Arecaceae

Palmae

Actinorhytis H.Wendl. & Drude (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 13 August 2020

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Actinorhytis calapparia (Blume) H.Wendl. & Drude ex Scheff., Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 1 (1876) 156; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 163; ≡ Ptychosperma calapparia (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3 (1855) 20; ≡ Seaforthia calapparia (Blume) Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 313; ≡ Areca calapparia Blume, Rumphia 2 (1843) t. 100. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Adonidia Becc.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 October 2017
  1. Adonidia merrillii (Becc.) Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 329; Brown & Merr., Philip Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 15; ≡ Veitchia merrillii (Becc.) H.E.Moore, Gentes Herb. 8 (1957) 501; ≡ Normanbya merrillii Becc., PJS 14 (1909) Bot. 606; LPB 8 (1919) 3009; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 127; Type: Plates 30 & 31, Becc. l.c. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. CALAMIANES, CORON, LAGEN, PALAWAN. Notes: Karst limestone formations, sandy coastal areas, often subgregarious in Coron and N Palawan. Common in cultivation worldwide as an ornamental. The genus is now reportedly known from Borneo (Sabah), fide E.S. Fernando, citing L.G. Saw, 2005, pers. com. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Areca L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 May 2022
  1. Areca caliso Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2998; PJS 14 (1919) 310; Type: Elmer 11898 (FI, holo; BM, BO, CAS, K, NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, c. 1000m, May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Davao, Davao del Sur, Surigao del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Moist humus-covered soil along streams in forested slopes, 350-1000m. Apparently flowering and fruiting throughout the year. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  2. Areca camarinensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 309; Type: FB 14268 Aguilar (FI, holo), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mt Isarog. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur. Notes: Lowland evergreen rain forest. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Areca catechu L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1189, as 'cathecu'; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 714; Fl. Filip. 2 (1845) 494; Fl. Filip. 3, 3 (1879) 129; Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 8; S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 42; Naves, Novis. App. (1882) 278; Becc., PJS 3 (1908) Bot. 340; PJS 6 (1911) Bot. 229; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 32; Fl. Manila (1912) 128; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 89; Becc., LPB 8 (1919) 2997; PJS 14 (1919) 304; Brown & Merr., Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 20; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973. = Areca alba auct. non Bory; Naves, Novis. App. (1882) 278. = Areca catechu var. alba Blume, Rumphia 2 (1839) 68. = Areca catechu var. batanensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 304; Type: BS 3824 Fénix (FI, holo; US, iso), Batan: Basco, along a mountain stream. = Areca catechu var. longicarpa Becc., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 229; PJS 14 (1919) 304; Type: BS 10470 McGregor, Polillo, Probably from planted trees. = Areca catechu var. portoricensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 361. = Areca catechu var. semisilvatica Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 361. = Areca catechu var. silvatica Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 304; Type: Merrill 9447 (FI, holo; US, iso), Palawan: near Lake Manguao, in primary forest at a place where an old trail crosses a small stream. = Areca macrocarpa Becc., PJS 4 (1909) Bot. 601; PJS 14 (1919) 306; Type: FB 9103 Whitford & Hutchinson (FI, holo), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Port Banga, Jan-1908. Old World Tropics generally, introduced in the New World. Distribution: BATAN, LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, PALAWAN, SABTANG, SAMAR. Notes: Generally cultivated throughout the settled areas of the Philippines, in some places spontaneous; thought to be possibly indigenous in the Philippines, having been found once spontaneous in primary forests in Palawan. Conservation status: Least Concern. Native.
  4. Areca costulata Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 310; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2438; Type: BS 15236 Ramos (FI, holo; K, iso), Leyte: Dagami. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  5. Areca hutchinsoniana Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 312. = Areca mammillata var. mindanaoensis Becc., PJS 4c (1909) 602; Type: FB 9141 Whitford & Hutchinson (FI, holo), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Port Banga, 20m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, SIASI. Notes: Low to medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Areca ipot Becc. in Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 639; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973; Type: Elmer 9292 (FI, lecto; BM, BO, NSW, NY, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban. = Areca catechu var. humilis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1837) 716. = Areca ipot var. polillensis Becc., PJS 6 c (1911) 229; Type: 6938 Robinson (FI, holo; BM, iso), Polillo. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, POLILLO. Notes: Forest along streams at low and medium elevation. Also planted in and about towns. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Areca parens Becc., PJS 14 (1909) 307; Type: FB 21712 Peñas, Soriano & Abellanosa (FI, holo), Luzon: Camarines, 23-Apr-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur. Notes: In lowland forests, often in damp, semi-swampy areas, also along streams, up to 600m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  8. Areca triandra Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham., Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 5 (1826) 310. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  9. Areca vidaliana Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 222; Type: Vidal 3955 (FI, holo; K, iso), Paragua (Palawan). = Areca mammillata Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 220; Type: FB 3816 Curran (FI, holo), Palawan: Sariban River. Distribution: Philippines. BUSUANGA, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland swampy forest, also on forested slopes. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  10. Areca whitfordii Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 219; PJS 14 (1919) 306; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 169; Type: Whitford 1372 (FI, holo), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Bongabon River. = Areca whitfordii var. luzonensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 306; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 169; Type: BS 11384 McGregor (FI, holo; BM, iso), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, Dupax. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO. Notes: Semi-swampy forests at low elevation. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.

Arenga Labill.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Arenga brevipes Becc., Malesia 3 (1889) 95; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation forests. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Arenga distincta Mogea, Reinwardtia 12 (2004) 182. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Known from Lipuun (Mendoza 91193, L). Native.
  3. Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr., Interpr. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 119; ≡ Saguerus pinnatus Wurmb, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 1 (1779) 351. = Caryota onusta Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 741. Distribution: China, Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BILIRAN, BOHOL, LUZON: Cavite, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO, POLILLO. Notes: Widely cultivated and abundant in some forested areas, but never venturing far from human settlements. It has all the apprarance of an introduced palm that has become naturalized. Sugar palm, kaong, kabo-negro. Conservation status: Least Concern. Naturalized.
  4. Arenga tremula (Blanco) Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 612; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 87; Brown & Merr., Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 34; ≡ Didymosperma tremulum (Blanco) H.Wendl. & Drude, Kerch. Palm. (1878) 243; ≡ Wallichia tremula (Blanco) Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 315; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 280; S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 279; ≡ Caryota tremula Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 744; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 512; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 144; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 88. = Saguerus mindorensis (Becc.) O.F.Cook, Invent. Seeds Import. U. S. Dept. Agr. 33 (1915) 10; ≡ Arenga mindorensis Becc. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 48; Webbia 1 (1905) 329; PJS 14 (1919) 355; Type: Merrill 1790 (?holo), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Calapan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Camarines Sur, Laguna, NCR, Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation thickets and secondary forests, occurring in large clumps. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  5. Arenga undulatifolia Becc., Malesia 3 (1886) 92; ≡ Saguerus undulatifolius (Becc.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 736. = Arenga ambong Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 229; Type: Copeland 1681 (FI, holo), Mindanao: Zamboanga, San Ramon. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. BALABAC, BASILAN, LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Norte, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.

