Araceae

Lemnaceae

Aglaonema Schott

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & Joaquin Almoro, 2 April 2022
  1. Aglaonema commutatum Schott, Syn. (1856) 123; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. Native.
    • var. commutatum; Type: drawing, Schott Aroideae No. 38 (W). = Aglaonema maculatum Blume, Rumphia 1 (1837) 154; Type: Kamel plate 195 in Sloane mss. No 4082 (BM). Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Bataan, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO.
    • var. elegans (Engl.) Nicolson, Baileya 15 (1968) 125; Nicolson, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 51; ≡ Aglaonema elegans Engl., Pflanzenreich 64 (IV.23 Dc.) (1915) 28; Type: Pflanzenreich 64 (IV. Dc) (1915) fig. 11. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Notes: Escapes from cultivation. Native.
    • var. maculatum (Hook.f.) Nicolson, Baileya 15 (1968) 125; ≡ Aglaonema marantifolium var. maculatum Hook.f., Bot. Mag. 91 (1865) t. 5500; Nicolson, Baileya 15 (1967) 125; Type: Chelsea, Royal Exotic Nursery (K). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  2. Aglaonema cordifolium Engl., Pflanzenreich 64 (iv. 23 Dc) (1915) 29; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 183; Nicolson, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 46; Type: Warburg 14604 (B, holo), Mindanao: Mt Dagatpat. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Zamboanga. Native.
  3. Aglaonema densinervium Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37 (1906) 134; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 183; Nicolson, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 56; Type: Copeland 418 (B, US), Mindanao: Davao. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao, Davao Oriental, Zamboanga, NEGROS, POLILLO, SAMAR, SIQUIJOR. Native.
  4. Aglaonema nitidum (Jack) Kunth, Enum. Pl. 3 (1841) 56; Nicolson, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 33; ≡ Calla nitida Jack, Malayan Misc. 1 (1820) 24. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra. BALABAC. Native.
  5. Aglaonema philippinense Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1898) 21; Nicolson, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 57; Type: Govt. Lab. 86 Gregory (B, neo; also the holotype for A. latifolium), Luzon: Quezon, Atimonan. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. Native.
    • var. philippinense. = Aglaonema latifolium Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1906) 134. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. JOLO, LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, La Union, Laguna, Pampanga, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SIQUIJOR, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: On slopes near streams in primary forests, below 1000m.
    • var. stenophyllum (Merr.) Jervis, Aglaonema (1980) 31; ≡ Aglaonema stenophyllum Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 452; EPFP 4 (1924) 248; Nicolson, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 55; Type: BS 30471 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Catanduanes. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, CATANDUANES, DINAGAT, LUZON: Camarines Norte, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, SAMAR. Notes: Damp places in primary forest to 900m. Native.
  6. Aglaonema robeleynii (Van Geert) Pitcher & Manda, Pl. Cat. U.S. Nurs. 1894 (1894) 31; ≡ Schismatoglottis robeleynii Van Geert, Nursery Cat. (Auguste Van Geert) 83 (1882) 22. = Aglaonema crispum (Pitcher & Manda) Nicolson, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 54; ≡ Schismatoglottis crispa Pitcher & Manda, Nursery Cat. (United States Nurseries) 1892 (1892) 95; Type: Photograph labeled Schismatoglottis roeblinii on p. 141 of Pitcher & Manda, General Illustrated Catalogue of Plants (1895), this same photograph also appears as Schismatoglottis crispata (non Hook.) in Vick’s Magazine (1899, vol. 23, p. 71) and as Schismatoglottis picta in American Gardener (1898, vol. 19, fig. 122). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (photos), Sorsogon. Notes: Deep shade of primary dipterocarp forest, 300-950m. Native.
  7. Aglaonema simplex (Blume) Blume, Rumphia 1 (1837) 152; Nicolson, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 39; ≡ Caladium simplex Blume, Catalogus (1823) 103. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  8. Aglaonema tricolor Jervis, Aglaonema (1980) 38; Type: from Singapore (cult.). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Aglaonema haenkei (C.Presl) Schott, Bonplandia 7 (1859) 30; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 183; ≡ Scindapsus haenkei C.Presl., Epim. Bot. (1849) 240; Type: Haenke s.n. (PRC). Nicolson in Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 59 lists this as a dubious binomial, probably pertaining to a species of Monteroideae (where it was first described). The type has not been located (Hay et al. 1995). Native.

