Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Casuarina L.

  1. Casuarina equisetifolia L., Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 143; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 169; EPFP 2 (1923) 1. Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Pacific Ocean, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Australia, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Also referred to as Casuarina litorea L. Pantropic in cultivation. Photos

Ceuthostoma L.A.S.Johnson

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

No Photos
  1. Ceuthostoma palawanense L.A.S.Johnson, Telopea 3 (1988) 137; --Type: Merrill 785 (A, holo), Palawan: Ewiig (Iwahig) River. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Ceuthostoma terminale L.A.S.Johnson, Telopea 3, 2 (1988) 135. Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas (Halmahera), New Guinea (Irian Jaya). PALAWAN. Primary and secondary forest on ultramafic soils, 100-1500m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11).

Gymnostoma L.A.S.Johnson

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 May 2020

  1. Gymnostoma nobile (Whitmore) L.A.S.Johnson, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 6 (1982) 84; --Casuarina nobilis Whitmore, Trop. Rain Forests of the Far East (1975) 134. Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, Kalimantan), Philippines. PALAWAN. Ultramafic sites, to 1000m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Gymnostoma rumphianum (Jungh. ex Vriese) L.A.S.Johnson, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 6 (1982) 85; --Casuarina rumphiana Miq., Flora 48 (1865) 23; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 1. Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Britain, New Ireland. LUZON, PALAWAN, MINDANAO. N Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. In montane forests, often gregarious, 100-1000m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  3. Gymnostoma sumatranum (Jungh. ex de Vriese) L.A.S.Johnson, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 6  (1982) 86; --Casuarina sumatrana Jungh. ex de Vriese in Hoev. & Vriese, Tijdschr. 11 (1844) 115; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 1. Myanmar to Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, PALAWAN, LEYTE, BOHOL, MINDANAO. In forests behind mangrove swamps.


DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Johnson, LAS. 1982. Notes on Casuarinaceae. II. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Garden 6: 73-87

Johns, RJ. 1988. The flowering plants of Papuasia, Dicotyledons 2: 121-125.

Steane, DA, KL Wilson & RS Hill. 2003. Using matK sequence data to unravel the phylogeny of Casuarinaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 47-49

Torrey, JG & RH Berg. 1988. Some morphological features for generic characterization among the Casuarinaceae. American Journal of Botany 75(6): 864-875

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines.

Copyright 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 14 December 2021