Asteraceae

Compositae

Acanthospermum Schrank (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 October 2021
  1. Acanthospermum hispidum DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 522; Merr., PJS 60 (1936) 35; J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 254. Distribution: S America. CEBU, GUIMARAS. Naturalized.

Achillea L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 February 2022
  1. Achillea millefolium L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 89; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 623; De Padua et al., PROSEA 12 (1999) 77. Distribution: Eurasia, Middle East, N & C America. Notes: Not native, locally naturalized in mountainous areas (De Padua et al. 1999). Naturalized.

Acmella Rich. ex Pers.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 April 2022
  1. Acmella grandiflora (Turcz.) R.K.Jansen, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 8 (1985) 75; ≡ Spilanthes grandiflora Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 241 (1851) 183; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 612; J.Kost. & Philipson, Blumea 6 (1950) 353. = Spilanthes ovata Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 246; EPFP 3 (1923) 612. Distribution: Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province. Notes: Open grassy slopes in the pine forests, 1200-1950m. (As Spilanthes grandiflora & Spilanthes ovata in Merr. 1923). Native.
  2. Acmella paniculata (Wall. ex DC.) R.K.Jansen, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 9 (1985) 67; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 814; Chung et al., Botanical Studies 49 (2008) 78. = Spilanthes iabadicensis A.H.Moore, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sc. 42 (1907) 542; J.Kost. & Philipson, Blumea 6 (1950) 354. = Spilanthes acmella auct. non (L.) Murr.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 612. Distribution: China, India, Myanmar, S America, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation, open waste places, old clearings, etc. Native.
  3. Acmella uliginosa Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2. 24 (1822) 331; Chung et al., Botanical Studies 49 (2008) 79. Distribution: C & S America, Caribbean. Naturalized.

Adenostemma J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 August 2019
  1. Adenostemma parviflorum (Blume) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 111; J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 476; ≡ Adenostemma lavenia var. parviflorum (Blume) Hochr., Candollea 5 (1934) 298; ≡ Lavenia parviflora Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 15 (1826) 905. Distribution: China, India, Malaysia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: See Orchard (2011) for a different taxonomic treatment. Native.
  2. Adenostemma viscosum J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. (1775) 45. = Adenostemma lavenia auct. non (L.) Kuntze; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 596; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 470; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 816. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bhutan, China, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, ?New Caledonia, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BABUYAN ISLS, CAMIGUIN, CATANDUANES, CULION, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO, PANAY. Notes: Sea-level to 1800m, in open wet places along streams, forests, and thickets. See Orchard (2011) for a different taxonomic treatment. Native.

Ageratina Spach (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 October 2020
  1. Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M.King & H.Rob., Phytologia 19 (1970) 211; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 378; ≡ Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng., Syst. 3 (1826) 420; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 502. Distribution: Caribbean, N & C America. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Now adventive in all tropical regions of the world. Naturalized.
  2. Ageratina riparia (Regel) R.M.King & H.Rob., Phytologia 19 (1970) 216; ≡ Eupatorium riparium Regel, Gartenflora 15 (1866) 324; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 501. Distribution: C America. LUZON: Benguet (photos), Mountain Province (photos), Nueva Vizcaya (photos). Notes: Introduced in other parts of the world, including the Philippines. Invasive species (CABI 2020). Naturalized.

Ageratum L. (Not native)

  1. Ageratum conyzoides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 839; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 467; EPFP 3 (1923) 597; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 484; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 820. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Widely naturalized in all warm regions of the world. A common weed in open waste places, 0-2000m. Naturalized.
  2. Ageratum houstonianum Mill., Dict. ed. 8, no. 2 (1768); J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 490. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Widely distributed in all warm regions of the world. Naturalized.

Ainsliaea DC.

  1. Ainsliaea latifolia (D.Don) Sch.-Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 18-19 (1861) 190. Native.
    • ssp. henryi (Diels) H.Koyama, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 32 (1981) 60; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 822. = Ainsliaea reflexa Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 242; EPFP 3 (1923) 620. Distribution: China, Himalayas, Myanmar, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, MINDORO. Notes: Mossy forests, 2000-2400m.

Anaphalis DC.

  1. Anaphalis morrisonicola Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 8 (1919) 56; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 828; ≡ Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook.f. ssp. morrisonicola (Hayata) Kitam., Fauna Fl. Nepal Himalaya (1955) 244. = Anaphalis contorta auct. non (Don) Hook.f.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 608. Distribution: Himalayas, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Grassy slopes in thin pine forests, 1500-2200m. Native.

Anisopappus Hook. & Arn.

  1. Anisopappus chinensis (L.) Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechy Voy. (1836) 196; Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 125; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 609. = Chrysogonum philippinense Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 161; Type: Merrill 514 (NY, iso), Culion: Halsey Harbor. Dry grassy valley, Dec-1902. Distribution: China, Myanmar, Philippines. CULION. Notes: Low elevation, in dry open places. Native.

Artemisia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 July 2022
  1. Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 309; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 616; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 837. Distribution: China, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Notes: Dry open sites in the montane zone, 1200-1600m. Native.
  2. Artemisia indica Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 3 (1803) 1846. = Artemisia dubia forma asiatica Pamp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n.s. 36 (1930) 437; ≡ Artemisia asiatica (Pamp.) Nakai ex Kitam., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 5 (1936) 100; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 53. = Artemisia vulgaris auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 625; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 435; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 14; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 119; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 141; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 441; Fl. Manila (1912) 472; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 381; EPFP 3 (1923) 53. Distribution: Pantropic. PANAY. Notes: Throughout the Philippines, but certainly an introduced species. In and about towns at low and medium elevation. Often planted. Naturalized.
  3. Artemisia japonica Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 310; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 616; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 839. Distribution: Afghanistan, China, India, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Notes: Dry slopes, low elevation. Native.

Aster L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2017
  1. Aster philippinensis S.Moore, J. Bot. 43 (1905) 138; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; Type: Merrill 4726. = Aster luzonensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 131; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; Type: Elmer 6251. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Montane thickets and forests, 1400-2400m. Native.
  2. Aster trinervius Roxb. ex Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 433; Hort. Beng. (1814) 61, nom. nud.; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 394; EPFP 3 (1923) 600. Distribution: India to China, Japan, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: On slopes in pine forests, c. 1400m. Native.

Austroeupatorium R.M.King & H.Rob. (Not native)

Possibly present

  1. Austroeupatorium inulifolium (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob., Phytologia 19 (1970) 434; ≡ Eupatorium inulifolium Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4(15) (1818) 85 (ed. fol.). Distribution: S America. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited. Naturalized.

Ayapana Spach (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 October 2020
  1. Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M.King & H.Rob., Phytologia 20 (1970) 212; ≡ Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl, Symb. 3 (1794) 97; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 467; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 376; EPFP 3 (1923) 598; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 493. Distribution: Borneo, Indian Ocean, Java, Neotropics, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON, MINDORO. Notes: According to Merrill, introduced here from Mexico and occasionally planted for medicinal purposes. Naturalized.

Bidens L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 August 2019
  1. Bidens bipinnata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 832; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 613; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 868. Distribution: N America. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Dry open slopes, c. 1300m. Naturalized.
  2. Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Scherff in Scherff, Bot. Gaz. 88 (1929) 293; J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 261; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 869; ≡ Coreopsis biternata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 508. = Bidens leucorrhiza (Lour.) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 605; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 613; ≡ Coreopsis leucorrhiza Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 508. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Australia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Indochina, Japan, Korea, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand. BATANES, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Batanes and N Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Open waste places, thickets, etc., from sea-level to 2300m. Native.
  3. Bidens pilosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 832; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 478; EPFP 3 (1923) 614, as ‘pilosa’; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 869. Distribution: America. Naturalized.
    • var. pilosa. Distribution: America. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; waste places, chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2200m.
    • var. minor (Blume) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80 (1925) 387; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 869; ≡ Bidens sundaicus Blume var. minor Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 914. Distribution: America.
    • var. radiata Sch.Bip. in Webb & Berthel., Hist. Canar. 3 (1842-50) 242; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 870. = Bidens alba var. radiata (Sch.Bip.) R.E.Ballard ex Melchert, Phytologia 32 (1975) 295. Distribution: ?N America. Notes: Now naturalized and common weed elsewhere.
  4. Bidens tripartita L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 831; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 614; J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 261. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, China, Eurasia, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Middle East, N America, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. tripartita. = Bidens tripartita var. repens (D.Don) Scherff, Bot. Gaz. 81 (1926) 45; ≡ Bidens repens D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 180.