Alocasia (Schott) G.Don

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 June 2021
  1. Alocasia atropurpurea Engl., Pflanzenreich 71 (iv.23E) (1920) 132; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 184; Type: BS 19663 MacGregor (B, holo; K, US, iso), Luzon: Ifugao, Mt Polis, Feb-1913. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Native.
  2. Alocasia boyceana A.Hay, Gard. Bull. Sing. 51 (1999) 9; Paguntalan et al., Project Tawsi: Sulu Hornbill Project (2020) 40; Type: Cult. Botanischer Garten München ex Philippines (orig. coll. Seidenschwarz, s.n., voucher M), J. Bogner s.n. (NSW, holo), cult from Cebu. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, JOLO, LUZON: Bataan, MINDANAO: Cotabato, NEGROS, TAWI-TAWI. Native.
  3. Alocasia clypeolata A.Hay, Gard. Bull. Sing. 51 (1999) 12; Type: Mendoza & Convocar PNH 10433 (GH, holo), Mindanao: Surigao, Mt Kabatuan, 18-Mar-1949. Distribution: Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao. Native.
  4. Alocasia cucullata (Lour.) G.Don in R.Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 3 (1839) 631; ≡ Arum cucullatum Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 536. Notes: On vacant lots and ditches (W. Suarez, pers. comm., 7-Nov-20). Naturalized.
  5. Alocasia culionensis Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37 (1905) 135; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 184; Type: Merrill 555 (B; K, US, iso), Culion, Ilocano, Dec-1902. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, BASILAN, BUSUANGA, CULION, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Native.
  6. Alocasia heterophylla (C.Presl) Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 220; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 184; ≡ Caladium heterophyllum C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 2 (1831) 148; Type: Haenke (PR, holo), Luzon. = Alocasia warburgii Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1898) 25; Type: Warburg 13652 (B?, lost; PNH?, lost); Warburg 15723 (B, ?lost); BS 28495 Ramos & Edaño (US, neo; BO, P, US, isoneo), Luzon: Tayabas, Mt Binuang. = Alocasia manilensis Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1898) 23; Type: Warburg 12494 (B, holo), Luzon: Manila, Mt Alban, Mar-1888. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, JOLO, LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: In primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  7. Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3 (1839) 631; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 185, as ‘macrorrhiza’; ≡ Arum macrorrhizon L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 965; Type: “Arum maximum macrorrhizon zeylanicum” Hermann, Parad. Bat. (1698) t. 73. Distribution: BATAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Rizal, Sorsogon, Tayabas, POLILLO. Notes: The natural distribution of this species is unknown, but it has been considered wild in India, Sri Lanka and Peninsular Malaysia. It is very widely distributed as a crop and as an ornamental plant. A number of varieties have been described (sometimes initially as species) from cultivation, with or without type material being cited. These are not listed here. Native.
  8. Alocasia maquilingensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 3; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 185; Type: Baker 868 (?LBC, PNH, ?lost); Merrill 7153 (US, neo; BM, isoneo), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao, Zamboanga, PANAY. Native.
  9. Alocasia micholitziana Sander, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, 51 suppl. (1912) 15; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 185; Type: N.E. Brown ex Hort. Sander (K). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna. Notes: Thickets about limestone boulders, c. 1300m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  10. Alocasia nycteris Medecilo, GC Yao & Madulid, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1(2) (2007) 817; Type: M.P. Medicilo 397 (PNH, holo; DLSU, DLSU-D, iso), Panay: Aklan, Nabas, 11°54’18”N, 121° 59’ 43”E, 3-Nov-2005. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Native.
  11. Alocasia portei Schott, Bonplandia (Hannover) 10 (1862) 148; Becc. & Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 2 (1879) 645; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 185; Type: Schott Icones no. 3085 (W, neo). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Native.
  12. Alocasia ramosii A.Hay, Gard. Bull. Sing. 51 (1999) 27; Type: Nicolson 752 (US, holo), Luzon: Laguna, Molawin Ck, path between Colleges of Agriculture and Forestry, 20-Oct-1960. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO: South Cotabato, NEGROS, PANAY. Native.
  13. Alocasia sanderiana W.Bull, Cat. (1884) 11; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 186; Type: W. Bull, Cat. (1884) illus. p. 3; N.E. Brown ex Bull (K; epi) (specimen dated 1886). = ?Alocasia urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3699, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Hay, Gard. Bull. Singapore 51 (1999) 38; Type: Elmer 13857. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan, Lanao, Misamis Oriental. Notes: Damp low elevation primary forests. A very beautiful species common in greenhouse cultivation in Europe and America. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  14. Alocasia scalprum A.Hay, Gard. Bull. Sing. 51 (1999) 30; Type: Bogner 1659 (M, holo), Cult. Botanischer Garten München, 1983. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Native.
  15. Alocasia sinuata N.E.Br., Gard. Chron. n.s. 24 (1885) 252; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 186; Type: N.E. Brown ex W. Bull (K, holo), Cult. Kew. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Native.
  16. Alocasia zebrina Schott ex van Houtte, Fl. des Serres et Jard. 15 (1863) 81; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 186; Type: Fl. de Serres et Jard. 15 (1863) t. 1541-1542. = Alocasia wenzelii Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 2; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 186; Hay, Gard. Bull. Singapore 51 (1999) 36; Type: Wenzel 97 (?PNH ?lost; BM, G, GH, US, iso), Leyte: 28-Mar-1913. ?Alocasia liervalii Herincq, L’Hortic. Franç. (1869) 243. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Ifugao, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Amorphophallus Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 June 2022
  1. Amorphophallus adamsensis L.M.Magtoto, D.G.Mones, K.A.Ballada, C.M.Austria, R.M.Dizon, W.V.Alangui, A.A.Reginaldo, W.M.Galvan, K.T.Dizon & Hett., Blumea 58 (2013) 267; Type: LKD 130 (University of the Philippines Baguio Northern Luzon Herbarium, holo), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Adams, 27-May-13. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Conservation status: Near Threatened (Calaramo et al. 2022). Native.
  2. Amorphophallus calcicola M.N.Tamayo, Magtoto & Sumalinog, Phytotaxa 489 (2021) 230, as 'calcicolus'; Type: Tamayo 0224 with Sumalinog (PNH, holo; NLUH, PUH, iso), Bohol: Bilar, Loboc Watershed Forest Reserve, 250-260m, 19-Jul-2020. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (Tamayo et al. 2021). Native.
  3. Amorphophallus caudatus R.Bustam., Mansibang, Hett. & M.N.Tamayo, Nordic J. Bot. e02982 (2020) 2; Type: PTI 0001 with J. Violeta, H. Villanueva & M. Sevilla (PNH, holo; NLUH, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, San Vicente, Abasig-Matogdon-Mananap Natural Biotic Area, 31-Mar-2020. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Quezon (photos). Conservation status: Critically Endangered (Bustamante et al. 2020). Native.
  4. Amorphophallus cidarioides J.R.C.Callado, Medecilo & Hett., Blumea 65 (2020) 3; Type: J.R.C. Callado JRCC 2516 (PNH, holo), Panay: Iloilo, Luho, Brgy Caratagan, Calinog, 22-Feb-2017. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Native.
  5. Amorphophallus declinatus Hett., Blumea 39 (1994) 252; Type: Merrill 9419 (L, holo; BO, K, SING, US, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  6. Amorphophallus flammeus Calaramo, Batuyong, Bulawin & Alejandro, Nordic J. Bot. e03491 (2022) 6; Type: Calaramo 21300 (PNH, holo); Calaramo 21301 (HNUL, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Pasuquin, 8-Jun-2013. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Conservation status: Vulnerable (Calaramo et al. 2022). Native.
  7. Amorphophallus fontarumii Bulawin, Medecilo-Guiang & Alejandro, Nordic J. Bot. e03643 (2022) 3; Type: Bulawin NFB 30 (PNH, holo; USTH, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Tanay, Kaliwa Watershed Forest Reserve, 17-Jun-2021. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (Bulawin et al. 2022). Native.
  8. Amorphophallus fornicatus Hett., J.R.C.Callado & Wistuba, Blumea 65 (2020) 3; Type: J.R.C. Callado JRCC 982 (PNH, holo), Luzon: Quezon, Quezon National Park, Atimonan, 26-Jul-2013. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (photos), Quezon. Native.
  9. Amorphophallus longispathaceus Engl. & Gehrm., Pflanzenreich 48 (iv.23 c) (1911) 91; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 179; Bustamante et al., Webbia 75 (2020) 288; Calaramo et al., Nordic J. Bot. e03491 (2022) 2; Type: Williams 2684 (2654 in error) (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; K, isolecto), Mindanao: Todaya, Mt Apo, 5-Apr-1905. = Amorphophallus dactylifer Hett., Blumea 39 (1994) 252; Type: PNH 78180 Gutierrez (L, holo), Luzon: Isabela, Sierra Madre Mtns, San Mariano, Disulap, 500ft, 18-May-1961. = Amorphophallus variabilis auct. non Blume; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 180. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon (photos), Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, Surigao, SAMAR. Native.
  10. Amorphophallus luzoniensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 289; EPFP 1 (1922) 179; Calaramo et al., Nordic J. Bot. e03491 (2022) 5; Type: FB 19560 Curran (PNH, ?lost), Luzon, Cagayan, Abulug River, Jan-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, ?Ilocos Norte. Native.
  11. Amorphophallus merrillii K.Krause, Notizb. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 5 (1912) 266; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 180; Type: BS 7177 Merrill (PNH, ?lost). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CALUSA, CAVILI. Native.
  12. Amorphophallus minimus R.Bustam., C.Claudel & M.N.Tamayo, Nordic J. Bot. e03251 (2021) 2; Type: PTI 6 with L. Udasco (PNH, holo; CAHUP, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Carranglan, Pantabangan-Carranglan Watershed Forest Reserve (PCWFR), 950-1400m, 14-Jun-2019. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (B2b(i,ii)) (Bustamante et al. 2021). Native.
  13. Amorphophallus natolii Hett., A.Wistuba, V.B.Amoroso, M.Medecilo & C.Claudel, Botanical Studies 53 (2012) 415; Type: V.B. Amoroso s.n. (CMUH 00007678, holo), Palawan, above El Nido town, on limestone cliffs overlooking the town, in small pockets or deep cracks with organic detritus (humus), 175-450m, 14-Dec-2010. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  14. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson, Taxon 26 (1977) 338; Calaramo et al., Nordic J. Bot. e03491 (2022); ≡ Dracontium paeoniifolium Dennst., Schlüssel Hortus Malab. (1818) 38; Type: Mulenschena Rheede, Hort. Malab. 11 (1692) pl. 19. = Amorphophallus campanulatus Decne., Ann. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. 3 (1834) 366; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 179. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Native.
  15. Amorphophallus palawanensis Bogner & Hett., Blumea 36 (1992) 467; Type: Bogner 2109 (M, holo), Palawan: Underground River, Piedras Point, Cliffs Head, 0-40m, growing in humus deposits on limestone; living tubers originally collected by O. Riegler, cultivated plants flowered in Munich Botanic Garden, 1991. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  16. Amorphophallus rayongii Hett. & Medecilo, Blumea 65 (2020) 4; Type: G. Yao s.n. (PNH, holo), Panay: Aklan, Boracay Isl, Malay, 20-May-2012. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Native.
  17. Amorphophallus rostratus Hett., Blumea 39 (1994) 273; Type: Loher 2433 (K, holo). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low elevation forests and thickets. Native.
  18. Amorphophallus salmoneus Hett., Blumea 39 (1994) 275; Type: Hetterscheid H. AM. 036-T (L), Cult. Hort. Bot. Leiden, ex Palawan (Podzorski, Palawan Botanical Expedition 156). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LAGEN, PALAWAN. Native.
  19. Amorphophallus urceolatus Hett., A.Galloway & Medecilo, Blumea 65 (2020) 7; Calaramo et al., Nordic J. Bot. e03491 (2022) 2; Type: M.P. Medecilo 623 (PNH, holo; DLSU-DH, iso), Luzon: Cavite, Mt Palpag, Maragondon, 13-Jun-2015. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cavite, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Rizal, MINDANAO: South Cotabato. Native.
  20. Amorphophallus yaoi A.Galloway, Hett. & Medecilo, Blumea 65 (2020) 7; Type: J.R. Callado JRCC1475 (PNH, holo; DLSU-DH, iso), Panay: Iloilo, Dingle, Bulabog Putian National Park, 27-May-2014. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS (photos), PANAY, ROMBLON. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Amorphophallus konjac K.Koch, Wochenschr. Gärtnerei Pflanzenk. 1(4) (1858) 262; ≡ Amorphophallus rivierei Durieu ex Carrière var. konjac (K.Koch) Engl. in DC., Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 313; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 180. = Amorphophallus rivierei Durieu ex Carrière, Rev. Hort. 42 (1871) 573; ≡ Hydrosme rivierei (Durieu ex Carrière) Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1 (1880) 188. Distribution: China. Notes: Cultivated only.