Calamus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 July 2020
  1. Calamus aidae Fernando, Gard. Bull. Sing. 41 (1988) 49; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 70; Adorador & Fernando, Phytotaxa 447 (2020) 101; Type: Baja-Lapis 123 (K, holo; LBC, iso), Samar: Western Samar, Basey, Guirang, Rawis, 24-May-1984. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, DINAGAT, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Dipterocarp forest, 50-500m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  2. Calamus arugda Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 622; PJS 14 (1919) 352; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 147; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 78; Type: FB 6649 Klemme (FI, holo), Luzon: Cagayan, Lalloc, 50m, Apr-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Ifugao, Isabela. Notes: Low elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  3. Calamus balerensis Fernando, Gard. Bull. Sing. 41 (1989) 51; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 88; Type: Fernando 478 (LBC, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Baler, 13-Apr-1985. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Notes: In forest over ultramafics with large boulders, facing the sea, c. 50m. Thus far known only from two collections from the general vicinity of the type locality. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Calamus batanensis (Becc.) Baja-Lapis, Sylvatrop 12 (1987) 73; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 95; ≡ Calamus siphonospathus var. batanensis Becc., PJS 3 c (1908) 342; Type: BS 3611 Fénix (FI, holo), Batan: Mt Iraya, May/Jun-1907. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN. Notes: Lowland forest. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Calamus bicolor Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3055; PJS 14 (1919) 356; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 147; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 97; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2438; Type: Elmer 10541 (FI, holo; BM, BO, CAL, CAS, F, G, K, L, MO, NY, P, S, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, 1300m, May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga. Notes: Primary forests, 1200-1800m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  6. Calamus caesius Blume, Rumphia 3 (1847) 57; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 107; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Calamus carsicola Adorador & Fernando, Phytotaxa 447 (2020) 89; Type: Adorador 072 (PNH, holo; K, LBC, iso), Samar: Eastern Samar, Taft, Brgy San Rafael, 10-Feb-2016. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR, SIARGAO. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B2 b(iii, iv, v) c(iv) (Adorador & Fernando 2020). Native.
  8. Calamus cumingianus Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 210; PJS 14 (1919) 351; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 147; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 134; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2438; Type: Cuming 762 (K, holo; BM, FI, iso), Luzon: Tayabas. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  9. Calamus diepenhorstii Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1861) 594; Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 96; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 145; Type: from Indonesia. = Calamus diepenhorstii var. exulans Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 627; PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 230; PJS 14 (1919) 350; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 147; Type: FB 756 Foxworthy (PNH, holo, lost; FI, lecto), Palawan: Mt Victoria, 25-Mar-1906. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Quezon, PALAWAN, POLILLO. Notes: Low elevation primary forests. Native.
  10. Calamus discolor Mart., Hist. Nat. Palms 3 (1838) 341; Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 635; PJS 14 (1919) 350; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 148; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 149; Adorador & Fernando, Phytotaxa 447 (2020) 101; Type: Haenke s.n. (M, holo), Philippines. = Calamus discolor var. negrosensis Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 635; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 148; Type: FB 12432 Danao (PNH, holo, lost; FI, lecto), Negros: Cadiz, 50m, 10-Mar-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, CEBU, DINAGAT, LUZON: Apayao, Aurora, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao, Davao Oriental, Surigao, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Native.
  11. Calamus erinaceus (Becc.) Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 12(1) (1911) 232; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 159; ≡ Daemonorops erinacea Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 225; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
    • ssp. erinaceus; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 160. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
    • ssp. daemonoropoides (Fernando) A.J.Hend., Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 161; ≡ Calamus daemonoropoides Fernando, Phytotaxa 166 (2014) 70; Type: Fernando 386 (LBC, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Atimonan, Quezon National Park, 2-Mar-1984. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, SAMAR. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11, as Calamus daemonoropoides). Native.
  12. Calamus filispadix Becc., PJS 6 c (1911) 230; PJS 14 (1919) 350; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 148; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 169; Type: FB 10630 Curran (PNH, holo, lost; FI, lecto), Luzon: Albay, Adlumay Hills, Jun-1908. = Calamus pulgarensis Becc., nom. inval., in sched.; Voucher: Elmer 12769 (L, P, U), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, Mar-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Apayao, Aurora, Camarines, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte, Davao del Norte, PALAWAN, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1200m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  13. Calamus javensis Blume, Rumphia 3 (1837) 62; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 217; Atria & Van Welzen, Reinwardtia 20 (2021) 1; Type: from Java. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. DINAGAT (photos), LUZON, PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  14. Calamus loherianus (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 145; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 251; ≡ Daemonorops loheriana Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 637; Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 12(1) (1911) 104; Type: Loher 7073 (K, holo; FI, iso), Luzon, Rizal, Siya Bundok, Jun-1905. = Calamus pannosus (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 147; ≡ Daemonorops pannosa Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3033; Type: Elmer 11600 (FI, holo; BM, BO, CAS, F, GH, K, L, NY, P, S, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Mainit Creek, 1219m, May-1909. = Calamus oligolepis (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 147; ≡ Daemonorops oligolepis Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3035; Type: Elmer 11757 (FI, holo; BM, BO, CAS, F, GH, K, L, NY, P, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, junction of Colon Creek with Baruring River, 1143m, May-1909. = Calamus urdanetanus (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 149; ≡ Daemonorops urdanetana Becc., LPB 8 (1919) 3038; Type: Elmer 14201 (FI, holo; BO, CAS, F, GH, K, L, NY, P, S, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, 1676m, Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, SAMAR. Native.
  15. Calamus longipes Griff., Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5 (1845) 68; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 253; ≡ Daemonorops longipes (Griff.) Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1853) 329. = Daemonorops virescens Becc., Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 47; Type: Merrill 868 (PNH, holo; FI, iso), Palawan: San Antonio Bay, Feb-1903. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  16. Calamus malawaliensis J.Dransf., Kew Bull. 36 (1982) 805; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 265; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  17. Calamus manillensis (Mart.) H.Wendl. in Kerch., Palm. (1878) 237; Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3052; PJS 14 (1919) 352; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 268; ≡ Palmijuncus manillensis (Mart.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 733; ≡ Daemonorops manillensis Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm 3 (1849) 330; Type: Gaudichaud s.n. (P, holo; FI, iso), Manilla. = Calamus trispermus Becc. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 46; Type: Merrill 1645 (B, holo, lost; FI, lecto), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, Feb-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte, Davao, Davao del Sur, Surigao, Surigao del Norte, MINDORO. Conservation status: Near Threatened (as Calamus manillensis sensu stricto). Native.
