Calophyllaceae

Calophyllum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 November 2021

Photos

  1. Calophyllum blancoi Planch. & Triana, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. iv, 15 (1862) 272; --Merr., EPFP 3  (1923) 78; --P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 206. --Calophyllum megistanthum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 170. --Calophyllum ferrugineum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 324; EPFP 3 (1923) 79. --Calophyllum glabrum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 92; EPFP 3 (1923) 79. --Calophyllum mindanaense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2684; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 80. --Calophyllum racemosum Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 198; EPFP 3 (1923) 80. Taiwan, Philippines, Borneo. ITBAYAT, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, CALAYAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Isabela, Mountain Province, Ifugao, Benguet, Pangasinan, Cagayan, Isabela, Aurora, Nueva Ecjia, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines Sur, Sorsogon, AMBIL, PALAWAN, MANGSI, MASBATE, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, TAWI-TAWI, MINDANAO: Zamboanga,  Zamboanga del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao, Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte. In well-drained primary forests, thickets, from near sea level to 1900m. Often abundant. Fl. Feb-Jun, rarely Jan, Aug, Sep, Nov, Dec; fr. throughout the year. Photos
  2. Calophyllum brachyphyllum Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 289; EPFP 3 (1923) 78; --P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61(1980) 667; --Type: BS 34482 Ramos & Pascasio (A, K, P, US, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Hegapit River, c. 350m, 25-Apr-1919. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Streamside forest, c. 350m. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection. Photos
  3. Calophyllum cucullatum Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 288; EPFP 3 (1923) 78; --P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold Arb.  61 (1980) 382; --Type: BS 34518 Ramos & Pascasio (A, BM, BO, K, L, NY, P, US, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, in thickets along streams at the iron deposit on the NE coast, 25-Apr-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, DINAGAT. BS 83930 Ramos & Convocar, NY, erroneously labeled as iso. Lowland streamside thickets on ‘iron deposit’ (may well be lateritic soil on ultramafics which is very common in the two areas).
  4. Calophyllum gracilipes Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 197; EPFP 3 (1923) 79; --P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 653; --Type: FB 9405 Whitford & Hutchinson (K, LY, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Port Banga, ridge forest, c. 600m, 3-Feb-1908. Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur. Mixed dipterocarp forest, c. 600m.
  5. Calophyllum inophyllum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 513; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 79; --P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold  Arb. 61 (1980) 324. Africa, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, China, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. Throughout the Philippines along the seashore, a characteristic strand tree. Photos
  6. Calophyllum laticostatum P.F.Stevens, Austral. J. Bot. 22 (1974) 575; J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 579; --Type: from Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea, New Britain, Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Known from Dolores, Mt Calvario (FB 30019, UC). Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  7. Calophyllum obliquinervium Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 409; EPFP 3 (1923) 80; --P.F.Stevens, J.  Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 644; --Type: FB 27929 Cenabre, Paras & Gellidon (BM, UC, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Feb-1920. Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Albay, CULION, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Lowland and medium elevation forests, sometimes along the seashore.
  8. Calophyllum oliganthum Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 289; EPFP 3 (1923) 78; --P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold  Arb. 61(1980) 411; --Type: BS 35110 Ramos & Pascasio (A, BM, BO, K, P, US), Bucas Grande: 10-Jun-1919. Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, BUCAS GRANDE. Lowland forests. On Dinagat growing on iron deposit. Fl. Jun; fr. Apr, Jun. Photos
  9. Calophyllum pentapetalum (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 266; EPFP 3 (1923) 80; --P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 494; --Ochrocarpus pentapetalus (Blanco) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 17; --Tovomita pentapetala Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 432; --Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 184, leg. Peña (A, neo; BO, F,  GH, K, L, MO, NSW, NY, P, US, isoneo), Luzon: Lepanto prov. (a former geographic entity covering W Mountain Province and E Ilocos Sur). --Calophyllum amplexicaule Choisy ex Planch. & Triana, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. IV. 15 (1862) 281; --S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 96; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 54; --Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 199; --Type: Cuming 1212 (G, holo; BM, FI, K, MEL, iso), Luzon: Albay (according to Stevens, properly Ilocos Norte). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN. Photos
  10. Calophyllum rigidulum P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 668; --Type: BS 45686 Ramos & Edaño (A, holo; B, K, NY, UC, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Alzapan, 6000ft (1829m), 7-Jun-1925. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Shrub in mossy forest, c. 1830m. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection.
  11. Calophyllum soulattri Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 121; --Merr., PJS 19 (1921) 366; EPFP 3 (1923) 81; --P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 277; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 386; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 192; --Type: from Java. --Calophyllum kunstleri auct. non King; --Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 307; EPFP 3 (1923) 79. --Calophyllum lancifolium Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2683; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 80; --Type: Elmer 13266 (A, lecto; BISH, BM, BO, E, F, FI, G, GH, K, L, MO, NY 2 sheets, U, UC, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, 1000ft (305m), Jul-1912. --Calophyllum zschokkei Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2686; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 81; --Type: Elmer 12129 (GH, lecto; A, BISH, BM, BO, E, F, FI, G, K, L, LY, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting, Pauala River, 750ft [225m], Mar-1910. --Calophyllum hibbardii Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 503; --Type: Elmer 9837 (A, BM, BO, E, F, FI, G, K, L, LY, MO, NY, P, W, US), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, 3500ft [1067m], Apr-1908. Andaman Isls, Nicobar Isls, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Australia, Pacific Ocean. LUZON: Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Aurora, Zambales, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Albay, BATAN DE ALBAY, Sorsogon,  MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, TICAO, CATANDUANES, GUIMARAS, NEGROS: Negros Oriental, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Agusan del Norte, Surigao. Lowland and hill forests, swamp forests. Photos
  12. Calophyllum venulosum Miq., Walp. Ann. Syst. Bot. 4 (1857) 366; J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 479. --Calophyllum auriculatum Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 291; EPFP 3 (1923) 78; --Type: R.S. Williams 2339 (A,  K, NY 3 sheets, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River River, 500m, 20-Feb-1905.
  13. Calophyllum whitfordii Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 96; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 81; --P.F.Stevens, J.  Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 629; --Type: FB 2613 Meyer (K, NY, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, 2300ft [701m], Feb-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Zambales, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, MINDORO, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Hill forests, 150-700m. Fl. Jan-Mar; (submature) fr. May-Jul.
Taxa needing names:
  1. Calophyllum A. --P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 493; --Voucher: PNH 41930 (L, PNH, SING), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Butuan,  San Mateo Bo., Tungao Bo., along Ojot River, Maasin Line Km 25, 350m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Hill forest, 350m. Fr. Jun. Entry 96 in Stevens (1980); note by L.L.Co: Known only from a single collection.
  2. Calophyllum B. --P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 565. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Based on Whitford 257, R.S. Williams 424, and BS 1577. Lower montane forest, c. 1000m. Fl. Jan; fr. Mar, May, Jul, Oct, Nov. Entry 121 in Stevens (1980).
  3. Calophyllum C. --P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 678; --Voucher: FB 30772 (NY), Luzon: Quezon, Malbog, 100m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Forest, c. 100m. Fl. Feb. Note by L.L.Co: Only known from a single collection. Entry 178 in Stevens (1980).