Amydrium Schott

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 June 2021
  1. Amydrium medium (Zoll. & Mor.) Nicolson, Blumea 15 (1968) 124; ≡ Scindapsus medius Zoll. & Moritzi in Zoll., Syst. Verz. Ind. Archip. 2 (1854) 82. = Epipremnopsis huegelii (Schott) Engl., Pflanzenr., IV, 23B (1908) 138; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 177, as ‘huegeliana’; ≡ Rhaphidophora huegelii Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid. (1860) 384. = Epipremnum truncatum Engl. & K.Krause, Pflanzenr., IV, 23B (1908) 63; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 177; Type: Elmer 7291 (B, PNH ?lost). Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
  2. Amydrium zippelianum (Schott) Nicolson, Blumea 16 (1968) 126; ≡ Rhaphidophora zippeliana Schott, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 1 (1863) 129. = Amydrium magnificum (Engl.) Nicolson, Blumea 15 (1968) 125; Type: from Sulawesi. = Epipremnum elmerianum Engl., Planzenreich 37 (IV.23B) (1908) 66; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 177; Type: Elmer 7295 (B lost, BO, G, K, PNH ?lost). = Epipremnum luzonense K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45 (1911) 659; Type: Ramos 10052 (PNH, ?lost). = Epipremnum miniatum Elmer ex Merr., LPB 10 (1938) 3622, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 14522 (K, PNH ?lost, US), 15113 (K, PNH ?lost, US), 16422 (PNH ?lost). = Epipremnum philippinense Engl. & K.Krause, Pflanzenr., IV, 23B (1908) 137; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 177; Type: Elmer 7623 (B, PNH ?lost), 9253 (B, PNH ?lost). = Epipremnum sorsogonense Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 177; Type: Elmer 16422 (K, US, PNH ?lost). = Rhaphidophora warburgii Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37 (1905) 116; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 176; Type: Warburg (B). Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan. Notes: Low to medium elevation (at least to 650m) primary forests, sometimes reported in secondary forests but perhaps a survivor instead of an invader. Native.

