Aquifoliaceae

Ilex L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2021
  1. Ilex antonii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1666; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 476; Type: Elmer 11348, Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, in the elfinwoods of Mt Calelan at 8000ft. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Notes: Dense thickets on high exposed ridges, c. 2400m. Perhaps not distinct from Ilex microthyrsa Loesen. ex Elmer. Native.
  2. Ilex asprella (Hook. & Arn.) Champ. ex Benth. in Hook., Kew J. Bot. 4 (1852) 329; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 477; ≡ Prinos asprellus Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. 176–177, pl. (1841) 36. = Ilex gracilipes Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 237; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 358; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664. Distribution: LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. asprella. Distribution: China, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Mountain Province, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO. Notes: Exposed ridges and ravines, 1000-2000m. Native.
    • var. megalophylla T.R.Dudley, Fedde Repert. 91(1980) 577. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. Native.
  3. Ilex buergeri Miq., Versl. Med. Akad. Wetensch. II, 2 (1868) 84. Distribution: China, Japan, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. rolfei (Elmer) Loes. ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 477; ≡ Ilex rolfei Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 314. = Ilex formosana auct. non Maxim.; C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 201. Distribution: China, Japan, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, MINDORO. Notes: Ravines and on exposed forested ridges, 1400-1800m. Native.
  4. Ilex crenata Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 78. = Ilex crenata forma luzonica (Rolfe) Loes., Nov. Act. Deutsch. Akad. Naturf. 78 (1901) 201; Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 358; EPFP 2 (1923) 477; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; ≡ Ilex luzonica Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 309. = Eurya myrtilloides Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 323. Distribution: China, India, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Aurora, Benguet, Camarines, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Davao, NEGROS. Notes: On exposed ridges, on the higher mountains often forming dense thickets, 1700-2700m. Native.
  5. Ilex curranii Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 273; EPFP 2 (1923) 478; Type: FB 18069 Curran, Merritt & Zschokke (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulag, slopes in the mossy forest, c. 2500m, 6-Jan-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Mossy forest, c. 2500m. Native.
  6. Ilex cymosa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1149; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 478; Andrews, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 12; Type: from Java (lecto). = Ilex philippinensis Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 308. = Ilex cymosa var. cumingiana (Rolfe) Loes., Nov. Act. Deutsch. Akad. Natura. 78 (1901) 76; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 478; ≡ Ilex cumingiana Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 308. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BUCAS GRANDE, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Quezon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Lanao, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Locally common in lowland primary forests, ascending to 800m. Also in peat swamps. Native.
  7. Ilex formosana Maxim., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 7. 29. n. III. (1881) 46. = Ilex loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 31; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; Type: Loher 14144 (A, iso), Luzon: Rizal, Bantol, Feb-1914. Distribution: China, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Rizal. Native.
  8. Ilex guerreroi Elmer ex Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 316, as 'guerreroii'; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1663, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 478; Type: Guerrero s.n., Luzon: Rizal, mountains back of San Mateo, 1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: In forests. Native.
  9. Ilex hanceana Maxim., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 7. 29. n. III. (1881) 33. = Ilex fletcheri Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 279; EPFP 2 (1923) 478; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1663. Distribution: China, Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDORO. Notes: On exposed ridges, 1400-2200m. Native.
  10. Ilex kusanoi Hayata, Mater. Fl. Formos. (1911) 55; Hu, J. Arn. Arb. 34 (1954) 143, excl. syn. Ilex poneantha Koidz; Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 37. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. BATAN. Notes: In thickets, 100m. Native.
  11. Ilex malaccensis Loes., Monogr. Aquifol. 1 (1901) 432; Andrews, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 18; Type: from Sarawak (lecto). = Ilex racemifera Loes., Nov. Act. Deutsch. Akad. Naturf. 89 (1908) 290; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 479; Type: Warburg 14640, Mindanao: Davao. = Ilex foxworthyi Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 193; EPFP 2 (1923) 478; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1663. = Ilex halconensis (Merr.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 358; EPFP 2 (1923) 478; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1663; ≡ Embelia halconensis Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 297. = Ilex apoensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1667; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 476; Type: Elmer 11449 (for flower, BISH, US) and 11408 (for fruit, BISH, NA, NY, US), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, upper forested region, 7000ft, Aug-1909. = Ilex pulogensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 358; EPFP 2 (1923) 479; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; Type: FB 18145 Curran, Merritt & Zschokke (A, type fragment), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulag, mossy forest above 2250m. = Ilex brunnea Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 318; EPFP 2 (1923) 477; Type: BS 19461 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Pular, apparently on trees at the summit of the mountain, 15-Jan-1913. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Usually in mid-high montane forests and exposed ridges from 1000-2300m. Also recorded as epiphytic or pseudoepiphytic from 300-700m. Native.
  12. Ilex microthyrsa Loes. ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1663; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 479. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental. Notes: Exposed ridges, 1800-2400m. Native.
  13. Ilex pachyphylla Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 318; EPFP 2 (1923) 479; Type: BS 9400 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Mt Binuang, mossy forest, c. 980m, 28-Aug-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur, Quezon, Sorsogon, Tayabas, PALAWAN. Notes: Mossy forest, 900-1000m. Native.
  14. Ilex palawanica Loes. ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 479; Type: BS 555 Foxworthy, Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Dense thickets on exposed ridges, c. 1200m. Apparently, no published description exist; certainly none in Elmer’s Leaflets. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  15. Ilex paucinervia Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 274; EPFP 2 (1923) 479; Type: BS 26396 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan, forest at the summit, probably c. 1000m, 19-Aug-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. Notes: Mossy forests, c. 1000m. Native.
  16. Ilex permicrophylla Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 468; EPFP 4 (1925) 249; Type: BS 40311 Ramos & Edaño, Luzon: Benguet, Mt Baudan, mossy forest, c. 2100m, Sep-1921. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Mossy forests, c. 2100m. Native.
  17. Ilex subcaudata Merr. ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 317; EPFP 2 (1923) 479; Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1663; Type: Guerrero s.n., Luzon: Rizal, mountains back of San Mateo, 1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: In forest. Native.
  18. Ilex warburgii Loes., Nov. Act. Deutsch. Akad. Naturf. 78 (1901) 326. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. benguetensis (Elmer) ined.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 479; ≡ Ilex benguetensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1665; Type: Elmer 8522 (A, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, along Ipit River, 4000ft, Mar-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Forests, up to 1100m. P.B. Pelser (4-May-22): It seems from Merrill (1923) that var. benguetensis was never described. I am not sure if it should be recognized as a variety. Native.
  19. Ilex wenzelii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 382; EPFP 2 (1923) 479; Type: Wenzel 99 (US, iso), Leyte: Leyte, Dagami, epiphytic on large trees in forest, c. 60m, 5-Jun-1913. = Ilex epiphytica Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1667, nom. illeg., non King; Type: Elmer 13718 (PNH, holo, lost; BISH, MO, NA, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, upon moss and vine-covered large limbs of massive trees in a forested depression at 3500ft between Duros and Cawilanan peaks, Sep-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, SAMAR. Notes: Primary forests up to 1100m, epiphytic or pseudoepiphytic. Native.

References