Blumea DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 July 2022
  1. Blumea aromatica DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 446; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 4; Type: from Nepal. Distribution: Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.
  2. Blumea axillaris (Lam.) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 434; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 6; ≡ Conyza axillaris Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 84; Type: Commerson s.n. (P, holo; P, iso). = Blumea dregeanoides Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 1 (1848) 392. = Blumea chamissoniana DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 434; Type: Chamisso s.n. (B, holo, ?lost; G-DC, GH, iso), Luzon. = Blumea mollis (D.Don) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 395; Fl. Manila (1912) 603; EPFP 3 (1923) 603; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 261; Peng et al. in Huang(ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 864; ≡ Erigeron molle D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 172; Type: from Nepal. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Australia, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Java, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Dry places in open grasslands, roadsides, etc. up to 1500m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.
  3. Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 447; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 470; EPFP 3 (1923) 601; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 237; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 875; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 8; ≡ Conyza balsamifera L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2 (1763) 1208; Type: from India. Distribution: Australia, Bhutan, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, BASILAN, CAMIGUIN, CULION, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SIARGAO, SULU, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Low and medium elevation, usually common in open grasslands and thickets. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.
  4. Blumea benguetensis (Elmer) Mattf., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 (1929) 425; ≡ Merrittia benguetensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 396; EPFP 3 (1923) 606; ≡ Senecio benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 152; Type: Elmer 6247. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Damp thickets and in the mossy forest, 1800-2400m. Native.
  5. Blumea bicolor Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 356; EPFP 3 (1923) 602; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 231; Type: Merrill 8080, Mindanao: Zamboanga. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. CAMIGUIN, LUZON, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PANAY. Notes: Moist localities in dense forests, 900-1100m. Native.
  6. Blumea densiflora DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 446; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 11; Type: from Bangladesh. Distribution: Bhutan, China, India, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. NEGROS. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.
  7. Blumea fistulosa (Roxb.) Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 46 (1877) 187; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 256; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 12; ≡ Conyza fistulosa Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 429. = Blumea glomerata DC. in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 15; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 602. Distribution: China, India, Indochina, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand. LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Accredited to the Philippines by Merrill as Blumea glomerata; no citation of occurrence in the Philippines by Randeria (1960) or Pornpongrungrueng et al. (2016). Native.
  8. Blumea hieraciifolia (D.Don) DC. in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 15; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 246; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4(1998) 878; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 18; ≡ Erigeron hieracifolius D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 172; Type: from Nepal. = Blumea sericans (Kurz) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1881) 262; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 604; ≡ Blumea barbata var. sericans Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 46 (1877) 188; Type: from Bangladesh. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.
    • var. hieraciifolia. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Indochina, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Taiwan. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao. Notes: Open grasslands, chiefly at medium elevation.
  9. Blumea hirsuta (Less.) M.R.Almeida, Fl. Maharashtra 3A (2001) 79; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 18; ≡ Pluchea hirsuta (L.) Less., Linnaea 6 (1831) 150; ≡ Blumea lessingii Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 603, nom. superfl; Type: De Chamisso s.n. (B, holo, ?lost; P, iso), Luzon. = Blumea clarkei Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 267; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 252; Type: from India. Distribution: Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Bulacan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO, PANAY. Notes: Along roadsides, hill slopes and clearings, upto 1000m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.
  10. Blumea junghuhniana (Miq.) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1891) 239; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 235; ≡ Conyza junghuhniana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1856) 55; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Not listed for the Philippines by Pornpongrungrueng et al. (2016). Native.
  11. Blumea korthalsiana (Miq.) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1891) 239; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 229; ≡ Conyza korthalsiana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1856) 51; Type: from Sumatra. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Quezon. Native.
  12. Blumea lacera (Burm.f.) DC. in Wight, Contr. Bot. Ind. (1834) 14; Prodr. 5 (1836) 436; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 602; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 878; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 21; ≡ Conyza lacera Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 180; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. ALABAT, BATAN, CAMIGUIN, CULION, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Dry fields and grasslands, along roadsides, forest edges, at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.
  13. Blumea lanceolaria (Roxb.) Druce, Rept. Bot. Exch. Club Brit. Isls. 4 (1917) 609; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 53; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 218; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 884; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 22; ≡ Conyza lanceolaria Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 432; Type: from India. = Blumea lanceolaria var. spectabilis (DC.) Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 220; ≡ Blumea spectabilis DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 446; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 604. = Blumea laxiflora Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 110; Type: Elmer 8231 (PNH, holo; E, K, L, NY, iso), Luzon. Distribution: Australia, Bhutan, China, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Along streams in forests, and also in open places at low and medium elevation to 1200m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.
  14. Blumea macrostachya DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 442; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 23; ≡ Blumea hieraciifolia var. macrostachya (DC.) Hook.f, Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 263; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 248; Type: from Nepal. = Blumea subsericans Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2582; Type: Elmer 11139 (K, lecto; GH, L, MO, NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.
  15. Blumea manillensis DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 435; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 603. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Cavite, Ilocos Sur, Rizal. Notes: Along streams in ravines at low elevation. Native.
  16. Blumea ramosii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 256; EPFP 3 (1923) 604; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 246. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Zambales. Notes: Damp ravines, along trail margins and hillside thickets, 1100-1600m. Fl. Mar-May. Native.
  17. Blumea riparia (Blume) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 444; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 213; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 30; ≡ Conyza riparia Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 15 (1826) 899; Type: from Indonesia. = Blumea pubigera (L.) Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 250; EPFP 3 (1923) 604; ≡ Conyza pubigera L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 113; Type: from Indonesia. = Blumea riparia var. riparia forma angustifolia J.Kost., Blumea 4(1941) 490. Distribution: Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, BASILAN, BOHOL, CATANDUANES, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIARGAO, SULU, TAWI-TAWI. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.
  18. Blumea saxatilis Zoll. & Moritzi, Nat. en Geneesk. Arch. N. I. 2 (1845) 243; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 34; Type: from Indonesia. = Blumea tenera Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 250; EPFP 3 (1923) 605; Type: Merrill 7363 (PNH, holo; K, iso), Luzon. Distribution: Australia, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. CULION, LUZON: Rizal, Zambales, MANAMOC, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Among rocks or in sunny grasslands or clearings up to 700m. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.
  19. Blumea sinuata (Lour.) Merr., Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. ser. 2, 24 (1935) 38; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 35; ≡ Gnaphalium sinuatum Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 497; Type: from Vietnam. = Blumea laciniata DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 436; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 470; EPFP 3 (1923) 602; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 258; Peng et al. in Huang(ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 878; Type: from India. Distribution: Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, CULION, LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Notes: Old clearings, along roadsides and in waste places up to c. 1200m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.
  20. Blumea stenophylla Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 495; Mattf., Bot. Jahrb. 62 (1929) 417. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. BOHOL. Notes: From Valencia, along stream in damp forest, 300m. Native.
  21. Blumea sylvatica (Blume) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 447; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 605; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 223; ≡ Conyza sylvatica Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 15 (1826) 898. Native.
    • var. sylvatica. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Zambales, PALAWAN. Notes: Forest edges, along streams and rivers.
  22. Blumea vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 105; EPFP 3 (1923) 605; Mattf., Bot.Jahrb. (1929) 420; Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 216. Distribution: New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: On slopes, c. 1300m. Native.
  23. Blumea virens Wall. ex DC. in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 14; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 605; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 36; Type: from India. Distribution: Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. CULION, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Abra, Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO. Notes: Thickets and open forests along small streams at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Blumea appendiculata DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 447; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 601; Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 37; ≡ Conyza appendiculata Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 15 (1826) 895, nom. illeg., non Lam.; Type: from Java. Potentially a synonym of Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Native.
  2. Blumea confertiflora Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 254; EPFP 3 (1923) 602; Type: FB 11027, Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental, Mar-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Exposed peaks and ridges, c. 970m. Native.
  3. Blumea incisa (Elmer) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 395; EPFP 3 (1923) 602; ≡ Pluchea incisa Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 358; Type: Elmer 8936, Luzon: Benguet, Mt Sto Tomas (near Baguio), c. 2200m, Mar-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Mossy forests, 2000-2200m. Native.
  4. Blumea longipes Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 255; EPFP 3 (1923) 603; Type: M.S. Clemens 893, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Jan-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: Open grasslands or thickets about Lake Lanao, c. 650m. Native.
  5. Blumea mindanaensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 256; EPFP 3 (1923) 603; Type: M.S. Clemens 736, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Nov-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Notes: Open grasslands or thickets about Lake Lanao, c. 650m. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Blumea bullata J.Kost., Blumea 4 (1941) 489. Distribution: Java, ?Philippines, Vietnam. ?CEBU. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (3-Oct-20): Possibly represented by Bicknell 711 (L).