Anadendrum Schott

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 June 2021
  1. Anadendrum latifolium Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6 (1893) 540. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Vietnam. Native.
  2. Anadendrum microstachyum (de Vriese & Miq.) Backer & Alderw., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 1 (1920) 371; ≡ Scindapsus microstachyus de Vriese & Miq. in Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3 (1856) 188. Distribution: Borneo, China, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Native.
  3. Anadendrum montanum Schott, Bonplandia 5 (1857) 45; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 174. Distribution: Borneo, China, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. montanum. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. MINDANAO: Zamboanga.

Arisaema Mart.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 June 2021
  1. Arisaema filiforme (Reinw.) Blume, Rumphia 1 (1836) 102; ≡ Arum filiforme Reinw., Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (1823) 103. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Native.
  2. Arisaema laminatum Blume, Rumphia 1 (1836) 99; Hay et al., Blumea Suppl. 8 (1995) 37; Type: Rumphia 1 (1835) t. 27 (or material in L?). = Arisaema cuspidatum auct. non Engl.; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 188; Voucher: Merrill 9339 (L). Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Notes: Low elevation primary forests. Native.
  3. Arisaema polyphyllum (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 27 (1905) 90; EPFP 1 (1922) 188; ≡ Calla polyphylla Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 659. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. Native.
    • var. polyphyllum. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Notes: Forests and open places, 1000-2400m. In the mossy forests often growing as an epiphyte on mossy trunk.
    • var. angustifolium Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 336; EPFP 1 (1922) 188. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Zambales. Notes: Pine and mossy forests, 800-2000m. Native.

Caladium Vent. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 October 2017
  1. Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent., Jard. Cels. (1800) t. 30; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 187; ≡ Arum bicolor Aiton, Hort. Kew. 3 (1789) 316. Distribution: S America. Notes: Cultivated for its variegated leaves. Occasionally escaping from cultivation but never far away from settlements. Naturalized.

Colocasia Schott

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 June 2021
  1. Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott in Schott & Endl., Melet. Bot. (1832) 18; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 186, as 'esculentum'; Type: Sloane, Voy. Jamaica Nat. Hist. 2 (1725) t. 106, f. 1. = Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum (Schott) F.T.Hubb. & Rehder, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 1 (1932) 5; ≡ Colocasia antiquorum Schott in Schott & Endl., Melet. Bot. (1832) 18; Type: 1079.4 (LINN). Distribution: Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. Notes: P.B. Pelser (27-Oct-20): Matthews et al. (2017) consider some populations of Colocasia esculenta to be native to the Philippines. Taro. Native.
  2. Colocasia formosana Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 8 (1919) 133. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province. Notes: P.B. Pelser (16-Feb-20): Possibly a wild form of Colocasia esculenta (Matthews et al. 2015) and kept distinct here until further study. Native.

Cryptocoryne Fisch. ex Wydler

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 February 2022
  1. Cryptocoryne aponogetifolia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 370; EPFP 1 (1922) 189; Type: BS 31119 Ramos & Edaño (B, BM, K, L, P, SING, US). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS, PANAY. Native.
  2. Cryptocoryne auriculata Engl., Bull. Soc. Tosc. Ortic. 4 (1879) 302. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Not listed for the Philippines by Naive & Villanueva (2018), name possibly misapplied for plants of Cryptocoryne pygmaea (Naive, pers. comm. 9-Aug-18). Native.
  3. Cryptocoryne ciliata (Roxb.) Fisch. ex Wydler, Linnaea 5 (1830) 428; ≡ Ambrosina ciliata Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 3 (1820) 90. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, India, Java, Malaysia, Moluccas, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Notes: P.B. Pelser (9-Aug-18): I have not seen primary literature or specimens, but some online sources and Naive & Villanueva (2018) list this species for the Philippines, whereas others suggest it was introduced to Palawan. Naturalized.
  4. Cryptocoryne coronata Bastm. & Wijng., Aqua Pl. 24 (1999) 23; Type: van Wijngaarden s.n. (L, holo; C, M, K, iso), Cult. ex Mindanao, 18-Nov -998. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Native.
  5. Cryptocoryne joshanii Naive & Villanueva, Taiwania 63 (2018) 248; Type: R.J. Villanueva 001/2017 (HNUL, holo; USTH, iso), Basilan, 8-May-2013. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Naive & Villanueva 2018). Native.
  6. Cryptocoryne pygmaea Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 371; EPFP 1 (1922) 189; Type: Merrill 8174; Copeland s.n. (according to Rataj both probably lost during the war; Ebalo 717 (GH, PNH, MICH, neo)). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Native.
  7. Cryptocoryne usteriana Engl. in Usteri, Vierteljahrsschr. Naturf. Ges. Zurich 50 (1905) 452; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 189; Type: Usteri s.n. (B, K), Guimaras. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. GUIMARAS. Notes: This species has for some years been assumed to be identical with Cryptocoryne aponogetifolia, but live material from Guimaras (leg. Bogner) has proven that it is clearly distinct. Also described as 'new' by Engler in Engler & Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54, Beibl. 118 (1916) 125. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Cyrtosperma Griff.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 June 2021
  1. Cyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk.) Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7 (1857) 61; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 179; ≡ Lasia merkusii Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. Alt. (1844) 59. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, SAMAR. Native.

Epipremnum Schott

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 May 2022
  1. Epipremnum amplissimum (Schott) Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1 (1880) 182; ≡ Rhaphidophora amplissima Schott, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 1 (1863) 129. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Solomon Isls. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Naturalized in secondary forest, cultivated areas, and around towns (W. Suarez, pers. comm., 18-Jan-21). Naturalized.
  2. Epipremnum aureum (Linden & André) G.S.Bunting, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 50 (1964) 28; ≡ Pothos aureus Linden & André, Ill. Hort. 27 (1880) 69. Distribution: Pacific Ocean. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Naturalized around towns and cultivated areas (W. Suarez, pers. comm., 18-Jan-21). Naturalized.
  3. Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl., Pflanzenreich 37 (IV.23B) (1908) 60; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 177; P.C.Boyce, Blumea 43 (1998) 201; Aroideana 27 (2004) 206; ≡ Rhaphidophora pinnata (L.) Schott, Prod. Syst. Aroid. (1860) 385; ≡ Pothos pinnatus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1324; Type: Appendix laciniata Rumph., Herb. Amb. 5 (1747) 489. = Epipremnum angustilobum K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45 (1911) 659; Type: BS 12587 Fenix (B, PNH ?lost). = Epipremnum glaucicephalum Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3620; Type: Elmer 15135 (K, MO, PNH ?lost). = Epipremnum merrilii (L.) Engl. & K.Krause, Pflanzenreich 37 (IV.23B) (1908) 137; ≡ Rhaphidophora merrillii (L.) Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 37 (1905) 115; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 175; ≡ Pothos pinnatus L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 2 (1763) 1374; Type: BS 5883 Curran (B, PNH ?lost). = Epipremnum robinsonii K.Krause, Notizbl. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 5 (1912) 266; Type: BS 9181 Robinson (PNH ?lost). Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, NEGROS, PALAWAN, POLILLO. Notes: Thickets and forests from sea level to medium elevation. Native.