  18. Calamus marginatus (Blume) Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 342; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 269; ≡ Daemonorops marginata Blume, Rumphia 3 (1847) 24; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  19. Calamus megaphyllus Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(App.) (1913) 66; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 271; Type: Elmer 11878 (FI, holo; CAL, CAS, F, G, K, L, NY, P, S, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya, Mt Apo, 914m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte, Davao, Davao del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, up to 900m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  20. Calamus melanochaetes (Blume) Miq., Verh. Kon. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk. 11 (1868) 28; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 374; ≡ Daemonorops melanochaetes Blume, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 7 (1830) 1333; Type: from Java. = Calamus jenkinsianus Griff., Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5 (1913) 81; Baker, Phytotaxa 204 (2015) 235; Type: from India. = Daemonorops margaritae (Hance) Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 220; ≡ Calamus margaritae Hance, J. Bot. 12 (1874) 266; Type: from China. = Daemonorops margaritae var. palawanica Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 12(1) (1911) 57; Type: FB 899 Foxworthy (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Palawan: Iwahig, May-1906. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation forests. Rare. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11, as Calamus jenkinsianus). Native.
  21. Calamus melanorhynchus Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(App.) (1913) 30; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 280; Type: Elmer 11708 (FI, holo; CAL, CAS, F, G, GH, K, L, MICH, MO, NY, P, S, US, iso), Mindanao, Davao, Todaya, Mt Apo, 1200m, Jun-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: Forest, c. 1200m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  22. Calamus microsphaerion Becc. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 45; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 627; PJS 14 (1919) 353; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 151; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 286; Type: Merrill 507 (B, holo, lost; FI, lecto; US, isolecto), Culion: Halsey Harbor, 16-Dec-1902. = Calamus ramulosus Becc. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 46; Type: Merrill 2070 (B, holo, lost; FI, lecto), Luzon, Quezon, Guinayangan. = Calamus microsphaerion var. spinosior Becc., PJS 14 c (1919) 354; Type: Merrill 9247 (FI, lecto; BM, CAL, F, L, MO, NY, P, US, iso), Palawan: Taytay, Apr-1913. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BUSUANGA, CULION, LUZON: Quezon, Zambales (photos), MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Native.
  23. Calamus mitis Becc., PJS 3 c (1909) 341; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 290; Type: BS 4075 Fénix (PNH, holo, lost; FI, lecto; US, isolecto), Camiguin de Babuyanes: Jun/Jul-1907. = Calamus elmerianus Becc. in Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 647; PJS 14 (1919) 353; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 148; Type: Elmer 9298 (FI, holo; BO, F, G, K, L, LE, NY, US), Quezon, Lucban, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN, BATANES, CAMIGUIN, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, DINAGAT, LUZON: Cagayan, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Native.
  24. Calamus moseleyanus Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 211; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 295; Type: Moseley s.n. (K, holo; FI, iso), Malanipa Island, Jan/Feb-1875. = Calamus spinilifolius Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 202; Type: Vidal 3954 (K, holo; FI, iso), Panay: Iloilo, Igbaras. = Calamus subinermis H.Wendl. ex Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 212. = Calamus mindorensis Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) 235; Type: McGregor 309 (K, holo; FI, US, iso), Mindoro: Balete, Baco River, Apr/May-1905. = Calamus reyesianus Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) 237; Type: Reyes s.n. (PNH, holo, lost; FI, lecto), Luzon: Quezon, Unisan, Oct-1904. = Calamus jenningsianus Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 623; Type: FB 4400 Merritt (FI, holo), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, 1500m, Jun-1906. = Calamus grandifolius Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 629; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 149; Type: Loher 7088 (K, holo; FI, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Banahaw. = Calamus viridissimus Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(App.) (1913) 84; Type: Elmer 11938 (FI, holo; A, BM, CAL, CAS, F, G, K, L, MICH, NY, P, S, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya, Mt Apo, 300m, Jul-1909. = Calamus multinervis Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(App.) (1913) 88; Type: Elmer 11955 (FI, lecto; A, BM, CAS, F, L, MO, NY, P, S, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya, Mt Apo, May-1909. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, MALANIPA, MINDANAO: Davao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Native.
  25. Calamus oblongus Reinw. ex Blume, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 7 (1830) 1323; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 315; Type: from Java. Distribution: BABUYAN ISLS, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
    • ssp. gracilis (Becc.) A.J.Hend., Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 319; ≡ Calamus flexilis W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 143; ≡ Daemonorops gracilis Becc., LPB 8 (1919) 3044; Type: Elmer 12945 (FI, holo; BO, K, NY, US, iso), Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, Apr-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation forests. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11, as Calamus flexilis). Native.
    • ssp. mollis (Blanco) A.J.Hend., Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 319; ≡ Daemonorops mollis (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 86; ≡ Calamus mollis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 264; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 685 (NY, neo; US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, Antipolo, Nov-1914. = Daemonorops fusca Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1853) 331; Type: Voyage de M. Gaudichaud sur la Bonite, 1836–37 (P, holo; FI, iso), Manila, Nov-1836. = Calamus gaudichaudii (Mart.) H.Wendl., Palmiers (1878) 236; ≡ Daemonorops gaudichaudii Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1853) 331; Type: Gaudichaud s.n. (P, holo; FI, iso), Manila, Nov-1836. = Calamus curranii (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 142; ≡ Daemonorops curranii Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) 238; Type: Curran F.B. 3791 (FI, lecto), Palawan: Feb-1906. = Calamus clemensianus (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 142; ≡ Daemonorops clemensiana Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) 636; Type: Clemens 1227 (FI, lecto), Mindanao, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Sep/Oct-1907. = Calamus affinis (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 141; ≡ Daemonorops affinis Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3042; Type: Elmer 13978 (FI, holo; BO, CAS, F, GH, K, L, NY, P, S, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Duros Peak, 1219m, Oct-1912. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. BABUYAN ISLS, MINDANAO. Notes: Throughout the archipelago. Native.
  26. Calamus ochrolepis (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 147; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 323; ≡ Daemonorops ochrolepis Becc. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 47; Type: Merrill 2069 (FI, holo), Luzon: Tayabas, Guinayangan. = Daemonorops ochrolepis var. radulosus Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 12 (1912) 162; Type: FB 10190 Curran (FI, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon, Quezon, Mauban, 1200-1500m, Mar-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Aurora, Batangas, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1200m. Common. Native.
  27. Calamus ornatus Blume ex Schult.f., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 7, 2 (1830) 1326; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 328; Type: from Java. = Calamus ornatus var. philippinensis Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 346; Type: Loher 1387 (K, holo; FI, iso), Luzon. = Calamus ornatus var. pulverulentus Fernando, Gard. Bull. Sing. 41 (1988) 53; Type: Fernando 599 (LBC, holo; K, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Norte, La Paz, 4-Jul-1986. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, Surigao, Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Native.
  28. Calamus pedicellaris (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 148; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 342; ≡ Daemonorops pedicellaris Becc., LPB 8 (1919) 3040; Type: Elmer 14132 (FI, lecto; BO, CAS, F, GH, K, L, NY, P, S, US, isolecto), Mindanao, Agusan, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Agusan del Norte, Davao, Davao del Sur, Lanao, Zamboanga Sibugay, NEGROS (photos), SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests on ridges, c. 650-1250m. Native.
  29. Calamus plicatus Blume, Rumphia 3 (1847) 67; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 353; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO. Native.