Carpesium L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 2 October 2020
  1. Carpesium cernuum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 859; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 609; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 397; Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 10-3; J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 251; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 893. Distribution: Borneo, Continental Asia, Europe, Japan, Java, Philippines, Sumatra. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Open sites and light forest in the montane zone, 1800-2400m. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Carpesium trachelifolium Less., Linnaea 6 (1831) 233. Distribution: China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, ?Philippines, Taiwan, Tibet. ?LUZON: ?Benguet. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (2-Oct-20): Possibly represented by Merrill 11700 (L) and BS 5823 Ramos (L).
  2. Carpesium triste Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 19 (1874) 479. Distribution: China, Japan, Korea, ?Philippines, Russia, Taiwan. ?LUZON: ?Mountain Province. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (2-Oct-20): Possibly represented by BS 40267 Ramos & Edaño (L).

Carthamus L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 13 August 2020

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Carthamus tinctorius L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 830; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 620. = Carthamus dentatus auct. non Vahl; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 616. Notes: Widely cultivated throughout the World. Cultivated.

Centipeda Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 October 2017
  1. Centipeda minima (L.) A.Braun & Asch., Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. 1867 App. 1 (1867) 6; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 473; EPFP 3 (1923) 615; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 898; ≡ Artemisia minima L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 849. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, E Asia, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao. Notes: Low and medium elevation, open waste places, rice paddies, etc. Native.

Centratherum Cass. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 28 August 2020
  1. Centratherum punctatum Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2. 7 (1817) 384; Loeuille et al, Phytotaxa 398 (2019) 28; Type: from Panama. = Centratherum fruticosum S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1886) 159; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 592; Type: S. Vidal y Soler 1502 (MA, lecto; A, PNH lost, isolecto), Luzon: Mountain Province, Lepanto Distr. Distribution: Africa, America, Australia, Hong Kong, India, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Rizal. Notes: Forest edges, thickets and clearings, chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2000m. Naturalized.

Chromolaena DC. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 July 2017
  1. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob., Phytologia 20 (1970) 204; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 901; ≡ Eupatorium odoratum L., Syst. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 1205. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Escaped and naturalized in Asia; invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.

Chrysanthemum L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 November 2020
  1. Chrysanthemum indicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 889; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 474; EPFP 3 (1923) 615; ≡ Dendranthema indica (L.) Des Moul., Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 10 (1855) 561; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 929. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Korea, Russia, Taiwan. Notes: Widely cultivated for ornamental and medicinal purposes in the Philippines. Apparently established in some high elevation areas like the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., J. Hist. Nat. 2 (1792) 240; L.H.Bailey, Gent. Herb. 1 (1923) 131; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 247. = Dendranthema grandiflora (Ramat.) Kitam., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 29 (1978) 165. = Chrysanthemum sinense Sabine, Trans. Linn. Soc. 14 (1825) 145; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 615. Distribution: China. Notes: Cultivated for ornamental purposes in the Philippines, not naturalized.

Cirsium Mill.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 October 2020
  1. Cirsium luzoniense Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 399; EPFP 3 (1923) 620; Type: R.S. Williams 1981 (NY 3 sheets, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Sto Tomas, 30-Nov-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Notes: High montane exposed sites, 1800-2500m. Native.

Coreopsis L. (Not native)

Possibly present

  1. Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt., J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 2 (1821) 114. Distribution: America. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited. Naturalized.

Cosmos Cav. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 2 October 2020
  1. Cosmos caudatus Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (1820) 240; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 478; EPFP 3 (1923) 614. Distribution: C America. Notes: Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation, a common weed in open waste places, fallow lands, etc. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  2. Cosmos sulphureus Cav., Icon. 1 (1791) 56; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 614. Distribution: C America. Notes: Throughout the Philippines although less common than the preceding species. Lowlands and medium elevation, in open grasslands, thicket edges, etc. Naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Cosmos steenisiae Veldkamp, Blumea, 35 (1991) 479. Distribution: C & S America. ?LUZON: ?Bataan, ?Camarines, ?Rizal, ?MINDANAO: ?Bukidnon, ?Zamboanga del Norte. Notes: Possibly cultivated or naturalized in the Philippines. Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (2-Oct-20): Possibly represented by FB 3383 Ahern's collector (US), Frake 36276 (US), Merrill 1562 (US), Merrill 3367 (US), and Santos 5007 (L, US).

Cotula L.

Possibly present

  1. Cotula hemisphaerica (Roxb.) Wall. ex C.B.Clarke, Compos. Ind. (1876) 150; ≡ Artemisia hemisphaerica Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3 (1832) 422. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Pakistan, Taiwan, Thailand, ?Vietnam. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (3-Oct-20): Possibly represented for the Philippines by Cuming s.n. (L3682416).

Crassocephalum Moench (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 October 2017
  1. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore, J. Bot. 50 London (1912) 211; J.Kost., Blumea 26 (1980) 237; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 922; ≡ Gynura crepidioides Benth., Niger Fl. (1849) 438. Distribution: Africa, Madagascar. Notes: Throughout the Philippines, generally at low to medium elevation. Common roadside weed, in waste places, abandoned cultivation, forest clearings, etc. Naturalized.

Crepidiastrum Nakai

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 October 2017
  1. Crepidiastrum lanceolatum (Houtt.) Nakai, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 34 (1920) 150; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 53; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 924; ≡ Prenanthes lanceolata Houtt., Handl. Pl.-Kruidk. x. (1779) 383. Distribution: China, Japan to Korea, Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN. Notes: On littoral rocky cliff, locally frequent. Native.

Crossostephium Less.

  1. Crossostephium chinense (L.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 20 (1906) 33; Merr., PJS 15 (1919) 260; EPFP 3 (1923) 616; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 927; ≡ Artemisia chinense L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 849. = Crossostephium artemisioides Less. ex Cham. & Schltr., Linnaea 6 (1831) 220; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 471. Distribution: China, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATANES. Notes: Open slopes near the sea; in the Philippines this is otherwise grown in flowerpots only; presence in Batanes (Itbayat): Lopez s.n. Native.

Cyanthillium Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 August 2020
  1. Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 103 (1990) 252; ≡ Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less., Linnaea 4 (1829) 291; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 466; EPFP 3 (1923) 592; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 407, as 'var. typica'; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1086; ≡ Conyza cinerea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 862. = Vernonia cinerea var. parviflora (Reinw. ex Blume) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 24; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 412; ≡ Vernonia parviflora Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 15 (1826) 893. Distribution: Pantropic. Notes: Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation, a common weed in settlements, along roadsides, cultivated lands, open wastelands, etc. Native.
  2. Cyanthillium patulum (Dryand. ex Dryand.) H.Rob., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 103 (1990) 252; Bunwong et al., PhytoKeys 37 (2014) 66; ≡ Vernonia patula (Dryand. ex Dryand.) Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 439; Fl. Manila (1912) 466; EPFP 3 (1923) 594; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 430, as ‘var. typica’; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1091; ≡ Conyza patula Dryand. ex Dryand., Hort. Kew 3 (1789) 184. = Vernonia patula var. multiflora J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 435. Distribution: China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation, a common weed in settlements, along roadsides, cultivated lands, open wastelands, etc. Native.