Homalomena Schott

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 29 August 2020
  1. Homalomena gaudichaudii Schott, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 1 (1864) 280. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, ?Solomon Isls, ?Thailand. Native.
  2. Homalomena humilis (Jack) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6 (1893) 533; ≡ Calla humilis Jack, Malayan Misc. 1 (1820) 22. = Homalomena pygmaea (Hassk.) Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1898) 18; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 181; ≡ Aglaonema pygmaeum Hassk., Tijdschr. Natuurl. Gesch. Physiol. 9 (1842) 161. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra. Notes: P.B. Pelser (29-Aug-20): Philippine plants of this taxon are also sometimes referred to as Homalomena humilis (Jack) Hook.f. Homalomena pygmaea and Homalomena humilis are two widely applied names for plants belonging to the Homalomena humils/pygmaea complex, for which currently no satisfactory species delimitation exists (Boyce & Wong 2009). Pending further study, we here follow Kurniawan et al. (2011) and list this complex as a single morphologically variable species of which the earliest name in Homalomena is Homalomena humilis. Native.
  3. Homalomena palawanensis Engl. ex Engl. & K.Krause, Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 39; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 180; Type: BS 912 Foxworthy (B). = Homalomena elmeri Engl. ex Engl. & K.Krause, Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 42; Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 180; Type: Elmer 13229 (B, K). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Homalomena philippinensis Engl. ex Engl. & K.Krause, Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 55; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 180; Type: Warburg 12492 (B ?lost); Bermejos 1526 (PNH ?lost); Ahern 3431 (PNH ?lost); Loher 2451 (CAL); Merrill 7279 (B ?lost); Piper 266 (PNG ?lost); Robinson 6933 (B ?lost); Balansa 4819 (P); Tulmy s.n. (P). Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Along small streams in primary forests at low elevation. Common. Native.

Lemna L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 June 2021
  1. Lemna aequinoctialis Welw., Apont. (1859) 578. = Lemna paucicostata Hegelm., Lemnac. (1868) 139. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, America, Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Nepal, New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand. Native.
  2. Lemna minor L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 970; ≡ Van der Plas, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1971) 231. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Continental Asia, Europe, India, Japan, Middle East, N & C America, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines. Native.
  3. Lemna perpusilla Torrey, Fl. New York 2 (1843) 245; ≡ Van der Plas, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1971) 230. Distribution: N America. Naturalized.
  4. Lemna trisulca L., Sp. Pl. ed. I (1753) 970; ≡ Van der Plas, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1971) 231. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, China, Continental Asia, Japan, Myanmar, N & C America, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan. Native.

Pistia L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 July 2017
  1. Pistia stratiotes L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 963; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 130; EPFP 1 (1922) 189. Notes: Origin supposedly Lake Victoria in Africa, now introduced in the Neo- and Paleotropics. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.

Pothoidium Schott

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 June 2021
  1. Pothoidium lobbianum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7 (1857) 70; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 174; P.C.Boyce & A.Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 559; Type: Lobb s.n. (K, holo), Luzon: ‘Manila’. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. BATAN, BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Notes: Primary to disturbed lowland to hill forest on a variety of substrates including clays and volcanic-derived soils, 30–500m. Native.

Pothos L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 September 2021
  1. Pothos cylindricus C.Presl, Epim. Bot. (1849) 243; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 172; P.C.Boyce & A.Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 488; Type: Cuming 914 (PRG, holo; BM, E, FI, G, K, L, MO, P, iso). Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Camarines Sur, Pampanga, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao, Davao de Oro, NEGROS, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Primary and secondary lowland to upper hill forest, often in well-drained sites, 40-900m. Native.
  2. Pothos dolichophyllus Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 4; P.C.Boyce & A.Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 495; ≡ Pothos rumphii Schott var. dolichophyllus (Merr.) Nicolson, Amer. J. Bot. 54 (1967) 496; Type: BS 23708 Ramos (PNH, holo, ?lost; P, US, iso), Luzon, Sorsogon, Jul/Aug-1915. = Pothos acuminatissimus Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) 175; EPFP 1 (1922) 172; Type: BS 24125 Ramos (PNH, holo, ?lost; US, iso), Samar: Catubig River at Tagabiran, 10-Feb-1916. = Pothos rumphii auct. non (C.Presl) Schott; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 173, pro parte; Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3628. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao de Oro, Lanao del Norte, Surigao, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Primary to secondary dipterocarp forest in valleys, on slopes and ridges, 110–900m. Native.
  3. Pothos inaequilaterus (C.Presl) Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 2 (1879) 88; Pflanzenreich 21 (IV.23B) (1905) 37; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 172; P.C.Boyce & A.Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 528; ≡ Scindapsus inaequilaterus C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1851) 240. = Pothos cumingianus Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 5 (1855) 19, as ‘cummingianus’; Aroideae, 24 (1856–1857) t. 50; Prodr. Syst. Aroid. (1860) 570, nom. superfl. pro P. inaequilaterus; Type: Cuming 908 (PRG, holo; BM, E, G, K, L, LE, M, P, iso), Luzon: Albay, 1841. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Camarines Norte, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao de Oro, Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Secondary forest, 400–900m. Native.
  4. Pothos insignis Engl., Bull. Soc. Tosc. Ortic. 4 (1879) 267; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1 (1881) 180; Pflanzenreich 21(IV.23B) (1905) 39; P.C.Boyce & Poulsen, Kew Bull. 49 (1994) 523; P.C.Boyce & A.Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 508; Type: from Sarawak. = Pothos basilanensis Furtado, nom. inval., in sched. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, PALAWAN. Notes: Lianescent, hemi-epiphytic or lithophytic trunk or treelet climber at base of ridges or near rivers in primary to disturbed primary mixed dipterocarp forest on shales or limestone, 10–1200m. Native.
  5. Pothos luzonensis (C.Presl) Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 5 (1855) 19; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 173; Engl. in A.DC. & C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 2 (1879) 93; Pflanzenreich 21(IV.23B) (1905) 42; P.C.Boyce & A.Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 550; ≡ Goniurus luzonensis C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1851) 244; Type: Cuming 1045 (PRG, holo; BM, E, G, K, L, LE, M, MO, P, iso), Luzon, Albay, 1841. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Albay, Bataan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Misamis Oriental (photos), SAMAR. Notes: Dense hill to upper hill forest, 700–1100m. Native.
  6. Pothos ovatifolius Engl., Pflanzenreich 21 (iv.23B) (1905) 40; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 173; P.C.Boyce & A.Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 497; Type: Vidal 3969 (K, holo), Luzon: Albay, Mar-1886. = Pothos merrillii K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45 (1911) 657; Type: Merrill BS 7211 (B, holo), Siquijor: Sep-1910. = Pothos rumphii auct. non (C.Presl) Schott; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 173, pro parte. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. BALABAC, BASILAN, BOHOL, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, South Cotabato, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR, SIQUIJOR. Notes: Primary to degraded secondary lowland to lower montane forest, 70-1400m. Native.
  7. Pothos philippinensis Engl., Pflanzenreich 21 (iv.23B) (1905) 315; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 173; Type: FB 369 Barnes (B, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River, Mar-1904. = Pothos peninsularis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 173, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3628, nom. inval., no Latin descr., nom. illeg., non Alderw.; Voucher: Elmer 17050 (A, MO, NY), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt Bulusan), Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Bulacan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland to hill, primary to secondary rainforest, 20–650m. Native.
  8. Pothos scandens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 698; P.C.Boyce & A.Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 461. = Pothos hermaphroditus (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 90; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 172; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java, 3 (1968) 104; ≡ Batis hermaphrodita Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed.1 (1837) 791; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 57 (K, neo), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Makiling, Nov-1912. = Pothos longifolius C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 242; Schott, Aroideae (1856–1857) 22; Prodr. Syst. Aroid. (1860) 563; Engl. in A.DC. & C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 2 (1879) 82; in Engl., Pflanzenreich 21 (IV.23B) (1905) 25, nom. illeg., non Hoffm.; Type: Cuming 682 (PRG, holo; BM, E, G, K, P, iso), Luzon: Quezon. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO, MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: On trees and rocks in primary and secondary wet to dry lowland to hill evergreen tropical to subtropical forest, occasionally on sea cliffs, in hedges or scrub or in coconut plantations, on a variety of substrates including clay, limestone and granite. Sea-level to 1000m. Native.

