Byttneriaceae

Malvaceae s.l. - Byttnerioideae

Abroma Jacq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 October 2017
  1. Abroma augustum (L.) L.f., Suppl. (1781) 341, as 'Ambroma'; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 48; Romeroso et al., Asian J. Biol. Life Sc. 10 (2021) 438; ≡ Theobroma augustum L., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 2 (1767) 233. Distribution: India to China and Malaysia. BATANES, HOMONHON, LUZON: Ilocos Norte (photos), Rizal, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SABTANG (photos), TABLAS. Notes: Batanes and N Luzon to Mindanao. Thickets, waste places, and open secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.

Byttneria Loefl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 April 2017
  1. Byttneria crenulata Wall. ex Mast., Fl. Britt. India 1 (1874) 376. = Byttneria echinata Wall., Cat. (1829) No. 1149, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Gén. Indo-Chine 1 (1911) 520; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 48. Distribution: Indochina, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines. CULION, MINDORO. Notes: Known from Mindoro from BS 21268 Escritor. Thickets and second growth forests at low elevation. Native.

Commersonia J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 November 2023
  1. Commersonia bartramia (L.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 362; EPFP 3 (1923) 48; Romeroso et al., J. Asia-Pacific biodiv. 17 (2024) 11; ≡ Muntingia bartramia L., Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 124. = Commersonia platyphylla Andrews, Bot. Repos. 10 (1810) t. 603. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. APULIT, BASILAN, BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, CEBU, CULION, DINAGAT, HOMONHON, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Isabela, Laguna, NCR, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Tarlac, Zambales, MARINDUQUE, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao Oriental (photos), Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS (photos), PALAWAN, PANAY, PANGULASIAN, SAMAR, SEMIRARA, SIBUYAN, TABLAS, TURTLE IS. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Common in thickets and second-growth forests at low and medium elevation. Native.

Guazuma Plum. ex Adans. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., Encycl. 3 (1789) 52; Pancho & Gruezo, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling 2 (2006) 427. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Introduced recently in the Philippines. Occasionally cultivated. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Kleinhovia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 May 2024
  1. Kleinhovia hospita L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1365; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 329; EPFP 3 (1923) 52. = Grewia meyeniana Walp., Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1) (1843) 311. = Kleinhovia serrata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 653. Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Indian Ocean, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Pacific Ocean, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Taiwan, Vietnam. AMBIL, APULIT, BALABAC, BASILAN, BOHOL, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CATANDUANES, CORON, CULION, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Cavite (photos), Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, NCR, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MARINDUQUE, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Davao, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, South Cotabato, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SEMIRARA, SIBUYAN. Native.
    • var. hospita. Distribution: Bangladesh, Indian Ocean, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Pacific Ocean, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Taiwan, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines, at low and medium elevation, a characteristic tree of thickets, second growth forests, and deserted clearings. Native.
    • var. velutina Koord. & Valeton, Meded. Lands Plantentuin 14 (1895) 179. Native.

Leptonychia Turcz.

Last edited by John Paul Collantes & Pieter B. Pelser, 16 May 2024
  1. Leptonychia banahaensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 298; EPFP 3 (1923) 48; Veldkamp & Filipphi, Blumea 32 (1987) 448; ≡ Grewia banahaensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 319. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Aurora, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. banahaensis. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Aurora, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, SAMAR. Notes: In forests, 180-800m elevation. Possibly present:. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Leptonychia caudata (Wall. ex G.Don) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 729; ≡ Grewia caudata Wall. & G.Don, Gen. Hist. 1 (1831) 547. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, ?Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (21-June-20): Reynoso & Majaducon PPI 21875 and Gaerlan & Romero PPI 23303 (L) from Quezon Prov possibly represents this species.

Melochia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 November 2023
  1. Melochia corchorifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 675; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 330. = Geruma subtriloba Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 182. = Melochia concatenata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 675; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 46. Distribution: Pantropic. CULION, LUZON: Isabela (photos), MINDORO (photos), PALAWAN. Notes: Possibly not native to the Philippines. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation in the settled areas, occurring as a ruderal along waysides, waste places, open grasslands, rice paddies, etc. Note by P.B. Pelser (31-May-21): According to Merrill (1912), this species is "undoubtedly introduced". Naturalized.
  2. Melochia umbellata (Houtt.) Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew (1913) 317; ≡ Visenia umbellata Houtt., Nat. Hist. 2(8) (1777) 309. = Melochia indica (J.F.Gmel.) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu, App. A (1875) 23; ≡ Visenia indica J.F.Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. 13[bis] (1791) 515. Distribution: India, Indian Ocean, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. BALABAC, BOHOL, CAMIGUIN, CEBU, CULION, DUMARAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Laguna, NCR, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Tarlac, Zambales, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Surigao, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SEMIRARA, SIARGAO, SIASI, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. A common and characteristic shrub or treelet in old clearings, secondary forests, etc. at low and medium elevation. Native.

Theobroma L. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Theobroma cacao L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 782; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 328; EPFP 3 (1923) 49. Distribution: C America. Notes: Widely cultivated at low and medium elevations but nowhere spontaneous. Cacao. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Waltheria L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 November 2023
  1. Waltheria indica L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 673. = Waltheria americana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 673; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 330; EPFP 3 (1923) 47. Distribution: America. CULION, HUNDRED ISLS (photos), LUZON: Cagayan (photos), MINDORO (photos), PALAWAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Naturalized in dry open places in the settled areas at low and medium elevation. Naturalized.

References