Decaneuropsis H.Rob. & Skvarla

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 13 August 2020
  1. Decaneuropsis obovata (Gaudich.) H.Rob. & Skvarla, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 120 (2007) 365; ≡ Gymnanthemum obovatum Gaudich., Voy. Uranie (1830) 471. = Vernonia cuneata Less., Linnaea 6 (1831) 644; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 114; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 92; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 447. = Vernonia lenticellata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 91; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 593; Type: Elmer 6564 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Sto Tomas, near the summit, c. 2200m, Jun-1904. = Vernonia pyrrhopappa Sch.Bip. ex Klatt, Flora 68 (1885) 203; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 595. = Vernonia villarii Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2593; Type: Elmer 13171, Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), in woods of the forested ridge at 250ft, May-1911. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines. BALABAC, BUSUANGA, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Misamis, Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Native.
  2. Decaneuropsis philippinensis (Rolfe) H.Rob. & Skvarla, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 120 (2007) 365; ≡ Vernonia philippinensis Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 312; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 121; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 160; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 89; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 393; EPFP 3 (1923) 594; ≡ Vernonia cumingiana auct. non Benth.; Benth., Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 4 (1852) 232, pro parte; Bunwong et al., PhytoKeys 37 (2014) 68, pro parte; Type: Cuming 1092 (G, K, P, syn), Luzon: Albay prov. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1000m. Native.

Dichrocephala L’Hér. ex DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 October 2017
  1. Dichrocephala chrysanthemifolia (Blume) DC. in Guill., Arch. Bot. 2 (1833) 518; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 599; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 381; Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 11-2; ≡ Cotula chrysanthemifolia Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 15 (1826) 918. Distribution: Africa, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: 1800-2200m. In pine forests, grassy slopes, along trails and roadsides. Native.
  2. Dichrocephala integrifolia (L.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 333; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 933; ≡ Hippia integrifolia L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 389. = Dichrocephala bicolor (Roth) Schltr., Linnaea 25 (1852) 209; J.Kost., Nova Guinea, Bot. 24 (1966) 594; ≡ Cotula bicolor Roth, Catal. Bot. 2 (1800) 116. = Dichrocephala latifolia (Lam.) DC. in Guill., Arch. Bot. 2 (1833) 518; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 599. Distribution: Africa, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, MINDANAO: Lanao, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: Chiefly at and above 900m, ascending to 2200m, along mountain trails, old clearings and open sites. Native.

Eclipta L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2019
  1. Eclipta angustata Umemoto & H.Koyama, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 35 (2007) 114; Type: from Thailand. Distribution: Borneo, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Nepal, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Singapore, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Laguna. Native.
  2. Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., Mantissa (1771) 286; J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 273; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 935; Umemoto & H.Koyama, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 35 (2007) 111; ≡ Verbesina prostrata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 902. = Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1881) 528; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 476; EPFP 3 (1923) 610; ≡ Verbesina alba L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 902. = Eclipta zippeliana Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 914; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 476; EPFP 3 (1923) 611; Pancho & Obien, Manual Weeds Tobacco Faros Philip. (1983) 177; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 937; ≡ Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. var. zippeliana (Blume) J.Kost. in Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Jav. 2 (1965) 402. = Eclipta philippinensis Gand., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 65 (1918) 40; Type: Cuming 2436 (syn), Philippines. Warmer regions of the world. Distribution: CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in the lowlands generally, ascending to 1600m. Common in water-logged or semi-aquatic habitats such as edges of muddy pools, canals, and rice paddies. Naturalized.

Elephantopus L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 July 2017
  1. Elephantopus mollis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (1820) 26; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 468; EPFP 3 (1923) 595; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 464 (nec syn. E. tomentosi L., fide Philipson, J. Bot. (1939) 14); Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 938. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Now pantropical in distribution. Throughout the Philippines from the lowlands to 2000m. A common weed in grasslands and other exposed sites. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  2. Elephantopus scaber L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 814; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 468; EPFP 3 (1923) 596; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 457, as ‘var. typicus’; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 938. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Certainly a naturalized weed in the Philippines, common in lowland grasslands and waste places. Naturalized.
  3. Elephantopus tomentosus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 814; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 464. Distribution: America. Naturalized.

Emilia Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 August 2021
  1. Emilia pinnatifida Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 243; EPFP 3 (1923) 619; Type: Merrill 4664 (US, syn), Luzon: Benguet, Buguias, Oct/Nov-1905; Merrill 4265 (US, syn), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Oct/Nov-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Grassy understorey of pine forests, 1300-2000m. Native.
  2. Emilia prenanthoidea DC., Prodr. 6 (1837) 303; J.Kost., Blumea 26 (1980) 239. Distribution: China, India, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (photos). Native.
  3. Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC., Prodr. 6 (1837) 302; J.Kost., Blumea 26 (1980) 238; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 467; EPFP 3 (1923) 620; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 940; ≡ Cacalia sonchifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 835. Native.
    • var. sonchifolia. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines, chieflly at low to medium elevation, ascending to c. 1500m. Common in about towns and settlements, along open grassy sites, trails, rice paddy fallows, lawns, etc.
    • var. javanica (Burm.f.) Mattf., Bot. Jahrb. 62 (1929) 445; Nova Guinea 14, Bot. (1928) 529; J.Kost., Blumea 26 (1980) 239; ≡ Emilia javanica (Burm.f.) C.B.Rob., PJS 3 (1908) Bot. 217; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 619; ≡ Hieracium javanicum Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 174; Type: from Java. = Emilia marivelensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 362; Type: Merrill 3282 (US, iso?), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Oct-1903. Distribution: India to Malesia. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Lanao, Misamis Occidental. Notes: Chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2000m, in exposed sites.

Enydra Lour. (Not native)

  1. Enydra fluctuans Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 511; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 610. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Reportedly an introduced plant in the Philippines (possibly no longer persisting?). Known from Rizal from Merrill 11204. Occasional along the banks of small streams in and about Manila. Naturalized.

Erechtites Raf. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017
  1. Erechtites valerianifolius (Link ex Spreng.) DC., Prodr. 6 (1837) 295; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 944, Photo 447; ≡ Senecio valerianifolius Link ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 565. Distribution: S America. BALUT, BUCAS GRANDE, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Old clearings at low and medium elevation, often abundant. Naturalized.

Erigeron L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 February 2022
  1. Erigeron bellioides DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 288. Distribution: Caribbean. LUZON: Laguna (photos). Notes: Naturalized weed along roadside in village. Naturalized.
  2. Erigeron sumatrensis Retz., Obs. 5 (1789) 28; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; ≡ Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) Walker, J. Jap. Bot. 46 (1971) 72; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 919. = Erigeron linifolius auct. non Willd.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 474. = Erigeron floribundus (Kunth) Sch.Bip., Linnaea 34 (1866) 534; Pruski & Sancho, Novon 16 (2006) 97. Distribution: S America. Naturalized.
    • var. sumatrensis. = Erigeron bonariensis auct. non (L.) Cronquist. Notes: Throughout the Philippines, lowlands to c. 2000m, in open waste places, old clearings, etc. Often abundant. P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (3-Oct-20): the name Erigeron bonariensis has been commonly misapplied to this taxon (Pruski & Sancho 2006).

Eschenbachia Moench

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 August 2019
  1. Eschenbachia japonica (Thunb.) J.Kost., Blumea 7 (1952) 290; ≡ Erigeron japonicus Thunb., Syst. Veg., ed. 14 (1784) 754; ≡ Conyza japonica (Thunb.) Less., Syn. Comp. (1832) 204; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 601; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 918. Distribution: Afghanistan, China, India, Japan, Java, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Montane sites at 1200-2400m, in open sunny places, grasslands, along foot trails, pine forest, etc. Native.
  2. Eschenbachia leucantha (D.Don) Brouillet, Fl. China 20-21 (2011) 556; ≡ Erigeron leucanthus D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 171; ≡ Conyza leucantha (D.Don) Ludlow & Raven, Kew Bull. 17 (1963) 71; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 918. = Conyza viscidula Wall. ex DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 383; Wall., Cat. (1831) No. 3006, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 601. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Java, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Rizal, PANAY. Notes: Lowlands to 1800m, in old clearings, thickets and foot trail in open forests. Native.

