Asparagaceae

including Agavaceae, Anthericaceae, Convallariaceae, Dracaenaceae, Laxmanniaceae, Ruscaceae

Agave L. [or Agavaceae; not native, not naturalized]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 October 2017

Photos

  1. Agave cantala (Haw.) Roxb. ex Salm-Dyck, Index Pl. Succ. Hort. Dyck. (1829) 1; --Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 25, nom. nud.; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 167; --Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 144; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 99; EPFP 1 (1922) 212; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 253; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 146; --Furcraea cantala Haw., Suppl. Pl. Succ. (1818) 42. --Agave americana Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 258; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 180; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 322; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 253; --Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 23. Introduced from Mexico during the Spanish colonial period, now widely distributed in the Philippines. In some provinces extensively grown for its fiber. Maguey. Cultivated only.
  2. Agave sisalana Perine ex Engelm., Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 3 (1875) 314; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 213. Native of tropical America, introduced into the Philippines during the early part of the 20th century, here planted for its fiber. Cultivated only. Photos

Asparagus L. [or Agavaceae]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2017

Photos
  1. Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr., PJS 15 (1919) 230; EPFP 1 (1922) 206; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 216; --Melanthium cochinchinense Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 216. Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, S China, Indochina, N Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Loher 1928, probable from above 1200m). Photos

Cultivated taxa, not naturalized:

  1. Asparagus aethiopicus L., Mant. Pl. (1770) 1. --Asparagus sprengeri Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 11 (1890) 302. Photos
  2. Asparagus officinalis L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 313. Photos
  3. Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop, Bothalia 9 (1966) 51; --Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, Enum. Pl. 5 (1850) 82. --Asparagus plumosus Baker, Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 14 (1875) 613.

Cordyline Comm. ex R.Br. [or Agavaceae; not native, not naturalized?]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2017

Photos

  1. Cordyline fruticosa (L.) A.Chev., Cat. Pl. Jard. Bot. Saigon (1919) 66; --Taetsia fruticosa (L.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 137; EPFP 1 (1922) 205; --Convallaria fruticosa L. in Stickm., Herb. Amboin. (1754) 16. --Cordyline terminalis Kunth, Abh. Acad. Berlin (1820) 30, nom. superfl.; Enum. 5 (1850) 25; --Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 558; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 265; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 145. Native of Malaya (R.L.Reyes: or Pacific to Southeast Asia?), now pantropic in cultivation. Widely cultivated in the Philippines for ornamental purposes. Cultivated only? Photos

Disporopsis Hance [or Convallariaceae, Ruscaceae]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 October 2016

Photos
  1. Disporopsis luzoniensis (Merr.) J.M.H.Shaw, Hanburyana 5 (2011) 48; --Disporum luzoniense Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 338; EPFP 1 (1922) 206. --Disporopsis fusco-picta auct. non Hance; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 219. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forest, 1700-2500m. Also in secondary pyrogenous pine savanna. Photos

Disporum Salisb.: no true representatives in the Philippines = Disporopsis

Dracaena Vand. ex L. [or Dracaenaceae, Ruscaceae]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 September 2021

Photos

  1. Dracaena angustifolia Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 24; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 155; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 264; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 35, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 400; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 61; --Pleomele angustifolia (Roxb.) N.E.Br., Kew Bull. (1914) 277; --Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 137; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 96; EPFP 1 (1923) 205. India through Malaya to Australia. Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Chiefly in lowland and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  2. Dracaena bangueyensis (Merr.) Jankal., Sansevieria 18 (2008) 20; --Pleomele bangueyensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 355; PJS 30 (1926) 390; --Type: from Banguey (off Sabah). Banguey, Philippines. CALAMIANES (BICAWAYAN), TAWI-TAWI. Lowland thickets.
  3. Dracaena multiflora Warb. ex P.Sarasin & Sarasin, Reisen, Sulawesi 1 (1905) 136; --Jankalski, Sansevieria 18 (2008) 20; --Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973; --Pleomele multiflora (Warb.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 205. Philippines, Sulawesi. BATANES, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, TICAO, MASBATE, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Chiefly on coastal limestone formations. Photos
  4. Dracaena roxburghiana (Schult.f.) Byng & Christenh., Global Fl. 4 (2018) 66; --Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult. & Schult.f. in Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 7 (1829) 357; --Cordyline roxburghiana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 206. --Sansevieria zeylanica Roxb., Pl. Coromandel. 2 (1798) 43, nom. illeg., auct. non (L.) Willd.; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 265; Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 422; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 144, EPFP 1 (1922) 206. Native of tropical Asia, now pantropic in distribution. In the Philippines often cultivated, in many regions naturalized, occurring in thickets and hedges at low and medium elevation. Bowstring hemp.
  5. Dracaena trifasciata (Prain) Mabb., Mabberley's Pl.-Book (2017) 1101; --Sansevieria trifasciata hort. ex Prain, Bengal Pl. 2 (1903) 1054. Africa. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated, not naturalized. Photos