Possibly present:

  1. Calophyllum dasypodum Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1 (1859) 511, nom. nov. for C. lanceolatum Teijsm. & Binn; --F.Muell. in Walp., Ann. Syst. Bot. 7 (1868) 357; --P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 364; --Type: from Java. Sumatra, Java, Borneo, ?Philippines. BUSUANGA. Known from Malbato (?Marche 381, A, P). Note by L.L.Co: This only known specimen from the Philippines is sterile.

Incertae sedis:
  1. Calophyllum vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 454; EPFP 3 (1923) 81; --P.F.Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 680; --Type: Vanoverbergh 1466 (PNH, lost), Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, c. 1700m, 12-Sep-1918. Note by L.L.Co: From Merrill’s original description, Stevens distinguishes this taxon from Calophyllum soulattri in the following vegetative features: oblong, very coriaceous lamina that dries concolorous & nitid. An additional specimen from Catanduanes, BS 75484, may belong here. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, ?CATANDUANES.

Kayea Wall.

[Sometimes included in Mesua L., but kept distinct here following Ruhfel et al. (2011, 2013)]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 November 2021

Photos
  1. Kayea garciae (Fern.-Vill.) Vesque in DC., Monog. Phan. 8 (1893) 629; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 82; --Mesua garciae (Fern.-Vill.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 427; --Vidalia garciae Fern.-Vill., Fl. Filip., ed. 3 4(13A) (1880) 18. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, Rizal, Tayabas, POLILLO. Primary forests, ascending to 330m.
  2. Kayea lanceolata Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 290; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 82; --Mesua lanceolata (Merr.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 427. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte (Paracale). Primary forests at low elevation.
  3. Kayea megalocarpa Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) 285; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 82; --Mesua megalocarpa (Merr.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 428. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan = Mingan). Primary forests at low elevation.
  4. Kayea navesii (Fern.-Vill.) Vesque in DC., Monog. Phan. 8 (1893) 628; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 82; --Mesua navesii (Fern.-Vill.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 428; --Vidalia navesii Fern.-Vill., Fl. Filip., ed. 3 4(13A) (1880) 18. --Mesua brevipes (Merr.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 426; --Kayea brevipes Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot.  200; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 81. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Quezon. Forests at low or medium elevation.
  5. Kayea paniculata (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 29; Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 20; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 82; --Mesua paniculata (Blanco) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 428; --Plinia paniculata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 423. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, MINDORO, PALAWAN, BALABAC, MINDANAO: Lanao, Agusan del Norte, BASILAN. Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Common along streams.
  6. Kayea philippinensis Planch. ex Triana, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. IV 15 (1861) 298, nom. nud.; in DC. Monog. Phan. 8 (1893) 616; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 82; --Mesua philippinensis (Planch. ex Triana) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 428. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Sorsogon, SIBUYAN, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Forests along streams at low and medium elevation.

Mammea L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 November 2021

Photos
  1. Mammea ramiflora (Merr.) Kosterm., Mammea & Ochrocarpos (For. Serv. Indones., Div. Plann.) (1956) 14; --Ochrocarpos ramiflorus Merr., PJS 10c (1915) Bot. 325; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 77. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines. Primary forests along streams at low elevation. Photos

Ochrocarpos (sphalm. ‘Ochrocarpus’ ) Merr. = Mammea


Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Ruhfel BR, V Bittrich, CP Bove, MH Gustafsson, CT Philbrick, R Rutishauser, Z Xi & CC Davis CC. 2011. Phylogeny of the clusioid clade (Malpighiales): evidence from the plastid and mitochondrial genomes. American Journal of Botany 98: 306-325

Ruhfel BR, PF Stevens & CC Davis. 2013. Combined morphological and molecular phylogeny of the clusioid clade (Malpighiales) and the placement of the ancient rosid macrofossil Paleoclusia. International Journal of Plant Sciences 174: 910-936

Stevens, PF. 1980. A revision of the Old World species of Calophyllum (Guttiferae). Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 61: 117-699  

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 21 December 2021