Ethulia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 August 2019
  1. Ethulia luzonica M.G.Gilbert, Kew Bull. 43 (1988) 189; Type: Merrill 11703 (K, holo; BM, L, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Santo Tomas, Dec-1922. = Ethulia conyzoides auct. non L.f. ex L.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 591; J.Kost., Nova Guinea, Botany 24 (1966) 499. = Ethulia megacephala auct. non Sch.Bip. ex Miq.; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 373. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Montane thickets in stream depressions, also in the mossy forests, 1300-2300m. Native.

Euchiton Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 August 2020
  1. Euchiton japonicus (Thunb.) Holub, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 9 (1974) 271; Flann, Australian Syst. Bot. 23 (2010) 301; ≡ Gnaphalium japonicum Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 311; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 608; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 394; Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 10-5; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 977. = Euchiton collinus Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2. 56 (1828) 216. = Gnaphalium oblancifolium Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 123; Type: Elmer 6568, Luzon: Benguet, Santo Tomas, 1903. Distribution: Australia, China, Japan, Korea, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Quezon, Zambales. Notes: Montane meadows and open slopes, 1500-2400m. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Euchiton sphaericus (Willd.) Holub, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 9 (1974) 271; ≡ Gnaphalium sphaericum Willd., Enum. Pl. 2 (1809) 868. = Gnaphalium involucratum Forst. var. simplex DC., Prodr. 6 (1838) 236; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 976. Distribution: Australia, Java, New Zealand, ?Philippines, Taiwan. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (12-Aug-20): Euchiton sphaericus is not reported for the Philippines by Flann (2010). Chen & Bayer in Chen et al. (2011) use a broader delimitation of Euchiton involucratus (G.Forst.) Holub (as Gnaphalium involucratum) than Flann (2010), which includes Euchiton sphaericus (as Gnaphalium sphaericum) and report that this taxon is present in the Philippines. However, Flann (2010) does not list Euchiton involucratus for the Philippines either.

Eupatorium L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 August 2019
  1. Eupatorium benguetense C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) 217; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 393. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  2. Eupatorium camiguinense Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 355; EPFP 3 (1923) 597; Type: BS 14688 Ramos, Camiguin: Camiguin, Mt Mahinog, 11-Apr-1912. = Eupatorium catense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2584; Type: Elmer 11506 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, scandent among small trees along the Cati Creek above the falls at 5750ft, Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Medium elevation thickets and forests, ascending to 1700m. Native.
  3. Eupatorium formosanum Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 25 Art. 19 (1908) 122. = Eupatorium cannabinum ssp. asiaticum Kitam., Acta Phytotax. et Geobot. 19 (1961) 16; Acta Phytotax. et Geobot. 32 (1981) 139. = Eupatorium formosanum Hayata var. quasitripartitum (Hayata) Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. et Geobot. 1 (1932) 284; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 53; ≡ Eupatorium quasitripartitum Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 8 (1919) 44. = Eupatorium japonicum auct. non Thunb.; Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 355; EPFP 3 (1923) 597. = Eupatorium reevesii auct. non Wall.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 597. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATAN, LUZON: Tayabas, SABTANG. Notes: Lowland thickets, hill grasslands, boulders on the seashore. Native.
  4. Eupatorium leonardii Ferreras & E.E.Lamont, Brittonia 64 (2012) 368; Type: Ferreras 426 (PNH, holo; US, NY, UC, PUH, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Central Sierra Madre Mountains, Mt Mingan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Native.
  5. Eupatorium lindleyanum DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 180; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 597; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 960. Distribution: China, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: Low and medium elevation in open damp places. Native.
  6. Eupatorium nodiflorum Wall. ex DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 179; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 494. Distribution: Bangladesh, China, Himalayas, India, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON. Notes: Also considered a synonym of Eupatorium cannabinum. Native.
  7. Eupatorium sambucifolium Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 102. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  8. Eupatorium toppingianum Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 101; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 597; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 500. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna, Mountain Province, Zambales, NEGROS. Notes: Stream depression thickets, mossy forest clearings, mountain meadows, 1300-2400m. Native.

Fenixia Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2018
  1. Fenixia pauciflora Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 119; EPFP 3 (1923) 611; Type: BS 26036 Fenix (L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Bukidnon, Gaboc, vicinity of Tanculan, damp rocky hillsides associated especially with Begonia, 13-Jul-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Damp rocky slopes at medium elevation. Native.

Galinsoga Ruiz & Pav. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 November 2020
  1. Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Icon. Descr. Pl. 3 (1795) 41; Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 368; Canne, Rhodora 79 (1977) 373; J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 267; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 967. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: 1200-2400m. Very common weed in the temperate vegetable areas. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  2. Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav., Syst. Veg. Fl. Peruv. Chil. 1 (1798) 198; Canne, Rhodora 79 (1977) 355; Type: from Peru. = Galinsoga ciliata S.F.Blake, Rhodora 24 (1922) 35. Distribution: C America. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.

Glebionis Cass. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 July 2017

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. (Spach) 10 (1841) 181; ≡ Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 890; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 615. Distribution: Europe to SE Asia. Notes: Not naturalized?.

Glossocardia Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2018
  1. Glossocardia bidens (Retz.) Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 468; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 971; ≡ Zinnia bidens Retz., Obs. Bot. 5 (1788) 28. = Glossogyne tenuifolia Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 51 (1827) 475; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 613 (excl. syn. Bidens tridentata & Glossogyne tridentata); J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 256. Distribution: Australia, New Caledonia, S Asia, Taiwan. Native.
  2. Glossocardia tridentata (Turcz.) Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 478; ≡ Guerreroia tridentata (Turcz.) Steen., Blumea 30 (1985) 429; ≡ Bidens tridentata Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 24 (1851) 183; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 613. = Guerreroia monocephala Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 118; EPFP 3 (1923) 613. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.

Grangea Adans. (Not native)

  1. Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 2 (1812) 825; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 471; EPFP 3 (1923) 599; Soejima & Peng in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 982; ≡ Artemisia maderaspatana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 849. Distribution: Africa, India, Indochina, Java, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Bulacan, La Union, Pampanga, Rizal. Notes: An occasional weed in open waste places in and about towns, certainly introduced. Naturalized.

Gynura Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser 21 May 2018
  1. Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) DC., Prodr. (DC.) 6 (1838) 300; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 425; Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 12-3. Distribution: China, India, Java, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Naturalized.
  2. Gynura elliptica Y.Yabe & Hayata ex Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Tokyo 18, no. 8 (1904) 25; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 984; Type: from Taiwan. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN, SABTANG. Notes: Old fields, low elevation. Native.
  3. Gynura japonica (Thunb.) Juel., Acta Horti Berg. 1 (1891) 86; ≡ Senecio japonicus Thunb. in Murray, Syst.Veg. (1784) 315; Type: from Japan. = Gynura segetum Lour. ex Merr., PJS 15 (1919) 260; Type: from China. Distribution: China, Japan, Nepal, Philippines, Taiwan. Native.
  4. Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 618; ≡ Cacalia procumbens Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 485. = Cacalia sarracenia Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 618. = Gynura affinis Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 24, 1 (1851) 201; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 120; Type: Cumming 926 (K, holo, iso), Luzon: Albay. = Gynura angulosa auct. non (Wall.) DC.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 119. = Gynura agusanensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2585; Type: Elmer 13864 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. = Gynura clementis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 244; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 145; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; Type: Clemens 49 (PNH, holo), Mindanao: Lake Lanao, Camp Keithy. = Gynura latifolia (S.Moore) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 145; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; ≡ Crassocephalum latifolium S.Moore, J. Bot. 43 (1905) 138; Type: Whitehead s.n. (BM, holo), Negros. = Gynura piperi Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 355; EPFP 3 (1923) 617; Type: Piper 384 (K. holo), Siquijor. = Gynura sarmentosa (Blume) DC., Prodr. 6 (1837) 298; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 120; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 163; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 146; Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 127; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 381; ≡ Cacalia sarmentosa Lesch. ex Blume, Bijdr. 15 (1826) 907. = Gynura scabra Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 24, 1 (1851) 201; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 120; Type: Cumming 1638 (K, holo), Panay. = Senecio cacaliaster Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 441; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 24, nom. illeg., non Lam. = Senecio mindorensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 155; Type: Elmer 5936 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Sto Tomas, Mar-1904. Distribution: Africa, China, India, Java, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO. Notes: Luzon (Cagayan) to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. Native.
  5. Gynura rubiginosa (Elmer) J.R.Drummond ex Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 127; EPFP 3 (1923) 618; ≡ Senecio rubiginosus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 154; Type: Elmer 6246 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Sto Tomas, May-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Damp thickets, 1600-2000m. Native.
  6. Gynura vidaliana Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 144; J.R.Drummond ex Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 127; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 398; EPFP 3 (1923) 618; Type: Merrill 3937 (NY, iso), Luzon: Pampanga, Mt Arayat, Oct-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
    • var. apoensis (Elmer) F.G.Davies, Kew Bull. 35 (1981) 732; ≡ Gynura apoensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2587; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; Type: Elmer 11584 (L, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, PALAWAN. Notes: 1800m, along streams. Native.
    • var. vidaliana. = Gynura purpurascens S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 164, nom. illeg., non DC. = Gynura macgregorii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 398; EPFP 3 (1923) 617; Type: McGregor PNH 8381 (K, lecto). = Gynura acuminatissima Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 121; EPFP 3 (1923) 617; Type: BS 26556 Ramos & Edaño (K, holo; L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Mt Dingalan, Aug/Sep-1916. = Gynura subglabra Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 120; EPFP 3 (1923) 618; Type: BS 27023 Ramos (K, holo; NY, US, iso), Luzon: Abra, Mt Posuey, Feb-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Aurora, Batangas, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Zambales, PALAWAN. Notes: Mossy forest, damp thickets and forests, 750-2500m. Native.

