Burseraceae

Canarium L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2018
  1. Canarium asperum Benth. in Hook.f., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 215; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 293. Distribution: LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao. Notes: Medium elevation forests, 700-1200m. Native.
    • ssp. asperum. Native.
      • var. asperum. = Canarium villosum Benth. & Hook.f. ex Náves, Nov. App. (1880) 40; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 354. = Canarium minutiflorum Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 123; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 351. = Canarium calophyllum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 91; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 349. = Canarium lucidum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 94; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 351. = Canarium polyneurum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 96; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 353. = Canarium reticulatum Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 141; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. = Canarium apoense Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1083; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 349. = Canarium ogat Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1086; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 352. = Canarium euphlebium Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 372; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. = Canarium heterophyllum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 19; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. = Canarium lagunense Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 21; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. = Canarium barnesii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 22; EPFP 2 (1923) 349. = Canarium sanchezii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 27; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. = Canarium agusanense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2564; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 349. = Canarium urdanetense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2568; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 354. = Canarium samarense Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 183; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. = Canarium unifoliolatum Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 267; EPFP 2 (1923) 354. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Common in primary and secondary forests on both seasonal and ever-wet areas, also in more open savanna-like sites, on various soil types including waterlogged, usually in the lowlands, occasionally ascending beyond 1000m. Native.
      • var. clementis (Merr.) Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 295; ≡ Canarium clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 142. = Canarium leytense Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1081, nom. inval., nom. nud. = Canarium wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 363; EPFP 2 (1923) 355. Native.
  2. Canarium denticulatum Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1162; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 272. Distribution: BASILAN, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Lanao, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO. Native.
    • ssp. denticulatum. = Canarium laciniatum Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1084; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 350. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Lanao, Surigao, Zamboanga. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 700m. Native.
  3. Canarium euryphyllum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 99; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 350; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 280. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Surigao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Native.
    • var. euryphyllum. = Canarium stenophyllum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 25; EPFP 2 (1923) 354. = Canarium microphyllum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 304; EPFP 2 (1923) 351. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Isabela, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Throughout the Philippines except Palawan. Rather common in lowland forests, ascending to 800m. Reportedly once collected at 1700m. Native.
    • var. ramosii (Merr.) Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 280; ≡ Canarium ramosii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 374; EPFP 2 (1923) 353; Type: Ramos 1168, Leyte: Dagami, Aug-1912. = Canarium ramosii var. parvum Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 375; Type: Wenzel 103, Leyte: Dagami, 12-Jun-1913. = Canarium paucinervium Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 364; EPFP 2 (1923) 352. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Surigao, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  4. Canarium gracile Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 140; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 350; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 282. = Canarium antonii Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 350, in obs., pro syn.; Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3711, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, MINDORO, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Throughout the Philippines except Palawan. Low elevation forests generally, rarely up to 600m. Native.
  5. Canarium hirsutum Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 760; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 287. = Canarium altissimum Blume, Bijdr. 17 (1826) 1163; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 355. = Canarium multipinnatum Llanos, Fragm. Pl. Filip. 1 (1851) 107; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 351. = Canarium warburgianum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 99; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 355. = Canarium ahernianum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 70; EPFP 2 (1923) 415. = Canarium racemosum Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 141; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. = Canarium nervosum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 482; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 352. = Canarium costulatum Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1080; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 349. = Canarium ellipsoideum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 26; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. = Canarium robustum Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 184; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. = Canarium oxygonum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 155; Type: BS 45723 Ramos & Edaño, Luzon: Tayabas, Mt Alzapan, 6-Jun-1925. = Canarium bataanense Merr. ex Sasaki, Cat. Gov. Herb. Formosa (1930) 295, nom. inval., nom. nud. = Canarium nervosum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 482; LPB 10 (1939) 3713; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 352. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Aurora, Quirino. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Rather common in primary, rarely in secondary forests, in ever-wet and seasonal areas, mostly at low elevations, occasionally up to 1800m. Native.
  6. Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A.Gray, Wilkes Exp. Bot. (1854) 374; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 270; PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 80; EPFP 2 (1923) 351; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2438; ≡ Pimela luzonica Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 220. = Canarium oliganthum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 23. Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Philippines. ALABAT, BOHOL, LUZON, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO, TICAO. Notes: Common in primary forests at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Canarium odontophyllum Miq., Sum. (1861) 525; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 271. = Canarium palawanense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1754. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests, up to 450m. Native.
  8. Canarium ovatum Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 110; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 352; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 271. = Canarium melioides Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1079; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 351. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Cagayan, Camarines, Camarines Sur, Laguna, NCR, Quezon, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Surigao, POLILLO, SAMAR, SEMIRARA. Notes: Cultivated in other parts of Malesia, Melanesia and Micronesia on account of the highly prized nuts. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  9. Canarium vrieseanum Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 142; Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1956) 291. Distribution: ?Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Lanao, Zamboanga, MINDORO. Native.
    • forma williamsii (C.B.Rob.) Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 291; ≡ Canarium williamsii C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 185. = Canarium dolichophyllum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. = Canarium toncalingii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1082; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 354; Type: Elmer 10996, Mindanao: Davao, Todaya, Mt Apo, Jun-1909. = Canarium sibulanense Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1085; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 353. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao del Sur, Lanao, Zamboanga. Notes: Primary and secondary forests, up to 500m. Native.
    • forma stenophyllum Leenh., Blumea 8 (1959) 194; Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 291. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Primary and secondary forests, up to 500m. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Canarium indicum L., Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 143; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 287; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 266. Cultivated, not naturalized.
    • var. indicum. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. Notes: Non-native cultivated. Not naturalized? Cultivated, not naturalized.