Rhaphidophora Hassk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 June 2022
  1. Rhaphidophora acuminata Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 265; EPFP 1 (1922) 175; Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 52 (2000) 220; Type: Wenzel 1139 (PNH, holo, lost; BM, MO, US, iso), Leyte: 10-Sep-1914. = Rhaphidophora lagunensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3072; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 175; Type: Elmer 17812 (PNH, holo, lost; BM, FI, K, L, MO, P, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños (Mt Makiling), Jun/Jul-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Batangas, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Native.
  2. Rhaphidophora banosensis P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Sing. 52 (2000) 222; ≡ Rhaphidophora stenophylla Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3073, nom. illeg., non K.Krause; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 176; Type: Elmer 18449 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños (Mt Makiling), Jun/Jul-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Laguna. Native.
  3. Rhaphidophora conocephala Alderw., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 1 (1920) 384; Boyce, Gard. Bull. Sing. 52 (2000) 226; Type: from Sumatra. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra. PALAWAN. Native.
  4. Rhaphidophora cretosa P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Sing. 52 (2000) 228; Type: Wenzel 2982 (K, holo; MO, iso), Mindanao: Agusan, Surigao, 28-Jul-1927. = Scindapsus fragilis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3702, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 13658, Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta), Aug-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Native.
  5. Rhaphidophora elmeri Engl. & K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 44, Beibl. 101 (1910) 11; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 175; Boyce, Gard. Bull. Sing. 52 (2000) 230; Type: Elmer 9268 (PNH, holo, lost; E, L, US, iso), Luzon: Tayabas, Lucban, May-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (photos), Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Misamis Oriental (photos), MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Native.
  6. Rhaphidophora korthalsii Schott, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1863) 129; Boyce, Gard. Bull. Sing. 52 (2000) 232; Gard. Bull. Singapore 53 (2001) 128. = Rhaphidophora copelandii Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37 (1905) 115; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 175; Type: Copeland 1193 (B, holo; PNH iso, lost), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Apr-1904. = Rhaphidophora grandifolia K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 44, Beibl. 101 (1910) 11; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 175; Type: Elmer 9464 (B, holo; E, K, L, LE, MO, PNH ?lost, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Dumaguete (Cuernos Mts), Mar-1908. = Rhaphidophora trinervia Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3073; Type: Elmer 18057 (PNH, holo; FI, K, L, MO, P, iso), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños (Mt Makiling), Jun/Jul-1917. = Rhaphidophora palawanensis Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 451; EPFP 4 (1924) 247; Type: BS 11570 Merrill (PNH, holo, lost; B, K, P, iso), Palawan: Malampaya Bay, Oct-1922. = Epipremnum multicephalum Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3624, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Japan, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. LEYTE, LUZON: Aurora, Benguet, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MARINDUQUE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur (photos), Davao, Misamis Oriental (photos), South Cotabato, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Forests and thickets, 400-1600m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Rhaphidophora minor Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6 (1893) 544; Boyce, Gard. Bull. Sing. 52 (2000) 239; Type: from Peninsular Malaysia. = Rhaphidophora sylvestris auct. non (Blume) Engl.; Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 452; EPFP 4 (1925) 248. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. PALAWAN. Native.
  8. Rhaphidophora monticola K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 44, Beibl. 101 (1910) 12; Merr., EPFP 1(1922) 176; Boyce, Gard. Bull. Sing. 52 (2000) 242; Type: Elmer 10098 (B, holo, lost; BM, E, FI, K, L, LE, MO, PNH lost, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, (Cuernos Mts), Jun-1908. = Rhaphidophora bulusanensis Merr. ex Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3630, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 16790 (BO, FI, K, L, MO, NY, P, PNH lost, US), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt Bulusan), Jul-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines Norte, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Surigao del Sur, NEGROS. Native.
  9. Rhaphidophora perkinsae Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37 (1905) 115; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 176, as ‘perkinsiae’; Boyce, Gard. Bull. Sing. 52 (2000) 244, as 'perkinsiae'; Type: Elmer 6305 (PNH, lecto; K, NY, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, May-1904. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Benguet, Camarines Sur (photos), Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO, NEGROS. Native.
  10. Rhaphidophora philippinensis Engl. & K.Krause, Pflanzenreich 37 (iv.23B) (1908) 137; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 176; Boyce, Gard. Bull. Sing. 52 (2000) 247; Type: Clemens 1299 (B, holo; PNH, iso, lost), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Mar-1907. = Rhaphidophora rigida K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45 (1911) 657; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 176; Type: Elmer 10220 (B, holo; K, L, MO, NY, PNH lost, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Dumaguete (Cuernos Mts), May-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (photos), Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Surigao del Sur, NEGROS, SAMAR. Native.
  11. Rhaphidophora todayensis K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45 (1911) 658; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 176; Boyce, Gard. Bull. Sing. 52 (2000) 250; Type: Elmer 10849 (B, holo; BM, FI, K, L, MO, NY, P, PNH, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya (Mt Apo), along the Baruring River, Jun-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, MINDORO. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Rhaphidophora lobbii Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid. (1860) 379; Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 51 (1999) 223. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, ?Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. Notes: Reported for Palawan by Boyce (1999), but not mentioned for the Philippines by Boyce (2000).