Helianthus L. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Helianthus annuus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 904; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 476; EPFP 3 (1923) 612. Distribution: America. Notes: Planted in all warm countries. Cultivated here and there for ornamental purposes but nowhere established. Sunflower.

Ixeridium (A.Gray) Tzvelev

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 29 August 2020
  1. Ixeridium laevigatum (Blume) Pak & Kawano, Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyoto Univ., Ser. Biol. 15 (1992) 45; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 993; ≡ Lactuca laevigata (Blume) DC., Prodr. 7 (1838) 140; J.Kost., Blumea 23 (1976) 169; ≡ Ixeris laevigata (Blume) Yamamoto, J. Soc. Trop. Agric. Taiwan 8 (1936) 353; ≡ Prenanthes laevigata Blume, Bijdr. 2 (1826) 836. = Lactuca luzonica S.Vidal, Revis. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 165; C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 218; Type: Vidal 1505 (MA, syn), Luzon: Bontoc; Vidal 1509 (K, syn), Vidal 1511 (syn), Luzon: Lepanto; Cuming 1642 (K, syn), Panay. = Lactuca laevigata (Blume) DC. var. exciso-dentata J.Kost., Blumea 23 (1976) 174. = Lactuca dentata auct. non (Thunb.) C.B.Rob.; C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 218; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 621, pro parte. = Ixeris laevigata (Blume) Sch.Bip. var. oldhamii (Maxim.) Kitam., Mem. Coll. Sci. Univ. Kyoto, ser. B, 281, Art. 14 (Compos. Jap. 5) (1956) 111; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 54; ≡ Lactuca oldhamii Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 19 (1874) 532. Distribution: Cambodia, China, Japan, Laos, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BATANES, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Benguet, Camarines, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Chielfly along shaded streams at medium elevation, ascending to 2000m. Native.

Ixeris Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2018
  1. Ixeris integra (Merr.) Stebbins, J. Bot. 75 (1937) 50; ≡ Lactuca integra Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 622; Type: BS 26586 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Dingalan, on rocks along the seashore, 24-Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Native.

Lactuca L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 June 2015
  1. Lactuca indica L., Mant. 2 (1771) 278; ≡ Pterocypsela indica (L.) C.Shih, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 26 (1988) 387; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1043; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 621. = Lactuca brevirostris Champ. in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscell. 4 (1852) 237; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 120; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 165; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 182. = Lactuca squarrosa Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1864) 189; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 442. Distribution: China, India, Indochina, Japan, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Taiwan. ALABAT, BATANES, LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Chiefly at medium elevation, occasionally at sea level or ascending to 1500m. Grassy hillsides, open waste places along trails and streams, old clearings and garden regrowths, etc. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Lactuca sativa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 795; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 622. Notes: Cultivated but nowhere established. Lettuce.

Lagenophora Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 December 2019
  1. Lagenophora stipitata (Labill.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Cl. Brit. Isl. (1917) 630; Cabrera, Blumea 14 (1966) 301; ≡ Bellis stipitata Labill., Nov. Holl. Pl. 2 (1806) 55. = Lagenophora billardieri Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 25 (1826) 111; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 599. Native.
    • var. stipitata. Distribution: Australia, India to China, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Zambales (photos). Notes: On open grassy slopes and in thin pine forests, 1400-1700 m.

Laggera Sch.Bip.

  1. Laggera alata (D.Don) Sch.Bip. ex Oliver, Trans. Linn. Soc. 39 (1873) 94; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 606; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 390; Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 11-6; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1006; ≡ Erigeron alatum D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 171. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Middle East, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija (photos by Leonardo Cristobal Udasco), Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: Chiefly in medium elevation grasslands, ascending to 1500m. Native.

Laphangium (Hilliard & B.L.Burtt) Tzvelev

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 12 August 2020
  1. Laphangium luteoalbum (L.) Tzvelev, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. 98 (1994) 105; ≡ Helichrysum luteoalbum (L.) Rchb., Handb. Gewächsk., ed. 2. 2 (1829) 1460; ≡ Gnaphalium luteoalbum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 851; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 609; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 394; Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 10-7 & 8; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 977. = Laphangium affine (D.Don) Tzvelev, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. 98 (1994) 105; ≡ Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum ssp. affine (D.Don) Hilliard & B.L.Burtt, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 82 (1981) 206; ≡ Gnaphalium affine D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 173. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, China, Europe, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Madagascar, Middle East, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, W Asia. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Pangasinan. Notes: Chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2400m, along trails, sunny places, talus slopes, etc. Note by P.B. Pelser (12-Aug-20): It is presently unclear if Laphangium it better considered as a synonym of Helichrysum or Pseudognaphalium. Likewise, the delimitation of Laphangium luteoalbum is problematic. Therefore, I have used a broad concept here that includes Laphangium affine, which is reported (as Pseudognaphalium affine) for the Philippines by Chen & Bayer in Chen et al. (2011) instead of Laphangium luteoalbum. Native.

Lipoblepharis Orchard

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 January 2013
  1. Lipoblepharis stenophylla (Merr.) Orchard, Nuytsia 23 (2013) 452; ≡ Wedelia stenophylla Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 429; Type: FB 29751 (PNH, holo, lost; UC, iso), Mindanao: Misamis, on the top of Angyar Ridge, c. 400m, 22-Jul-1924. Distribution: Java, New Guinea, Philippines. MINDANAO. Native.

Melampodium L. (Not native)

  1. Melampodium diffusum Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 59 (1829) 238; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 609. = Melampodium manillense Less., Linnaea 5 (1830) 155. = Melampodium divaricatum auct. non (Rich. ex Rich.) DC.; Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 213; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 162; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 161. = Melampodium sericeum auct. non Lag.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 117; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 160. Distribution: C America. LUZON: Cavite, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal. Notes: Open dry sandy soil in and about towns. Naturalized.

Microglossa DC.

  1. Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 1 (1891) 353; J.Kost., Nova Guinea, Bot. 24 (1966) 558; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1014; ≡ Conyza pyrifolia Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 89. = Microglossa volubilis (Wall.) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 320; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; ≡ Conyza volubilis Wall., Cat. (1831) 3057, nom. nud. Distribution: Africa, China, India, Indian Ocean, Laos, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO, NEGROS. Notes: Chiefly medium elevation thickets, ascending to 1500m. Native.

Mikania Willd. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017
  1. Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L.Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104 (1934) 65; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 504; ≡ Eupatorium cordatum Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 176. = Mikania scandens auct. non (L.) Willd.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 598. Naturalized.
    • forma undulata J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 506. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Now pantropic in distribution. Throughout the Philippines in all islands and provinces. Very common in lowland and medium elevation thickets, ascending to 1600m.
    • forma villosa J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 509.
  2. Mikania micrantha Kunth in Humb., Bonpl., & Kunth, Nov. Gen. 4 (1820) 134; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 510; Nova Guinea, Bot. 24 (1966) 522. Distribution: Neotropics. Naturalized.

