tidal streams. Native.
  2. Lumnitzera racemosa Willd., Neue Schr. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berl. 4 (1803) 187; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 350; EPFP 3 (1923) 154; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 588, Fig. 1b. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Korea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Vietnam. CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas (photos), Bulacan, NCR, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, OLANGO, PANAY, SEMIRARA. Native.
    • var. racemosa. = Petaloma alba Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 344. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Korea, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Vietnam. CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Beach swamps and along tidal streams. Native.

Terminalia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 April 2024
  1. Terminalia calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 310, as ‘calamansanay’; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 556; ≡ Gimbernatia calamansanai Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 266. = Terminalia calamansanai var. acuminata Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 646; EPFP 3 (1923) 150. = Terminalia calamansanai var. platypteris Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 646; EPFP 3 (1923) 150. = Terminalia blancoi Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) 645; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149. = Pentaptera mollis C.Presl, Abh. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., ser. 5, 6 (1851) 214. Distribution: ?Borneo, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand. LUZON: Zambales (photos), PALAWAN, PANAY (photos). Notes: Throughout the Philippines, often common. Native.
  2. Terminalia catappa L., Mant. 1 (1767) 128; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 349; EPFP 3 (1923) 150; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 566; Romeroso et al., Asian J. Biol. Life Sc. 10 (2021) 437. Distribution: Asia, Australia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. APULIT, BASILAN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, DANJUGAN, DINAGAT, HOMONHON, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, La Union, NCR, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Zambales, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, MINDORO, OLANGO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Commonly planted in the tropics. Throughout the Philippines along the seashore, also often planted inland. Native.
  3. Terminalia citrina (Gaertn.) Roxb., As. Res. 11 (1810) 183; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 555; ≡ Myrobalanus citrina Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2 (1790) 91. = Terminalia comintana (Blanco) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 300; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 150; ≡ Bucida comintana Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 856. Distribution: India, Indochina, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand. BANCALAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cagayan, Laguna, NCR, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, POLILLO, ROMBLON, TICAO. Notes: Throughout Malesia; widespread in Luzon; forests at low and medium elevation, also frequent along the seashore. Native.
  4. Terminalia copelandii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1795; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 151; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 579. = Terminalia crassiramea Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 287; EPFP 3 (1923) 151. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Bukidnon (photos), Davao, Surigao, PALAWAN. Notes: Freshwater swamps and low elevation primary forests. Native.
  5. Terminalia darlingii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 202; EPFP 3 (1923) 151; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 559; Type: FB 18735 Darling (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Mambulao, in forest, c. 100m, 6-Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT (photos), LUZON: Aurora, Camarines, Camarines Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests at low elevation. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Terminalia foetidissima Griff., Not. Pl. As. 4 (1854) 685; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 577. = Terminalia oocarpa Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 32, as ‘ovocarpa’; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, Zambales (photos), MINDANAO: Davao, Misamis Oriental (photos), Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PAMALICAN, PANAY. Notes: Primary forests at low elevation. Low elevation primary forests. Native.
  7. Terminalia macrantha Rojo, Blumea 17 (1969) 93. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Summit of flat ridge, 300m. Locally common. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  8. Terminalia microcarpa Decne., Nuov. Ann. Mus. Paris 3 (1834) 457; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 562. = Terminalia edulis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 265; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 151. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra. CATANDUANES, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Isabela (photos), Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MARINDUQUE, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: In all or most provinces in the Philippines. A usually tall tree common in both primary evergreen and in seasonal deciduous forests, up to 800m. Native.
  9. Terminalia nitens C.Presl, Epim. (1851) 214; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 559. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls. ALABAT, APULIT, BALABAC, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cagayan, Laguna, NCR, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  10. Terminalia pellucida C.Presl, Abh. Kön. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. V, 6 (1851) 574; Epim. (1851) 214; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 575. = Terminalia iwahigensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1760. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. GOLO, LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Tarlac, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Forests at low elevation. Native.
  11. Terminalia plagata Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 414; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 575. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. TAWI-TAWI. Native.
  12. Terminalia polyantha C.Presl, Abh. Kön. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. V, 6 (1851) 574; Epim. (1851) 214; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 555. = Terminalia montalbanica Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 153, in obs., pro syn. Distribution: Indochina, Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Bulacan, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO. Notes: Dry thickets and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  13. Terminalia surigaensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 295; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 153; Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 559; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2438. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. HOMONHON, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Surigao. Notes: Along streams at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Excluded

  1. Terminalia magarapali S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 26. Notes: According to Merrill (EPFP 3 (1923) 151), possibly referable to Elaeocarpus monocera Cav.

References