Incertae sedis

  1. Rhaphidophora liukiuensis Hatusima, ActaPhytotax. et Geobot. 20 (1962) 57; Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture Kagoshima University 5 (1966) 61; Huang & Wang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 5 (2000) 686. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATAN. Notes: Reported from Mt Iraya, in thickets, 300m. Locally frequent. P.B. Pelser (25-Jul-20): Boyce (2000) points out that Rhaphidophora liukiuensis Hatusima might be a synonym of either Rhaphidophora perkinsae Engl. or Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. Li & Boyce (2010) did not list Rhaphidophora liukiuensis Hatusima for the Philippines. Native.

Schismatoglottis Zoll. & Moritzi

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 January 2022
  1. Schismatoglottis bogneri A.Hay, Telopea 9 (2000) 105; Type: J. Bogner 1629 (M, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Ifugao, near Banawe, 22-Jun-1983. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDORO. Notes: Forest edges, along trail, low elevation to 1500m. Native.
  2. Schismatoglottis calyptrata (Roxb.) Zoll. & Moritzi, Syst. Verz. (1846) 83; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 181; A.Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 106; ≡ Calla calyptrata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3 (1842) 514. = Arisarum esculentum Rump., Herb. Amboin. 5 (1747) t. 111. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, China, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan. ALABAT, CATANDUANES, CEBU (photos), LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Cavite, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, Davao de Oro, South Cotabato, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland and lower montane forests, usually along forest edges and stream banks, damp cliffs and other wet and well-drained sites. Native.
  3. Schismatoglottis edanoi Hay, Telopea 9 (2000) 121; Type: PNH 15317 Edaño (GH, holo; L, iso), Samar: Mt Sarawag, forest on ridge top c. 150m, 3-Dec-1951. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Known only from the type locality. Native.
  4. Schismatoglottis ifugaoensis S.Y.Wong, Bogner & P.C.Boyce, Willdenowia 41 (2011) 101; Type: J. Bogner 1630 (M, iso), Luzon: Ifugao, near Banaue, c. 1500m, 22-June-1983. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao. Native.
  5. Schismatoglottis luzonensis Engl., Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 88 (not p. 121, which is Schismatoglottis plurivenia); Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182, pro parte, excluding BS 30875 (Schismatoglottis plurivenia Alderw.); A.Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 128; Type: Merrill 5047 (PNH, holo, lost); BS 75547 Ramos & Edano (NY, SING, UC, neo), Catanduanes. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines Sur, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, PANAY. Notes: On boulders and steep embankments along forest streams, low elevation up to 300m. Native.
  6. Schismatoglottis merrillii Engl., Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 89; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182; A.Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 129. = Schismatoglottis ramosii Engl., Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 98; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182; Type: BS 12679 Fenix (PNH, holo, lost; B, lecto; B, BM, K, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Sablang (Sablan), Nov-1910. = Schismatoglottis rizalensis Engl., Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 100; Type: FB 3351 Ahern’s collector (B, holo; K, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Cliffs and ledges along forest streams, from low elevation (in S Luzon) to 1200-1800m in the highlands of N Luzon. Native.
  7. Schismatoglottis mindanaoana Engl., Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 103; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182; A.Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 130; Type: Elmer 13489 (BO, G, GH, K, L, NY, U, UC, isoneo), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao, Lanao del Sur, Surigao del Norte. Notes: Lithophytic along small forest streams, not rheophytic, low and medium elevation up to 800m. Native.
  8. Schismatoglottis plurivenia Alderw., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 4 (1922) 209; A.Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 139; Type: FB 1243 Borden (B, holo; NY, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Jun-1904. = Schismatoglottis luzonensis Engl., Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 121, not 88; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182, excluding Merrill 5047. = Schismatoglottis latifolia auct. non Miq.; Engl., Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 117, pro parte, quoad specim. cit. Philipp; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182 (both as ‘var. viridis Engl.’, i.e. nom. superfl. pro var. typ.); Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3634. = Alocasia merrillii Engl. & K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54, Beibl. 118 (1916) 124; K.Krause & Engl., Pflanzenreich 71 (iv.23E) (1920) 79; Type: Merrill 8072 (B, holo), Mindanao: Zamboanga. = Schismatoglottis cardiophylla Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 136; Type: BS 45387 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, ?lost; K, NY, UC, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Casiguran, 11-Jun-1905. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi. LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon (photos), Davao Oriental, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests, especially along wet ravines and stream embankments, ascending to 600m. P.B. Pelser (6-May-2022): The name Schismatoglottis merrillii is occupied by Schismatoglottis merrillii Engl., which is a different species. Native.
  9. Schismatoglottis prietoi P.C.Boyce, Medecilo & S.Y.Wong, Willdenowia 45 (2015) 407; Type: Esquerion P. Prieto AR-4342 (PNH, holo; SAR, iso), Cebu: 25-Oct-2013. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, LUZON: Albay. Native.
  10. Schismatoglottis pusilla Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1 (1881) 184; A.Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 142; Type: Jagor 1018a (B, holo). Leyte. = Schismatoglottis irosinensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3632, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Voucher: Elmer 14594 (BM, G, K, L, U, UC, US). = Schismatoglottis hastata Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3701, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Voucher: Elmer 17828 (K, GH, NY). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, PANAY. Notes: Wet places in forest floor, 350-1000m. Native.
  11. Schismatoglottis samarensis A.Hay in A.Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 143; Type: PNH 6043 Sulit (GH, holo), Samar: Western Samar, Loquilocon, Apr/May-1948. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Known from two collections. Primary rainforest, possibly on limestone, c. 100m. Native.
  12. Schismatoglottis warburgiana Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1898) 20; Engl. Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 90; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182; A.Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 159; Type: Warburg 14605 (B 2 sheets, holo), Mindanao: Davao, Sagapan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Known only from the type collection. Lowland hill forest with ebony, c. 600m. Native.