Ledebouria Roth [or Hyacynthaceae; not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser. 7 November 2020

Photos

  1. Ledebouria socialis (Baker) Jessop, Journ. S. Afr. Bot. 36 (1970) 253; --Scilla socialis Baker, Refug. Bot. 3 (1870) t. 180. Native to South Africa. Philippines. SAMAR. Naturalized on exposed hills on basaltic rocks (W. Suarez, pers. comm., 7-Nov-20).  Photos

Liriope Lour. [or Convallariaceae, Ruscaceae]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2017

Photos
  1. Liriope graminifolia (L.) Baker, J. Soc. Bot. 17 (1879) 499; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 207; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 225; --Asparagus graminifolius L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 450. --Liriope muscari auct. non (Decne.) L.H.Bailey; --Hatus., Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 62. Japan to S China (including Hongkong), Taiwan, Philippines. BATAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Benguet, MINDORO. Low elevation (in Batan) to c. 1400m in open slopes (in N Luzon).

Ophiopogon Ker [or Convallariaceae, Ruscaceae]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 13 August 2020

Photos
  1. Ophiopogon caulescens (Blume) Backer, Handb. Fl. Java 3 (1924) 74; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 226; --Chloopsis caulescens Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae (1827) 14. --Ophiopogon malayanus Ridl., J. Strait Branch Roy. As. Soc. 41 (1904) 34; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 207. Continental SE Asia and W Malesia. Borneo, Java, Langkawi, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Philippines. JOLO (Clemens 9374). Forested slopes, elevation c. 700m.
  2. Ophiopogon intermedius D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 48; --Tanaka, J. Jpn. Bot. 75 (2000) 207; --J. Jpn. Bot. 76 (2001) 212; --Type: from Nepal. --Ophiopogon merrillii Masam., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 84 (1937) 90; --Type: Vanoverbergh 625 (P), Luzon: Mountain Province, May/Jun-1910. --Ophiopogon japonicus auct. non (Thunb.) Ker Gawl.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 207; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 227 (p.p.). Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Pampanga, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo). Photos
  3. Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl., Curtis’ Bot. Mag. 27 (1807) t. 1063; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 227; --Convallaria japonica Thunb., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 2, 3 (1780) 208. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated, not naturalized (Tanaka 2000).

Sansevieria Thunb. = Dracaena

Thysanotus R.Br. [or Anthericaceae, Laxmanniaceae]

Photos
  1. Thysanotus chinensis Benth., Fl. Hongk. (1861) 372; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 202; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 211. S China (including Hongkong), N Vietnam, S Peninsular Thailand, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores), Philippines, Sulawesi (Masamba), Moluccas (Aru Isls), New Guinea, Australia (Western Australia; Northern Territory). LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet. Open grasslands at medium elevation, grassy pine forest, ascending to 1600m, in the more seasonal parts of the archipelago. Photos

Pleomele Salisb. = Dracaena

Taetsia Med. = Cordyline


Literature

Backer, CA & Bakhuizen van den Brink. 1968. Flora of Java 3: 157-165.

Jankalski, S. 2008. Subgenera and new combinations in Dracaena. Sansevieria 18: 17-21.

Jessop, JP. 1979. Liliaceae - I. Flora Malesiana - Series 1, Spermatophyta 9: 189-235

Lu, P-L & CW Morden. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships among dracaenoid genera (Asparagaceae: Nolinoideae) inferred from chloroplast DNA loci. Systematic Botany 39: 90-104

Shaw, JMH. 2011. Miscellaneous nomenclatural and taxonomic notes mainly relating to cultivated plants. Hanburyana 5: 47-56. [Disporopsis]

Takawira-Nyenya, R, L Mucina, WM Cardinal-McTeague & KR Thiele. 2018. Sansevieria (Asparagaceae, Nolinoideae) is a herbaceous clade within Dracaena: inference from non-coding plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data. Phytotaxa 376: 254-276.

Tanaka, N. 2000. Taxonomic notes on Ophiopogon of South Asia VII. Journal of Japanese Botany 75: 191-212

Tanaka, N. 2001. Taxonomic notes on Ophiopogon (Convallariaceae) of East Asia (III). Journal of Japanese Botany 76: 205-218


Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 18 September 2021