  30. Calamus politus (Fernando) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 148; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 358; ≡ Daemonorops polita Fernando, Gard. Bull. Sing. 41 (1988) 56; Type: Fernando 575 (LBC, holo; BH, K, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga peninsula, La Paz, 2-Jul-1986. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: In dipterocarp forest, c. 600-800m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  31. Calamus samian Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(App.) (1913) 92; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 392; Type: Elmer 11336 (FI, holo; CAL, CAS, F, GH, K, L, MICH, MO, NY, P, S, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya, Mt Apo, 1400m, Jul-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: Primary forests, c. 1300m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  32. Calamus scipionum Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 210; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 401; Type: from Malaysia. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  33. Calamus siphonospathus Mart. ex Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 3 (1852) 491; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 409; ≡ Palmijuncus siphonospathus (Mart. ex Walp.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 734; Type: Perrottet s.n. (P, holo), Manilla, 1819. = Calamus microcarpus Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 213; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 627; PJS 14 (1919) 356; LPB 8 (1919) 3055; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 150; Type: Vidal 3952 (K, holo; FI, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mar-1886. = Calamus dimorphacanthus Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 214; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 631; PJS 14 (1919) 355; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 148; Type: Vidal 3956 (FI, holo, K, iso), Panay: Iloilo, Igbaras, Apr-1887. = Calamus siphonospathus var. sublaevis Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 354; Type: Whitford 308 (FI, lecto, US, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River, Mt Mariveles, 22-May-1904. = Calamus siphonospathus var. oligolepis Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 353; Type: Warburg s.n. (B, holo, lost; FI, lecto), Luzon: Samplor, 1888. = Calamus siphonospathus var. polylepis Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 354; Type: Vidal 4068 (FI, holo), Morong, San Isidro, 1887. = Calamus siphonospathus var. farinosus Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11 (1908) 474; Type: Loher 1375 (K, holo), Luzon: Simutan. = Calamus dimorphacanthus var. montalbanicus Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 631; PJS 14 (1919) 355; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 148; Type: Loher 7085 (K, holo; FI, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, Mt Batay, 1380m, 18-Apr-1905. = Calamus dimorphacanthus var. zambalensis Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 632; PJS 14 (1919) 355; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 148; Type: FB 8412 Curran & Merritt. (FI, holo; US, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Mt Tapulao, 2000m, Nov/Dec-1907. = Calamus microcarpus var. diminutus Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 356; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 151; Type: BS Ramos 16599 (FI, holo), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, Sep/Oct-1912. = Calamus dimorphacanthus var. halconensis (Becc.) Baja-Lapis, Sylvatrop 12 (1987) 73; ≡ Calamus halconensis Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 633; PJS 14 (1919) 356; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 149; Type: FB 4399 Merritt (FI, lecto), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, 1500m, 15-27 Jun-1906. = Calamus microcarpus var. longiocrea Baja-Lapis, Sylvatrop 12 (1987) 68; Type: Madulid et al. 5280 (K, holo; PNH, iso), Luzon: Ifugao, Mayoyao, Mt Botak, 21-May-1983. = Calamus dimorphacanthus var. benguetensis Baja-Lapis, Sylvatrop 12 (1987) 72; Type: Elmer 6238 (K, holo; BM, FI, L, P, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Santo Tomas, May-1905. = Calamus siphonospathus var. dransfieldii Baja-Lapis, Sylvatrop 12 (1987) 80; Type: from Sulawesi. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Isabela, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Lanao, MINDORO, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Native.
  34. Calamus symphysipus Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 336; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 426; Type: from Indonesia. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. BUCAS GRANDE, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests up to 900m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  35. Calamus usitatus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 265; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 426; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 682 (BM, neo; A, CAL, F, GH, MO, NY, P, US), Luzon: Bulacan, Angat, Dec-1914. = Calamus blancoi Kunth, Enum. 3 (1841) 595; Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 635; PJS 14 (1919) 349; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 147; ≡ Palmijuncus blancoi (Kunth) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 733; ≡ Calamus gracilis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 267, nom. illeg., non Roxb.; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 791 (K, neo; A, CAL, F, GH, MO, NY, P, US, isoneo), Luzon: Batangas, Mt Batulao, Feb-1915. = Palmijuncus haenkeanus (Mart.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 733; ≡ Calamus haenkeanus Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1838) 212; Type: Haenke s.n. (BR, holo; M, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon Prov. = Calamus meyenianus Schauer, Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19 (Suppl. 1) (1843) 425; Type: Calléry s.n. (FI, neo; P, isoneo), Luzon: Pangasinan, San Mateo, Mt Masiqui. = Palmijuncus brevifrons (Mart. ex Walp.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 733; ≡ Calamus brevifrons Mart. ex Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 3 (1852) 488; Type: Haenke s.n. (BR, holo), Luzon. = Calamus usitatus var. major (Becc.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 154; ≡ Calamus mollis var. major Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 345; Type: Meyer 2499 (FI, holo), Luzon: Batan, Lamao River, Mt Mariveles. = Calamus usitatus var. palawanicus (Becc.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 154; ≡ Calamus mollis var. palawanicus Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) 233; Type: Curran 3613 (FI, holo), Palawan: Feb-1906. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Low elevation forests. Conservation status: Least Concern. Native.
  36. Calamus vidalianus Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 212; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 448; Type: Vidal 938 (K, holo; FI, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Unisan, Jan-1884. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Camarines Norte, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  37. Calamus vinosus Becc., LPB 8 (1919) 3061; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 452; Type: Elmer 14158 (FI, holo; BM, BO, CAL, CAS, F, G, GH, K, L, NY, P, S, UC, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, 1448m, Oct-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Notes: Forested ridges, c. 1450m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  38. Calamus warayanus Adorador & Fernando, Phytotaxa 447 (2020) 97; Type: Adorador 055 (PNH, holo; LBC, iso), Samar: Samar, Paranas, Brgy Tenani, 6-Feb-2016. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B2 a, b(iii, iv) (Adorador & Fernando 2020). Native.
  39. Calamus zollingeri Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 199; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 465; Type: from Sulawesi (lecto). Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Native.
    • ssp. foxworthyi (Becc.) A.J.Hend., Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 467; ≡ Calamus foxworthyi Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(App.) (1913) 81; PJS 14 (1919) 352; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 149; Type: BS 690 Foxworthy (FI, holo), Palawan: Victoria Peaks, Mar/Apr-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11, as Calamus foxworthyi). Native.
    • ssp. merrillii (Becc.) A.J.Hend., Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 468; ≡ Calamus merrillii Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 347; PJS 4 c (1909) 629; PJS 14 (1919) 351; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 149; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2438; Type: Merrill 1893 (B, holo, lost; FI, lecto), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso, Apr-1903. = Calamus maximus var. merrittianus (Becc.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 150; ≡ Calamus merrillii var. merrittianus (Becc.) Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 351; ≡ Calamus merrittianus Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) 233; Type: FB 3912 Merritt (FI, holo; FI, P, US, iso), Mindoro: Bongabong River, Mar-1906. = Calamus maximus var. nanga (Becc.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 150; ≡ Calamus merrillii var. nanga Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 351; LPB 8 (1919) 3057; Type: Elmer 11110 (FI, holo; BM, CAL, F, FI. G, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11, as Calamus merrillii). Native.