Dacryodes Vahl

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 October 2022
  1. Dacryodes costata (A.W.Benn.) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 204; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 222; ≡ Santiria costata A.W.Benn. in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 537. Distribution: Borneo, Java Sea, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE. Native.
  2. Dacryodes incurvata (Engl.) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 204; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 224; ≡ Canarium incurvatum Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 138. = Santiria nitida Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philipp.) no. 35 (1906) 29; EPFP 2 (1923) 352. = Canarium nitens Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 24; EPFP 2 (1923) 352. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Bataan, Camarines Norte, Laguna, Zambales, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, NEGROS, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Native.
  3. Dacryodes longifolia (King) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 42 (1932) 202; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg ser. 3, 12 (1932) 340; Kalkman, Blumea 7 (1954) 509; Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1956) 228; ≡ Santiria longifolia King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 62, 2 (1894) 258. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. MINDANAO. Native.
  4. Dacryodes macrocarpa (King) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 203; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 226; ≡ Santiria macrocarpa King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 62, ii (1894) 256. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Camarines, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. merrillii H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 203; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 228. = Santiria elliptifolia Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 305; EPFP 2 (1923) 355. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines. Notes: Low elevation forests. Known only from the type collection. Native.
  5. Dacryodes rostrata (Blume) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 203; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 225; ≡ Santiria rostrata Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 212. = Santiria samarensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 31; EPFP 2 (1923) 356. Distribution: Borneo, Java Sea, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Damp forests at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Garuga Roxb.

  1. Garuga floribunda Decne., Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 3 (1834) 477; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 215. Native.
    • var. floribunda. = Garuga abilo (Blanco) Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philipp.) no. 35 (1905) 73; EPFP 2 (1923) 356; ≡ Guaiacum abilo Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 364. = Garuga littoralis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 27; EPFP 2 (1923) 356; Type: FB 12342 Curran, Luzon: Tayabas, Apr-1908. = Garuga littoralis var. paucijuga Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 29; Type: Merrill 5301, Cagayan de Sulu, 15-Oct-1906. = Garuga clarkii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 29; EPFP 2 (1923) 356; Type: FB 1700 Clark, Masbate: 23-Jul-1904. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. CAGAYAN DE SULU, CEBU, LUZON: Tayabas, MASBATE, MINDORO. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Low to medium elevation thickets and secondary forests in the more seasonal parts of the archipelago. Native.

Protium Burm.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2018
  1. Protium connarifolium (Perkins) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 30; EPFP 2 (1923) 348; H.J.Lam, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 12 (1932) 320; Leenh., Blumea 7 (1952) 155; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1956) 215; ≡ Canarium connarifolium Perkins, Fragm. Fl, Philip. 2 (1904) 92. = Protium philippinense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2571, as 'philippinensis'; Type: Elmer 12760 (syn), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, Iwahig River; Elmer 13225 (syn), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, Iwahig River. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur, PALAWAN. Notes: Forests along streams at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Santiria Blume

  1. Santiria apiculata A.W.Benn. in Hook., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 537; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 234; Type: from Peninsular Malaysia. Distribution: LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Lanao, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. apiculata. = Santiria glabra Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 30; EPFP 2 (1923) 355. = Santiria lagunensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 31; EPFP 2 (1923) 355. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Lanao. Native.
  2. Santiria grandiflora Kalkman, Blumea 7 (1954) 525; Type: from Sarawak. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Sur. Native.
  3. Santiria laevigata Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 211; Kalkman, Blumea 7 (1954) 540; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 232. = Santiria laevigata var. applanata Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 211. Distribution: Borneo, Java Sea, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. MINDANAO. Native.
  4. Santiria tomentosa Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 211; Kalkman, Blumea 7 (1954) 529; Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 231. Distribution: Borneo, Java Sea, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. MINDANAO. Native.

References