Asparagaceae

Agavaceae, Laxmanniaceae, Ruscaceae, Convallariaceae, Dracaenaceae, Anthericaceae

Agave L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 October 2017

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Agave cantala (Haw.) Roxb. ex Salm-Dyck, Index Pl. Succ. Hort. Dyck. (1829) 1; Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 25, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 167; Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 144; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 99; EPFP 1 (1922) 212; Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 253; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 146; ≡ Furcraea cantala Haw., Suppl. Pl. Succ. (1818) 42. = Agave americana Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 258, nom. illeg., non L.; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 180; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 322; Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 253; Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 23. Notes: Introduced from Mexico during the Spanish colonial period, now widely distributed in the Philippines. In some provinces extensively grown for its fiber. Maguey. Cultivated only. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Agave sisalana Perrine ex Engelm., Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 3 (1875) 314; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 213. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Introduced to the Philippines during the early part of the 20th century, here planted for its fiber. Cultivated only. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Asparagus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 October 2021
  1. Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr., PJS 15 (1919) 230; EPFP 1 (1922) 206; Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 216; ≡ Melanthium cochinchinense Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 216. Distribution: Cambodia, China, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Known from Loher 1928, probable from above 1200m. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Asparagus aethiopicus L., Mant. Pl. (1770) 1. = Asparagus sprengeri Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 11 (1890) 302. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Asparagus officinalis L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 313. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  3. Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop, Bothalia 9 (1966) 51; ≡ Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, Enum. Pl. 5 (1850) 82. = Asparagus plumosus Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 14 (1875) 613. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Cordyline Comm. ex R.Br. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2017

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Cordyline fruticosa (L.) A.Chev., Cat. Pl. Jard. Bot. Saigon (1919) 66; ≡ Taetsia fruticosa (L.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 137; EPFP 1 (1922) 205; ≡ Convallaria fruticosa L. in Stickman, Herb. Amboin. (1754) 16. = Cordyline terminalis Kunth, Abh. Acad. Berlin (1820) 30, nom. illeg., nom. superfl.; Enum. 5 (1850) 25; Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 558; Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 265; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 145. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Solomon Isls. Notes: Pantropic in cultivation. Widely cultivated in the Philippines for ornamental purposes. Cultivated only? Cultivated, not naturalized.

Disporopsis Hance

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 October 2021
  1. Disporopsis luzoniensis (Merr.) J.M.H.Shaw, Hanburyana 5 (2011) 48; ≡ Disporum luzoniense Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 338; EPFP 1 (1922) 206. = Disporopsis fusco-picta auct. non Hance; Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 219. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forest, 1700-2500m. Also in secondary pyrogenous pine savanna. Native.

Dracaena Vand. ex L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 October 2021
  1. Dracaena angustifolia (Medik.) Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 24; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 155; Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 264; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 35; PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 400; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 61; ≡ Pleomele angustifolia (Medik.) N.E.Br., Kew Bull. (1914) 277; Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 137; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 96; EPFP 1 (1923) 205; ≡ Terminalis angustifolia Medik., Theodora (1786) 83. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Chiefly in lowland and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  2. Dracaena bangueyensis (Merr.) Jankalski, Sansevieria 18 (2008) 20; ≡ Pleomele bangueyensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 355; PJS 30 (1926) 390; Type: from Banguey (off Sabah). Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. CALAMIANES, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland thickets. Native.
  3. Dracaena multiflora Warb. ex P.Sarasin & Sarasin, Reisen, Sulawesi 1 (1905) 136; Jankalski, Sansevieria 18 (2008) 20; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973; ≡ Pleomele multiflora (Warb.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 205. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. BATANES, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, MASBATE, MINDORO, PALAWAN, POLILLO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO, TICAO. Notes: Chiefly on coastal limestone formations. Native.
  4. Dracaena roxburghiana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Byng & Christenh., Global Fl. 4 (2018) 66; ≡ Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 7 (1829) 357; ≡ Cordyline roxburghiana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 206. = Sansevieria zeylanica Roxb., Pl. Coromandel. 2 (1798) 43, nom. illeg., non (L.) Willd; Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 265; Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 422; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 144; EPFP 1 (1922) 206. Distribution: Bangladesh, India. Notes: Now pantropic in distribution. In the Philippines often cultivated, in many regions naturalized, occurring in thickets and hedges at low and medium elevation. Bowstring hemp. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Dracaena trifasciata (Prain) Mabb., Mabberley's Pl.-Book (2017) 1101; ≡ Sansevieria trifasciata Prain, Bengal Pl. 2 (1903) 1054. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Ledebouria Roth (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser. 7 November 2020
  1. Ledebouria socialis (Baker) Jessop, Journ. S. Afr. Bot. 36 (1970) 253; ≡ Scilla socialis Baker, Refug. Bot. 3 (1870) t. 180. Distribution: Africa. SAMAR. Notes: Naturalized on exposed hills on basaltic rocks (W. Suarez, pers. comm., 7-Nov-20). Naturalized.

Liriope Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2017
  1. Liriope graminifolia (L.) Baker, J. Soc. Bot. 17 (1879) 499; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 207; Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 225; ≡ Asparagus graminifolius L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 450. = Liriope muscari auct. non (Decne.) L.H.Bailey; Hatus., Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 62. Distribution: Hong Kong, Japan to China, Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN, LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, MINDORO. Notes: Low elevation to c. 1400m in open slopes (in N Luzon). Native.

Ophiopogon Ker

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 13 August 2020
  1. Ophiopogon caulescens (Blume) Backer, Handb. Fl. Java 3 (1924) 74; Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 226; ≡ Chloopsis caulescens Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae (1827) 14. = Ophiopogon malayanus Ridl., J. Strait Branch Roy. As. Soc. 41 (1904) 34; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 207. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Vietnam. JOLO. Notes: Known from the Philippines from Clemens 9374. Forested slopes, elevation c. 700m. Native.
  2. Ophiopogon intermedius D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 48; Tanaka, J. Jpn. Bot. 75 (2000) 207; J. Jpn. Bot. 76 (2001) 212; Type: from Nepal. = Ophiopogon merrillii Masam., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 84 (1937) 90; Type: Vanoverbergh 625 (P), Luzon: Mountain Province, May/Jun-1910. = Ophiopogon japonicus auct. non (Thunb.) Ker Gawl.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 207; Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 227, pro parte. Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl., Curtis’ Bot. Mag. 27 (1807) t. 1063; Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 227; ≡ Convallaria japonica Thunb., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 2, 3 (1780) 208. Distribution: China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized (Tanaka 2000). Cultivated, not naturalized.

Thysanotus R.Br.

  1. Thysanotus chinensis Benth., Fl. Hongk. (1861) 372; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 202; Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 211. Distribution: Australia, China, Hong Kong, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Pangasinan. Notes: Open grasslands at medium elevation, grassy pine forest, ascending to 1600m, in the more seasonal parts of the archipelago. Native.

References