Needs name

  1. Calamus maximus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 266, nom. illeg., non Reinw. ex Schult.f.; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 185; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 331; Henderson, Phytotaxa 445 (2020) 489; Type: none thought to exist, posible neotype: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 879 (US), Luzon: Rizal, Caytimon, forested slopes, 13-Mar-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Native.

Caryota L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 January 2021
  1. Caryota cumingii Lodd. ex Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1853) 315; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973; Paguntalan et al., Project Tawsi: Sulu Hornbill Project (2020) 40. = Caryota blancoi Hook.f., Kew Rep. 1882 (1884) 61. = Caryota merrillii Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 333; Type: Merrill 2880 (FI, holo; US, iso), Luzon, Pangasinan, Bautista. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Laguna, NCR, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland forests. Sometimes cultivated as an ornamental. Native.
  2. Caryota maxima Blume, Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1838) 195. = Caryota rumphiana var. oxyodonta Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 337. = Caryota rumphiana var. philippinensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 337. Distribution: China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Cotabato, Davao, MINDORO, NEGROS. Notes: In primary and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental. Native.
  3. Caryota mitis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 697. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  4. Caryota rumphiana Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1838) 195. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. SAMAR. Native.

Cocos L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 December 2021
  1. Cocos nucifera L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1188. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls. Notes: Widely introduced elsewhere. Throughout the Philippines, extensively cultivated; wild-types in E Samar. From the seashore inland, usually up to c. 700m, in some regions up to 1500m. Native.

Corypha L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016
  1. Corypha microclada Becc., Webbia 5 (1921) 7; Type: BS 18720 McGregor, Biliran. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable. Native.
  2. Corypha utan Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 131. = Corypha elata Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 176; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 123; EPFP 1 (1922) 143. = Livistona vidalii Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 343. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, India, Philippines, Sri Lanka. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in open places, in some regions widely scattered, in others subgregarious and abundant at low and medium elevation. Native.

Dypsis Noronha ex Mart. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 13 August 2020

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Dypsis lutescens (H.Wendl.) Beentje & J.Dransf., Palms Madagascar (1995) 212; ≡ Chrysalidocarpus lutescens H.Wendl., Bot. Zeitung 36 (1878) 171; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 171. Distribution: Madagascar. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Heterospathe Scheff.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 September 2021
  1. Heterospathe brevicaulis Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 220; Type: Fernando 534 (K, holo; BH, LBC, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Baler, Saipon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Isabela. Notes: Lowland stream valley with large boulders, forest on ultramafics, c. 50m. Known only from two collections from the type locality. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Heterospathe cagayanensis Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 611; Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 221; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973; ≡ Ptychoraphis cagayanensis (Becc.) Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 326; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 163; Type: FB 11286 Klemme (FI, holo), Luzon: Cagayan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela. Notes: Lowland forests. In Isabela found on ultramafic vegetation near the coast (as a trunk-forming palm in closed canopy forests and acaulescent on open scrubs). Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  3. Heterospathe califrons Fernando, Palms 45 (2001) 118; Type: Fernando 1567 & Sotalbo (LBC, holo; BH, K, PNH, PUH, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Sur, Carmen. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Sur. Notes: In forest on ultramafic rocks, often along small creeks and partially water-logged areas, 580m. Known only from the type locality. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Vernacular names: yanisi (Bagobo). Native.
  4. Heterospathe dransfieldii Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 223; Type: Dransfield 6189 (K, holo; BH, PNH, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Beaufort & Thumb Peak. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Exposed ridge forest, c. 850m. Thus far known only from the type locality. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Heterospathe elata Scheff., Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 1 (1876) 141; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 162; Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 225; Type: from Moluccas. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. BOHOL, BUCAS GRANDE, CEBU, DINAGAT, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, Lanao, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR, SIQUIJOR. Native.
    • var. elata. Distribution: BOHOL, BUCAS GRANDE, CEBU, DINAGAT, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Laguna, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, Lanao, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR, SIQUIJOR. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  6. Heterospathe elmeri Becc. in Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 646; Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 225; ≡ Ptychoraphis elmeri (Becc.) Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 328; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 164; ≡ Rhopaloblaste elmeri (Becc.) Becc. in Martelli, Atti. Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. Res. Pisa Mem. 44 (1934) 138; Nuov. Gior. Bot. Ital. (n.s.) 42 (1935) 81; Type: Elmer 9559 (FI, holo; BM, K, NY, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns. = Ptychoraphis microcarpa Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 327; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 164; ≡ Rhopaloblaste microcarpa (Becc.) Becc. in Martelli, Atti. Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. Res. Pisa Mem. 44 (1934) 36; Nuov. Gior. Bot. Ital. (n.s.) 42 (1935) 81; Type: BS 14678 Ramos (FI, holo; K, iso), Camiguin de Misamis. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Forests at medium elevation. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  7. Heterospathe fernandoi Adorador, Phytotaxa 401 (2019) 118; Type: Adorador 088 (LBC, holo; PNH, K, iso), Samar: Eastern Samar Province, Balangiga, Brgy Guinmaayuhan, 167m, 23-Feb-2016. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Conservation status: Endangered Endangered B2 a, b(ii, iii, v). Native.
  8. Heterospathe intermedia (Becc.) Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 226; ≡ Rhopaloblaste intermedia (Becc.) Becc. in Martelli, Atti. Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. Res. Pisa Mem. 44 (1934) 137; Nuov. Gior. Bot. Ital. (n.s.) 42 (1935) 81; ≡ Ptychoraphis intermedia Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3011; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 164; Type: Elmer 13663 (FI, lecto; BM, K, NA, NY, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental, Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Forests, 500-1000m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  9. Heterospathe negrosensis Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 611; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 162; Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 227; Type: Whitford 1539 (F, holo), Negros: Negros Occidental, Mt Silay. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, MASBATE, NEGROS, SIBUYAN. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  10. Heterospathe philippinensis (Becc.) Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 610; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 162; Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 227; ≡ Ptychoraphis philippinensis Becc., Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 2 (1885) 90; Type: Cuming 1476 (excluding infl. which belongs to H. elata; FI, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Albay. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, Ifugao, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental, Surigao del Norte. Notes: Chiefly in primary lowland and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1600m or higher. Native.
  11. Heterospathe scitula Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 228; Type: Fernando 506 (K, holo; BH, LBC, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Bicol National Park. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur. Notes: Lowland dipterocarp forests on gentle slopes, c. 100-200m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  12. Heterospathe sibuyanensis Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3014; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 162; Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 230; Type: Elmer 12350 (FI, holo; BISH, BM, CAS, K, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes, Mt Giting-giting, 230m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Forest, c. 225m. Known only from the type collection despite repeated attempts to recollect it from the type locality, but see photos. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  13. Heterospathe trispatha Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 231; Type: Fernando 481 (LBC, holo; BH, K, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Baler, Dikaluyangan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Notes: Lowland dipterocarp forest, c. 50m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Korthalsia Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 January 2020
  1. Korthalsia laciniosa (Griff.) Mart., Hist. Nat. Palms 3 (1838) 211; Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 343; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 146; ≡ Calamosagus laciniosus Griff., Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5 (1845) 23. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Cambodia, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  2. Korthalsia merrillii Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 12(2) (1918) 128; PJS 14 (1919) 342; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 146; Type: Merrill 9140 (FI, holo), Palawan: Malampaya Bay. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Korthalsia rigida Blume, Rumphia 2 (1843) 167. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Native.
  4. Korthalsia robusta Blume, Rumphia 2 (1843) 170; Shahimi et al., Kew Bull. 74 (2019) 69:25; Type: from Sumatra. = Korthalsia squarrosa Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 620; PJS 14 (1919) 343; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 146; Type: Curran FB 4155 (FI, holo; K, US, iso), Palawan, Iwahig. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra. BALABAC, PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Korthalsia scaphigeroides Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 619; PJS 14 (1919) 342; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 146; Shahimi et al., Kew Bull. 74 (2019) 69:31; Type: Hutchinson FB 4816 (FI, holo; NY, US, iso), Mindanao, Zamboanga. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur, Surigao, Zamboanga. Notes: Lows elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.