Myriactis Less.

  1. Myriactis humilis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 244; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 394; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 129; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; Soejima & Peng in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1017. Distribution: Borneo, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Quezon, MINDORO, NEGROS. Native.
  2. Myriactis mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2589; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; J.Kost., Nova Guinea, Bot. 24 (1966) 610; Type: Elmer 11507 (BISH, L, NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, upon water-soaked moss-covered rocks strewn along the Cati creek at 5750ft of the east to northeastern side of Mt Apo, Aug-1909. Distribution: Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Davao, Misamis Occidental. Native.

Petrobium R.Br. (Not native)

Excluded

  1. Petrobium arboreum R.Br., Observ. Compositae (1817) 113; ≡ Laxmannia arborea J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. Pl. (1775) 4; Type: from St Helena. = Pharetranthus ferrugineus Klatt, Flora 68 (1885) 204; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 623; Type: Cuming 2454 (BM, K), St Helena. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (7-Aug-2020): previously mistakenly attributed to the Philippines (Merrill 1923, Blake 1930).

Pluchea Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 3 October 2020
  1. Pluchea indica (L.) Less., Linnaea 6 (1831) 150; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 471; EPFP 3 (1923) 606; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1036; ≡ Baccharis indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 861. = Pluchea scabrida DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 453; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 116; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 106; Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 309; EPFP 3 (1923) 606; Type: Haenke s.n. (?G-DC). Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Along the seashore, common in littoral sites such as mangroves, brackish swamps, and tidal flats. Occasionally more inlands. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Pluchea pteropoda Hemsl. ex F.B.Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23 (1888) 422. Distribution: Cambodia, China, Laos, ?Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam. ?LUZON: ?Ilocos Norte. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (3-Oct-20): Possibly represented by BS 27487 Ramos (L).

Pseudelephantopus Rohr (Not native)

  1. Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss.) Rohr, Skrivt. Nat. Selsk. Kiob. 2 (1792) 213; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 465; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1041; ≡ Elephantopus spicatus Juss. in Aubl., Pl. Guin. 2 (1775) 808; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 469; EPFP 3 (1923) 596. Distribution: S America. Notes: Introduced and naturalized in Asia. Common throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Lowland waste places and settlements generally. Naturalized.

Pseudognaphalium Kirp.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2019
  1. Pseudognaphalium adnatum (Wall. ex DC.) Y.S.Chen, Fl. China 20-21 (2011) 816; ≡ Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC., Prodr. 6 (1838) 274; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 973; ≡ Anaphalis adnata (Wall. ex DC.) DC., Prodr. 6 (1837) 274; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 608. Distribution: China, India, Indochina, Myanmar, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Open slopes in pine forests, 1300-2000m. Native.
  2. Pseudognaphalium hypoleucum (DC.) Hilliard & B.L.Burtt, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 82 (1981) 205; ≡ Gnaphalium hypoleucum DC. in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 21; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 608; Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 975. Native.
    • var. hypoleucum. Distribution: China, Japan, Korea, Philippines, S & SE Asia, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: 1200-2200m. In open vegetation associated with pine forests, frequently on steep slopes.

Pterocaulon Elliot

  1. Pterocaulon redolens (G.Forst. ex Willd.) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 116; Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 122; EPFP 3 (1923) 607; ≡ Gnaphalium redolens G.Forst., Prodr. (1786) 91. = Pterocaulon cylindrostachyum C.B.Clarke, Comp. Ind. (1786) 98; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 116; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 162; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 379. = Sphaeranthus elongatus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 636; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 443; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 30. Distribution: Myanmar to Australia and New Caledonia. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, MINDORO. Notes: Lowlands and medium elevation, in open waste places. Native.

Senecio L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2018
  1. Senecio luzoniensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 245; PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 127; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 399; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 154; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 619; Type: Merrill 4791 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Suyoc to Pauai, Oct/Nov-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Zambales. Notes: High montane thickets, steep slopes and forests, 1800-2600m. Native.
  2. Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 178; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 619; Peng & Chung in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1056. Distribution: China, Indochina, Japan, Philippines, S Asia, Taiwan, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: 1300-2200m, in thickets. Native.

Sigesbeckia L.

  1. Sigesbeckia orientalis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 900; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 117; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 163; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 162; Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 411; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 397; EPFP 3 (1923) 610; J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 274; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1062. Distribution: Africa to India, Australia, China, Japan, Taiwan. BATANES, LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao. Notes: Chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2100m in the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon. In waste places, fallow fields, etc. Native.

Solidago L.

  1. Solidago virgaurea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 880; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 126; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 245; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 393; EPFP 3 (1923) 598. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Continental Asia, Europe, India, Middle East, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: 1400-2100m, in thin pine forests on grassy slopes. Native.

Sonchus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 9 August 2020
  1. Sonchus oleraceus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 794; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 621; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1073. Eurasia, in temperate and subtemperate countries. Distribution: LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna, Mountain Province, Rizal. Notes: An introduced plant in the Philippines at 1200-2400m in the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon, where it thrives as a common weed in temperate vegetable farms, talus slopes, sunny trails and other exposed sites. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  2. Sonchus wightianus DC., Prodr. 7 (1838) 187; Boulos, Bot. Not. 126 (1973) 185; Shi & Kilian, Fl. China 20-21 (2011) 241. = Sonchus arvensis auct. non L.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 621. Distribution: Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Hong Kong, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: Montane areas at 1000-2400m. Common weed in cultivated lands, thin pine forests, along trails, talus slopes, open waste places, etc. Native.

Sphaeranthus L.

  1. Sphaeranthus africanus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 1314; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 116; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 162; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 118; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 469; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 379; EPFP 3 (1923) 607; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1073. = Sphaeranthus alatus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 635. = Sphaeranthus indicus auct. non L.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 722; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 29; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 116. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation. A weed in open rather damp waste places in and about towns. Native.

Sphaeromorphaea DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 November 2019
  1. Sphaeromorphaea littoralis (Retz.) A.R.Bean, Austrobaileya 9 (2013) 45; ≡ Artemisia littoralis Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1788) 28; Type: from India. = Sphaeromorphaea russeliana DC., Prodr. 6 (1838) 140. = Cotula quinqueloba Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 626, nom. illeg., non L.f. = Epaltes australis auct. non Less.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 473; EPFP 3 (1923) 607; Bean, Austrobaileya 9 (2013) 40. Distribution: Australia, China, India, Malaysia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Lowlands, on fallow rice paddies. Native.

Sphagneticola O.Hoffm.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017
  1. Sphagneticola calendulacea (L.) Pruski, Novon 6 (1996) 411; ≡ Verbesina calendulacea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 902. = Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 111; EPFP 3 (1923) 611; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1094; ≡ Solidago chinensis Osbeck, Dagb. Ostind. Resa (1757) 241. Distribution: China, India, Japan, SE Asia, Taiwan. Notes: Paddy ridges, moist grassy fields. Native.
  2. Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski, Fl. St. John (Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 78) (1996) 114; ≡ Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc., Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 4 (1893) 99; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1097; ≡ Silphium trilobatum L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2 (1759) 1233. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Widely cultivated as an ornamental ground cover. Escaping cultivation and fast becoming naturalized in many parts of the Philippines. Naturalized.

Strobocalyx (Blume ex DC.) Sch.Bip.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 July 2022
  1. Strobocalyx arborea (Buch.-Ham.) Sch.Bip., Jahres. Pollichia 18-19 (1861) 171; ≡ Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. 14 (1825) 218; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 592; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 384, as 'var. typica'; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 371; Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 12-6; ≡ Vernonia florescens Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 685; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 593; Type: Elmer 11613 (BISH, NY, US), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, in moist humus-covered soil of woods at 3500ft of Mt Calelan, Sep-1909. = Vernonia urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2591; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 595; Type: Elmer 13634 (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, woods of the saddle between Duros and Cawilanan peaks at 3500ft, Aug-1912. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: N Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. Low and medium elevation, ascending to c. 1000m, mostly along forest edges and secondary forests. Native.
  2. Strobocalyx vidalii (Merr.) H.Rob., S.C.Keeley, Skvarla & R.Chan, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 121(1) (2008) 31; ≡ Vernonia vidalii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 6; PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 138; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 91; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 595. = Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. var. vestita S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 160. Distribution: Myanmar, Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Vernonia vestita Baker is a different species. Chiefly in secondary forests, sea-level to 1300m. Native.

