Combretaceae

Combretum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 May 2018

Photos
  1. Combretum acuminatum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 228; Hort. Beng. (1814) 28, nom. nud.; --Roxb. ex G.Don, Trans. Linn. Soc.  Lond. 15 (1827) 440, nom. nud.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 148; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 538. India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea. LEYTE, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Low elevation secondary forests.
  2. Combretum confusum Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 116; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 544. --Combretum sundaicum auct. non Miq.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Batangas. Forested slopes, low and medium elevation. According to Exell, what is extant in the Philippines (Luzon) is a possible hybrid between Combretum sundaicum and Combretum latifolium. However, both putative parents are not yet known from the Philippines. Exell (1954) tentatively accepts Combretum confusum Merr. & Rolfe as the name for this particular form.
  3. Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps, Useful Pl. Dominica (1998) 277; --Quisqualis indica L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 556; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 349; EPFP 3 (1923) 154; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 547. India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, Philippines, China, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Throughout the Philippines in thickets, secondary forest, sandy-gravelly riverbanks, etc. Sometimes planted for its fragrant flowers. Photos
  4. Combretum latifolium Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 641; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954)   542. --Combretum extensum Roxb. ex G.Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 15 (1827) 414; --Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 28, nom. nud.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 148. India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam, Philippines. MINDORO, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Misamis. Low elevation thickets and forests. Photos
  5. Combretum punctatum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 640. Photos

Lumnitzera Willd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017

Photos
  1. Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcut. (1845) 39; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 153; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 586; --Pyrrhanthus littoreus Jack, Malayan Misc. 2(7) (1822) 57. Tropical Asia, N Australia, and Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines along the seashore and tidal streams. Photos
  2. Lumnitzera racemosa Willd., Neue Schr. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berl. 4 (1803) 187; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 350; EPFP 3 (1923) 154; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 588, Fig. 1b. Photos

Quisqualis = Combretum (for Philippine species)

Terminalia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 January 2022

Photos
  1. Terminalia calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 310, as ‘calamansanay’; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 556. --Terminalia calamansanai var. acuminata Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 646; EPFP 3 (1923) 150. --Terminalia calamansanai var. platypteris Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 646; EPFP 3 (1923) 150. --Terminalia blancoi Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) 645; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149. Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, ?Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea. Throughout the Philippines, often common. Photos
  2. Terminalia catappa L., Mant. 1 (1767) 128; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 349; EPFP 3 (1923) 150; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 566. Asia, Australia, Pacific, Philippines. Commonly planted in the tropics. Throughout the Philippines along the seashore, also often planted inland. Photos
  3. Terminalia citrina (Gaertn.) Roxb. ex Flem., As. Res. 11 (1810) 183; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 555; --Myrobalanus citrina Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2 (1790) 91. --Terminalia comintana (Blanco) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 300; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 150; --Bucida comintana Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 856. India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, BANCALAN, TICAO, MASBATE, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Throughout Malesia; widespread in Luzon; forests at low and medium elevation, also frequent along the seashore. Photos
  4. Terminalia copelandii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1795; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 151; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 579. --Terminalia crassiramea Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 287; EPFP 3 (1923) 151. Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Buton Is, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea. PALAWAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Surigao, Agusan del Sur, Davao. Freshwater swamps and low elevation primary forests. Photos 
  5. Terminalia darlingii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 202; EPFP 3 (1923) 151; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 559; --Type: FB 18735 Darling (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Mambulao, in forest, c. 100m, 6-Apr-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Aurora, Camarines, SAMAR. Primary forests at low elevation. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  6. Terminalia foetidissima Griff., Not. Pl. As. 4 (1854) 685; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 577. --Terminalia oocarpa Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 32, as ‘ovocarpa’; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152. Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. Primary forests at low elevation. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Bataan, Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Surigao. Low elevation primary forests. Photos
  7. Terminalia macrantha Rojo, Blumea 17 (1969) 93. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Summit of flat ridge, 300m. Locally common. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  8. Terminalia microcarpa Decne., Nuov. Ann. Mus. Paris 3 (1834) 457; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 562. --Terminalia edulis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 265; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 151. Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Australia, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, MINDANAO. In all or most provinces in the Philippines. A usually tall tree common in both primary evergreen and in seasonal deciduous forests, up to 800m. Photos
  9. Terminalia nitens C.Presl, Epim. (1851) 214; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 559. Ryukyu Isl, Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN, MINDANAO. Throughout the Philippines; primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  10. Terminalia pellucida C.Presl, Abh. Kön. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. V, 6 (1851) 574; Epim. (1851) 214; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 575. Moluccas, Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales, Tarlac, Pampanga, Quezon, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Forests at low elevation. Photos
  11. Terminalia plagata Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 414; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 575. Moluccas, Philippines. TAWI-TAWI.
  12. Terminalia polyantha C.Presl, Abh. Kön. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. V, 6 (1851) 574; Epim. (1851) 214; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 555. --Terminalia montalbanica Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 153, nom. nud. Indochina, Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal, Batangas, MINDORO. Dry thickets and secondary forests at low and medium elevation.
  13. Terminalia surigaensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 295; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 153; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 559. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao. Along streams at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
Excluded:
  1. Terminalia magarapali S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 26. According to Merrill (EPFP 3 (1923) 151), possibly referable to Elaeocarpus monocera Cav. 

Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Exell, AW. 1954. Combretaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 4: 533-589

Rojo, JP. 1969. Terminalia macrantha (Combretaceae), a new Philippine species. Blumea 17: 93-95


Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 16 January 2022