Licuala Thunb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 November 2020

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Licuala grandis H.Wendl., Ill. Hort. xxvii. (1880) t. 412. Distribution: Pacific Ocean. Notes: Cultivated, not naturalized (J. Adorador, pers. comm., 6-Nov-20). Cultivated, not naturalized.
  1. Licuala spinosa Wurmb, Verh. Bat. Genoots. 2 (1780) 469; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 143; Type: Thunberg s.n. (UPS, microfiche at K), Java; neotype selected by Saw (1997). Distribution: Andaman Isls, Borneo, China, Java, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BALABAC, BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland thickets, sometimes immediately back of mangroves in brackish mud. Common. Also widely cultivated as an ornamental. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Livistona R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 May 2018
  1. Livistona saribus (Lour.) Merr. ex Chev., Bull. Econ. Indochine 22 (1919) 501; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 145; ≡ Corypha saribus Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 212. = Livistona inaequisecta Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) 616; Type: Curran F.B. 10079 (FI, holo), Luzon, Laguna, Sta. Maria, Mavitac. Distribution: Borneo, China, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, SAMAR. Notes: Open, somewhat swampy regions at low elevation, in Cagayan. Gregarious. Native.

Metroxylon Rottb. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 November 2020
  1. Metroxylon sagu Rottb., Nye Samml. Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift. 2 (1783) 527; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 145. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea. BASILAN, BOHOL, CEBU, MINDANAO: Agusan, Cotabato, Davao, Misamis, Surigao, Zamboanga, NEGROS, SAMAR, SIQUIJOR. Notes: Naturalized in riparian habitat (J. Adorador, pers. comm., 9-Nov-20). Naturalized.

Nypa Steck

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 May 2022
  1. Nypa fruticans Wurmb, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 1 (1779) 349; ≡ Nipa fruticans (Wurmb) Thunb., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 3 (1782) 231. = Nipa litoralis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 662. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Widely distributed in the Philippines. Along tidal streams in brackish swamps, usually forming dense impenetrable stands. Native.

Oncosperma Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Oncosperma gracilipes Becc., PJS 2 c 228 (1907); Type: Merrill 4010 (FI, holo), Luzon, Quezon, Atimonan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LUZON: Aurora, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon. Notes: Low elevation forests. Locally common. Native.
  2. Oncosperma horridum (Griff.) Scheff., Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 32 (1871) 191; ≡ Areca horrida Griff., Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5 (1845) 465. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO, POLILLO. Native.
  3. Oncosperma platyphyllum Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 609; Type: Whitford 1670 (FI, holo), Negros: Gimagaan River. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Notes: Lowland forest. Rare. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Oncosperma tigillarium (Jack) Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 33 (1864) 173; ≡ Areca tigillaria Jack, Malayan Misc. 2(7) (1820) 88. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Orania Zipp.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2019
  1. Orania decipiens Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) 614; Type: Merritt F.B. 4120 (FI, holo; K, iso), Mindoro, Bongabong River, Apr/May-1906. = Orania decipiens var. mindanaoensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 333; Type: Whitford & Hutchinson 9179 (FI, holo). = Orania rubiginosa Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 333; Type: Curran 17192 (syn), Curran 17259 (syn), Loher 7090 (syn), McGregor 10575 (syn), Ramos 13390 (syn). Widespread, but absent from Palawan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, MINDORO, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable D2 (Keim & Dransfield 2012; DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Orania palindan (Blanco) Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 27 (1905) 88; ≡ Caryota palindan Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 714; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 144 (K, neo), Luzon: Montalban, Mar-1912. = Orania philippinensis Scheff. ex Becc., Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 2 (1885) 156; Type: from Java. = Orania decipiens var. montana Becc., LPB 8 (1919) 3018; Type: Elmer 13970 (syn), Elmer 1181 (syn). Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, La Union, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan, ROMBLON, SAMAR, ?SIBUYAN. Notes: Widespread but absent from Palawan. Low and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: Least Concern (Keim & Dransfield 2012). Native.
  3. Orania paraguanensis Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 335; Type: Merrill 869 (FI, holo), Palawan, Separation Point, Banguey, Feb-1903. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Critically Endangered B2a,b (Keim & Dransfield 2012), Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Orania sibuyanensis (Becc.) Adorador & Fernando, Phytotaxa 391 (2019) 76; ≡ Orania palindan var. sibuyanensis (Becc.) Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 27 (1905) 88; ≡ Orania philippinensis var. sibuyanensis Becc., PJS 4c (1919) 332; Type: Elmer 12066 (FI, holo; GH, L, U, US, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), Mt Gitinggiting, Mar-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Conservation status: Critically Endangered CR B1 b(iii, iv) c(iii) (Adorador & Fernando 2019). Native.
  5. Orania zheae Adorador & Fernando, Phytotaxa 391 (2019) 70; Type: Adorador 060 & Meneses (LBC, holo; K, iso), Samar: Paranas, Brgy Tenani, 388m, 5-Feb-2016. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: Critically Endangered CR B1 b(i,ii) c(iii, iv); C1 + 2a(i) (Adorador & Fernando 2019). Native.