Struchium P.Browne (Not native)

  1. Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 366; ≡ Ethulia sparganophora L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 2 (1763) 1171. = Sparganophorus vaillantii Crantz, Inst. Rei Herb. 1 (1766) 261. Distribution: America. Naturalized.

Synedrella Gaertn. (Not native)

  1. Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn., Fruct. 2 (1791) 456; Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 404; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 118; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 171; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 472; EPFP 3 (1923) 612; J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 271; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1075; ≡ Verbesina nodiflora L., Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 290. = Blainvillea latifolia auct. non (L.f.) DC.; Walp., Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 266; Ceron, Cat. Pl. Herb. (1892) 102. = Blainvillea rhomboidea auct. non Cass.; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 165. Distribution: America. Notes: A common pantropic weed. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation, a ubiquitous weed in open waste places. Naturalized.

Tagetes L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020
  1. Tagetes erecta L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 887; Novis. App. (1880) 119; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 136; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 474; EPFP 3 (1923) 614; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 296. Distribution: C America. Notes: Pantropical in cultivation. A common ornamental plant in the Philippines. Naturalized in rice fields. Naturalized.
  2. Tagetes patula L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 887; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 632; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 440; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 23; Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 381; EPFP 3 (1923) 614. Distribution: C America. LUZON. Notes: Widely distributed in cultivation. A common ornamental plant in the Philippines, said to be throughly naturalized in the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon, along streambanks and gravel bars at 1200-1500m elevation. Marigold. Also considered a synonym of Tagetes erecta L. Naturalized.

Taraxacum Weber ex F.H.Wigg. (Not native)

  1. Taraxacum officinale Weber in Wiggers, Prim. Pl. Holst. (1780) 56; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 621; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1079. Distribution: Eurasia. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: In the Philippines, thoroughly naturalized in Luzon: Benguet in the vicinity of Baguio-La Trinidad, in temperate vegetable gardens, roadsides, lawns, etc., c. 1400m. Naturalized.

Tithonia Desf. ex Juss. (Not native)

  1. Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 19 (1883) 5; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 611; J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 264; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1083; ≡ Mirasolia diversifolia Hemsl., Biol. Centr. Amer., Bot. 2 (1881) 168. Distribution: C America. Notes: Naturalized in many other tropical countries. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.

Tridax L. (Not native)

  1. Tridax procumbens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 900; J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 263; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1084. Distribution: America. Notes: Now in all warm countries. Thoroughly naturalized in the lowland areas of the Philippines. Naturalized.

Vernonia Schreb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 February 2020
  1. Vernonia acrophila Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 253; EPFP 3 (1923) 592; Type: FB 8057 Curran & Merritt (NY, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Mt Tapulao (High Peak), in the elfinwood, exposed peaks, above 2000m, 13-Oct-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Notes: Exposed peaks and ridges near the summit, c. 2000m. Native.
  2. Vernonia apoensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 687; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 592; Type: Elmer 10764 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, in forest at 3750ft, May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Sur. Notes: In forests, 650-2200m. Native.
  3. Vernonia benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 94; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 592; Type: Elmer 6584. Distribution: China, Philippines, Thailand. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: Open grasslands up to 1500m. Note by L.L.Co: Similar to some forms of Vernonia cinerea Less., should be in Cyanthillium??. Native.
  4. Vernonia bontocensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 473; EPFP 3 (1923) 592; Type: BS 37752 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Pukis, open slopes, c. 1300m, Mar-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Open slopes, c. 1300m. Native.
  5. Vernonia elmeri Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 252; EPFP 3 (1923) 592; J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 417; Type: Merrill 793 (syn). = Gynura angulosa auct. non (Wall.) DC.; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 146, excl. syn. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Davao, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets. Native.
  6. Vernonia fimbrillata J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 401. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BUSUANGA, LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: In the Philippines a specimen has been collected, that seems to be very closely related to Vernonia fimbrillata; the involucral scales are not so long-fringed, however, but shortly ciliate along the margin, and subacute, the achenes are densely glandular and glabrous. Known from the Mountain Province from Vanoverbergh 689 (K, L). A specimen from Busuanga (Lopez 41367, L) has leaves with narrow tips (leaves to 5.5 cm broad, 16 cm long); it apparently belongs to the same species. Native.
  7. Vernonia glandulifolia Merr., PJS 14 c (1919) Bot. 456; EPFP 3 (1923) 593; Type: BS 7490 Ramos. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation. Forested slopes. Native.
  8. Vernonia lancifolia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 253; EPFP 3 (1923) 593; Type: R.S. Williams 420 (US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, 2-Jan-1904. = Vernonia acuminatissima Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3076; Type: Elmer 18064 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling, Jun/Jul-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Notes: Forested ridges, 900-1300m. Native.
  9. Vernonia maritima Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 440; EPFP 3 (1923) 593; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1091. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte (photos). Notes: On littoral rocky cliffs. Possibly synonymous with Vernonia zollingeriana Sch.Bip. in Zoll., Syst. Verz. Ind. Arch. (1854) 119 (Koster 1935). Native.
  10. Vernonia mindanaensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 474; EPFP 3 (1923) 594; Type: BS 38886 Ramos & Edaño, Mindanao: Bukidnon, Mt Candoon, damp forest, c. 1000m, Jun-1920. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur. Notes: Damp forests, 600-1000m. Native.
  11. Vernonia phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 106; EPFP 3 (1923) 594; Type: Vanoverbergh 688, Luzon: Mountain Province, Malamey (Pinggat), in forest, c. 1450m, 23-Jul-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Montane forests, c. 1500m. Native.
  12. Vernonia pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2590; Type: Elmer 12948, cited as 12848 in the original protologue (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, scandent upon small trees on steep rocky soil of forests at 2000ft, 1-Apr-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Primary forests, c. 600m. Native.

Wollastonia DC. ex Decne.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 January 2017
  1. Wollastonia biflora (L.) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 546; ≡ Melanthera biflora (L.) Wild, Kirkia 5 (1965) 4; ≡ Wedelia biflora (L.) DC. in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 18; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 477; EPFP 3 (1923) 611; J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 269; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1093; ≡ Verbesina biflora L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 2 (1763) 1272; Type: from India. = Spilanthes peregrina Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 622; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae No. 528 (PNH?, neo; BM, K, L, isoneo), Palawan: Taytay, May-1913. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Caledonia, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. Notes: In littoral sites. Native.
    • var. biflora. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Caledonia, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LEYTE. Conservation status: Not threatened (Orchard 2013).
  2. Wollastonia dentata (H.Lév. & Vaniot) Orchard, Nuytsia 23 (2013) 397; ≡ Eclipta dentata H.Lév. & Vaniot, Bull. Acad. Int. Géogr. Bot. sér. 3, 20 (1910) 11. Distribution: China, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Beach dunes. Native.

Xanthium L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 January 2022
  1. Xanthium strumarium L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 987. Distribution: America. NEGROS. Naturalized.

Xerochrysum Tzvelev (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Xerochrysum bracteatum (Vent.) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 27 (1990) 151; ≡ Helichrysum bracteatum (Vent.) Andrews, Bot. Repos. 6 (1805) t. 428; ≡ Xeranthemum bracteatum Vent., Jard. Malmaison (1803) 2. Distribution: Australia. Notes: Not naturalized?.

Youngia Cass.

  1. Youngia japonica (L.) DC., Prodr. 7 (1838) 194; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 437; Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 9-8; Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1098; ≡ Crepis japonica (L.) Benth., Fl. Hongkong. (1861) 194; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 622; ≡ Prenanthes japonica L., Mantissa (1767) 107. Distribution: Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. Notes: Weed in clearings, talus slopes, riverbanks, etc. Native.

Zinnia L. (Not native)

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Zinnia elegans Jacq., Icon. Pl. Rar. 3 (1793) t. 589. Notes: Cultivated. Not naturalized?.

Literature