Scindapsus Schott

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser 5 June 2022
  1. Scindapsus curranii Engl. & K.Krause, Pflanzenreich 37 (iv.23B) (1908) 138; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 178; Type: FB 8014 Curran & Merritt (B, PNH ?lost); FB 8027 Curran & Merritt (PNH ?lost). = Scindapsus philippinensis K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45 (1911) 660; Type: Merrill PNH 7303 (B, PNH ?lost). Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. Native.
  2. Scindapsus cuscuaria (Aubl.) C.Presl, Epim. Bot. (1849) 242; Hay et al., Blumea Suppl. 8 (1995) 150; ≡ Pothos cuscuaria Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 2 (1775) 840. Distribution: Java, Philippines. Notes: P.B. Pelser (5-Nov-20): Hay et al. (1995) indicate that it is uncertain if Scindapsus cuscuaria is native to the Philippines. Naturalized.
  3. Scindapsus falcifolius K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37 (1905) 119; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 178; Type: from Sulawesi. Distribution: Sulawesi. JOLO. Notes: Not accredited to the Philippines in Hay et al. (1995) checklist. Merrill cites a Warburg specimen from Jolo (B). Native.
  4. Scindapsus hederaceus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3 (1856) 185; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 178. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Vietnam. Native.
  5. Scindapsus longistipitatus Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 353; Saibeh & Salleh, J. Trop. Biol. & Cons. 16 (2019) 121; Type: from Borneo. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  6. Scindapsus pictus Hassk., Flora 25 (2), Beibl. 1 (1842) 11. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Misamis Oriental (photos), NEGROS. Notes: In primary forests at low elevation. Includes Scindapsus argyraeus. Native.
  7. Scindapsus treubii Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1-2) (1898) 13. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Philippines. Notes: AURORA. Reported for the Philippines by P.C.Boyce, 13-Jan-13. Native.

Spathiphyllum Schott

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 June 2021
  1. Spathiphyllum cannifolium (Dryand. ex Sims) Schott, Aroideae 1 (1853) 1; ≡ Pothos cannifolius Dryand. ex Sims, Bot. Mag. (1802) t. 603. Distribution: S America. LUZON: Quezon. Notes: Naturalized in Quezon (W. Suarez, pers. comm., 4-Jan-21). Naturalized.
  2. Spathiphyllum commutatum Schott, Osterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7 (1857) 158; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 178. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi. BILIRAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Camarines, Isabela, Sorsogon, Tayabas, MINDANAO, MINDORO, POLILLO. Notes: In damp primary forests at low and medium elevation. Native.

Spirodela Schleid.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 June 2021
  1. Spirodela oligorrhiza (Kurz) Hegelm., Lemnac. (1868) 147; ≡ Lemna oligorrhiza Kurz, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 9 (1866) 267. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Java, Malay Peninsula, New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. Native.
  2. Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid., Linnaea 13 (1839) 392; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922); ≡ Lemna polyrhiza L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 970. Notes: Nearly cosmopolitan. Native.

Syngonium Schott (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 March 2013
  1. Syngonium podophyllum Schott, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 9 (1851) 85. Distribution: S America. Notes: Naturalized in secondary forests near bodies of water (W. Suarez, pers. comm., 15-Jan-21). Naturalized.

Typhonium Schott

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 January 2021
  1. Typhonium blumei Nicolson & Sivadasan, Blumea 27 (1981) 494; Sriboonma et al., J. Fac. Sci. Univ., Tokyo III, 15 (1994) 305; Wang & Yang, Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. (1996) 160. Distribution: E & SE Asia. LUZON. Notes: Introduced in Australia, Sulawesi, Philippines and elsewhere. Naturalized.
  2. Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume, Rumphia 1 (1837) 134; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 187; Sriboonma et al., J. Fac. Sci. Univ., Tokyo III, 15 (1994) 303; ≡ Arum flagelliforme Lodd., Bot. Cab. 4 (1820) t. 396. Distribution: Australia, Cambodia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand. LUZON: Bulacan (photos), Cavite, Ilocos Norte. Native.
  3. Typhonium roxburghii Schott, Aroideae 2 (1855) t. 17; Nicolson & Sivadasan, Blumea 27 (1981) 492; Sriboonma et al., J. Fac. Sci. Univ., Tokyo III, 15 (1994) 305; Wang & Yang, Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. (1996) 160. = Typhonium divaricatum (L.) Blume var. motleyanum (Schott) Engl. in DC., Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 612; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 187; ≡ Typhonium mottleyanum Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid. (1860) 106. = Typhonium divaricatum (L.) Blume, Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 3 (1834) 367; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 297; ≡ Arum divaricatum L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 966. Distribution: Borneo, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON. Notes: Naturalized in rice fields (Moody 1989). Naturalized.
  4. Typhonium trilobatum (L.) Schott, Wien. Zeitschr. Für Kunst, Literatur, Theater, Mode (23rd June 1829) 732; Nicolson & Sivadasan, Blumea 27 (1981) 488; Sriboonma et al., J. Fac. Sci. Univ., Tokyo III, 15 (1994) 306; ≡ Arum trilobatum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 965. Distribution: China, Malay Peninsula, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka. LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Lanao del Norte. Notes: Naturalized in grasslands and semi-open forests in Lanao del Norte (M.G.Q. Rule, pers. comm., 6-Nov-20) and in rice fields (Moody 1989). Naturalized.

Wolffia Horkel ex Schleid.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 June 2021
  1. Wolffia globosa (Roxb.) Hartog & Plas, Blumea 18 (1970) 367; ≡ Lemna globosa Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 565. Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Wolffia arrhiza (L.) Horkel ex Wimm., Fl. Schles., ed. 3 (1857) 140. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, Europe, India, Korea, Madagascar, Taiwan, W Asia. Notes: Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.

Xanthosoma Schott (Not native)

Last edited by Heidi Newton & Pieter B. Pelser, 5 February 2022
  1. Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott, Melet. Bot. 1 (1832) 19; ≡ Arum sagittifolium L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 966. = Alocasia talihan Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 185; Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3614, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Hay, Gard. Bull. Singapore 51 (1999) 38; Type: Elmer 17381 (NY, iso). Distribution: C & S America. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Cultivated, naturalized (Matthews et al. 2017). Naturalized.

Zantedeschia Spreng. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 January 2021
  1. Zantedeschia aethiopica (L.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 765; ≡ Calla aethiopica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 968. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Introduced elsewhere. Naturalized in the Philippines in road sides, farmland, and waste places. Naturalized.

Literature