Phoenix L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2016
  1. Phoenix loureiroi Kunth, Enum. Pl. 3 (1841) 257. Distribution: BATANES, MINDORO. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
    • var. loureiroi. = Phoenix hanceana var. philippinensis Becc., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 339; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 142; Type: BS 3744 Fénix (FI, holo), Batanes Island Group, Sabtan Is. Distribution: Cambodia, China, Myanmar, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. BATANES. Notes: Low to medium elevation mountain streams. Sometimes cultivated. Native.

Pinanga Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 February 2022
  1. Pinanga basilanensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 322; Type: Reillo B.S. 16119 (FI, holo), Basilan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Maguindanao, Zamboanga. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  2. Pinanga batanensis Becc., PJS 3 c (1909) Bot. 340; Type: BS 3841 Fénix (FI, holo; NY, US, iso), Batan: Santo Domingo de Basco, along mountain stream, Jun-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN, BATANES. Notes: Lowland forest. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  3. Pinanga bicolana Fernando, Principes 32 (1988) 172; Type: Fernando 498 (K, holo; LBC, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Bicol National Park. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur. Notes: Known from Bicol National Park on the border between Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur. Dipterocarp forest, 100-200m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Pinanga copelandii Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 320; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 165; Fernando, Principes 32 (1988) 170; Type: Copeland 1283 (FI, holo), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Davao, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: In humid forests, 100-1250m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  5. Pinanga curranii Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 226; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 165; Fernando, Principes 32 (1988) 165; Type: FB 3515 Curran (FI, holo), Palawan: Puerto Princesa. = Pinanga maculata auct. non Porte ex Lem.; Becc. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 48; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 166. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, DUMARAN, PALAWAN. Notes: Primary forests, c. 10-500m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Pinanga egregia Fernando, Kew Bull. 49 (1994) 775; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2438; Type: Fernando 549 (LBC, holo; BH, K, PNH, iso), Luzon: Sierra Madre Mtns, Quezon, Real, Sitio Balete. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, POLILLO. Notes: Dipterocarp forest, c. 500m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  7. Pinanga geonomiformis Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) 602; Adorador et al., Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 133; Type: Curran F.B. 10155 (FI, holo), Luzon: Quezon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Aurora, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, MINDORO, POLILLO. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  8. Pinanga glaucifolia Fernando, Kew Bull. 49 (1994) 776; Adorador et al., Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 133; Type: Fernando 558 (LBC, holo; BH, K, PNH, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Bicol National Park. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines Norte. Notes: Lowland dipterocarp forest, c. 100-200m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  9. Pinanga gruezoi Adorador & Fernando, Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 121; Type: Adorador 004 (LBC, holo; CAHUP, PNH, K, iso), Samar: Samar, San Jose de Buan, Mt Huraw, 850m, 16-Jul-2015. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Conservation status: Endangered (Adorador et al. 2020). Native.
  10. Pinanga heterophylla Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 319; Adorador et al., Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 133; Type: Curran F.B. 17346 (FI, holo), Negros, Mt Maripari. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, NEGROS, RAPU-RAPU. Notes: Forests, c. 100-700m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  11. Pinanga insignis Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) 223; ≡ Pseudopinanga insignis (Becc.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 13 (1936) 194; Type: Whitford 1388 (FI, holo; US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Bongabong River. = Pinanga insignis ssp. loheriana Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 322. Distribution: LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. gasterocarpa Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 332. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MASBATE, NEGROS. Native.
    • var. insignis. Distribution: Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Bukidnon, Surigao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Common. Native.
    • var. leptocarpa Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 332. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Native.
  12. Pinanga isabelensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 318; Type: McGregor B.S. 10660 (FI, holo), Luzon, Isabela, Bicobian Bay. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Zambales (photos). Notes: Forests near the sea, most likely on ultramafics which is prevalent in the area. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  13. Pinanga leonardcoi Adorador & Fernando, Phytotaxa 536 (2022) 185; Type: Adorador 201 (PNH, holo; CAHUP, LBC, iso), Luzon: Cagayan, Gonzaga, Brgy Santa Clara, Mt Cagua, 800m, 22-Aug-2021. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (Adorador & Fernando 2022). Native.
  14. Pinanga lepidota Rendle, J. Bot. 39 (1901) 177; Fernando et al., Philippine J. Syst. Biol. 14 (2020) 2; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  15. Pinanga maculata Porte ex Lem., Illus. Hort. 10 (1863) pl. 361; PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 226; Fernando, Principes 32 (1988) 166; ≡ Pseudopinanga maculata (Porte ex Lem.) Burret, Notizb. Bot. Gard. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13 (1936) 194, excl. P. copelandii Becc. and all specimens cited; Salvosa, Lexicon Philipp. Trees (1963) 120; Type: Plate 361 in Lem., loc. cit. = Pseudopinanga barnesii (Becc.) Burret, Notizb. Bot. Gard. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13 (1936) 193; Salvosa, Lexicon Philipp. Trees (1963) 120; ≡ Pinanga barnesii Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 320; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 164; Type: FB 122 Barnes (FI, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River. = Pinanga barnesii var. macrocarpa Becc., PJS 3 c (1908) 340; Type: McGregor 275 (FI, holo; K, US, iso), Mindoro, Balete, Baco River. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO, POLILLO. Notes: In humid primary forests, chiefly at 300-800m, ascending to 1600m. Common. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Native.
  16. Pinanga modesta Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) 225; Adorador et al., Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 133; Type: Copeland s.n. (FI, holo), Mindanao, Zamboanga, San Ramon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, BUCAS GRANDE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, South Cotabato, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascensing to 1200m. Native.
  17. Pinanga negrosensis Becc., LPB 2 (1909) 642; Type: Elmer 10030 (FI, holo; K, NY, US, iso), Negros, Dumaguete, Cuernos Mountains. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ?DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, NEGROS. Native.
  18. Pinanga philippinensis Becc., Malesia 3 (1889) 180; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2438. = Pinanga elmeri Becc. in Martelli, Webbia 1 (1905) 322; Type: Elmer 6067 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet , Baguio, Mar-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Forests, c. 700-1800. Common. Native.
  19. Pinanga rigida Becc., LPB 2 (1909) 644; Type: Elmer 10187 (FI, holo; BM, K, NY, US, iso), Negros, Dumaguete, Cuernos Mountains, 2000m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Native.
  20. Pinanga samarana Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 321; Adorador et al., Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 128; Type: Ramos BS 17535 (FI, holo; BM, K, P, US, iso), Samar: Mt Cauayan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, LUZON: Camarines Sur, SAMAR. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11); Endangered (Adorador et al. 2020). Native.
  21. Pinanga sclerophylla Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 603; Type: Merritt FB 4468 (FI, holo), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, 1500m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Primary forests, c. 1500m. Rare. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  22. Pinanga sibuyanensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 324; Type: Elmer 12425 (FI, holo; BISH, BM, K, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes (Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Notes: Forests along streams, 200-600m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  23. Pinanga sierramadreana Fernando, Kew Bull. 49 (1994) 780; Type: Fernando 521 (LBC, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Quezon, General Nakar, Sitio Sablang. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon. Notes: A sheet at PNH (Gutierrez 61-289) from Isabela Prov (Palanan) probably also belongs here. Native.
  24. Pinanga sobolifera Fernando, Kew Bull. 49 (1994) 782; Adorador et al., Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 134; Type: Fernando 518 (LBC, holo; K, PNH, iso), Luzon: Quezon, General Nakar, Sitio Sablang. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Lowland dipterocarp forest, c. 800m. Known only from two collections. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  25. Pinanga speciosa Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 316; Type: Copeland 1265 (FI, holo), Mindanao, Davao, Todaya, Mt Apo. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Bukidnon, Davao, Davao del Sur, Lanao, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga. Notes: Primary forests, 400-1200m. Native.
  26. Pinanga urdanetensis Becc., LPB 8 (1919) 3008; Adorador et al., Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 134; Type: Elmer 14137 (FI, holo; BISH, BM, K, US, iso), Mindanao, Agusan Province, Mt Undaneta, Camilanan Peak. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Surigao del Sur. Notes: Forested slopes, c. 1400m. Rare. Native.
  27. Pinanga urosperma Becc., PJS 3 c (1909) 341; Adorador et al., Phytotaxa 429 (2020) 134; ≡ Pseudopinanga urosperma (Becc.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 13 (1936) 194; Type: Fénix 4044 (FI, holo; US, iso), Babuyan, Camiguin. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LUZON: Apayao, Aurora, Cagayan, Isabela, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Native.
  28. Pinanga woodiana Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) 604; Type: Merrill 5680 (FI, holo), Mindoro, Mt Halcon, 1100m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur, MINDORO. Notes: Primary forests, 1050-1350m. Rare. Native.

Plectocomia Mart. ex Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 May 2018
  1. Plectocomia elmeri Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 12 (1918) 34; Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3029; PJS 14 (1919) 342; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 146; Type: Elmer 11887, Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, 1000m. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Notes: In dense woods, 900m. Known only from the type collection. Rare. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Vernacular name: ungang. Native.
  2. Plectocomia elongata Mart. ex Blume, Syst. Veg. 7 (1830) 1333. Distribution: BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur, Surigao del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. philippinensis Madulid, Kalikasan Philippine Journal of Biology 10 (1981) 52; Type: Dransfield 5491 (K, holo; LBC, PNH, iso), Palawan, Bagumbayan, near Puerto Princesa. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur, Surigao del Sur, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Salacca Reinw.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Salacca clemensiana Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 618; PJS 14 (1919) 342; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 146; Type: Clemens 1109 (FI, holo), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Zamboanga del Norte. Notes: Mostly in thickets near streams and ravines, 600-900m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Vernacular names: dalubi, kaubi, lakaubi, lubo. Native.
  2. Salacca ramosiana Mogea, Principes 30 (1986) 161; Type: Elmer 20110 (NY, SING, iso). Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Saribus Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 May 2018
  1. Saribus merrillii (Becc.) C.D.Bacon & W.J.Baker, Palms 55 (2011) 113; ≡ Livistona merrillii Becc. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 45; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 144; Type: Merrill 2071 (FI, holo), Luzon, Quezon, Guinayangan. = Corypha minor Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 229, nom. illeg., non Jacq. = Livistona whitfordii Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 341; Type: Whitford 731 (FI, holo), Luzon, Quezon, Atimonan. = Livistona blancoi Merr., Sp. Blancoana (1918) 84. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (photos), Cagayan, Camarines, Camarines Norte, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, POLILLO. Notes: Low elevation forests and thickets. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Saribus rotundifolius (Lam.) Blume, Rumphia 2 (1838) 49; ≡ Livistona rotundifolia (Lam.) Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1838) 241; ≡ Corypha rotundifolia Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 131; ≡ Licuala rotundifolia (Lam.) Blume, Syst. Veg. 7 (1830) 1305; Type: Illustration in Rumphius, Herb. Amboin. 1 (1741) t. 8 (lecto). = Livistona altissima Zoll., Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 14 (1857) 150. = Livistona rotundifolia var. mindorensis (Becc.) Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 341; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 144; ≡ Livistona mindorensis Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) 615; Type: FB 4108 Merritt, Mindoro: Bongabong River, May-1906. = Livistona rotundifolia var. microcarpa (Becc.) Becc., LPB 8 (1919) 3024; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 144; ≡ Livistona microcarpa Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) 231; Type: FB 3784 Curran (FI, holo), Palawan: Carañugan River. = Livistona rotundifolia var. luzonensis Becc., LPB 8 (1919) 3025; Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 339; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 144; Type: Elmer 9293 (FI, holo; US, iso), Luzon, Quezon, Lucban, Mt Banahaw. = Livistona robinsoniana Becc., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 230; PJS 14 (1919) 341; Type: BS 9265 Robinson (FI, holo; US, iso), Polillo, edge of forest, 5m, Aug-1909. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Albay, Benguet, Camarines, La Union, Laguna, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Sometimes cultivated as an ornamental. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.

References